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Sample records for hybrid palestine iris

  1. Design of A Pv/Diesel Stand Alone Hybrid System For A Remote Community in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, M.S.; Moghavvemi, M.; T.M.I. Mahlia

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid system based on photovoltaic is considered an effective option to electrify remote and isolated areas far from grid. This is true for areas that receive high averages of solar radiation annually. Using diesel generator as a standby source will make utilization of hybrid systems more attractive. An economic feasibility study and a complete design of a hybrid system consisting of photovoltaic (PV) panels, a diesel generator as a backup power source and a battery system supplying a small ...

  2. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  3. Negotiating checkpoints in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheerin Al Araj

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In Palestine I can never drive for more than half an hourwithout being stopped at checkpoints. Soldiers irritate mewith the same questions, the same procedures, time andtime again. No value is put on the time of a Palestinian.

  4. History of Neurosurgery in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Darwazeh, Mazhar; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-08-01

    Palestinian neurosurgery started with Dr. Antone Tarazi as the first Palestinian neurosurgeon. Before that, there was no organized neurosurgery specialty, and general surgeons performed neurosurgical procedures. Here we review the history of neurosurgery and neurosurgical applications in Palestine, evaluate some limitations of the current system, and discuss major challenges to improving this system. We collected information from various sources in either English or Arabic. The development of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training in Palestine began in 1960 with the first center established in Jerusalem, which provided much-needed neurosurgical services and training in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. Palestine has produced a number of its own neurosurgeons and has promoted further progress by establishing the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society in 2014. Today, there are 34 neurosurgeons (including 1 female neurosurgeon) and 17 residents providing expert care in 17 centers across Palestine, along with 1 neurosurgical residency program. Neurosurgery in Palestine has faced many challenges, some of which have been overcome. However, there remain many challenges, which will require much time and effort to surmount. Political stabilization is a significant factor in the progress of neurosurgery in Palestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Palestine Authorities:Trouble within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhichao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Palestine Authorities (PA) is now plagued with an internal crisis ever seen over the past dozen years. A string of kidnappings, gun battles, cases of arson and demonstrations resorted to by some hotheads since mid-July has thrown Gaza Strip into utter chaos, triggering off a political crisis with many high-ranking officials including Prime Minister Kurile tendering their resignations to President Yasser Arafat.

  6. Reign and Religion in Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    and the political messages they wished to communicate. As religion was a highly complex aspect of the Jewish interrelations with other cultures, the utilization of sacred iconography is not only a precise indicator of cultural-religious affiliation, but also of cultural-religious changes occurring in the Jewish......Ancient Jewish coinage is one of the few material sources offering detailed insight into the political developments taking place throughout a specific period of ancient Jewish history. Jewish coinage was minted and issued in Palestine, along-side a number of other local coinages, almost consistently...... between the fifth century BCE and the early second century CE by a number of different Jewish authorities. The nature of these authorities varied greatly throughout time, and they increasingly and quite differently used this medium, which was gaining importance as a public propaganda tool, to communicate...

  7. Crisis of Legitimacy in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Palestinian society is geographically separated and politically fragmented. This is attributed to partisan affiliation and alignment, absence of conceptual and professional framework of civil society, unethical approach of Palestinian political leaders, and unconstitutional political institutions. Such polarization and division have created political antagonism within elites and between factions. The broad objective of this research is to investigate the legitimacy crisis in Palestine, the current political dilemma in the Palestinian Authority, and the public response to the situation. The research introduces direct and thorough understanding of the developing political context surrounding these issues; taking into consideration that growing deficit in legitimacy could create potentially dire consequences, particularly if present trends on the ground continue. The research promotes an analytical perspective based on legitimacy theory and exploring recent public opinion polls. This study formulates a constructive analysis of the failure of the Palestinian political institutions at the leadership level to meet the basic expectations of the Palestinian people and the unproductive methodology of hampering the implementation of the Basic Law concerning the Palestinian political system. It reviews the empirical dilemmas of the Palestinian Authority and eliminates several assumptions of Fatah and Hamas’s - main parties - political and domestic priorities. The possibility of a new Palestinian political phenomena emerging is in the context of a new popular mobilisation lessened by the fact that both movements (Fatah and Hamas are firmly enmeshed in the very fabric of Palestinian society through patronage networks.

  8. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  9. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  10. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will

  11. Lifelines: faces and breaths from Palestine

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The “Lifelines” drawing exhibition, which evokes the culture and atmosphere of Palestine, is on display in the Main Building from now until 5 April. Income from the sale of drawings will contribute to funding specialised training for the young artist behind the drawings.   "François Englert and Peter Higgs" by 17-year-old Islam Mahmoud Sweity. Islam Mahmoud Sweity is a 17-year-old artist living in Beit Awwa, a small village in Palestine. Her talent in capturing people’s feelings and reproducing them on paper has already led to her participating in many local exhibitions and reaching the finals of the Palestinian TV show “Best Talent” in 2013. Sweity’s 21 artworks include portraits of women and men, friends of the artist. You will also recognise Mandela and, surprisingly, even physics Nobel Prize laureates Englert and Higgs! The portraits have also inspired two poems: one by physicist and ...

  12. The Current State of Archaeology in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    The Palestinian Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage (DACH) has been in existence now for more than fifteen years since its re-establishment in 1994. The inauguration of this Department was a momentous event. It may be considered the revival of the Department of Antiquities of Palestine, which was established in 1920 under the British Mandate. The authority was then terminated due to the political events of 1948 when Israel was established, while Jordan assumed those respons...

  13. Civil Society in Palestine : "Case Studies"

    OpenAIRE

    HAMMAMI, Rema; Hilal, Jamil; TAMARI, Salim

    2001-01-01

    1. NGOs and State in Palestine: Negotiating Boundaries (Jamil Himal) 2. The Legislative Assembly versus the Government Executive (Jamil Himal) 3. Mobilisation of Camp Refugees and Local Municipal Authorities (Salim Tamari) 4. The Women's Model Parliament and Reform of Personal Status Law (Rema Hammami) 5.The Government (PNA) versus the Islamic Movement Hamas (Rema Hammami) 6. Governance and Control of Urban Space in Jerusalem (Salim Tamari)

  14. The Current State of Archaeology in Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Hamdan

    2010-01-01

    The Palestinian Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage (DACH) has been in existence now for more than fifteen years since its re-establishment in 1994. The inauguration of this Department was a momentous event. It may be considered the revival of the Department of Antiquities of Palestine, which was established in 1920 under the British Mandate. The authority was then terminated due to the political events of 1948 when Israel was established, while Jordan assumed those respons...

  15. Iris and periocular biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeb, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.

  16. Noncooperative Iris Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In noncooperative iris recognition one should deal with uncontrolled behavior of the subject as well as uncontrolled lighting conditions. That means eyelids and eyelashes occlusion, non uniform intensities, reflections, imperfect focus, and orientation among the others are to be considered. To cope with this situation a noncooperative iris segmentation algorithm based on numerically stable direct least squares fitting of ellipses model and modified Chan-Vese model (local binary fitting energy with variational level set formulation is to be proposed. The proposed algorithm is tested using CASIA-IrisV3.

  17. Antidote Stocking at Hospitals in North Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansam F. Sawalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and adequacy of antidote stocking at hospitals in north Palestine based on published guidelines for antidote stocking.Methodology: This study is a cross sectional survey of all hospitals at north Palestine (n=11 using a questionnaire which was completed by the director of the pharmacy department at each hospital. The questionnaire was divided into 2 parts. The first part contained a list of 25 antidotes while the second part contained a list of 12 antidotes. This classification is based on the guideline proposed by the British Association for Emergency Medicine (BAEM. The net antidote stock results were compared with the American guidelines as well.Result: The overall availability of each antidote in the first list varied widely from zero for glucagon to 100% for atropine. The number antidotes of the first list that were stocked in the 11 hospitals ranged from 5 to 12 antidotes but none of the hospitals stocked all the 25 antidotes. Additionally, availability of antidotes in the second list varied widely from zero for polyethylene glycol to 100% for dobutamine. The number of antidotes stocked ranged from 5 to 9 but none of the hospitals stocked all the 12 antidotes.Discussion and Conclusion: hospitals in north Palestine do not have adequate stock of antidotes. Raising awareness of the importance of antidotes by education, regular review of antidote storage, distribution plans, and appropriate legislation might provide solutions. Coordination between Palestinian hospitals and the PCDIC at An-Najah National University is also important.

  18. IS (Iris Security)

    OpenAIRE

    Iovane, G.; Tortoriello, F. S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety system based on iridology. The results suggest a new scenario where the security problem in supervised and unsupervised areas can be treat with the present system and the iris image recognition.

  19. Iris Recognition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Mei

    2006-01-01

    The demand on security is increasing greatly in these years and biometric recognition gradually becomes a hot field of research. Iris recognition is a new branch of biometric recognition, which is regarded as the most stable, safe and accurate biometric recognition method. In these years, much progress in this field has been made by scholars and experts of different countries. In this paper, some successful iris recognition methods are listed and their performance are compared. Furthermore, the existing problems and challenges are discussed.

  20. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  1. THE SURROGATE COLONIZATION OF PALESTINE, 1917-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    1989-01-01

    The "surrogate colonization" of Palestine had a foreign power giving to a nonnative group rights over land occupied by an indigenous people. It thus brought into play the complementary and conflicting agendas of three culturally distinguishable parties: British, Jews and Arabs. Each party had both "externalist" [those with no sustained practical experience of day to day life in Palestine] and "internalist" representatives. The surrogate idea was based on a "strategic consensus" involving each...

  2. Iris - nimi marmortahvlilt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Briti kirjanikust Iris Murdochist pajatava inglise-ameerika mängufilmist "Iris" eesti videolevisse jõudmise puhul. Võrreldakse inglise teatrilavastaja Richard Eyre filmidebüüti Elmo Nüganeni debüütfilmiga "Nimed marmortahvlil"

  3. Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mani Roja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

  4. Challenges of urban planning in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghayer, Taher J. T.; Tesmamma Daget, Yidnekachew; Wang, Xingping

    2017-08-01

    For the last two centuries, Palestinian territory had faced several changes. This is due to historical precedents and the unstable political situation in the area. This has resulted in mutli-faced challenges in Palestine. The objective of this paper is to analyse and understand the major factors that had impacted the urban planning, urban form and urban development of the Palestinian territory. The findings showed that the lack of available land, rapid urban population growth, failure in urban planning policy decisions, the unstable political situation on the ground, fragmented urban developments in the west bank area, and also diffusion of urban sprawls within the landscapes and around the cities are the major factors that caused challenges in Palestine’s cities.

  5. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    1993-01-01

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will dis

  6. Intensive care unit physician's attitudes on do not resuscitate order in palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima S Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There was a positive attitude towards the legalization of the DNR order in Palestine, and culture and religion did not have any affect towards their attitudes regarding the legalization in Palestine.

  7. Iris Recognition Based on LBP and Combined LVQ Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Shams, M Y; Nomir, O; El-Awady, R M; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    Iris recognition is considered as one of the best biometric methods used for human identification and verification, this is because of its unique features that differ from one person to another, and its importance in the security field. This paper proposes an algorithm for iris recognition and classification using a system based on Local Binary Pattern and histogram properties as a statistical approaches for feature extraction, and Combined Learning Vector Quantization Classifier as Neural Network approach for classification, in order to build a hybrid model depends on both features. The localization and segmentation techniques are presented using both Canny edge detection and Hough Circular Transform in order to isolate an iris from the whole eye image and for noise detection .Feature vectors results from LBP is applied to a Combined LVQ classifier with different classes to determine the minimum acceptable performance, and the result is based on majority voting among several LVQ classifier. Different iris da...

  8. Acquired iris inclusion cysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aruna; Dharmasena; Priya; Bhatt; Jeffrey; Kwartz

    2014-01-01

    Dear Sir/Madam,The development of epithelial implantation cysts of the iris is rare and they pose a major therapeutic challenge due to the poor overall surgical outcome and high risk of recurrence.Several conservative and invasive treatment strategies such as needle aspiration,viscodissection,endolaser photocoagulation,endodiathermy,cryotherapy,

  9. Economics of Higher Education under Occupation: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Abd Al-Qadir Alfoqahaa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through some extremely difficult experiences, education in general and Higher Education in particular has remained a constant focus of resources in Palestine.  Due to the ongoing occupation of Palestine, Palestinian universities could not expect to contribute significantly to economic development in the same way as other institutions around the world. However, the establishment and development of universities in Palestine meant that Palestine was investing in Palestinians, and, for reasons discussed in this paper, the development represented a clear breakthrough to be celebrated throughout Palestinian society. Most of the previous studies on the Economics of Higher Education (HE have not explicitly dealt with the Economics of Higher Education under occupation, especially in Palestine, neglecting much of the broader context and strategic impact of Palestinian Higher Education. This research investigates in depth Palestinian HE socio-economic outcomes for Palestinians, bringing to the light the meaning of HE under occupation that goes beyond mere economic impact to include its impact on Palestinians' human capital, dignity, and national identity reflecting the unique case of Palestine. This research reveals that from very early on it was clear that Palestinian Higher Education could not give the economy a boost, but that universities did give people a pride in Palestine, which, given the conditions of a brutal military occupation that increasingly separated one Palestinian from the next, amounted to quite a significant achievement. It demonstrated the central role Palestinian HE plays in the life of Palestinians as it is goes beyond means of economic growth to means of survival, building human capital, and maintaining people's dignity and national identity.

  10. Low infant mortality among Palestine refugees despite the odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Ali; Sabatinelli, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present data from a 2008 infant mortality survey conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, the Syrian Arab Republic, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank and analyse infant mortality trends among Palestine refugees in 1995–2005. Methods Following the preceding birth technique, mothers who were registering a new birth were asked if the preceding child was alive or dead, the day the child was born and the date of birth of the neonate whose birth was being registered. From this information, neonatal, infant and early child mortality rates were estimated. The age at death for early child mortality was determined by the mean interval between successive births and the mean age of neonates at registration. Findings In 2005–2006, infant mortality among Palestine refugees ranged from 28 deaths per 100 000 live births in the Syrian Arab Republic to 19 in Lebanon. Thus, infant mortality in Palestine refugees is among the lowest in the Near East. However, infant mortality has stopped decreasing in recent years, although it remains at a level compatible with the attainment of Millennium Development Goal 4. Conclusion Largely owing to the primary health care provided by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) for Palestine Refugees in the Near East and other entities, infant mortality among Palestine refugees had consistently decreased. However, it is no longer dropping. Measures to address the most likely reasons – early marriage and childbearing, poor socioeconomic conditions and limited access to good perinatal care – are needed. PMID:21479095

  11. Effects of Iris Surface Curvature on Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Flynn, Patrick J [ORNL; Bowyer, Kevin W [University of Notre Dame, IN; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    To focus on objects at various distances, the lens of the eye must change shape to adjust its refractive power. This change in lens shape causes a change in the shape of the iris surface which can be measured by examining the curvature of the iris. This work isolates the variable of iris curvature in the recognition process and shows that differences in iris curvature degrade matching ability. To our knowledge, no other work has examined the effects of varying iris curvature on matching ability. To examine this degradation, we conduct a matching experiment across pairs of images with varying degrees of iris curvature differences. The results show a statistically signi cant degradation in matching ability. Finally, the real world impact of these ndings is discussed

  12. An efficient iris segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

    2011-10-01

    Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

  13. Research on Iris Region Localization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S.Patil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a biometric technique that offers premium performance. Iris localization is critical to the success of an iris recognition system, since data that is falsely represented as iris pattern data will corrupt the biometric templates generated, resulting in poor recognition rates. So far different algorithms for iris localization having been proposed. This paper explored four efficient methods for iris localization, out of these three methods of iris localization in circular form and one methods of unwrapping the iris in to a flat bed. Experimental results are reported to demonstrate performance evaluation of every implemented algorithms. Conclusion based on comparisons can provide most significant information for further research. A CASIA and UPOL iris databases of iris images has been used for implementation of iris localization General Term Biometrics,Iris Recognition,Iris Localization

  14. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  15. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  16. Accurate and Fast Iris Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AnnaPoorani,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris segmentation approach for noisy iris is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach comprises of specular reflection removal, pupil localization, iris localization and eyelid localization. Reflection map computation is devised to get the reflection ROI of eye image using adaptive threshold technique. Bilinear interpolation is used to fill these reflection points in the eye image. Variant of edge-based segmentation technique is adopted to detect the pupil boundary from the eye image. Gradient based heuristic approach is devised to detect the iris boundary from theeye image. Eyelid localization is designed to detect the eyelids using the edge detection and curve fitting. Feature sequence combined into spatial domain segments the iris texture patterns properly. Empirical results show that the proposed approach is effective and suitable to deal with the noisy eye image for iris segmentation.

  17. Computerized ionospheric tomography with the IRI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Orhan; Arikan, Feza; Erol, Cemil B.

    Computerized ionospheric tomography (CIT) is a method to estimate ionospheric electron density distribution by using the global positioning system (GPS) signals recorded by the GPS receivers. Ionospheric electron density is a function of latitude, longitude, height and time. A general approach in CIT is to represent the ionosphere as a linear combination of basis functions. In this study, the model of the ionosphere is obtained from the IRI in latitude and height only. The goal is to determine the best representing basis function from the set of Squeezed Legendre polynomials, truncated Legendre polynomials, Haar Wavelets and singular value decomposition (SVD). The reconstruction algorithms used in this study can be listed as total least squares (TLS), regularized least squares, algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and a hybrid algorithm where the reconstruction from the TLS algorithm is used as the initial estimate for the ART. The error performance of the reconstruction algorithms are compared with respect to the electron density generated by the IRI-2001 model. In the investigated scenario, the measurements are obtained from the IRI-2001 as the line integral of the electron density profiles, imitating the total electron content estimated from GPS measurements. It has been observed that the minimum error between the reconstructed and model ionospheres depends on both the reconstruction algorithm and the basis functions where the best results have been obtained for the basis functions from the model itself through SVD.

  18. Iris image segmentation based on phase congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Jiang, Da-Qin; Guo, Yong-Cai

    2006-09-01

    Iris image segmentation is very important for an iris recognition system. There are always iris noises as eyelash, eyelid, reflection and pupil in iris images. The paper proposes a virtual method of segmentation. By locating and normalizing iris images with Gabor filter, we can acquire information of image texture in a series of frequencies and orientations. Iris noise regions are determined based on phase congruency by a group of Gabor filters whose kernels are suitable for edge detection. These regions are filled according to the characteristics of iris noise. The experimental results show that the proposed method can segment iris images effectively.

  19. Iris image Segmentation Based on Phase Congruency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao; JIANG Da-qin; Guo Yong-cai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Iris image segmentation is very important for an iris recognition system.There are always iris noises as eyelash,eyelid,reflection and pupil in iris images.The paper proposes a virtual method of segmentation.By locating and normalizing iris images with Gabor filter,we can acquire information of image texture in a series of frequencies and orientations.Iris noise regions are determined based on phase congruency by a group of Gabor filters whose kernels are suitable for edge detection.These regions are filled according to the characteristics of iris noise.The experimental results show that the proposed method can segment iris images effectively.

  20. Medical and biomedical research productivity from Palestine, 2002 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweileh Waleed M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research productivity reflects the level of medical education and practice in a particular country. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of medical and biomedical research published from Palestine. Findings Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2002 till December 31, 2011 was searched for authors affiliated with Palestine or Palestinian authority. Results were refined to limit the search to medical and biomedical subjects. The quality of publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report. The total number of publications was 2207. A total of 770 publications were in the medical and biomedical subject areas. The annual rate of publication was 0.077 articles per gross domestic product/capita. The 770 publications have an h-index of 32. One hundred and thirty eight (18% articles were published in 46 journals that were not indexed in the web of knowledge. Twenty two (22/770; 2.9% articles were published in journals with an IF > 10. Conclusions The quantity and quality of research originating from Palestinian institutions is promising given the scarce resources of Palestine. However, more effort is needed to bridge the gap in medical research productivity and to promote better health in Palestine.

  1. Climate and Motivation for Women Athletes in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Shima; Ciccomascolo, Lori; Shim, Minsuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that motivate women athletes to participate in sport in Palestine and the motivational climate created by coaches and parents. Additionally, participants' commitment to sport was investigated as well as the social constraints that Palestinian women athletes face. Participants (n = 107)…

  2. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  3. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that sta

  4. Examining Social Political Contexts in Teacher Preparation in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ilham; Wong, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teaching English as a foreign language in the West Bank, Palestine. It investigates the perspectives of a group of faculty, preservice, and in-service teachers about teaching and learning English in the primary grades under the overarching harsh realities of political conflict and instability. The study demonstrates the…

  5. Examining Social Political Contexts in Teacher Preparation in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ilham; Wong, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teaching English as a foreign language in the West Bank, Palestine. It investigates the perspectives of a group of faculty, preservice, and in-service teachers about teaching and learning English in the primary grades under the overarching harsh realities of political conflict and instability. The study demonstrates the…

  6. Palestine refugees in the contemporary context: a view from UNRWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Abu Zayd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Serious deprivations feature regularly in the lives ofPalestinians and Palestine refugees. Among them,measures restricting or prohibiting the movement ofpeople and goods stand out as particularly severe – andare in blatant contravention of human rights provisions.

  7. Psychiatry, ethnicity and migration : the case of Palestine, 1920-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Zalashik, Rakefet

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore the development of psychiatry in Palestine from two main perspectives: ethnicity and immigration. In Palestine the subject of immigration and psychiatry were highly complicated and had unique features. Thus, both psychiatrists and patients were immigrants who belonged to the same ethnic group sharing the same ideology and objectives. The examination will uncover the social construction of mental diseases among Jewish immigrants in Palestine —patients and psy...

  8. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  9. Micropropagation of Iris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevremović, Slađana; Jeknić, Zoran; Subotić, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    Irises are perennial plants widely used as ornamental garden plants or cut flowers. Some species accumulate secondary metabolites, making them highly valuable to the pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Micropropagation of irises has successfully been accomplished by culturing zygotic embryos, different flower parts, and leaf base tissues as starting explants. Plantlets are regenerated via somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, or both processes at the same time depending on media composition and plant species. A large number of uniform plants are produced by somatic embryogenesis, however, some species have decreased morphogenetic potential overtime. Shoot cultures obtained by organogenesis can be multiplied for many years. Somatic embryogenic tissue can be reestablished from leaf bases of in vitro-grown shoots. The highest number of plants can be obtained by cell suspension cultures. This chapter describes effective in vitro plant regeneration protocols for Iris species from different types of explants by somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis suitable for the mass propagation of ornamental and pharmaceutical irises.

  10. Psychiatry, ethnicity and migration: the case of Palestine, 1920-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalashik, Rakefet

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore the development of psychiatry in Palestine from two main perspectives: ethnicity and immigration. In Palestine the subject of immigration and psychiatry were highly complicated and had unique features. Thus, both psychiatrists and patients were immigrants who belonged to the same ethnic group sharing the same ideology and objectives. The examination will uncover the social construction of mental diseases among Jewish immigrants in Palestine - patients and psychiatrists - and elucidate another layer in the development of the Zionist Jewish society in Palestine up to the establishment of the State of Israel.

  11. Shape Adaptive, Robust Iris Feature Extraction from Noisy Iris Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah

    2013-01-01

    In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate. PMID:24696801

  12. Ankeny - Yellow Flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project aims to inventory and map all existing stands of yellow flag iris within wetland habitats at Ankeny NWR, treat them with herbicide in late spring and...

  13. Iris Murdoch armastusest / Udo uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Kingstoni ülikool omandas 50 000 naesterlingi eest 164 Iris Murdochi kirja prantsuse kirjanikule, keeleeksperimentaatorile Raymond Quenaule, millest selgub Murdochi ühepoolne ning vastamata jäänud tunne Quenau suhtes.

  14. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  15. Iris Murdoch armastusest / Udo uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Kingstoni ülikool omandas 50 000 naesterlingi eest 164 Iris Murdochi kirja prantsuse kirjanikule, keeleeksperimentaatorile Raymond Quenaule, millest selgub Murdochi ühepoolne ning vastamata jäänud tunne Quenau suhtes.

  16. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  17. IRI-2016: Description and Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Watanabe, Shigeto; Truhlik, Vladimir; Altadill, David

    2016-07-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is recognized as the official standard for the ionosphere (COSPAR, URSI, ISO) and is widely used for a multitude of different applications as evidenced by the many papers in science and engineering journals that acknowledge the use of IRI (e.g., about 11% of all Radio Science papers each year and citations in 21 different journals in 2015). The improvement process of the model is continuing as new data become fully available and new modeling techniques provide a more optimal representation of the observed variation patterns. We will introduce and present the latest version of the IRI model (IRI-2016) and discuss the impact of the various improvements and new additions. Most importantly, two new models will be introduced for the F2 peak height, hmF2, that were developed based on ionosonde measurements and COSMIC radio occultation data, respectively. In addition IRI-2016 includes an improved representation of the ionosphere during the very low solar activities that were reached during the last solar minimum in 2008/2009. A number of other improvements and corrections were implemented in the model and will be discussed in this presentation. We will also report about recent IRI workshops and their findings and plans for the future.

  18. Iris: The VAO SED Application

    CERN Document Server

    Doe, Stephen; Busko, Ivo; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Cresitello-Dittmar, Mark; Ebert, Richard; Evans, Janet; Laurino, Omar; McDowell, Jonathan; Pevunova, Olga; Refsdal, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We present Iris, the VAO (Virtual Astronomical Observatory) application for analyzing SEDs (spectral energy distributions). Iris is the result of one of the major science initiatives of the VAO, and the first version was released in September 2011. Iris combines key features of several existing software applications to streamline and enhance SED analysis. With Iris, users may read and display SEDs, select data ranges for analysis, fit models to SEDs, and calculate confidence limits on best-fit parameters. SED data may be uploaded into the application from IVOA-compliant VOTable and FITS format files, or retrieved directly from NED. Data written in unsupported formats may be converted using SedImporter, a new application provided with Iris. The components of Iris have been contributed by members of the VAO. Specview, contributed by STScI, provides a GUI for reading, editing, and displaying SEDs, as well as defining models and parameter values. Sherpa, contributed by the Chandra project at SAO, provides a libra...

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  20. France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, the “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1917” conference was the first concrete outcome of the Gallia Palestina project. This encounter demonstrated that beyond apparently well-known points, the unexplored areas of analysis remain enormous. This observation was made possible through the contributions of speakers, participants and the public from France, Israel and the Palestinian autonomous area. This diversity multiplied pers...

  1. Pasteur in Palestine: the politics of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nadav; Zalashik, Rakefet

    2010-12-01

    We examine the creation and functioning of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" focusing on the relationship between biological science, health policy, and the creation of a "new society" within the framework of Zionism. Similar to other bacteriological institutes founded by colonial powers, this laboratory was developed in response to public health needs. But it also had a political role. Dr. Leo Böhm, a Zionist physician, strived to establish his institution along the lines of the Zionist aspiration to develop a national entity based on strong scientific foundations. Even though the institute enjoyed several fruitful years of operation, mainly during World War I, it achieved no lasting national or scientific importance in the country. Böhm failed to adapt to new ways of knowledge production, scientifically and socially. The case study of the "Pasteur Institute in Palestine" serves as a prism to view the role of the public health laboratory in the history of Palestine with its ongoing changes of scientific, organizational, and political context.

  2. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Settings and Design: Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Results: Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or <20/1000. Within a 1.1–4.2-year follow-up period, a significant increase, equal to or better than 20/66, in UCVA was observed in six (55%) cases, and in best-corrected VA (BCVA) was observed in nine (82%) cases. Postoperative BCVA was 20/40 or better in seven cases (64%). After combined surgery, the iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Conclusions: Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support. PMID:27146932

  3. Phase Correlation Based Iris Image Registration Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Zhou Huang; Tie-Niu Tan; Li Ma; Yun-Hong Wang

    2005-01-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. In iris recognition systems, image registration is an important component. Accurately registering iris images leads to higher recognition rate for an iris recognition system. This paper proposes a phase correlation based method for iris image registration with sub-pixel accuracy.Compared with existing methods, it is insensitive to image intensity and can compensate to a certain extent the non-linear iris deformation caused by pupil movement. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has an encouraging performance.

  4. Megasporogenesis and development of the embryo sac in the Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krupko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and development of the embryo sac in Trifolium alexandrinum (Palestine variety, are very similar to that in Trifolium pratense. The embryo sac of Trifolium alexandrinum is monosporal, has eight nuclei and is of the Polygonum type. The Palestine variety of Trifolium alexandrinum can be autogamous.

  5. Strangers in a strange land: Egyptians in southern Palestine during the Bronze Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Sparks

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available When the Institute of Archaeology was formally established in 1937, it became responsible for housing Sir Flinders Petrie’s collection of archaeological material from Palestine. This unique inheritance has great value as a research collection, as its curator demonstrates here in her discussion of interaction between Egypt and Palestine in the Bronze Age.

  6. Quality assessment for online iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...

  7. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    are performed supporting that this SNP is very important for eye color expression. With the suggested image characterizations we are able to investigate the correlation between the phenotypic iris appearance and specific SNPs. This has potential for further investigation of the relation between DNA and iris......Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrate...... that especially one of the six SNPs are correlated with iris appearance. To perform this analysis we need a method to model the iris appearance, and we suggest an iris characterization based on a bag of visual words, which gives us a similarity measure between images of eyes. We have a dataset of 215 eye images...

  8. Exploring New Directions in Iris Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie

    2011-01-01

    A new approach in iris recognition based on Circular Fuzzy Iris Segmentation (CFIS) and Gabor Analytic Iris Texture Binary Encoder (GAITBE) is proposed and tested here. CFIS procedure is designed to guarantee that similar iris segments will be obtained for similar eye images, despite the fact that the degree of occlusion may vary from one image to another. Its result is a circular iris ring (concentric with the pupil) which approximates the actual iris. GAITBE proves better encoding of statistical independence between the iris codes extracted from different irides using Hilbert Transform. Irides from University of Bath Iris Database are binary encoded on two different lengths (768 / 192 bytes) and tested in both single-enrollment and multi-enrollment identification scenarios. All cases illustrate the capacity of the newly proposed methodology to narrow down the distribution of inter-class matching scores, and consequently, to guarantee a steeper descent of the False Accept Rate.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation...... regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...... is completely data driven and it can divide a group of eye images into classes based on structure, colour or a combination of the two. The methods have been tested on a large set of photos with promising results....

  11. Eyelid Localization for Iris Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.

  12. Iris Identification Technology Based on Multiwavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lian-xin; Ma Fu-ming; Xu Tao; Li Zhi-hui; Wu Deng-feng

    2005-01-01

    A new method for iris identification based on multiwavelets is proposed. By means of the properties of multiwavelets,such as orthogonality, symmetry, vanishing moments and approximation order, the iris texture can be simply presented. A brief overview of muhiwavelets is presented at first. Iris identification system and iris texture feature presentation and recognition based on multiwavelets are introduced subsequently. And the experiment indicates the validity of this method finally.

  13. Iris mammillations in ocular melanocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Peter G

    2001-01-01

    Hyperpigmentation of the ocular tissues and of the skin around the eye is uncommon. In ocular melanosis, the episclera, uveal tract and the angle of the anterior chamber may be involved. Heterochromia iridis may be present, if the iris is affected. In oculodermal melanocytosis or the naevus of Ota, hyperpigmentation of the skin follows the distribution of the first and second divisions of the fifth cranial nerve. This report documents a patient with episcleral pigment, heterochromia iridis and numerous tiny pigmented nodules on the iris (mammillations). The possible significance of these findings is discussed.

  14. Some Refinement on Iris Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abikoye O.C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics recognition is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of a living person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Iris recognition is one of the newer biometric recognition technologies used for personal identification. It is reliable and widely used. In general a typical iris recognition system consists of three basic module which include image acquisition, Iris Localization & pre-processing, Iris texture extraction & signature encoding and lastly Iris signature matching for recognition or verification. One of the most important steps in iris recognition systems is iris localization, which is related to the detection of the exact location and contour of the iris in an image. (i.e it defines the inner and outer boundaries of iris region Obviously, the performance of the identification system is closely related to the precision of the iris localization step. In this study, an efficient algorithm for iris localization is proposed. The algorithm proposed can accurately define both the inner and outer boundaries of the iris irrespective of the geometry it may be (circle or eclipse by capturing the parameters that represents the geometry.

  15. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maartje M.; Madi, Haifa H.; Khader, Ali; Hababeh, Majed; Zeidan, Wafa’a; Wesley, Hannah; Abd El-Kader, Mariam; Maqadma, Mohamed; Seita, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008. Methods We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality. Findings Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61), and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01). The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%), congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%), and infections (n = 12, 19%). Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98–24.85), consanguinity (2.41, 1.35–4.30) and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46–6.53). Conclusion For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed. PMID:26241479

  16. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje M van den Berg

    Full Text Available The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008.We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality.Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61, and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01. The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%, congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%, and infections (n = 12, 19%. Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98-24.85, consanguinity (2.41, 1.35-4.30 and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46-6.53.For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed.

  17. Increasing Neonatal Mortality among Palestine Refugees in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maartje M; Madi, Haifa H; Khader, Ali; Hababeh, Majed; Zeidan, Wafa'a; Wesley, Hannah; Abd El-Kader, Mariam; Maqadma, Mohamed; Seita, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates among Palestine refugees in Gaza. These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2008. We used the same preceding-birth technique as in previous surveys. All multiparous mothers who came to the 22 UNRWA health centres to register their last-born child for immunization were asked if their preceding child was alive or dead. We based our target sample size on the infant mortality rate in 2008 and included 3128 mothers from August until October 2013. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of infant mortality. Infant mortality in 2013 was 22.4 per 1000 live births compared with 20.2 in 2008 (p = 0.61), and this change reflected a statistically significant increase in neonatal mortality (from 12.0 to 20.3 per 1000 live births, p = 0.01). The main causes of the 65 infant deaths were preterm birth (n = 25, 39%), congenital anomalies (n = 19, 29%), and infections (n = 12, 19%). Risk factors for infant death were preterm birth (OR 9.88, 3.98-24.85), consanguinity (2.41, 1.35-4.30) and high-risk pregnancies (3.09, 1.46-6.53). For the first time in five decades, mortality rates have increased among Palestine refugee newborns in Gaza. The possible causes of this trend may include inadequate neonatal care. We will estimate infant and neonatal mortality rates again in 2015 to see if this trend continues and, if so, to assess how it can be reversed.

  18. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    , the iris is resampled into a standardized quadratic coordinate system, where occluded and invalid regions are masked out. Secondly, a pixel classification approach has been evaluated with good results. It is based on a so-called Markov Random Field spatial classification into dominantly brown and blue...

  19. Texture based iris recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Gupta, Phalguni; Kaushik, Anil K.

    2008-04-01

    The paper proposes an efficient iris recognition algorithm, obtained through the fusion of Haar Wavelet and Circular Mellin operator. The recognition system preprocesses the captured iris image to remove the effect of holes or spot of light lying on the pupillary region which creates problem in pupil localization. The processed image is localized by detecting inner and outer boundaries from the pupil center using maximum value of the spectrum image. Then the eyelids are detected by fitting a 3 rd degree polynomial on the suitable edge segments and removing the region occluded by eyelids from the normalized iris image. The features for the iris pattern are extracted using Haar Wavelet and Circular Mellin operator. The Haar Wavelet decomposition reduces the size of feature vector while Circular Mellin operator is used for rotation and scale invariant feature extraction. The features are compared using Hamming Distance method and the fusion is done at decision level using Conjunction rule. The recognizer is found to be more robust with accuracy level more than 95%.

  20. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lott Pooi Wah; Tan Boon Hooi; Leow Sue Ngein; Shuaibah Abdul Ghani; Visvaraja AL Subrayan

    2015-01-01

    A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9’oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  1. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: spectrograph design

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Anna M; Barton, Elizabeth J; Crampton, David; Delacroix, Alex; Larkin, James E; Simard, Luc; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wright, Shelley A

    2010-01-01

    The Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is one of the three first light instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and is the only one to directly sample the diffraction limit. The instrument consists of a parallel imager and off-axis Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for optimum use of the near infrared (0.84um-2.4um) Adaptive Optics corrected focal surface. We present an overview of the IRIS spectrograph that is designed to probe a range of scientific targets from the dynamics and morphology of high-z galaxies to studying the atmospheres and surfaces of solar system objects, the latter requiring a narrow field and high Strehl performance. The IRIS spectrograph is a hybrid system consisting of two state of the art IFS technologies providing four plate scales (4mas, 9mas, 25mas, 50mas spaxel sizes). We present the design of the unique hybrid system that combines the power of a lenslet spectrograph and image slicer spectrograph in a configuration where major hardware is shared. The result is a powerful...

  2. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  3. Vareilles Guillaume, Les frontières de la Palestine, 1914-1947, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2010, 320 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lemire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La genèse des frontières de la Palestine est assurément une des questions nodales du conflit israélo-palestinien et du conflit israélo-arabe. La thèse de Guillaume Vareilles dont est issu ce livre revêt donc un enjeu historique et politique fondamental. En croisant l’approche géopolitique (qui s’attache aux « idéologies relatives aux territoires », selon la définition de Thierry de Montbrial et l’approche géohistorique (« démarche intellectuelle hybride » selon Christian Grataloup l’auteur ...

  4. Gender, Colonialism and Rabbinical Courts in Mandate Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fishbayn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of powers between the state and religious groups plays an important role in shaping how controversies over multicultural toleration and women’s rights under religious law can be resolved. Some structures encourage dialogue while others make it difficult. In Israel, the presence of multiple systems of personal religious law limits the possibilities for the transformation of discriminatory religious laws. There is no civil marriage or divorce in Israel. When the modern State of Israel was created, exclusive power over family law disputes involving Jewish citizens was placed in the hands of rabbinical courts. This arrangement has been called one to retain the ‘status quo’. However, it was not a continuation of Jewish tradition or of the arrangements in place during the long period of Ottoman rule in Palestine. It reflected strengthened powers that had been given to rabbinical courts during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine. This article will trace the ways in which British policies for colonial rule and the interests of Jewish religious leaders coalesced to create a regime of religious family law that is resistant to feminist demands for change.

  5. [The organization of Jewish dentists in pre-Israel Palestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Kratz, M

    2016-04-01

    The first modern dental institutes were established in Europe and in the USA during the 1840s. At that period there wasn't a single qualified doctor in Palestine, not to mention a professional dentist. A couple of decades later, as the number of Christian pilgrims grew, some modern hospitals were established and a few non-Jewish dentists opened their clinics in Jerusalem, which was then and in the following decades, the region's largest city. In Europe, dentistry became a popular profession among Jews in general and among Jewish women in particular. The first Jewish dentist settled in Jerusalem in the mid-1880s. Other dentists were slow to arrive and their number began to grow only after the turn of the 20th century. Their professional education varied from those who were trained as apprentices by other dentists to those which studied a couple of years in an academic dental school. The devastation caused by WWI prompted American-Zionist organizations to send a special medical unit to Palestine in 1918. Along medical supplies it also brought a small group of doctors and dentists. The two American dentists that decided to remain in Palestine took upon themselves to spread their medical and scientific knowledge. They also organized the dentists, whose number grew considerably during the 1920s, and called the authorities to regulate the dental profession. In 1926 the British authorities issued a decree regulating all medical professions. It demanded that dental practitioners will be licensed after proving their previous studies and professional knowledge. In 1931, local dentists' organizations decided to establish the Palestine Dental Association. Five years later it was accepted as a member by the International Dental Federation (FDI) and was recognized by the local authorities. Since the 1930s, prominent Jewish dentists from abroad were invited to come to Palestine to lecture, and local dentists participated in international conferences. This prompted the first

  6. Detection of EP1 and FP receptor mRNAs in the iris-ciliary body using in situ hybridization%用原位杂交方法检测虹膜睫状体EP1和FP受体mRNA的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振平; 印湖莲

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of E-prostanoid1 (EP1) and F-prostanoid (FP) receptor mRNAs in iris-ciliary bodies of the human eye using in situ hybridization.Methods EP1 and FP receptor mRNAs were detected by riboprobes labeled with digoxigenin on paraffin sections of the iris-ciliary body tissue of the human eye using in situ hybridization. Results EP1 and FP receptor mRNAs were highly expressed in blood vessels, muscles and the endothelia of the iris. EP1 receptor hybridization signals were present in all muscle fibers of the ciliary body. Hybridization signal corresponding to FP receptor mRNA transcript was predominantly expressed in the circular muscle and in the collagenous connective tissues of the ciliary body. FP receptor mRNA was not detected in radial and longitudinal muscles. Conclusions EP1 and FP receptor mRNAs in human ocular tissues appear to be widely localized in the functional sites of the respective receptor agonists. Selective localization of EP1 and FP receptor mRNAs in the circular muscles and collagenous connective tissues of the ciliary body suggests that EP1 and FP receptors play an important role in enhancing uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor.%目的检测人眼虹膜-睫状体组织内EP1和FP受体mRNA的表达情况.方法以地高辛标记EP1和FP受体探针,用原位杂交方法检测人眼石蜡切片虹膜-睫状体相应受体mRNA的信号表达.结果虹膜的血管、肌肉和内皮层见大量EP1和FP受体mRNA表达.EP1受体mRNA信号见于睫状体所有的肌肉纤维;FP受体杂交信号主要见于睫状体环形肌肉和结缔组织,纵行肌和放射状肌肉的信号未能检测到.结论人眼组织EP1和FP受体mRNA广泛表达于相应有关受体激动剂作用的功能部位.EP1和FP受体mRNA选择性的表达于睫状体环形肌和结缔组织,提示二种受体在增加巩膜脉络膜房水引流过程中起着重要作用.

  7. [A woman with iris heterochromia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birker, I L; Boons, L S T M; Luyten, G P M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman with congenital iris heterochromia presented with loss of vision of her right eye. We made de diagnosis of a large 'uvea melanoma' and enucleated the eye. Pathological examination showed an underlying oculodermal melanocytosis (ODM). The life-time risk of uveal melanoma in the general population is 0.7:100,000, but 1:400 in patients with ODM. Therefore, annual fundoscopy is recommended in these patients.

  8. CDIS: Circle Density Based Iris Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anand; Kumari, Anita; Kundu, Boris; Agarwal, Isha

    Biometrics is an automated approach of measuring and analysing physical and behavioural characteristics for identity verification. The stability of the Iris texture makes it a robust biometric tool for security and authentication purposes. Reliable Segmentation of Iris is a necessary precondition as an error at this stage will propagate into later stages and requires proper segmentation of non-ideal images having noises like eyelashes, etc. Iris Segmentation work has been done earlier but we feel it lacks in detecting iris in low contrast images, removal of specular reflections, eyelids and eyelashes. Hence, it motivates us to enhance the said parameters. Thus, we advocate a new approach CDIS for Iris segmentation along with new algorithms for removal of eyelashes, eyelids and specular reflections and pupil segmentation. The results obtained have been presented using GAR vs. FAR graphs at the end and have been compared with prior works related to segmentation of iris.

  9. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  10. Biometric Authentication System based on Iris Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sathish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present age of digital impersonation, biometrictechniques are being used increasingly to prevaricateagainst identity thefts. Iris recognition is a proven,accurate means to identify people. Iris is regarded as themost reliable biometric feature in terms of its uniquenessand robustness. The objective of this work is to present abiometric authentication system for high securityphysical access control based on iris pattern. Theproposed iris recognition with improvement in segmentation and matching stages using Hamming distance provides match for iris pattern if hamming distance is below 0.15. The CASIA IRIS image database of Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation is used and the system is implemented in MATLAB. The proposed approach found to report higher verification accuracy of 99.2%.

  11. Iris segmentation using variational level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Bhattacharya, Prabir; Suen, Ching Y.

    2011-04-01

    Continuous efforts have been made to process degraded iris images for enhancement of the iris recognition performance in unconstrained situations. Recently, many researchers have focused on developing the iris segmentation techniques, which can deal with iris images in a non-cooperative environment where the probability of acquiring unideal iris images is very high due to gaze deviation, noise, blurring, and occlusion by eyelashes, eyelids, glasses, and hair. Although there have been many iris segmentation methods, most focus primarily on the accurate detection of iris images captured in a closely controlled environment. The novelty of this research effort is that we propose to apply a variational level set-based curve evolution scheme that uses a significantly larger time step to numerically solve the evolution partial differential equation (PDE) for segmentation of an unideal iris image accurately, and thereby, speeding up the curve evolution process drastically. The iris boundary represented by the variational level set may break and merge naturally during evolution, and thus, the topological changes are handled automatically. The proposed variational model is also robust against poor localization and weak iris/sclera boundaries. In order to solve the size irregularities occurring due to arbitrary shapes of the extracted iris/pupil regions, a simple method is applied based on connection of adjacent contour points. Furthermore, to reduce the noise effect, we apply a pixel-wise adaptive 2D Wiener filter. The verification and identification performance of the proposed scheme is validated on three challenging iris image datasets, namely, the ICE 2005, the WVU Unideal, and the UBIRIS Version 1.

  12. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  13. CAPITAL STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS: EVIDENCE FROM PALESTINE AND EGYPT STOCK EXCHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Abdul Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -This study is driven by the motivation to examine the capital structure determinants for Palestine Stock Exchange (PEX and Egypt Stock Exchange (EGX. Within the framework of capital structure theories, this study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM,1982 as an estimation model employing quarterly panel data analysis during the observed period from 2008 till 2012. The test results from GMM indicate that all the examined determinants have significant relationship with leverage. It has a negative value with liquidity, non-debt tax shield, profitability, size and growth. The Egyptian firms have some uniqueness in its trend. Current assets, debt ratio and liquidity behave positively with leverage except for growth. The other tested determinants in Egyptian companies are found to be not significant.

  14. The practice of humanitarianism: a village birthing clinic in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Livia

    2011-01-01

    Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.

  15. Efficacy of diphtheria and tetanus vaccination in Gaza, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aswad, I H; Shubair, M E

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus in different age groups in Gaza, Palestine. Blood samples were collected from 180 children aged ELISA methods, the efficacy of vaccination was estimated at 87.8% for diphtheria and 98.3% for tetanus. Mean serum titres varied significantly by age group: for diphtheria 0.24 IU/mL at age 2-4 years, 0.63 IU/mL at 7-8 years and 0.46 IU/mL at 11-12 years, and for tetanus 1.01 IU/mL, 2.63 IU/mL and 1.20 IU/mL respectively. The relatively low antibody titres, especially for diphtheria, suggest the need for a booster dose.

  16. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  17. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  18. Iris Image Quality Assessment for Biometric Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. M. Chaskar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Image quality assessment plays an important role in the performance of biometric system involving iris images. Data quality assessment is a key issue in order to broaden the applicability of iris biometrics to unconstrained imaging conditions. In this paper, we have proposed the quality factors of individual iris images by assessing their prominent factors by their scores. The work has been carried out for the following databases: CASIA, UBIRIS, UPOL, MMU and our own created COEP Database using HIS 5000 HUVITZ Iris Camera. The comparison is also done with existing databases which in turn will act as a benchmark in increasing the efficiency of further processing.

  19. Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Maher R; Hallak, Hussein O

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public's perception of community pharmacists in Palestine. To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offer. This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers' patronage patterns, consumers' interaction with community pharmacists, consumers' views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations. Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %). Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring. Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.

  20. Societal perspectives on community pharmacy services in West Bank - Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khdour MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the public's view of professional competency is extremely important; however little has been reported on the public’s perception of community pharmacists in PalestineObjectives: To determine the perception of Palestinian consumers of the community pharmacist and the services they offerMethod: This project used the survey methodology administered by structured interviews to consumers who attended the 39 randomly selected pharmacies, in six main cities in Palestine. The questionnaire had range of structured questions covering: Consumers’ patronage patterns, consumers’ interaction with community pharmacists, consumers’ views on how the pharmacist dealt with personal health issues, procedure with regard to handling private consultations.Results: Of 1,017 consumers approached, 790 consumers completed the questionnaire (77.7 %. Proximity to home and presence of knowledgeable pharmacist were the main reasons for patients to visit the same pharmacy. Physicians were identified as the preferred source of advice by 57.2% and pharmacists by 23.8%. Only 17% of respondents considered pharmacists as health professionals who know a lot about drugs and are concerned about and committed to caring for the public. In addition, 49% indicated that pharmacists spoke more quietly cross the counter during counseling and almost one third reported that the pharmacist used a private area within the pharmacy. The majority of respondents would be happy to receive different extended services in the community pharmacy like blood pressure monitoring.Conclusions: Palestinian consumers have a positive overall perception of community pharmacists and the services they offer. Awareness should be created amongst the public about the role of pharmacist and the added value they can provide as health care professional. There is a need to consider privacy when giving patient counseling to increase user satisfaction.

  1. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  2. Comparing Haar-Hilbert and Log-Gabor Based Iris Encoders on Bath Iris Image Database

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie; 10.1109/SOFA.2010.5565599

    2011-01-01

    This papers introduces a new family of iris encoders which use 2-dimensional Haar Wavelet Transform for noise attenuation, and Hilbert Transform to encode the iris texture. In order to prove the usefulness of the newly proposed iris encoding approach, the recognition results obtained by using these new encoders are compared to those obtained using the classical Log- Gabor iris encoder. Twelve tests involving single/multienrollment and conducted on Bath Iris Image Database are presented here. One of these tests achieves an Equal Error Rate comparable to the lowest value reported so far for this database. New Matlab tools for iris image processing are also released together with this paper: a second version of the Circular Fuzzy Iris Segmentator (CFIS2), a fast Log-Gabor encoder and two Haar-Hilbert based encoders.

  3. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  4. Enhanced iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of biometric person identification, iris recognition uses the unique characteristics of the patterns of the iris; that is, the eye region between the pupil and the sclera. When obtaining an iris image, the iris's image is frequently rotated because of the user's head roll toward the left or right shoulder. As the rotation of the iris image leads to circular shifting of the iris features, the accuracy of iris recognition is degraded. To solve this problem, conventional iris recognition methods use shifting of the iris feature codes to perform the matching. However, this increases the computational complexity and level of false acceptance error. To solve these problems, we propose a novel iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images. Our method is novel in the following five ways compared with previous methods. First, to detect both eyes, we use Adaboost and a rapid eye detector (RED) based on the iris shape feature and integral imaging. Both eyes are detected using RED in the approximate candidate region that consists of the binocular region, which is determined by the Adaboost detector. Second, we classify the detected eyes into the left and right eyes, because the iris patterns in the left and right eyes in the same person are different, and they are therefore considered as different classes. We can improve the accuracy of iris recognition using this pre-classification of the left and right eyes. Third, by measuring the angle of head roll using the two center positions of the left and right pupils, detected by two circular edge detectors, we obtain the information of the iris rotation angle. Fourth, in order to reduce the error and processing time of iris recognition, adaptive bit-shifting based on the measured iris rotation angle is used in feature matching. Fifth, the recognition accuracy is enhanced by the score fusion of the left and right irises. Experimental results on the iris open database of low-resolution images showed that the

  5. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs....... The significant canonical variables for color and texture were primarily explained by the first SPC (SPC1). Therefore, we made a visual inspection of the first SPCs. The color based SPC1 explained a blue to brown variation in iris color and the texture based SPC1 gave a general explanation of iris texture...

  6. Iris Localization Based on Edge Searching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Han Jiuqiang

    2005-01-01

    An iris localization scheme based on edge searching strategies is presented. First, the edge detection operator Laplacian-ofGaussian (LoG) is used to iris original image to search its inner boundary. Then, a circle detection operator is introduced to locate the outer boundary and its center, which is invariant of translation, rotation and scale. Finally, the method of curve fitting is developed in localization of eyelid. The performance of the proposed method is tested with 756 iris images from 108 different classes in CASIA Iris Database and compared with the conventional Hough transform method. The experimental results show that without loss of localization accuracy, the proposed iris localization algorithm is apparently faster than Hough transform.

  7. An iris segmentation algorithm based on edge orientation for off-angle iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Iris recognition is known as one of the most accurate and reliable biometrics. However, the accuracy of iris recognition systems depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. In this paper, we present a segmentation algorithm for off-angle iris images that uses edge detection, edge elimination, edge classification, and ellipse fitting techniques. In our approach, we first detect all candidate edges in the iris image by using the canny edge detector; this collection contains edges from the iris and pupil boundaries as well as eyelash, eyelids, iris texture etc. Edge orientation is used to eliminate the edges that cannot be part of the iris or pupil. Then, we classify the remaining edge points into two sets as pupil edges and iris edges. Finally, we randomly generate subsets of iris and pupil edge points, fit ellipses for each subset, select ellipses with similar parameters, and average to form the resultant ellipses. Based on the results from real experiments, the proposed method shows effectiveness in segmentation for off-angle iris images.

  8. An Iris Segmentation Algorithm based on Edge Orientation for Off-angle Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is known as one of the most accurate and reliable biometrics. However, the accuracy of iris recognition systems depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. In this paper, we present a segmentation algorithm for off-angle iris images that uses edge detection, edge elimination, edge classification, and ellipse fitting techniques. In our approach, we first detect all candidate edges in the iris image by using the canny edge detector; this collection contains edges from the iris and pupil boundaries as well as eyelash, eyelids, iris texture etc. Edge orientation is used to eliminate the edges that cannot be part of the iris or pupil. Then, we classify the remaining edge points into two sets as pupil edges and iris edges. Finally, we randomly generate subsets of iris and pupil edge points, fit ellipses for each subset, select ellipses with similar parameters, and average to form the resultant ellipses. Based on the results from real experiments, the proposed method shows effectiveness in segmentation for off-angle iris images.

  9. Fuzzy difference-of-Gaussian-based iris recognition method for noisy iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Yoo, Jang-Hee; Moon, Kiyoung

    2010-06-01

    Iris recognition is used for information security with a high confidence level because it shows outstanding recognition accuracy by using human iris patterns with high degrees of freedom. However, iris recognition accuracy can be reduced by noisy iris images with optical and motion blurring. We propose a new iris recognition method based on the fuzzy difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) for noisy iris images. This study is novel in three ways compared to previous works: (1) The proposed method extracts iris feature values using the DOG method, which is robust to local variations of illumination and shows fine texture information, including various frequency components. (2) When determining iris binary codes, image noises that cause the quantization error of the feature values are reduced with the fuzzy membership function. (3) The optimal parameters of the DOG filter and the fuzzy membership function are determined in terms of iris recognition accuracy. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed method was better than that of previous methods for noisy iris images.

  10. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  11. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.

  12. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  13. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  14. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  15. Behind the statistics: the ethnography of suicide in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    As part of the first anthropological study on suicide in the modern Arab world, statistics gathered from the Ramallah region of the West Bank in Palestine painted an apparently remarkably similar picture to that found in Western countries such as the UK and France. More men than women completed suicide, more women than men attempted suicide. Men used more violent methods such as hanging and women softer methods such as medication overdose. Completed suicide was higher in the older age range, attempted suicide in the younger. However, ethnographic fieldwork and detailed examination of the case studies and suicide narratives gathered and analysed within the cultural, political and economic contexts illustrated more starkly the differences in suicidal practices between Palestinian West Bank society of the 1990s and other regions of the world. The central argument of the paper is that although statistics tell a very important story, ethnography uncovers a multitude of stories 'behind the statistics', and thus helps us to make sense of both cultural context and subjective experience.

  16. A Cost Analysis of Kidney Replacement Therapy Options in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Younis Ph.D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD and home hemodialysis (HD, are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16 277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16 085 per year—nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life.

  17. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    and glass to base coinage, in order to map out in greater detail the geographical reach and level of activity in regional trade networks in Syria-Palestine between the Byzantine and early Islamic periods. Work to date reveals that local networks were especially vibrant in this period, and probably...... a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... as a system of economic exchange and cultural interaction in post-classical Syria-Palestine. Attention will focus on how the physical centrality of the shop was matched by its defining social role on a daily basis; therefore, the study of the shop and its contents also promises to offers a fascinating insight...

  18. An Analysis of The Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmad Tawfiq Abusharbeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An Analysis of the Islamic and Conventional Banking Profitability in Palestine. The research paper examines the performance of profitability of Islamic banks against conventional banks for the period of 2005 to 2010. Two alternative measurements of banking profitability such as Return on Equity (ROE and Return on Assets (ROA are used to examine whether there is any differences of profit rate between Islamic, local and foreign conventional banks. The study concludes that Islamic banks generally provide the similar profit rate compared to local banks, however Islamic banks provide lower profit rate compared to foreign banks. Finally the findings also suggest that there is no statistical significant difference in mean return between the Islamic banks, local and foreign banks in Palestine. The study recommends the critical needs for Islamic regulation in order to improve the role of Islamic banking industry in Palestine.

  19. Devaluation and Output Growth in Palestine: Evidence from a CGE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakeem Abdel Ahmad Eltalla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether exchange rate devaluation supports economic growth or not is an open question empirically. This paper analyzes the impacts of the devaluation on the Palestinian economy using a computable general equilibrium model. We investigate the effect of a 15% devaluation of the exchange rate on output growth of Palestine. By using latest data (a 2012 social accounting matrix for Palestine and CGE modeling, this paper finds that devaluation is contractionary in Palestine. A 15% devaluation of the exchange rate results on lower real gross domestic product, the simulation results show that GDP will decrease by 1.99 %. Import and export will decline by 20.61% and 52.67% respectably. Also, a 15 percent devaluation will reduce the level of private consumption by 6.31 % and inflation (CPI will increase by 4.7 from the base line.

  20. The voices of Iris: Cinematic representations of the aged woman and Alzheimer's disease in Iris (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Megan E

    2016-09-01

    Audiences must be critical of film representations of the aged woman living with Alzheimer's disease and of dangerous reinscriptions of stereotypical equations about ageing as deterioration. This paper analyses the representation and decline of the aged woman through the different voices of Iris Murdoch in Richard Eyre's film Iris (2001). Key vocal scenes are considered: On-screen encounters between young and aged Iris, vocal representations of dementia symptoms and silencing Iris as her disease progresses. Further, Iris' recurrent unaccompanied song, "The Lark in the Clear Air," compels audiences to "see" Iris with their ears more than with their eyes, exemplifying the representational power of sound in film. This paper is an appeal for increased debate about sonic representations of aged women, ageing and Alzheimer's disease and dementia in film. The significance of audiences' critical awareness and understanding about the social implications of these representations is discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Hough Transform and Active Contour for Enhanced Iris Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iris segmentation is considered as the most difficult and fundamental step in an iris recognition system. While iris boundaries are largely approximated by two circles or ellipses, other methods define more accurately the iris resulting in better recognition results. In this paper we propose an iris segmentation method using Hough transform and active contour to detect a circular approximation of the outer iris boundary and to accurately segment the inner boundary in its real shape motivated by the fact that richer iris textures are closer to the pupil than to the sclera. Normalization, encoding and matching are implemented according to Daugmans method. The method, tested on CASIA-V3 iris images database is compared to Daugmans iris recognition system. Recognition performance is measured in terms of decidability, accuracy at the equal error rate and ROC curves. Improved recognition performance is obtained using our segmentation model proposing its use for better iris recognition system.

  2. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  3. Workshop Review: Jerusalem and Palestine during World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The day-long workshop devoted to “Jerusalem and Palestine during World War I” is part of a larger program entitled “France, Western Europe and Palestine 1799-1948” organized by the Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem. Following the conference which covered an extensive nineteenth century from 1799 to 1917 (November 9-11, 1998 and before the conference scheduled for November 29-30 to December 1, 1999 which will focus on the Mandate Period (1917-1948 there was an obvious need to examine...

  4. A novel iris localization algorithm using correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, Mausumi; Sharma, Jitu

    2015-06-01

    Fast and efficient segmentation of iris from the eye images is a primary requirement for robust database independent iris recognition. In this paper we have presented a new algorithm for computing the inner and outer boundaries of the iris and locating the pupil centre. Pupil-iris boundary computation is based on correlation filtering approach, whereas iris-sclera boundary is determined through one dimensional intensity mapping. The proposed approach is computationally less extensive when compared with the existing algorithms like Hough transform.

  5. Using multi-matching system based on a simplified deformable model of the human iris for iris recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MING Xing; XU Tao; WANG Zheng-xuan

    2004-01-01

    A new method for iris recognition using a multi-matching system based on a simplified deformable model of the human iris was proposed. The method defined iris feature points and formed the feature space based on a wavelet transform. In the matching stage it worked in a crude manner. Driven by a simplified deformable iris model, the crude matching was refined. By means of such multi-matching system, the task of iris recognition was accomplished. This process can preserve the elastic deformation between an input iris image and a template and improve precision for iris recognition. The experimental results indicate the validity of this method.

  6. EFFICIENT IRIS SEGMENTATION BASED ON EYELID DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULJALIL RADMAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computationally efficient eyelid detection algorithm for detecting eyelid boundaries in iris images acquired under less constrained imaging conditions. The proposed eyelid detection algorithm is developed based on the live-wire technique. The major advantage of the proposed algorithm is its computational simplicity as compared to the prior eyelid detection algorithms. The saturation color features of the sclera region of the HSI color space of the iris image are exploited to determine the two intersection points between each eyelid and the outer iris boundary. The strongly connected edges between these two points are detected using the live wire technique that is likely to be the eyelid boundary. The experimental results obtained from UBIRIS.v1 database reveal that the eyelid detection algorithm which proposed in this paper improves the segmentation accuracy for the less constrained iris images.

  7. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... on biogas systems in order to become part of IRIS. IRIS has been developed in the context of the project „AVALANCHE" which is partly funded under the JOULE programme of the European Commission DGXII.Keywords: Renewable Energy Technologies - Electronic Commerce - Information System - META-tags...

  8. [Iris movement mediates pupillary membrane regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Yuki

    2007-11-01

    In the course of mammalian lens development, a transient capillary meshwork called as the pupillary membrane (PM) forms. It is located in the pupil area to nourish the anterior surface of the lens, and then regresses to clear the optical path. Although the involvement of the apoptotic process has been reported in PM regression, the initiating factor remains unknown. We initially found that regression of the PM coincided with the development of iris motility, and that iris movement caused cessation and resumption of blood flow within the PM. Therefore, we investigated whether the development of the capacity of the iris to constrict and dilate can function as an essential signal that induces apoptosis in the PM. Continuous inhibition of iris movement with mydriatic agents suppressed apoptosis of the PM and resulted in the persistence of PM in rats. The distribution of apoptotic cells in the regressing PM was diffuse and showed no apparent localization. These results indicated that iris movement induced regression of the PM by changing the blood flow within it. This study suggests the importance of the physiological interactions between tissues-in this case, the iris and the PM-as a signal to advance vascular regression during organ development.

  9. Deteksi Iris Berdasarkan Metode Black Hole dan Circle Curve Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurnianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pengenalan identitas personal berdasarkan ciri biometrika adalah suatu sistem pengenalan seseorang berdasarkan pada ciri biometrika yang melekat pada orang tersebut. Iris mata merupakan salah satu ciri biometrik yang handal untuk sistem pengenalan identitas personal. Bagian sistem pengenalan identitas personal berdasarkan biometrik iris yang dianggap paling krusial adalah deteksi lokasi iris, karena akurasi deteksi iris berpengaruh pada tingkat akurasi sistem secara keseluruhan. Lokasi iris pada citra mata dibatasi oleh dua buah lingkaran yang memisahkan antara bagian iris  dengan pupil dan sklera. Telah banyak metodemetode yang diusulkan oleh para peneliti untuk menghasilkan deteksi lokasi iris dengan akurat dan cepat. Masalah akurasi, kecepatan waktu eksekusi dan ketahanan terhadap noise merupakan bidang penelitian yang menantang pada deteksi iris. Makalah ini menyajikan metode deteksi iris menggunakan metode black hole dan circle curve fitting. Langkah pertama, mencari batas dalam lingkaran iris yang memisahkan antara daerah iris dan pupil. Dengan metode black hole yang bekerja berdasarkan fakta bahwa lokasi pupil merupakan daerah  lingkaran yang paling hitam dan memiliki distribusi nilai intensitas yang seragam, maka lokasi pupil dapat ditentukan dengan teknik pengambangan. Batas lingkaran pupil dapat ditentukan dengan circle curve fitting dari parameter lingkaran daerah pupil. Langkah kedua,  mencari batas luar lingkaran iris yang memisahkan antara iris dan sklera. Peta tepi citra iris dicari dengan menggunakan deteksi tepi Canny, kemudian diambil satu komponen tepi arah vertikal yang dapat mewakili batas lingkaran luar iris. Dari komponen tepi tersebut, dihitung jari-jari iris yang berpusat di pusat pupil. Dengan jari-jari iris dan pusat iris maka dapat ditentukan batas luar iris menggunakan circle curve fitting

  10. From wayfaring elites to local associations: Sufis in Medieval Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrat, Daphna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a comprehensive study of the Sufis of medieval Palestine. At its heart resides the birth of locally embedded Sufi-inspired associations in this historical framework in the course of the Earlier Middle Period (late tenth to mid-­­­­thirteenth centuries. Drawing on the profiles of renowned Sufi traditionalists and legalists living in the Palestine of the time, the article highlights the assimilation of Sufis into the scholarly circles of the religiously learned, the ‘ulama’, and the social order. It outlines how they perceived their role and place in society and disseminated the truth of Islam, and how, parallel with their integration into the world of the ‘ulama’ of the established legal schools (the madhhabs, they developed their own inner life and organizational forms and devised their own ways of integrating into the fabric of social and communal life. The early development of a coherent local Sufi congregation around the Sufi guide out of the loosely knit and dispersed circle of disciples is closely tied to the change in the concept of guidance for advancement along the Path and the change in the relationship between master and disciple.

    Este artículo es parte de un estudio de conjunto sobre los sufíes de la Palestina medieval. Se centra en el surgimiento de asociaciones de inspiración sufí en contextos locales de ese ámbito geográfico durante el primer periodo medieval (desde finales del s. X hasta la mitad del s. XIII. A partir de las biografías de tradicionistas y juristas sufíes famosos que vivieron en la Palestina de la época, se pone de relieve la integración de los sufíes en los círculos de los

  11. The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaik Younis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles′ frequencies amongst males (M and females (F in Gaza city in Palestine. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method. Results: The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05. However, no significance (P > 0.05 was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.

  12. Apartheid in the Holy Land: Theological reflections on the Israel and/or Palestine situation from a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Pillay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I first attempt to draw a comparison between the Israel-Palestine conflict and the South African experience of apartheid. Drawing on other established sources and personal experience, I conclude that, while there may be some differences between the two contexts, in essence, the similar experiences of colonialisation and racialisation makes the apartheid comparison compellingly relevant. I then proceed to theologically explore the themes of justice and reconciliation and what it may mean in the context of Israel-Palestine whilst extracting from the South African experience. The article also offers some reflections on the role of the Church in addressing the Israel-Palestine conflict.

  13. Performance of Personal Identification System Technique Using Iris Biometrics Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iris identification as one of the significant techniques of biometric identification systems s and iris recognition algorithm is described. Biometric technology advances intellectual properties are wanted by many unauthorized personnel. As a result many researchers have being searching ways for more secure authentication methods for the user access. Iris recognition uses iris patterns for personnel identification. The system steps are capturing iris patterns; determining the location of iris boundaries; converting the iris boundary to the stretched polar coordinate system; extracting iris code based on texture analysis. The system has been implemented and tested using dataset of number of samples of iris data with different contrast quality. The developed algorithm performs satisfactorily on the images, provides 93% accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an encouraging performance.

  14. Coinage and the economy of Syria-Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries CE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2010-01-01

    Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....

  15. Political Graffiti on the West Bank Wall in Israel/Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olberg, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Great strife has plagued the Middle East for decades. Israel and the Occupied Territories of the West Bank of Palestine' have been battling over the land they both claim as holy. Regional threats of war loom and increasingly violent rhetoric has been exchanged regarding the claims to holy sites, land, olives, water, and other natural resources in…

  16. Training under Fire: The Relationship between Obstacles Facing Training and SMEs Development in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMadhoun, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between obstacles and weaknesses facing the development of MTPs and SMEs. In recent years many management training programmes (MTPs) of an off-the-job nature have been established in Palestine, after the peace agreement, in order to find a solution for apparent lack of…

  17. Perceptions of Using Smart Mobile Devices in Higher Education Teaching: A Case Study from Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Khitam; Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Smart mobile devices (SMDs), especially smartphones and tablets, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous among educators and students in Palestine. While their use is on the rise, many academics are not effectively incorporating this technology into their teaching, which may be attributable to their negative perceptions of these devices. This study…

  18. Incomplete Victory: General Allenby and Mission Command in Palestine, 1917-1918

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Palestine in a new light, ignoring the romanticism that has made it so popular in the past. Historian Matthew Hughes, in his book Allenby and...some of the responsibility for the prevalent impression of the romanticism of the campaign. Rather than the painful descriptions of trenches and high

  19. Online Teacher Training in a Context of Forced Immobility: The Case of Gaza, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassetta, Giovanna; Imperiale, Maria Grazia; Frimberger, Katja; Attia, Mariam; Al-Masri, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses an action research study that involved the design and delivery of an online training course for teachers of Arabic to speakers of other languages in the Gaza Strip (Palestine). Grounded in Freirean pedagogy, the course aimed to respond to the employment needs of university graduates by creating opportunities for online…

  20. Debating islamic family law in Palestine : citizenship, gender and 'islamic' idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.Y. Shehada (Nahda)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter sheds light on the family law debate in Palestine following the establishment of the Palestinian Authority (1994). It elaborates on the public debate and political contestation over attempts to reform the ‘Islamic’ family law during the second half of the 1990s. It describes

  1. The Hebrew Liturgical Poetry of Byzantine Palestine : Recent Research and New Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bekkum, Wout Jac.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a striking growth of interest in the study of Hebrew (and Aramaic) liturgical poetry, or pjyut, in Byzantine Palestine. Scholars have published a substantial number of texts and studies and have started to produce several translations. The issues and observat

  2. A Financial, Environmental and Social Evaluation of Domestic Water Management Options in the West Bank, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazer, D.W.; Siebel, M.A.; Van der Zaag, P.; Mimi, Z.; Gijzen, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water is one of the most valuable natural resources in the West Bank, Palestine. Due to its limited availability, it is a resource that needs particular protection. Although agriculture consumes most of the water (70%) in the West Bank, the domestic water supply is strategically not less important.

  3. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  4. As if they do not exist. Images of (belonging and of owning Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Neidhardt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Films from or about Palestine are frequently programmed at international film festivals. They are sometimes released in cinemas and quite often presented in special screenings at various institutions all over the Western World. Due to the scarcity of screens and the boycott of Israel, they are seen to a lesser extend in Arab countries. Compared to screenings of other Arab films or the presentation of movies from other former colonies and mandatory territories, Western audiences often react highly emotional to the images from Palestine. In debates questions for a better understanding of the films’ subject or context are barely ever asked. Rather the foreign spectators seem to have a sense of belonging and to claim the right for co-determination. Where do these emotional ties originate from? In recent years a large number of films shot in Palestine during the late Ottoman period and the British mandate were made accesssible online, mainly by the Steven Spielberg Film Archive in Jerusalem and the British War Museum in London. Libraries like the Library of Congress in Washington digitized parts of their photographic collections. Based on them as well as on the films I work with as distributor and programmer for Arab film series, in this article I look at images on and from Palestine and ask for what purpose, in which context and by whom they were made and distributed.

  5. Palestine Refugees Today. Human Rights Day: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary. Newsletter Number 76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Relief and Works Agency, New York, NY.

    A special issue of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) newsletter relates the ideals of human rights as carried out for the Palestine refugees. An overview of the publication and its contents is followed by a copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Three articles--The Right to Education, An Adequate Standard of Living,…

  6. P-Fluorous Phosphines as Electron-Poor/Fluorous Hybrid Functional Ligands for Precious Metal Catalysts: Synthesis of Rh(I, Ir(I, Pt(II, and Au(I Complexes Bearing P-Fluorous Phosphine Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Kawaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available P-Fluorous phosphine (R2PRf, in which the perfluoroalkyl group is directly bonded to the phosphorus atom, is a promising ligand because it has a hybrid functionality, i.e., electron-poor and fluorous ligands. However, examples of P-fluorous phosphine–metal complexes are still rare, most probably because the P-fluorous group is believed to decrease the coordination ability of the phosphines dramatically. In contrast, however, we have succeeded in synthesizing a series of P-fluorous phosphine–coordinated metal complexes such as rhodium, iridium, platinum, and gold. Furthermore, the electronic properties of R2PnC10F21 are investigated by X-ray analysis of PtCl2(Ph2PnC10F212 and the infrared CO stretching frequency of RhCl(CO(R2PnC10F212. IrCl(CO(Ph2PnC10F212- and AuCl(R2PnC10F21-catalyzed reactions are also demonstrated.

  7. New Iris Localization Method Based on Chaos Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Dongli; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Zhang Jiashu

    2005-01-01

    This paper present a new method based on Chaos Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to localize the human iris in a given image. First, the iris image is preprocessed to estimate the range of the iris localization, and then CGA is used to extract the boundary of the iris. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms is efficient and robust, and can achieve sub pixel precision. Because Genetic Algorithms (GAs) can search in a large space, the algorithm does not need accurate estimation of iris center for subsequent localization, and hence can lower the requirement for original iris image processing. On this point, the present localization algirithm is superior to Daugmans algorithm.

  8. Histopathology in the iris-nevus (Cogan-Reese) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Herschler, J

    1980-06-01

    A 23-year-old-woman had iris-nevus (Cogan-Reese) syndrome characterized by unilateral glaucoma with peripheral anterior synechiae, multiple iris nodules, and ectopic Descemet's membrane. A surgical specimen excised from the involved eye was examined by light and electron microscopy. A cuticular membrane covered both the anterior and posterior surfaces of the iris in this specimen. On the anterior surface of the iris, many projections of apparently normal iris stroma pierced or were surrounded by this membrane. On the posterior surface of the iris, this membrane was associated with a monolayer of cuboidal cells.

  9. Internetwork chromospheric bright grains observed with IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart; Pereira, Tiago M D; Boerner, Paul; Hurlburt, Neal; Kleint, Lucia; Lemen, James; Tarbell, Ted D; Title, Alan; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Hansteen, Viggo H; Golub, Leon; McKillop, Sean; Reeves, Kathy K; Saar, Steven; Testa, Paola; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah; Kankelborg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveals small-scale rapid brightenings in the form of bright grains all over coronal holes and the quiet sun. These bright grains are seen with the IRIS 1330 \\AA, 1400 \\AA\\ and 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filters. We combine coordinated observations with IRIS and from the ground with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) which allows us to have chromospheric (Ca II 8542 \\AA, Ca II H 3968 \\AA, H\\alpha, and Mg II k 2796 \\AA), and transition region (C II 1334 \\AA, Si IV 1402) spectral imaging, and single-wavelength Stokes maps in Fe I 6302 \\AA at high spatial (0.33"), temporal and spectral resolution. We conclude that the IRIS slit-jaw grains are the counterpart of so-called acoustic grains, i.e., resulting from chromospheric acoustic waves in a non-magnetic environment. We compare slit-jaw images with spectra from the IRIS spectrograph. We conclude that the grain intensity in the 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filter comes from both the Mg II k core and wings. The signal in the C II ...

  10. ORNL Biometric Eye Model for Iris Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Iris recognition has been proven to be an accurate and reliable biometric. However, the recognition of non-ideal iris images such as off angle images is still an unsolved problem. We propose a new biometric targeted eye model and a method to reconstruct the off-axis eye to its frontal view allowing for recognition using existing methods and algorithms. This allows for existing enterprise level algorithms and approaches to be largely unmodified by using our work as a pre-processor to improve performance. In addition, we describe the `Limbus effect' and its importance for an accurate segmentation of off-axis irides. Our method uses an anatomically accurate human eye model and ray-tracing techniques to compute a transformation function, which reconstructs the iris to its frontal, non-refracted state. Then, the same eye model is used to render a frontal view of the reconstructed iris. The proposed method is fully described and results from synthetic data are shown to establish an upper limit on performance improvement and establish the importance of the proposed approach over traditional linear elliptical unwrapping methods. Our results with synthetic data demonstrate the ability to perform an accurate iris recognition with an image taken as much as 70 degrees off-axis.

  11. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ATUL BANSAL; RAVINDER AGARWAL; R K SHARMA

    2016-05-01

    Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Hamming distance based metric has been used for matching. Performance of the proposed iris recognition system (IRS) has been measured by recording false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) at differentthresholds in the distance metric. System performance has been evaluated by computing statistical features along two directions, namely, radial direction of circular iris region and angular direction extending from pupil tosclera. Experiments have also been conducted to study the effect of number of statistical parameters on FAR and FRR. Results obtained from the experiments based on different set of statistical features of iris images show thatthere is a significant improvement in equal error rate (EER) when number of statistical parameters for feature extraction is increased from three to six. Further, it has also been found that increasing radial/angular resolution,with normalization in place, improves EER for proposed iris recognition system

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT AND PALESTINE IN THE EARLY BRONZE AGE(ca.3400-2000 BCE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Egypt and Palestine can be traced back to theChalcolithic Age thanks to the evidence of current excavations in the Nile Deltaand Sinal.Palestinian pottery and cast metal objects from the Delta sites of Maadi,Minshat Abu Omar,and elsewhere have proved contacts with Palestine inProtodynastic(Nagada Ⅱ-Ⅲ)times.The Egyptian Protodynastic Period andDynasty 1 were contemporary with the Palestinian EB Ⅰ and EB Ⅲ,and reliable

  13. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of acquired iris sample. This is because in order to obtain reliable features good quality...

  14. Iris recognition: a biometric method after refractive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iris recognition, as a biometric method, outperforms others because of its high accuracy. Iris is the visible internal organ of human, so it is stable and very difficult to be altered. But if an eye surgery must be made to some individuals, it may be rejected by iris recognition system as imposters after the surgery, because the iris pattern was altered or damaged somewhat during surgery and cannot match the iris template stored before the surgery. In this paper, we originally discuss whether refractive surgery for vision correction (LASIK surgery) would influence the performance of iris recognition. And experiments are designed and tested on iris images captured especially for this research from patients before and after refractive surgery. Experiments showed that refractive surgery has little influence on iris recognition.

  15. An image segmentation based method for iris feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-zhu; ZHANG Zai-feng; MA Yi-de

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the local anomalistic blocks such ascrypts, furrows, and so on in the iris are initially used directly asiris features. A novel image segmentation method based onintersecting cortical model (ICM) neural network was introducedto segment these anomalistic blocks. First, the normalized irisimage was put into ICM neural network after enhancement.Second, the iris features were segmented out perfectly and wereoutput in binary image type by the ICM neural network. Finally,the fourth output pulse image produced by ICM neural networkwas chosen as the iris code for the convenience of real timeprocessing. To estimate the performance of the presentedmethod, an iris recognition platform was produced and theHamming Distance between two iris codes was computed tomeasure the dissimilarity between them. The experimentalresults in CASIA vl.0 and Bath iris image databases show thatthe proposed iris feature extraction algorithm has promisingpotential in iris recognition.

  16. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the Fisher linear discriminant and the iris region of interest is extracted. Four texture description methods are compared for segmenting iris texture using a region based pattern classification approach: Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Discrete...

  17. Bilateral acute iris transillumination: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Degirmenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a recently defined disease characterized with bilateral acute, severe pigment dispersion of iris and pupil sphincter paralysis. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown, but antibiotics such as moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, viral infections, and fumigation therapies were considered as probable etiologic factors. A 33-year-old female was referred to our clinic for acute iridocyclitis refractory to azathioprine, colchicum and corticosteroid treatments. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion, significant iris transillumination, heavy pigment deposition in iridocorneal angle, and elevated intraocular pressure. Upon systemic evaluation she was found to have bacterial urinary tract infection. BAIT is an important cause of pigment dispersion and clinicians must be vigilant for this condition to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and treatment.

  18. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  19. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BERYLLIUM AND COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's assessment of the noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of Beryllium was added to the IRIS database in 1998. The IRIS program is updating the IRIS assessment for Beryllium. This update will incorporate health effects information published since the last assess...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon tetrachloride is a volatile haloalkane with a wide range of industrial and chemical applications. It is produced commercially from chlorination of a variety of low molecular weight hydrocarbons such as carbon disulfide, methanol, methane, propane, and ethylene dichloride. It is also produced by thermal chlorination in the production of tetrachloroethylene. Major uses of carbon tetrachloride have been in the recovery of tin from tin plating waste, in formulation of petrol additives and refrigerants, in metal degreasing and agricultural fumigants, in chlorination of organic compounds, in the production of semiconductors, in the reduction of fire hazard, as a solvent for rubber cement, and as a catalyst in polymer technology. Its production has been decreasing and it is no longer permitted in products intended for home use. Despite this ban, carbon tetrachloride has been detected at 314 hazardous waste sites. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of carbon tetrachloride was last prepared and added to the IRIS database in 1991. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate health effects information available for carbon tetrachloride, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for carbon tetrachloride will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity

  1. Iris recognition using the JAVAVis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Martin García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project has been created to develop a biometric identification system through a man’s iris using a computer to perform the processing of the pictures. To develop this application, and to differentiate the project from others who have already implemented, we have used the image processing library JAVAVis and JAVA as a programming language.

  2. Jérusalem et la Palestine pendant la première guerre mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La journée d’études « Jérusalem et la Palestine pendant la première guerre mondiale » s’inscrit dans le cadre du programme « La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1948 » du Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem. À la suite du colloque portant sur un long XIXe siècle, de 1799 à 1917 (9-11 novembre 1998, et avant la rencontre des 29-30 novembre-1er décembre 1999, portant sur la période mandataire (1917-1948, il paraissait indispensable de s’attarder sur le premier conflit ...

  3. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Palestine in Addressing Inequality and Promoting Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Hilal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available UNESCO's new emphasis on vocational education and training as transformative, and concerns in particular with equity and sustainable human development, has been strongly influenced by a recent literature on VET and human development that has a particular focus on the most marginalised, especially young women, and is concerned with how their aspirations, agency and achievement of wellbeing can be promoted in the face of wide-ranging structural obstacles. This article seeks to further develop that account through an even stronger emphasis on VET in the context of extreme poverty, inequality and marginalisation as faced in Palestine. VET in Palestine serves many of the poorest and most disenfranchised in Palestinian society in a context of profound structural obstacles to wellbeing achievement. Our analysis show a very positive story of how VET has helped highly disadvantaged young Palestinians, particularly young women, to make progress on their human development.

  4. [Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome--a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Popescu, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    is to evaluate the incidence and typical signs of floppy iris syndrome intraoperatory revealed in patients diagnosed with cataracts. We studied a total of 15 eyes diagnosed with cataracts, belonging to 14 patients who had been treated chronically with Tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia. In 80% of cases we have seen a preoperative semimidriasis which required iris hooks in 5 eyeballs. On 1 eye preoperative semimidriasis was sufficient for capsulorhexis, but later pupil became miotic, requiring iris hooks. On 4 eye flaccid iris was noticed, that prolabated in corneal incision. floppy iris syndrome occurs in patients treated with Tamsulosin for benign prostatic hyperplasia, generating a series of difficulties during cataract surgery.

  5. Social Crisis Prevention: A Political Alert Index for the Israel-Palestine Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    André De Palma; Federico Perali; Nathalie Picard; Roberto Ricciuti; Alexandrina Ioana Scorbureanu

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel approach to crisis prevention based on data on premonitory political and religious events and the international media coverage of publicly sensitive circumstances. We implement our method to the Israel-Palestine conflict. First we identify two main political scenarios associated with "good" and "bad" political times of low or high levels of political unrest using a hierarchical clustering technique. Then we construct a political alert index to predict the probabili...

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  7. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  8. A novel iris segmentation algorithm based on small eigenvalue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, B. S.; Aruna Kumar, S. V.; Guru, D. S.; Ngo, Minh Ngoc

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a simple and robust algorithm is proposed for iris segmentation. The proposed method consists of two steps. In first step, iris and pupil is segmented using Robust Spatial Kernel FCM (RSKFCM) algorithm. RSKFCM is based on traditional Fuzzy-c-Means (FCM) algorithm, which incorporates spatial information and uses kernel metric as distance measure. In second step, small eigenvalue transformation is applied to localize iris boundary. The transformation is based on statistical and geometrical properties of the small eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of a set of edge pixels. Extensive experimentations are carried out on standard benchmark iris dataset (viz. CASIA-IrisV4 and UBIRIS.v2). We compared our proposed method with existing iris segmentation methods. Our proposed method has the least time complexity of O(n(i+p)) . The result of the experiments emphasizes that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing iris segmentation methods.

  9. IRDO: Iris Recognition by fusion of DTCWT and OLBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunalatha J S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iris Biometric is a physiological trait of human beings. In this paper, we propose Iris an Recognition using Fusion of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT and Over Lapping Local Binary Pattern (OLBP Features. An eye is preprocessed to extract the iris part and obtain the Region of Interest (ROI area from an iris. The complex wavelet features are extracted for region from the Iris DTCWT. OLBP is further applied on ROI to generate features of magnitude coefficients. The resultant features are generated by fusing DTCWT and OLBP using arithmetic addition. The Euclidean Distance (ED is used to compare test iris with database iris features to identify a person. It is observed that the values of Total Success Rate (TSR and Equal Error Rate (EER are better in the case of proposed IRDO compared to the state-of-the art techniques.

  10. Identity Recognizing using Iris Scan with multiple frames of Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha Bandi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of iris biometrics has been significant research over the last decade. At this point, iris capture has become a main stream technology with wide acceptance. A general iris recognition systemworks with four different steps. 1. Capturing the image from the eye. 2. Extracting iris from the processed image. 3. Transforming the raw image coordinates into normalized polar coordinates. 4. Finally the iris code is compared with known iris code for identification of a person. Iris performance can be improved by creating a single average image. We prepared two different sets of images called gallery set of images and probe set of images and then compared all gallery set images to all probe set images. This comparison gives better recognition performance.

  11. Larval stages of digenetic trematodes in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from freshwater bodies in Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect the species of larval trematodes (cercariae) in Melanopsis praemorsa snails from 5 different fresh water bodies in Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 880 Melanopsis praemorsa snails were collected from different fresh water bodies in Palestine from October, 2008 to November, 2010. Cercariae in Melanopsis praemorsa snails were obtained by lighting and crushing methods. The behavior of cercariae was observed using a dissecting microscope. Results: Three different species of larval trematodes were identified from Melanopsis praemorsa snails collected only from Al-Bathan fresh water body, while snails from other water bodies were not infected. These species were microcercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria and brevifurcate lophocercous cercaria. These cercariae called Cercaria melanopsi palestinia I, Cercaria melanopsi palestinia II and Cercaria melanopsi palestinia III have not been described before from this snail in Palestine. The infection rate of Melanopsis praemorsa collected from Al-Bathan fresh water body was 5.7%, while the overall infection rate of snails collected from all fresh water bodies was 4.3%. Details are presented on the morphology and behavior of the cercariae as well as their development within the snail. Conclusions: These results have been recorded for the first time and these cercariae may be of medical and veterinary importance.

  12. Dr Walter Henry Anderson (1870-1937) and the mission hospital at Safed, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Gordon S

    2013-02-01

    Walter Henry Anderson, a brewer's clerk in Burton-upon-Trent, became a missionary doctor, supported by a society promoting welfare and evangelism in Jewish communities abroad. His family background was rich in pastoral ministry at home and adventure abroad. Arguably, this background played a part in his decision to serve the Jews of Safed. His life in Palestine entailed much enterprise and hardship as he raised a family, fought disease and set up a mission hospital serving not only the Jewish community but persons of all faiths. His years in Palestine, from 1894 to 1915, were times of peace in the Middle East before the turmoil unleashed by the Great War. Jews from the Diaspora were gaining an increasing foothold in Palestine, their 'Promised Land'. Themes of that era - the rise of Zionism, confrontation between Judaism and evangelical Christianity, conflict between immigrant Jew and Palestinian Arab and the remarkable travels of Lawrence of Arabia were interwoven with the lives of Dr Anderson and his family.

  13. A molecular epidemiology survey of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in children residing in Southern Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Qurei

    Full Text Available A molecular epidemiology survey was performed in order to establish and document the respiratory adenovirus pathogen profiles among children in Southern Palestine. Three hundred and thirty-eight hospitalized pediatric cases with adenovirus-associated respiratory tract infections were analyzed. Forty four cases out of the 338 were evaluated in more detail for the adenoviruses types present. All of the children resided in Southern Palestine, that is, in city, village and refugee camp environments within the districts of Hebron and Bethlehem. Human adenoviruses circulated throughout 2005-2010, with major outbreaks occurring in the spring months. A larger percent of the children diagnosed with adenoviral infections were male infants. DNA sequence analysis of the hexon genes from 44 samples revealed that several distinct adenovirus types circulated in the region; these were HAdV-C1, HAdV-C2, HAdV-B3 and HAdV-C5. However, not all of these types were detected within each year. This is the first study ever conducted in Palestine of the genetic epidemiology of respiratory adenovirus infections.

  14. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pontieu, B.; Title, A. M.; Lemen, J. R.; Kushner, G. D.; Akin, D. J.; Allard, B.; Berger, T.; Boerner, P.; Cheung, M.; Chou, C.; Drake, J. F.; Duncan, D. W.; Freeland, S.; Heyman, G. F.; Hoffman, C.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Lindgren, R. W.; Mathur, D.; Rehse, R.; Sabolish, D.; Seguin, R.; Schrijver, C. J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Wülser, J.-P.; Wolfson, C. J.; Yanari, C.; Mudge, J.; Nguyen-Phuc, N.; Timmons, R.; van Bezooijen, R.; Weingrod, I.; Brookner, R.; Butcher, G.; Dougherty, B.; Eder, J.; Knagenhjelm, V.; Larsen, S.; Mansir, D.; Phan, L.; Boyle, P.; Cheimets, P. N.; DeLuca, E. E.; Golub, L.; Gates, R.; Hertz, E.; McKillop, S.; Park, S.; Perry, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Reeves, K.; Saar, S.; Testa, P.; Tian, H.; Weber, M.; Dunn, C.; Eccles, S.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Mashburn, K.; Pust, N.; Springer, L.; Carvalho, R.; Kleint, L.; Marmie, J.; Mazmanian, E.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Sawyer, S.; Strong, J.; Worden, S. P.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Leenaarts, J.; Wiesmann, M.; Aloise, J.; Chu, K.-C.; Bush, R. I.; Scherrer, P. H.; Brekke, P.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Lites, B. W.; McIntosh, S. W.; Uitenbroek, H.; Okamoto, T. J.; Gummin, M. A.; Auker, G.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Waltham, N.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33 - 0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, two-second temporal resolution, and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec × 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332 - 1358 Å, 1389 - 1407 Å, and 2783 - 2834 Å, including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg ii h 2803 Å and Mg ii k 2796 Å) and transition region (C ii 1334/1335 Å and Si iv 1394/1403 Å). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C ii 1330, Si iv 1400, Mg ii k 2796, and Mg ii wing 2830 Å) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec × 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial samplings (from 0.33 arcsec and up). IRIS is sensitive to emission from plasma at temperatures between 5000 K and 10 MK and will advance our understanding of the flow of mass and energy through an interface region, formed by the chromosphere and transition region, between the photosphere and corona. This highly structured and dynamic region not only acts as the conduit of all mass and energy feeding into the corona and solar wind, it also requires an order of magnitude more energy to heat than the corona and solar wind combined. The IRIS investigation includes a strong numerical modeling component based on advanced radiative-MHD codes to facilitate interpretation of observations of this complex region. Approximately eight Gbytes of data (after compression) are acquired by IRIS each day and made available for unrestricted use within a few days of the observation.

  15. An Evaluation of Pronunciation Teaching Content of "English for Palestine 10" and Related Teachers' Competency Level in Light of Current Instructional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Najjar, Rana Abdel-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate pronunciation teaching with regard to an EFL multi-skills textbook ("English for Palestine 10"). The evaluation was intended to identify the extent to which pronunciation teaching content incorporated in" English for Palestine 10," in addition to the related teachers' competency level match…

  16. Are IRIS bombs connected to Ellerman bombs?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas ($\\sim$2--8$\\times$10$^{4}$ K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified ten IBs. We find that three are unambiguously and three others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended H$_{\\alpha}$ wings without leaving an obvious signature in the H$_{\\alpha}$ core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) The O~{\\sc{iv}}~1401.156\\AA{} and 1399.774\\AA{} lines are absent or very weak; (2) The Mn~{\\sc{i}}~2795.640\\AA{} line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k line wing; (3) The Mg~{\\sc{ii}}~k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) Chromospheric absorption lin...

  17. [Analysis of iris: history and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the iris has ancient roots, but iridology in its present sense was established by Philippi Meyers in 1670. The discipline was further developed by Ignaz Péczely in 1881 and by Nils Liljequist in 1890. Other studies have been published in Germany, Sweden, Norway, England, France, USA, Australia and elsewhere, and iridology is practiced worldwide. The techniques used are described and the sources of error are mentioned when several photos from the same patient are compared (e.g. the influences of differences in pupil size, magnification and the effect of oblique light). The iris key (irigraphy) and the interpretation of different sights are discussed in some detail; there is little agreement among iridologists. Some iris diagnoses are of little interest to day and some modern diseases are missing in the diagnostic system. Controlled studies reveal that iridology is of no use whatsoever for the detection of cancer and other diseases in the stomach, intestines, kidney, lungs and heart. The reason for the continued popularity of iridology is discussed, and it is concluded that this type of alternative medicine is not harmless.

  18. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS)

    CERN Document Server

    De Pontieu, B; Lemen, J; Kushner, G D; Akin, D J; Allard, B; Berger, T; Boerner, P; Cheung, M; Chou, C; Drake, J F; Duncan, D W; Freeland, S; Heyman, G F; Hoffman, C; Hurlburt, N E; Lindgren, R W; Mathur, D; Rehse, R; Sabolish, D; Seguin, R; Schrijver, C J; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J -P; Wolfson, C J; Yanari, C; Mudge, J; Nguyen-Phuc, N; Timmons, R; van Bezooijen, R; Weingrod, I; Brookner, R; Butcher, G; Dougherty, B; Eder, J; Knagenhjelm, V; Larsen, S; Mansir, D; Phan, L; Boyle, P; Cheimets, P N; DeLuca, E E; Golub, L; Gates, R; Hertz, E; McKillop, S; Park, S; Perry, T; Podgorski, W A; Reeves, K; Saar, S; Testa, P; Tian, H; Weber, M; Dunn, C; Eccles, S; Jaeggli, S A; Kankelborg, C C; Mashburn, K; Pust, N; Springer, L; Carvalho, R; Kleint, L; Marmie, J; Mazmanian, E; Pereira, T M D; Sawyer, S; Strong, J; Worden, S P; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J; Wiesmann, M; Aloise, J; Chu, K -C; Bush, R I; Scherrer, P H; Brekke, P; Martinez-Sykora, J; Lites, B W; McIntosh, S W; Uitenbroek, H; Okamoto, T J; Gummin, M A; Auker, G; Jerram, P; Pool, P; Waltham, N

    2014-01-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer spacecraft provides simultaneous spectra and images of the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona with 0.33-0.4 arcsec spatial resolution, 2 s temporal resolution and 1 km/s velocity resolution over a field-of-view of up to 175 arcsec x 175 arcsec. IRIS was launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit on 27 June 2013 using a Pegasus-XL rocket and consists of a 19-cm UV telescope that feeds a slit-based dual-bandpass imaging spectrograph. IRIS obtains spectra in passbands from 1332-1358, 1389-1407 and 2783-2834 Angstrom including bright spectral lines formed in the chromosphere (Mg II h 2803 Angstrom and Mg II k 2796 Angstrom) and transition region (C II 1334/1335 Angstrom and Si IV 1394/1403 Angstrom). Slit-jaw images in four different passbands (C II 1330, Si IV 1400, Mg II k 2796 and Mg II wing 2830 Angstrom) can be taken simultaneously with spectral rasters that sample regions up to 130 arcsec x 175 arcsec at a variety of spatial sa...

  19. Infrasound product resources at the IRIS DMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, M.; Trabant, C.; Hutko, A. R.; Karstens, R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 infrasound sensors were installed at some existing USArray Transportable Array (TA) sites and became a standard component of all new sites. Currently there are over 400 sites with infrasound sensors with an average spacing of 70 kilometers. To promote and facilitate the use of these data the IRIS Data Management Center has developed two new data products: an infrasound reference event database and an infrasound signal detector. The TA Infrasound Reference Event Database (TAIRED) is a user-supported database that contains information on events of interest for which there are associated USArray microbarograph recordings. This database is initially populated with a few events from observations on the USArray infrasound data, event bulletins, news on explosions, meteorological events and rocket launches. As a user-supported resource, we ask users to submit events of interest to be included in the database or submit their alternate solutions to the existing events. The second data product is an infrasound signal detector that regularly scans the USArray broadband infrasound data (BDF channel sampled at 40 Hz) and produces detections that highlight time intervals containing potential signals of interest. The detection product includes two components, standard signal-to-noise ratio based detections and spectral power based detections. No attempt is made to categorize detections or associate them to events. These data products join the growing collection of products produced and managed at the IRIS DMC, for the complete list please visit http://www.iris.edu/dms/products/.

  20. Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rahulkar, Amol D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc.  that will...

  1. Efficient iris recognition via ICA feature and SVM classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong; Xu Luping

    2007-01-01

    To improve flexibility and reliability of iris recognition algorithm while keeping iris recognition success rate, an iris recognition approach for combining SVM with ICA feature extraction model is presented. SVM is a kind of classifier which has demonstrated high generalization capabilities in the object recognition problem. And ICA is a feature extraction technique which can be considered a generalization of principal component analysis. In this paper, ICA is used to generate a set of subsequences of feature vectors for iris feature extraction. Then each subsequence is classified using support vector machine sequence kernels. Experiments are made on CASIA iris database, the result indicates combination of SVM and ICA can improve iris recognition flexibility and reliability while keeping recognition success rate.

  2. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A; Chen, Teresa C

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

  3. FUV Continuum in Flare Kernels Observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Adrian N.; Kowalski, Adam; Allred, Joel C.; Cauzzi, Gianna

    2016-05-01

    Fits to Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectra observed from bright kernels during the impulsive phase of solar flares are providing long-sought constraints on the UV/white-light continuum emission. Results of fits of continua plus numerous atomic and molecular emission lines to IRIS far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of bright kernels are presented. Constraints on beam energy and cross sectional area are provided by cotemporaneous RHESSI, FERMI, ROSA/DST, IRIS slit-jaw and SDO/AIA observations, allowing for comparison of the observed IRIS continuum to calculations of non-thermal electron beam heating using the RADYN radiative-hydrodynamic loop model.

  4. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  5. Iris Localization Algorithm Based on Improved Generalized Symmetry Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左坤隆; 刘文耀; 朱昊; 王晓东

    2004-01-01

    Accuracy and fastness of iris localization are very important in automatic iris recognition. A new fast iris localization algorithm based on improved generalized symmetry transform (GST) was proposed by utilizing iris symmetry. GST was improved in three aspects:1) A new distance weight function is defined. The new weight function, which is effective in iris localization, utilized the characteristic of irises that the iris is a circular object and it has one inner boundary and one outer boundary. 2) Each calculation of the symmetry measurement of a pair of symmetry points was performed by taking one point of a pair as the starting point of the transformation. This is the most important reason for fast iris localization,due to which, repetitious computation was largely excluded. 3) A new phase weight function was proposed to adjust GST to locate circle target much better because the inner part of iris is darker than the outer part. The edge map of iris image was acquired and GST was only implemented on the edge point, which decreased computation without loss of accuracy. The modification of distance weight function and phase weight function leads to the accuracy of localization, and other ideas speed up the localization. Experiments show that the average speed of new algorithm is about 7.0-8.5 times as high as traditional ones including integro-differential operator and Hough transform method.

  6. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  7. Iris Recognition System Using Fractal Dimensions of Haar Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnala S. R. Chandra Murty

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification of iris templates based on their texture patterns is one of the most effective methods in iris recognition systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for automatic iris classification based on fractal dimensions of Haar wavelet transforms is presented. Fractal dimensions obtained from multiple scale features are used to characterize the textures completely. Haar wavelet is applied in order to extract the multiple scale features at different resolutions from the iris image. Fractal dimensions are estimated from these patterns and a classifier is used to recognize the given image from a data base. Performance comparison was made among different classifiers.

  8. Limbus Impact on Off-angle Iris Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of iris recognition depends on the quality of data capture and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Off-angle iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics that tries to address several issues including corneal refraction, complex 3D iris texture, and blur. In this paper, we present an additional significant challenge that degrades the performance of the off-angle iris recognition systems, called the limbus effect . The limbus is the region at the border of the cornea where the cornea joins the sclera. The limbus is a semitransparent tissue that occludes a side portion of the iris plane. The amount of occluded iris texture on the side nearest the camera increases as the image acquisition angle increases. Without considering the role of the limbus effect, it is difficult to design an accurate off-angle iris recognition system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that investigates the limbus effect in detail from a biometrics perspective. Based on results from real images and simulated experiments with real iris texture, the limbus effect increases the hamming distance score between frontal and off-angle iris images ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 depending upon the limbus height.

  9. Person Identification System Using Fusion of Matching Score of Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeshwari Borse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human iris provides a unique structure suitable for non-invasive biometric assessment. In particular the irises are as distinct as fingerprints even for twins. In this paper a system for person identification is presented that uses a technique of localization, alignment, feature extraction, matching the features of irises and finally the decision regarding the degree of match based on hamming distance. A CASIA iris database of iris images has been used in the implementation of the iris recognition system. The results show that proposed method is quite effective

  10. Phase-only Correlation in Human Iris Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin C. Teuşdea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents human eye-iris registration and matching in an iris database using phase-only correlation techniques. Two modified phase-only correlation techniques with efficient registration results are used: the rectangle band limited phase-only correlation method (BPOC and an elliptic limited phase-only correlation method (EPOC the last one being proposed by the authors. The results of the computer simulations obtained for these two methods are analyzed on the same iris database and the analysis denotes that the proposed method EPOC has better performances than BPOC method for iris matching in the used database.

  11. A Case of Iris Mammillation Associated with Nevus of Ota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Polat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is characterized by the presence of hyperpigmentation in the skin areas innervated by the first or the second branches of the trigeminal nerve. Women are affected three times as often as men. Although nevus of Ota is a congenital disorder, it can be seen in puberty or adulthood. Herein a case of nevus of Ota was reported accompanying iris heterochromia and rare iris mammillation. Because of the relationship between iris heterochromia and iris mammillation with glaucoma and especially uveal melanoma, all the patients with nevus of Ota should be monitored closely with regular ophthalmologic examination.

  12. Iris Transponder-Communications and Navigation for Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Smith, Amy E.; Aguirre, Fernando H.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed the Iris CubeSat compatible deep space transponder for INSPIRE, the first CubeSat to deep space. Iris is 0.4 U, 0.4 kg, consumes 12.8 W, and interoperates with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) on X-Band frequencies (7.2 GHz uplink, 8.4 GHz downlink) for command, telemetry, and navigation. This talk discusses the Iris for INSPIRE, it's features and requirements; future developments and improvements underway; deep space and proximity operations applications for Iris; high rate earth orbit variants; and ground requirements, such as are implemented in the DSN, for deep space operations.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in April 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETBE assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is conducting an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). The outcome of this project is a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for ETBE that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  14. [What is the link between the sister of the "Titanic" and the history of medicine in Palestine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Zalman

    2006-06-01

    On 21st November 1916, the Royal Navy Hospital ship 'Britannic' (the sister ship of the 'Titanic') was torpedoed near the island of Kea in the Aegean Sea. Captain Dr. John Cropper, aged 52, was one of 30 people who drowned of the 1100 on board. Dr. Cropper was born in 1864, at Guisborough, England. He obtained his medical degree from Cambridge University in 1891. After his marriage to Anne Ellen Walker in 1895, the Church Missionary Society sent him on a medical mission to Palestine. Dr. Cropper stayed in Palestine for about 10 years working in Acre, Nablus, Ramallah and Jerusalem. He published his experiences in 35 articles and letters in English medical periodicals, more than anyone else did in Palestine at that time. In those publications, he described various operations that he carried out and observations on infectious diseases, most of which were the first descriptions from that remote and unhealthy country. His prominent research was in the field of malaria - the most common and important disease in Palestine during that period. It was less than two years after Grassi's discovery of the role of Anopheles mosquitoes as the vector of human malaria that Dr. Cropper carried out surveys of larval and adult mosquitoes in correlation with malarial distribution in Palestine. Dr. Cropper was the first who routinely examined slides microscopically in Palestine and correctly diagnosed the type of malaria. Dr. Cropper was also the first in Palestine to suggest antimalarial measures aimed directly at the mosquito vector and paid attention to ecological aspects such as breeding places and the daily behavior of adult mosquitoes. Dr. Cropper noted the common antimalarial measurements of that time, such as covering of wells, planting of Eucalyptus trees to drain swamps and the routine use of quinine as a preventive medicine, but he wrote that those measures were not effective under the local conditions. He suggested that the only effective measures must be aimed against the

  15. Assessment of IRI and IRI-Plas models over the African equatorial and low-latitude region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebiyi, S. J.; Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Joshua, B. W.

    2016-07-01

    A reliable ionospheric specification by empirical models is important to mitigate the effects of the ionosphere on the operations of satellite-based positioning and navigation systems. This study evaluates the capability of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and IRI extended to the plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) models in predicting the total electron content (TEC) over stations located in the southern hemisphere of the African equatorial and low-latitude region. TEC derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were compared with TEC predicted by both the IRI-Plas 2015 model and the three topside options of the IRI 2012 model (i.e., NeQuick (NeQ), IRI 2001 corrected factor (IRI-01 Corr), and the IRI 2001(IRI-01)). Generally, the diurnal and the seasonal structures of modeled TEC follow quite well with the observed TEC in all the stations, although with some upward and downward offsets observed during the daytime and nighttime. The prediction errors of both models exhibit latitudinal variation and these showed seasonal trends. The values generally decrease with increase in latitude. The TEC data-model divergence of both models is most significant at stations in the equatorial region during the daytime and nighttime. Conversely, both models demonstrate most pronounced convergence during the nighttime at stations outside the equatorial region. The IRI-Plas model, in general, performed better in months and seasons when the three options of the IRI model underestimate TEC. Factors such as the height limitation of the IRI model, the inaccurate predictions of the bottomside and topside electron density profiles were used to explain the data-model discrepancies.

  16. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS): a practical approach to medical and surgical considerations in cataract extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Børme, Kim Kamp;

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery is characterized by iris fluttering, iris prolapse towards the incisions, and a progressive pupillary constriction leading to high rates of complications. The syndrome has been reported following the treatment of benign...

  17. Emergence of vancomycin-intermediate resistant Staphylococcus aureus in north of Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Marwan Odeh

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study was conducted to update the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates among human clinical S.aureus isolates recovered from Northern Palestine,to evaluate the possible presence of vancomycin-Resistant S.aureus (VRSA)and vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VISA)and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these clinical isolates.Methods:The in vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 204 non-duplicate S.aureus isolates from clinical samples in North of Palestine were determined by the disk-diffusion method.These samples were isolated between June 2006 and December 2007.The minimum inhibitory con-centration (MIC)of vancomycin for 115 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)strains was carried out using the agar dilution method.Results:One hundred and fifteen (56.4 %)of these isolates were MRSA and ac-cording to their antibiotic profile these are multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more non-β-lactam antibiotics). Ninety nine (43.6 %)isolates were methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA),forty four of MSSA isolates (44.4 %) were multidrug resistant,while forty five (45.6 %)were non multidrug resistant.Our results showed that the most common resistance (95.6 %)was to penicillin.Two strains of MRSA have shown to be vancomycin-intermediate resistant,had MIC of 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL and these vancomycin-intermediate resistant S.aureus strains (VI-SA)are resistant to all antibiotics tested.Conclusion:According to our information this is the first study report about VISA in Palestine.

  18. Design and implementation of a hospital information system for the Palestine Red Crescent Society in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L; Materia, E; Hourani, A; Yousef, H; Racalbuto, V; Venier, C; Osman, M

    2009-01-01

    A case-mix hospital information system was designed and implemented in Palestine Red Crescent Society hospitals in order to support the network of Palestinian hospitals in Lebanon and to improve the health of refugees in the country. The system is based on routine collection of essential administrative and clinical data for each episode of hospitalization, relying on internationally accepted diagnostic codes. It is a computerized, user-friendly information system that is a stepping-stone towards better hospital management and evaluation of quality of care. It is also a useful model for the development of hospital information systems in Lebanon and in the Near East.

  19. ILLEGAL JEWISH-IMMIGRATION POLICY IN PALESTINE (PERIODS OF 1st and 2nd CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Şakir BATMAZ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, illegal Jewish Migration to Palestine and the Manner of the Ottoman Empire towards this migration throughout the second half of the 19th century will be shed into light. The migration movement to the Palestinian lands for Zionist purposes covers a period for the Jewish people full of patience, seriousness and sacrifices. Especially the rich Jews living in Europe and America supplied the money flow through the companies they set up and the Jews who were the idea-father of the Zionism made great efforts to get the Jewish people all over the world to migrate to the holy lands.

  20. Palestine at the end of the state-building process: Technical achievements, political failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    More than two decades of Palestinian state-building have produced neither peace nor a state. In fact, the Palestinians are seemingly further away from statehood today than at any point since the state-building process began in the mid-90s, despite the fact that the West Bank’s institutions now...... perform, according to the UN, the EU, the World Bank and IMF, above the threshold for what is expected of a state. In this situation – with the Palestinians technically ready for statehood and large parts of Europe and the U.S. not politically ready to recognize Palestine – it is unclear what strategic...

  1. Palestine 1918: General Edmund Allenbys application of operational art and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    significance of the British campaign through Palestine when he wrote: “The Holy Land has long been the scene of war since the dawn of history. Here on the...nation supporting us, and the neutrals in a favorable manner.70 Like Lawrence, Dolman links strategy and tactics in a “unity of opposites” like a...Feisal and the Arab Army entered Damascus amidst scenes of great enthusiasm while the 4th, 5th, and Australian Cavalry Divisions secured the surrounding

  2. Effect of tamsulosin on iris vasculature and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Hussain, Munira T; Cooney, Theresa M; Elner, Victor M; Hood, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether preoperative iris vasculature and morphology are altered in patients who have taken tamsulosin (Flomax). Academic multispecialty practice. Case series. Patients with current or past tamsulosin use and age- and sex-matched control patients were included. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and iris fluorescein angiography were performed to measure iris vasculature and thickness before cataract surgery. Data collected at surgery included pupil diameter, clinical signs of intraoperative floppy-iris syndrome, and surgical complications. Tamsulosin was currently used by 16 patients and in the past by 4 patients; the control group comprised 10 patients. Pharmacologically dilated pupil diameter was statistically significantly smaller preoperatively and immediately postoperatively in the tamsulosin group than in the control group (P=.009 and P=.003, respectively). There was a statistically significant decrease in pupil size intraoperatively in the tamsulosin group (P=.05) but not in the control group (P=.3). Iris-vasculature parameters, specifically time to first vessel fill and percentage of vessel fill on iris fluorescein angiography, were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The AS-OCT measurements of iris morphology were not statistically significantly different between the groups. No surgical complications occurred. No fluorescein dye leakage, staining, or other vascular anomalies were observed. Although there were differences in pupil measurements and intraoperative iris behavior between patients who had been on tamsulosin and control patients, there were no significant differences in iris vasculature on iris fluorescein angiography or in iris morphology on AS-OCT. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cellular and molecular biology of the iris, an overlooked tissue: the iris and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás, Terete

    2014-01-01

    Located between the cornea and the lens, the Iris is fully immersed in aqueous humor. During exfoliation syndrome, a disorder of the elastic fibers, an abnormal fibrillar material (XFM) is deposited on the anterior lens capsule underneath the pigment epithelium of the Iris. Release of this material to the aqueous humor reaches the trabecular meshwork where its presence is associated with elevated intraocular pressure. Ultrastructural studies suggest that the XFM material is produced by the lens capsule, lens epithelial and iris pigment epithelial cells (IPE). The involvement of the IPE in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma has not been extensively addressed. Immunohistochemistry studies have shown higher levels of LOXL1 and clusterin in the IPE extracellular space of specimens from exfoliation patients. But studies using IPE cells to understand the formation of the XFM in vitro and/or in vivo are scarce. A focus on the Iris and its IPE cells would be key for the elucidation of XFM and the understanding of the development of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

  4. An unusual case of seed dispersal in an invasive aquatic; yellow flag iris (Iris pseudacorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding reproductive mode of invasive plants can help managers plan more efficacious control. Invasive aquatics typically reproduce primarily through vegetative means. Yellow flag iris is an invasive plant species often growing as an emergent aquatic. There have been contradictory reports of i...

  5. Are IRIS Bombs Connected to Ellerman Bombs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Xu, Zhi; He, Jiansen; Madsen, Chad

    2016-06-01

    Recent observations by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed pockets of hot gas (˜2-8 × 104 K) potentially resulting from magnetic reconnection in the partially ionized lower solar atmosphere (IRIS bombs; IBs). Using joint observations between IRIS and the Chinese New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we have identified 10 IBs. We find that 3 are unambiguously and 3 others are possibly connected to Ellerman bombs (EBs), which show intense brightening of the extended {{{H}}}α wings without leaving an obvious signature in the {{{H}}}α core. These bombs generally reveal the following distinct properties: (1) the O iv 1401.156 Å and 1399.774 Å lines are absent or very weak; (2) the Mn i 2795.640 Å line manifests as an absorption feature superimposed on the greatly enhanced Mg ii k line wing; (3) the Mg ii k and h lines show intense brightening in the wings and no dramatic enhancement in the cores; (4) chromospheric absorption lines such as Ni ii 1393.330 Å and 1335.203 Å are very strong; and (5) the 1700 Å images obtained with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal intense and compact brightenings. These properties support the formation of these bombs in the photosphere, demonstrating that EBs can be heated much more efficiently than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the Mg ii k and h lines can be used to investigate EBs similarly to {{{H}}}α , which opens a promising new window for EB studies. The remaining four IBs obviously have no connection to EBs and they do not have the properties mentioned above, suggesting a higher formation layer, possibly in the chromosphere.

  6. CFD modeling of the IRIS pressurizer dynamic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Ronny R.; Montesinos, Maria E.; Garcia, Carlos; Bueno, Elizabeth D.; Mazaira, Leorlen R., E-mail: rsanz@instec.cu, E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu, E-mail: leored1984@gmail.com [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Bezerra, Jair L.; Lira, Carlos A.B. Oliveira, E-mail: jair.lima@ufpe.br, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universida Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Integral layout of nuclear reactor IRIS makes possible the elimination of the spray system, which is usually used to mitigate in-surge transient and also help to Boron homogenization. The study of transients with deficiencies in the Boron homogenization in this technology is very important, because they can cause disturbances in the reactor power and insert a strong reactivity in the core. The detailed knowledge of the behavior of multiphase multicomponent flows is challenging due to the complex phenomena and interactions at the interface. In this context, the CFD modeling is employed in the design of equipment in the nuclear industry as it allows predicting accidents or predicting their performance in dissimilar applications. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial CFD code CFX. A symmetric tri dimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of four phases and also takes into account the heat losses. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX. Moreover, two subdomains and several additional variables are defined to monitoring the boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rates in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  7. Isolated Bilateral Congenital Iris Sphincter Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We herein report a patient with bilateral congenital total iris sphincter agenesis with no other abnormality detected on systemic examination. Methods. A 24-year-old laborer presented to us for a routine checkup with complaint of photophobia and inability to work under sunlight. Examination revealed bilateral absence of sphincter and 6.5 mm pupil in both eyes in the undilated state. Results. Accommodation was poor in both eyes. Systemic examination was within normal limits. He was prescribed bifocal photochromic glasses for constant wear. Conclusions. Congenital sphincter agenesis can occur in an isolated form without systemic abnormalities which can be managed conservatively.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.

  9. Frontal view reconstruction for iris recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bolme, David S; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-02-17

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by correcting input images with an off-angle gaze. A variety of techniques, from limbus modeling, corneal refraction modeling, optical flows, and genetic algorithms can be used. A variety of techniques, including aspherical eye modeling, corneal refraction modeling, ray tracing, and the like can be employed. Precomputed transforms can enhance performance for use in commercial applications. With application of the technologies, images with significantly unfavorable gaze angles can be successfully recognized.

  10. Frontal view reconstruction for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bolme, David S; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2015-02-17

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by correcting input images with an off-angle gaze. A variety of techniques, from limbus modeling, corneal refraction modeling, optical flows, and genetic algorithms can be used. A variety of techniques, including aspherical eye modeling, corneal refraction modeling, ray tracing, and the like can be employed. Precomputed transforms can enhance performance for use in commercial applications. With application of the technologies, images with significantly unfavorable gaze angles can be successfully recognized.

  11. The IRIS network site at the Wilcox Solar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    The site for the International Research on the Interior of the Sun (IRIS) instrument housed at the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford University (near San Francisco, USA) is described together with the instrument operation procedure. The IRIS instrument, which measures global oscillations of the sun, operates continuously every clear day since it was installed in August 1987.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database....

  13. Iris Recognition for Partially Occluded Images: Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursaberi, A.; Araabi, B. N.

    2006-12-01

    Accurate iris detection is a crucial part of an iris recognition system. One of the main issues in iris segmentation is coping with occlusion that happens due to eyelids and eyelashes. In the literature, some various methods have been suggested to solve the occlusion problem. In this paper, two different segmentations of iris are presented. In the first algorithm, a circle is located around the pupil with an appropriate diameter. The iris area encircled by the circular boundary is used for recognition purposes then. In the second method, again a circle is located around the pupil with a larger diameter. This time, however, only the lower part of the encircled iris area is utilized for individual recognition. Wavelet-based texture features are used in the process. Hamming and harmonic mean distance classifiers are exploited as a mixed classifier in suggested algorithm. It is observed that relying on a smaller but more reliable part of the iris, though reducing the net amount of information, improves the overall performance. Experimental results on CASIA database show that our method has a promising performance with an accuracy of 99.31%. The sensitivity of the proposed method is analyzed versus contrast, illumination, and noise as well, where lower sensitivity to all factors is observed when the lower half of the iris is used for recognition.

  14. Iris-based medical analysis by geometric deformation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Zhang, D; Li, Naimin; Cai, Yan; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanguan

    2013-01-01

    Iris analysis studies the relationship between human health and changes in the anatomy of the iris. Apart from the fact that iris recognition focuses on modeling the overall structure of the iris, iris diagnosis emphasizes the detecting and analyzing of local variations in the characteristics of irises. This paper focuses on studying the geometrical structure changes in irises that are caused by gastrointestinal diseases, and on measuring the observable deformations in the geometrical structures of irises that are related to roundness, diameter and other geometric forms of the pupil and the collarette. Pupil and collarette based features are defined and extracted. A series of experiments are implemented on our experimental pathological iris database, including manual clustering of both normal and pathological iris images, manual classification by non-specialists, manual classification by individuals with a medical background, classification ability verification for the proposed features, and disease recognition by applying the proposed features. The results prove the effectiveness and clinical diagnostic significance of the proposed features and a reliable recognition performance for automatic disease diagnosis. Our research results offer a novel systematic perspective for iridology studies and promote the progress of both theoretical and practical work in iris diagnosis.

  15. The FDSN Archive at the IRIS Data Management Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahern

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available In August of 1990, the IRIS Data Management Center (IRIS DMC was designated as the first FDSN Data Center. Since that time the IRIS DMC has also come to be known as the FDSN Archive. As the FDSN Archive, all member networks, through their own local Network Data Centers, routinely send data to the IRIS DMC. At the present time we have received data from seven member networks. These include: CNSN (Canada; CDSN (China; GEOSCOPE (France; Graefenberg (Germany; IRIS GSN (U.S.A.; MEDNET (Italy; POSEIDON (Japan. In addition to acting as the FDSN Archive, the IRIS DMC is responsible for archiving and distributing data from several sources. The Global Seismographie Network (GSN and the Program for Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL and the Joint Seismic Program (JSP are three IRIS programs that presently send data to the IRIS DMS. The DMC also archives data from some regional networks in the United States and in the Former Soviet Union (FSU. The DMC is one component of a larger Data Management System (DMS consisting of several components including two Data Collection Centers (DCCs, one Data Management Center (DMQ, a DMC Host at the University of Washington, a Wave form Quality Center (WQC, and the Moscow Data Analysis Center (MDC in Russia.

  16. Iris Recognition for Partially Occluded Images: Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Poursaberi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate iris detection is a crucial part of an iris recognition system. One of the main issues in iris segmentation is coping with occlusion that happens due to eyelids and eyelashes. In the literature, some various methods have been suggested to solve the occlusion problem. In this paper, two different segmentations of iris are presented. In the first algorithm, a circle is located around the pupil with an appropriate diameter. The iris area encircled by the circular boundary is used for recognition purposes then. In the second method, again a circle is located around the pupil with a larger diameter. This time, however, only the lower part of the encircled iris area is utilized for individual recognition. Wavelet-based texture features are used in the process. Hamming and harmonic mean distance classifiers are exploited as a mixed classifier in suggested algorithm. It is observed that relying on a smaller but more reliable part of the iris, though reducing the net amount of information, improves the overall performance. Experimental results on CASIA database show that our method has a promising performance with an accuracy of 99.31%. The sensitivity of the proposed method is analyzed versus contrast, illumination, and noise as well, where lower sensitivity to all factors is observed when the lower half of the iris is used for recognition.

  17. Unconstrained Iris Acquisition and Recognition Using COTS PTZ Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Shreyas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniqueness of iris patterns among individuals has resulted in the ubiquity of iris recognition systems in virtual and physical spaces, at high security facilities around the globe. Traditional methods of acquiring iris patterns in commercial systems scan the iris when an individual is at a predetermined location in front of the scanner. Most state-of-the-art techniques for unconstrained iris acquisition in literature use expensive custom equipment and are composed of a multicamera setup, which is bulky, expensive, and requires calibration. This paper investigates a method of unconstrained iris acquisition and recognition using a single commercial off-the-shelf (COTS pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ camera, that is compact and that reduces the cost of the final system, compared to other proposed hierarchical multicomponent systems. We employ state-of-the-art techniques for face detection and a robust eye detection scheme using active shape models for accurate landmark localization. Additionally, our system alleviates the need for any calibration stage prior to its use. We present results using a database of iris images captured using our system, while operating in an unconstrained acquisition mode at 1.5 m standoff, yielding an iris diameter in the 150–200 pixels range.

  18. Eclipse-Free-Time Assessment Tool for IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, David

    2012-01-01

    IRIS_EFT is a scientific simulation that can be used to perform an Eclipse-Free- Time (EFT) assessment of IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) mission orbits. EFT is defined to be those time intervals longer than one day during which the IRIS spacecraft is not in the Earth s shadow. Program IRIS_EFT implements a special perturbation of orbital motion to numerically integrate Cowell's form of the system of differential equations. Shadow conditions are predicted by embedding this integrator within Brent s method for finding the root of a nonlinear equation. The IRIS_EFT software models the effects of the following types of orbit perturbations on the long-term evolution and shadow characteristics of IRIS mission orbits. (1) Non-spherical Earth gravity, (2) Atmospheric drag, (3) Point-mass gravity of the Sun, and (4) Point-mass gravity of the Moon. The objective of this effort was to create an in-house computer program that would perform eclipse-free-time analysis. of candidate IRIS spacecraft mission orbits in an accurate and timely fashion. The software is a suite of Fortran subroutines and data files organized as a "computational" engine that is used to accurately predict the long-term orbit evolution of IRIS mission orbits while searching for Earth shadow conditions.

  19. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of horm

  20. Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or aux

  1. A Novel and Efficient Method for Iris Automatic Location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-zhu; ZHANG Zai-feng; MA Yi-de

    2007-01-01

    An efficient and robust iris location algorithm plays a very important role in a real iris recognition system. A novel and efficient iris automatic location method is presented in this study. It includes following two steps mainly: pupil location and iris outer boundary location. A digital eye image was divided into many small rectangular blocks with fixed size in the pupil location, and the block with the smallest average intensity was selected as a reference area. Then image binarization was implemented taking the average intensity of the reference area as a threshold. At last the center coordinates and radius of pupil were estimated by extending the reference area to the pupil's boundaries in the binary iris image. In the iris outer location, two local parts of the eye image were selected and transformed into polar coordinates from Cartesian reference. In order to detect the fainter outer boundary of the iris quickly, a novel edge detector was used to locate boundaries of the two parts. The center coordinates and radius of the iris outer boundary can be estimated using the fusion of the locating results of the two local parts and the location information of the pupil. The algorithm was tested on CASIA v1.0 and MMU v1.0 digital eye image databases and experimental results show that the proposed method has satisfying performance and good robustness.

  2. Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or

  3. The Impact of Creativity Management in Fighting the Educational Crisis in Secondary Schools in Palestine from the Viewpoint of Headmasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawawdeh, Sabreen

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to identify the impact of creativity management in fighting the educational crisis in secondary schools in Palestine from the viewpoint of headmasters, researcher worked to follow the descriptive analytical method and also resorted to statistical methods, has developed a questionnaire included several paragraphs about the school…

  4. The Teacher's Roles in Light of Knowledge Economy from the Perspective of the Educational Supervisors' in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Suhair Sulaiman Mohammed; Naser, Inas Aref Saleh; Awajneh, Ahlam Mustafa Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the teacher's roles in light of knowledge economy from the perspective of the educational supervisors in Palestine. To achieve the study's objective, a questionnaire consisted of 35 items was developed and applied on 50 male and female supervisors in the Directorate of Education in governorate of Ramallah, al-Bireh…

  5. Gender Planning and Vocational Education, and Technical Training in Palestine: An Initial Framework. Gender and Society Working Paper #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahleh, Lamis Abu

    Gender planning and vocational education and technical training (VETT) in Palestine were examined through the following: review of available literature and policy-oriented reports, discussions with educators in the field, and roundtable discussion in which representatives of the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labor and experts…

  6. "Children of Our Future": Climate, Degeneration and Education in Hebrew Society in Mandatory Palestine (1917-1948)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltenreich, Yair

    2016-01-01

    "Children of Our Future" was a short essay published in 1929 in the Hebrew Teachers' Association jubilee book. It boldly claimed that future offspring of European Jews in Palestine were all fatally doomed due to the degenerative characteristics of the local climate. Such concepts stood in clear opposition to the dream of creating a…

  7. Application of GIS-based SCS-CN method in West Bank catchments, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer SHADEED

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the most basic challenges of hydrology are the prediction and quantification of catchment surface runoff. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number is very tedious and consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This paper assesses the modeling of flow in West Bank catchments using the GIS-based SCS-CN method. The West Bank, Palestine, is characterized as an arid to semi-arid region with annual rainfall depths ranging between 100 mm in the vicinity of the Jordan River to 700 mm in the mountains extending across the central parts of the region. The estimated composite curve number for the entire West Bank is about 50 assuming dry conditions. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in West Bank catchments, representing arid to semi-arid catchments of Palestine.

  8. Causes of Contractor's Business Failure in Developing Countries: The Case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Mohamed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has unique characteristics that sharply distinguish it from other sectors of the economy. It is fragmented, very sensitive to the economic cycles and political environment, and has a significantly high rate of business failure. Business failure, collapse and bankruptcy are common terms in the industry due to the many risks inherited in how the industry operates. Throughout the world, the relative ease of entry gives rise to a large number of contracting firms competing fiercely in the market exposing many of them to business failure, Palestine is no exception. The objectives of this paper are to report on a research study which aims at exploring the causes of contractor's business failure in Palestine, and investigating their severity from the contractor's point of view. The study's results shows that the main causes of business failure are delay in collecting debt from clients (donors, border closure, heavy dependence on bank loans and payment of high interest on these loans, lack of capital, absence of industry regulations, low profit margin due to high competition, awarding contracts by client to the lowest bidder, and lack of experience in contract management. Based on these findings, recommendations to the Palestinian National Authority (PNA and local contractors are presented in this paper.

  9. The Validity and Reliability of the Parent Fever Management Scale: A Study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Walsh, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Parental concern about childhood fever and consequent use of antipyretics is increasing. Little is known about childhood fever management among Arab parents. No scales to measure parents' fever management practices in Palestine are available. The aim of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Parent Fever Management Scale (PFMS) using a sample of parents in Palestine. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate PFMS into Arabic language. It was then validated on a convenience sample of 402 parents between July and October 2012. Descriptive statistics were used, and instrument reliability was assessed for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validation. Applying the recommended scoring method, the median (interquartile range) score of the PFMS was 26 (23-30). Acceptable internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.733) and the test-retest reliability value was 0.92 (P parents' fever management practices. The Arabic version of the PFMS can be used to reduce unnecessary parental practices in fever management for a febrile child.

  10. Incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A

    2014-01-09

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence and causes of home accidents in the West Bank and Gaza Strip of Palestine. Quantitative data were collected through a field survey of a random sample of 1882 people from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and qualitative data through 15 focus groups discussions with men and women from diverse sectors of Palestinian society, which contributed to the interpretation of some of the results more deeply. The most important result from the study was that more women's were exposed to home accidents (40.0%) than men (25.1%). The most common type of accident for both women and men was from a blunt or sharp object casing blunt trauma or puncture wound. Economic situation of the family, family size, presence of children and place of residence were significantly associated with exposure to domestic accidents. There is a need to educate the people of Palestine on the causes of home accidents and methods of prevention, to reduce it incidence.

  11. The midwives ordinance of Palestine, 1929: historical perspectives and current lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katvan, Eyal; Bartal, Nira

    2010-06-01

    Until 1929, midwifery in Palestine was relatively open to anyone and only partially regulated by the 1918 Public Health Ordinance, legislated shortly after the beginning of British rule. This article describes the factors that guided the shaping of midwifery and suggests possible sources of inspiration for the British legislator in crafting the Midwives Ordinance in 1929, including American, local (Jews and Arabs), and British ones. The Midwives Ordinance reflects the adjustment of midwifery to changes in the society that evolved under the British Mandate. The ordinance shows how the modern midwife's role contracted relative to the traditional one, in the context of social processes in other countries, east and west. This historical research project is based on interviews, archive documents and research literature. It analyzes the British interests in regulating midwifery, including the rationale of preserving public health and reducing infant mortality, against a background of political power struggles as well as cultural, social and professional diversity in Palestine (the tensions between the powers of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists).

  12. Child discipline in Qatar and Palestine: A comparative study of ICAST-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Nehal; Halileh, Samia; Alyafei, Khalid A; Ghandour, Rula; Dargham, Soha; Giacaman, Rita; Kamal, Madeeha; Imseeh, Sawsan; Korayem, Mona; Nasr, Shiraz; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Tawfik, Hassan; Lynch, Margaret A; Mian, Marcellina

    2016-11-01

    To compare the nature and determinants of child discipline in Qatar and Palestine among young adults through retrospective survey to develop legislation, policies and interventions for effective prevention of child maltreatment, and educational materials to promote positive discipline among parents and caregivers. Cross-sectional random household surveys were conducted in each country (Qataris N=697, Palestinians N=2064) using ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective (ICAST-R) for young adults (18-24 years), to investigate child discipline methods into the maltreatment range. Qatari young adults were more educated (pdiscipline they received in childhood was not reasonable and not justified compared to Palestinian participants. The more advantaged Qatari population was less likely to experience disciplinary methods that experts developing the ICAST-R defined as abuse compared to Palestinians where the higher incidence of child abuse could be attributed to lower economic advantage, lower level of education and greater exposure to violence. Suggestions are made for future studies in Qatar and Palestine to develop survey methodology with a more culturally appropriate level of intrusion, such as indirect yet meaningful child maltreatment questions.

  13. Iris Matching Based On a Stack Like Structure Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roushdi Mohamed FAROUK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the elastic bunch graph matching as a new approach for iris recognition. The task is difficult because of iris variation in terms of position, size, and partial occlusion. We have used the circular Hough transform to determine the iris boundaries. Individual segmented irises are represented as labeled graphs. We have combined a representative set of individual model graphs into a stack like structure called an iris bunch graph (IBG. Finally, a bunch graph similarity function is proposed to compare a test graph with the IBG. Recognition results are given for galleries of irises from CASIA version and UBIRIS databases. The numerical results show that, the elastic bunch graph matching is an effective technique for iris matching. We also compare our results with previous results and find that, the elastic bunch graph matching is an effective matching performance.

  14. Investigation on Optimization in Segmentation Phase of Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvamuthukumaran Shanmugam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a progressively more digital society, the demandfor secure identification has led to amplified development ofbiometric systems. Iris biometric systems are becoming widelyadopted and accepted as one of the most effective ways topositively identify people. In this paper, the Segmentation phasesof Iris recognition has been examined. The performance of theSegmentation phase could be amplified by the proposedoptimization technique- Optimized Iris Segmentation using SobelEdge Detection. By the proposed method, the overall rank-onerecognition rate of 90% is being achieved which is much betterthan reported accuracies for iris recognition in the literature.Also the proposed approach makes the overall iris recognitionsystem performance by the improvement factor of 10 fold as well.

  15. Tuning Iris Recognition for Noisy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Artur; Lourenço, André; Pinto, Bárbara; Tendeiro, Jorge

    The use of iris recognition for human authentication has been spreading in the past years. Daugman has proposed a method for iris recognition, composed by four stages: segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and matching. In this paper we propose some modifications and extensions to Daugman's method to cope with noisy images. These modifications are proposed after a study of images of CASIA and UBIRIS databases. The major modification is on the computationally demanding segmentation stage, for which we propose a faster and equally accurate template matching approach. The extensions on the algorithm address the important issue of pre-processing, that depends on the image database, being mandatory when we have a non infra-red camera, like a typical WebCam. For this scenario, we propose methods for reflection removal and pupil enhancement and isolation. The tests, carried out by our C# application on grayscale CASIA and UBIRIS images, show that the template matching segmentation method is more accurate and faster than the previous one, for noisy images. The proposed algorithms are found to be efficient and necessary when we deal with non infra-red images and non uniform illumination.

  16. Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Mahdi S; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of iris based on Visible Light (VL) imaging is a difficult problem because of the light reflection from the cornea. Nonetheless, pigment melanin provides a rich feature source in VL, unavailable in Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging. This is due to biological spectroscopy of eumelanin, a chemical not stimulated in NIR. In this case, a plausible solution to observe such patterns may be provided by an adaptive procedure using a variational technique on the image histogram. To describe the patterns, a shape analysis method is used to derive feature-code for each subject. An important question is how much the melanin patterns, extracted from VL, are independent of iris texture in NIR. With this question in mind, the present investigation proposes fusion of features extracted from NIR and VL to boost the recognition performance. We have collected our own database (UTIRIS) consisting of both NIR and VL images of 158 eyes of 79 individuals. This investigation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is highly s...

  17. Barumiki antocyjanowe u Iris germanica [Anthocyanin pigments in Iris germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szczepańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments occurring in the flowers of Iris germanica were investigated in five varieties: Rota, Wedgewood, Empress of India, Deputate Nomblot and Joanna. The relation between the colour of the flower and the amount of the pigment was studied. The pigments were extracted from the dry plant material with 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Paper chromatography and colorimetric determinations were used for identification of the pigments and their quantitative determination. The results allow the following conclusions: 1. The varieties investigated were characterized toy the occurrence of delphinidine glycoside; 2. The colour intensity is dependent on the anthocyanin pigments; 3. The colour spectrum of Iris sp. flowersis greatly extended by yellow copigments.

  18. Iris detection based on pupil prospect point and horizontal projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nawaz, Tabassam

    2010-02-01

    Iris is one of the most discriminating human physiological traits being used for personal human identification. The success of iris based system is highly relied on the accurately captured and precisely segmented iris image. False rejection rate has been a major challenge in the success of such system which primarily results from inaccurate iris segmentation. Most of the presented algorithms on iris segmentation considers pupil as perfect circle. However, according to observation this is not true in all the cases. In addition, a little angular shift in position of subject iris can further deteriorate the performance of algorithms based on circular assumption. To improve the quality of segmentation, an effective algorithm is proposed for iris segmentation which takes into consideration issues related to irregular pupil boundary as well as computation intensive nature of the prevailing algorithms. Contrary to all the previous approaches, the proposed algorithm is based on detection of pupil prospect point within the pupil region and utilizes bi-directional horizontal projections and distance parameters to detect the pupillary as well as limbus boundaries. The processing involved is linear in nature. Simulation of the proposed algorithm is done in Matlab.

  19. A simple shape prior model for iris image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Yezzi, Anthony, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    In order to make biometric systems faster and more user-friendly, lower-quality images must be accepted. A major hurdle in this task is accurate segmentation of the boundaries of the iris in these images. Quite commonly, circle-fitting is used to approximate the boundaries of the inner (pupil) and outer (limbic) boundaries of the iris, but this assumption does not hold for off-axis or otherwise non-circular boundaries. In this paper we present a novel, foundational method for elliptical segmentation of off-axis iris images. This method uses active contours with constrained flow to achieve a simplified form of shape prior active contours. This is done by calculating a region-based contour evolution and projecting it upon a properly chosen set of vectors to confine it to a class of shapes. In this case, that class of shapes is ellipses. This serves to regularize the contour, simplifying the curve evolution and preventing the development of irregularities that present challenges in iris segmentation. The proposed method is tested using images from the UBIRIS v.1 and CASIA-IrisV3 image data sets, with both near-ideal and off-axis images. Additional testing has been performed using the WVU Off Axis/Angle Iris Dataset, Release 1. By avoiding many of the assumptions commonly used in iris segmentation methods, the proposed method is able to accurately fit elliptical boundaries to off-axis images.

  20. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  1. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  2. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  3. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy of Iris-claw Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayong Yu; Zhende Lin; Xiaoyu Cai; Xiuqi Chen; Shuke Luo; Yonghua Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To study in situ the intraocular position of iris-claw phakic intraocular lens (ICPIOL) in myopic eyes using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods: UBM echograms of the anterior segment were taken preoperatively and 62to 115 days postoperatively in 6 eyes implanted with the Verisys ICPIOL (AMO). The echograms were assessed for the effect of the ICPIOL on iris tissue.Results: The preoperative distance between the corneal endothelium and the lens ranged from 2.96 to 3.09 mm, and the postoperative distance between the ICPIOL and the corneal endothelium, from 1.86 to 2.03 mm. The distance between the lens and the posterior surface of the ICPIOL ranged from 0.61 to 0.76 mm. The distance between the superior, inferior optic edge and the iris ranged from 0.49 to 1.00 mm,0.21 to 0.51 mm respectively. The shortest distance between the ICPIOL haptics and the angle of anterior chamber ranged from 1.25 to 1.65 mm. The indentation of iris tissue by the ICPIOL haptics without pigmentary dispersion and distortion of posterior curvature of iris was observed.Conclusion: Adequate space is maintained between the Verisyse myopic ICPIOL and the corneal endothelium, angle, and crystalline lens. Haptic indentation of the iris without pigment erosion and distortion of iris curvature is noted. The ICPIOL implanted in phakic eyes is a safe alternative for treatment of high myopia.

  4. Survey on infant hearing loss at Caritas Baby Hospital in Bethlehem-Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Corradin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiology of infants’ hearing loss (IHL among patients under 3 months of age at Caritas Baby Hospital, the only pediatric hospital in Palestine. It was aimed to demonstrate that IHL is a major health problem in Palestine and to assess the first available data of the newborn hearing screening program conducted between September 25, 2006 and December 31, 2011. Data was uploaded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS version 21. A total of 8144 infants were tested, 4812 (59% were males and 3332 (41% were females. As to their origin, 72% (5886 came from the Bethlehem district, 25% (2044 from the Hebron district, while 3% (214 from the other Palestinian districts (Jericho, Ramallah, Nablus, Jenin and Jerusalem. The transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs and the automated auditory brainstem response were used according to the manufacturer guidelines. The results were interpreted according to the indications of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the National Institutes of Health, and the European Consensus Development Conference on Neonatal Hearing Screening. Out of the 8144 infants tested, 1507 (14.6% did not pass the 1st test, 477 (32.8% of these 1507 infants failed retesting, while 498 (33% patients were lost to follow-up. Only 152 (31.9% patients that failed retesting went to an audiologist. The audiologist evaluation revealed that 101 (66.4% patients presented with a mild-moderate or profound hearing loss according to the Bureau International of Audiophonologie standards, 44 (28.9% patients had otitis media, whereas 7 cases (4.7% had no hearing disorders. The overall unadjusted percentage of hearing loss was 1.24%, and the adjusted overall percentage was 1.85%. The chart review showed that jaundice, sepsis, prematurity, lung disease were more common among the affected patients. The high prevalence of childhood deafness in Palestine is of utmost

  5. Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam

    2011-07-01

    Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.

  6. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  7. Hardware based segmentation in iris recognition and authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulis, Bradley J.; Broussard, Randy P.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.; Steiner, Neil; Ngo, Hau

    2009-05-01

    Iris recognition algorithms depend on image processing techniques for proper segmentation of the iris. In the Ridge Energy Direction (RED) iris recognition algorithm, the initial step in the segmentation process searches for the pupil by thresholding and using binary morphology functions to rectify artifacts obfuscating the pupil. These functions take substantial processing time in software on the order of a few hundred million operations. Alternatively, a hardware version of the binary morphology functions is implemented to assist in the segmentation process. The hardware binary morphology functions have negligible hardware footprint and power consumption while achieving speed up of 200 times compared to the original software functions.

  8. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression promotes formation of aggressive breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Shimizu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women with HER2(+ or triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL breast cancers succumb to their cancer rapidly due, in part to acquired Herceptin resistance and lack of TN/BL-targeted therapies. BRCA1-IRIS is a recently discovered, 1399 residue, BRCA1 locus alternative product, which while sharing 1365 residues with the full-length product of this tumor suppressor gene, BRCA1/p220, it has oncoprotein-like properties. Here, we examine whether BRCA1-IRIS is a valuable treatment target for HER2(+ and/or TN/BL tumors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistochemical staining of large cohort of human breast tumor samples using new monoclonal anti-BRCA1-IRIS antibody, followed by correlation of BRCA1-IRIS expression with that of AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT, survivin and BRCA1/p220, tumor status and age at diagnosis. Generation of subcutaneous tumors in SCID mice using human mammary epithelial (HME cells overexpressing TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS, followed by comparing AKT, survivin, and BRCA1/p220 expression, tumor status and aggressiveness in these tumors to that in tumors developed using TERT/LT/Ras(V12-overexpressing HME cells. Induction of primary and invasive rat mammary tumors using the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU, followed by analysis of rat BRCA1-IRIS and ERα mRNA levels in these tumors. High BRCA1-IRIS expression was detected in the majority of human breast tumors analyzed, which was positively correlated with that of AKT1-, AKT2-, p-AKT-, survivin, but negatively with BRCA1/p220 expression. BRCA1-IRIS-positivity induced high-grade, early onset and metastatic HER2(+ or TN/BL tumors. TERT/LT/BRCA1-IRIS overexpressing HME cells formed invasive subcutaneous tumors that express high AKT1, AKT2, p-AKT and vimentin, but no CK19, p63 or BRCA1/p220. NMU-induced primary and invasive rat breast cancers expressed high levels of rat BRCA1-IRIS mRNA but low levels of rat ERα mRNA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1-IRIS overexpression triggers aggressive

  9. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  10. Trade off between variable and fixed size normalization in orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER.

  11. La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organisé par le Centre de recherche français de Jérusalem, le colloque « La France, l’Europe occidentale et la Palestine, 1799-1917 » était la première concrétisation du projet Gallia Palestina. Cette rencontre a prouvé qu’au-delà de points en apparence connus, les champs d’analyses inexplorés restent vastes. Une telle constatation a été rendue possible par les interventions d’un grand nombre de participants, intervenants et public, venus de France, d’Israël ou des territoires palestiniens. U...

  12. Using Social network in Higher Education A case Study on the University of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Samy S. Abu Naser

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The users which are using social networking sites nowadays by various strata of society such as students, teachers, engineers, housewives and elderly people are increasing. So the goal of this paper is to invest social networking in education especially at the universities. Student spending more time on the social networking sites than on the e-learning programs, so social networking can be used in a useful way to support e-learning. 54% of people who were surveyed about the usage of social Networks said they used Facebook daily while 9% used MOODLE. So this paper uses the social networks for e-learning as a case study on the university of Palestine.

  13. Food sanitation practices in restaurants of Ramallah and Al-Bireh district of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A; Al-Mitwalli, S M

    2009-01-01

    Safe handling of food in restaurants is a basic element in the reduction of foodborne illness. We investigated knowledge and practices about food safety by food-handlers in restaurants in Ramallah and Al-Bireh district of Palestine. A high proportion of workers in the restaurants had no previous experience in other restaurants and 63.4% had received no training on food sanitation and safety. Most of the restaurants in the refugee camps, villages and towns had only 1 worker. Restaurants lacked basic conditions for food sanitation and safety, such as hot water in most and cleaning materials in some. Many workers had poor personal hygiene practices. Training is needed for restaurant owners and staff to improve food handling practices and standards.

  14. beta(S)-Globin gene cluster haplotypes in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarah, Fekri; Ayesh, Suhail; Athanasiou, Miranda; Christakis, John; Vavatsi, Norma

    2009-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder of the beta-globin chain. In Palestine it is accompanied by a low level of Hb F (mean 5.14%) and a severe clinical presentation. In this study, 59 Palestinian patients, homozygotes for Hb S were studied for their haplotype background. Eight polymorphic sites in the beta-globin gene cluster were examined. The Benin haplotype was predominant with a frequency of 88.1%, followed by a frequency of 5.1% for the Bantu haplotype. One chromosome was found to carry the Cameroon haplotype (0.85%). Three atypical haplotypes were also found (5.95%). Heterogeneity was observed in Hb F production, ranging between 1.5 and 17.0%, whereas the (G)gamma ratio was homogeneous among all haplotypes with a normal amount of about 41%. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of the Benin haplotype origin in the Mediterranean.

  15. Implementing an essential medicines list: effects on pricing and utilization in West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer; Younis, Mustafa Z; Forgione, Dana A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of implementing an essential medicines list (EML) on medicine prices, utilization and aggregate cost savings in the public sector of West Bank, Palestine. The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) introduced an EML to contain escalating costs and improve appropriate utilization within the public sector. To assess the effects of the EML implementation, we obtained price and utilization data for 76 medicine groups for 1997-2003. We also collected demographic and economic information for the population living in the catchment areas of the MOH health care facilities. After EML implementation, medicine utilization declined by 1.7 defined daily doses (DDDs) per-capita per year, and prices declined by US $0.0013 per DDD. The aggregate cost savings totaled US $5.38 million. We conclude that the EML implementation was successful in containing medicine costs and should continue to increase savings into the future.

  16. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  17. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Dumaidi, Kamal; Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Al-Jawabreh, Hanan; Azmi, Kifaya; Al-Laham, Nahed; Abdeen, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron), Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III) followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1). The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18%) were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain). For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months) and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  18. Militarised violence in the service of state-imposed emergencies over Palestine and Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Pfingst

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available States of Emergency are declared against the disorder-ing of state sovereign power by acts of resistance, rebellion and revolt and are characterised by the technologies of control, containment and punishment. Through spatial, archival and visual encounters with emergency landscapes and the geographies of resistance, the essay considers the historic and contemporary operations, provisions, regulations and practices authorised under state-imposed emergencies. It does so in order firstly, to bring attention to the practices authorised through state-imposed emergencies and the currency and saliency of their ongoing effects, and secondly to re-frame the militarised violence of settlement/occupation as an integral part of state-imposed emergencies in which all that is necessary will be done to protect the sovereign state from the resistance of the colonised/occupied and to effect a return to ‘order’.     Through encounters with the archival record, and the architectures, remnants and territorial arrangements found in post-colonial Kenya and across the multiple geographies of Palestine, the essay draws out seven clusters of state imposed emergency practices and effects. The work grapples with a number of questions: what is it that a declared state of emergency performs for the state? Does a state of emergency enable particular forms of militarised violence? Are there common practices to be found across different modes of state-imposed emergencies? What is the genealogy to the states of emergency across Palestine and Kenya? Does our excavation of the practices of state-imposed emergency shed light on the ways we apprehend state violence in colonial, post-colonial and neo-colonial geographies?

  19. Incidence of Echinococcus granulosus in Domestic Dogs in Palestine as Revealed by Copro-PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Jawabreh

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis or echinococcosisis considered a neglected zoonotic disease despite its high burden in the livestock industry and the high risk of infection by humans in endemic areas. In a cross-sectional study we estimated the copro-Incidence and also genotyped Echinococcus granulosus isolates from domestic dogs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Medical archives in nine major hospitals in Palestine were reviewed to determine incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans during surgery. Faecal samples were collected from 93 domestic dogs in three districts with the highest number of human cases: Al-Khalil (Hebron, Tubas and Jenin. Genomic DNA was extracted from dog faecal samples and amplified by PCR targeting the repeat DNA sequence (EgG1 Hae III followed by sequencing of five positive samples. Genotyping was determined by sequencing and BLAST searching of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (CO1. The incidence of E. granulosus infection detected in humans at surgery was 1.2 per 100,000 in the West Bank and 1.0 per 100,000 in Gaza Strip. Seventeen of 93 domestic dogs (18% were positive, based upon comparison with the Echinococcus DNA control. The five sequenced samples were confirmed to be E. granulosus. Successfully genotyped sample belonged to E.granulosus sensu stricto (formerly G1-G3 complex, sheep strain. For domestic dogs, age group (13-24 months and sex were identified as two risk factors for contracting E. granulosus. The study identified the high incidence of E. granulosus sensu stricto in dogs in Palestine.

  20. Modulation of ingested water absorption by Palestine sunbirds: evidence for adaptive regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Todd J; del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Pinshow, Berry

    2003-02-01

    Nectarivorous birds feed on dilute sugar solutions containing trace amounts of amino acids and electrolytes. To meet their high mass-specific energy demands they must often deal with exceptionally high proportionate water fluxes. Despite nectar intake rates that may reach more than five times body mass per day, hummingbirds appear to absorb all ingested water. Here, we report the results of experiments designed to examine the relationship between nectar intake and water turnover in nectar-feeding Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea). Like hummingbirds, sunbirds ingested large amounts of water. At the lowest sucrose concentration (292 mmol l(-1)), food intake rates reached 2.2 times body mass. Fractional and total water turnover increased linearly with water ingestion, but the fraction of ingested water absorbed by sunbirds decreased from 100% to 36% with increasing water intake rate. Palestine sunbirds may therefore avoid absorbing, and thus having to eliminate, up to 64% of their ingested water load when feeding on dilute nectars. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of regulation of water flux across the gastrointestinal tract to the body. Our data suggest that sunbirds regulate transepithelial water flux independently of sugar absorption. These intriguing results open the door to many questions about how water transport is regulated in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract. We suggest that intestinal water and body water form two separate but interacting pools in nectar-feeding birds. Convergence in diet has led to the evolution of many similar traits in hummingbirds and sunbirds. The physiological traits of these two groups that allow the processing of a water and sugar diet, however, may be very different.

  1. Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Research Council

    2014-01-01

    ...) that is responsible for developing toxicologic assessments of environmental contaminants. An IRIS assessment contains hazard identifications and dose-response assessments of various chemicals related to cancer and noncancer outcomes...

  2. 8-Valent Fuzzy Logic for Iris Recognition and Biometry

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, N; Motoc, I M; 10.1109/ISCIII.2011.6069761

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that maintaining logical consistency of an iris recognition system is a matter of finding a suitable partitioning of the input space in enrollable and unenrollable pairs by negotiating the user comfort and the safety of the biometric system. In other words, consistent enrollment is mandatory in order to preserve system consistency. A fuzzy 3-valued disambiguated model of iris recognition is proposed and analyzed in terms of completeness, consistency, user comfort and biometric safety. It is also shown here that the fuzzy 3-valued model of iris recognition is hosted by an 8-valued Boolean algebra of modulo 8 integers that represents the computational formalization in which a biometric system (a software agent) can achieve the artificial understanding of iris recognition in a logically consistent manner.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  5. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  6. Peer Review Comments on the IRIS Assessment of Benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachment to IRIS file for benzene, January 19, 2000, RESPONSE TO THE PEER REVIEW COMMENTS, II. Extrapolation of the Benzene Inhalation Unit Risk Estimate to the Oral Route of Exposure (EPA/NCEA-W-0517, July 1999)

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  9. Exploratory simulation of an Intelligent Iris Verifier Distributed System

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie; 10.1109/SACI.2011.5873010

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some topics related to the latest trends in the field of evolutionary approaches to iris recognition. It presents the results of an exploratory experimental simulation whose goal was to analyze the possibility of establishing an Interchange Protocol for Digital Identities evolved in different geographic locations interconnected through and into an Intelligent Iris Verifier Distributed System (IIVDS) based on multi-enrollment. Finding a logically consistent model for the Interchange Protocol is the key factor in designing the future large-scale iris biometric networks. Therefore, the logical model of such a protocol is also investigated here. All tests are made on Bath Iris Database and prove that outstanding power of discrimination between the intra- and the inter-class comparisons can be achieved by an IIVDS, even when practicing 52.759.182 inter-class and 10.991.943 intra-class comparisons. Still, the test results confirm that inconsistent enrollment can change the logic of recognition ...

  10. Gabor Filter Optimization Design for Iris Texture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Xu; Xing Ming; Xiaoguang Yang

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an optimization design method for the Gabor filters based on the analysis of an iris texture model. By means of analyzing the properties of an iris texture image, the energy distribution regularity of the iris texture image measured by the average power spectrum density is exploited, and the theoretical ranges of the efficient valued frequency and orientation parameters can also be deduced. The analysis shows that the energy distribution of the iris texture is generally centralized around lower frequencies in the spatial frequency domain. Accordingly, an iterative algorithm is designed to optimize the Gabor parameter field. The experimental results indicate the validity of the theory and efficiency of the algorithm.

  11. Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT initially misdiagnosed as acute iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Gonul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a relatively new clinical entity characterized by bilateral acute loss of iris pigment epithelium, iris transillumination, pigment dispersion in the anterior chamber, and sphincter paralysis. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who was initially diagnosed with acute iridocyclitis in a different clinic and treated with topical and systemic corticosteroids. He was referred to our clinic to seek another opinion because his symptoms did not improve. An ocular examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion into the anterior chamber, diffuse iris transillumination, pigment dusting on the anterior lens capsule, atonic and distorted pupils, and increased intraocular pressure, suggesting a diagnosis of BAIT rather than iridocyclitis. Clinicians should be aware of the differential diagnosis of syndromes associated with pigment dispersion from iridocyclitis to avoid aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy and detailed investigation for uveitis.

  12. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review for Acrylamide (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Acrylamide, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process<...

  14. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow-flag iris is an escaped ornamental rhizomatous perennial herb that forms dense vegetative mats in riparian and wetland areas. These mats can displace most...

  15. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  17. A bibliography of IRIS-related publications, 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muco, B.

    2012-12-01

    Citations and acknowledgements in scientific journals can be an indicator of the role an organization has on the research of that field. Since its formation and incorporation in May 1984, the IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) is mentioned more and more as a valuable source of data, instruments and programs in the literature of earth sciences. As a large organization with more than 100 member domestic institutes and about 40 international affiliates, obviously IRIS has a direct impact on the earth sciences through all its programs, projects, workshops, symposia, and news¬letters and as a lively forum for exchanging ideas. In order to maintain support from National Science Foundation (NSF) and the research community, it is important to document the continued use of IRIS facilities in basic research programs. IRIS maintains a database of articles that are based on the use of IRIS facilities or which reference use of IRIS data and resources. Articles in this database have been either been provided to IRIS by the authors or selected through an annual search of a number of prominent journals. A text version of the full bibliographic database is available on the IRIS website and a version in EndNote format is also provided. To provide a more complete bibliography and a consistent evaluation of temporal tends in publications, a special annual search began in 2000 which focused on a subset of key seismology and Earth science journals: Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, Journal of Geophysical Research, Seismological Research Letters, Geophysical Research Letters, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Tectonophysics, Geophysical Journal International, Nature, Science, Geology and EOS. Using different search engines as Scirus, ScienceDirect, GeoRef, OCLC First Search, EASI Search, NASA Abstract Service etc. for online journals and publishers' databases, we searched for key words (IRIS

  18. Iris Pattern Segmentation using Automatic Segmentation and Window Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Pandey; Prof. Rajeev Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A Biometric system is an automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic. Iris recognition has great advantage such as variability, stability and security. In thispaper, use the two methods for iris segmentation -An automatic segmentation method and Window method. Window method is a novel approach which comprises two steps first finds pupils' center andthen two radial coefficients because sometime pupil is not perfect circle. The second step extract the i...

  19. SINGLE FRAME SUPER RESOLUTION OF NONCOOPERATIVE IRIS IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Image super-resolution, a process to enhance image resolution, has important applications in biometrics, satellite imaging, high definition television, medical imaging, etc. The long range captured iris identification systems often suffer from low resolution and meager focus of the captured iris images. These degrade the iris recognition performance. This paper proposes enhanced iterated back projection (EIBP method to super resolute the long range captured iris polar images. The performance of proposed method is tested and analyzed on CASIA long range iris database by comparing peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity index (SSIM with state-of-the-art super resolution (SR algorithms. It is further analyzed by increasing the up-sampling factor. Performance analysis shows that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms, the peak signal-to-noise ratio improved about 0.1-1.5 dB. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is well suited to super resolve the iris polar images captured at a long distance

  20. A multi-approach feature extractions for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpachai, H.; Settapong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Biometrics is a promising technique that is used to identify individual traits and characteristics. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric methods. As iris texture and color is fully developed within a year of birth, it remains unchanged throughout a person's life. Contrary to fingerprint, which can be altered due to several aspects including accidental damage, dry or oily skin and dust. Although iris recognition has been studied for more than a decade, there are limited commercial products available due to its arduous requirement such as camera resolution, hardware size, expensive equipment and computational complexity. However, at the present time, technology has overcome these obstacles. Iris recognition can be done through several sequential steps which include pre-processing, features extractions, post-processing, and matching stage. In this paper, we adopted the directional high-low pass filter for feature extraction. A box-counting fractal dimension and Iris code have been proposed as feature representations. Our approach has been tested on CASIA Iris Image database and the results are considered successful.

  1. Lessons learned from IRIS EPO program evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2012-12-01

    Evaluating the overall impact of EPO programs that include activities ranging from formal education through broad public outreach, is a complex issue. The impact of education activities targeted at narrowly defined audiences is generally easier to quantify than the national impact of outreach activities conducted by a relatively small program. For educational activities, our approach has been to leverage the best-practices identified through research and to continuously assess the individual elements internally with the intention of making improvements based on the data generated and the existing research. By constructing our elements on the best practices identified by the research community we feel that internal formative evaluation is a valid means to determine if an activity is effective, particularly when the results are compared to similar programs. For example, effective practices of professional development are well documented in the literature. As a result, this allows us to shape our programs and our evaluations to monitor elements that have been identified as key by the educational research community. Further, such actions allow us to avoid allocating significant resources with the intention of pinning down direct causal relationships between our programs and consumers, when similar interventions (conducted by others) have already shown such relationships. Ongoing review by an EPO advisory committee also provides regular oversight of program impact. While we find internal and external formative evaluation extremely useful in shaping the program and documenting its impact, we also recognize the value of a summative evaluation process. For example, an external summative evaluation of the IRIS EPO program was conducted in 2009, followed by an external panel review, as part of the regular review of IRIS programs. We found that the most valuable part of the external evaluation was our preparation, including clarifying the goals of each of the elements of the

  2. Aqueous humor tyrosinase activity is indicative of iris melanocyte toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Sarmistha; Kawali, Ankush A; Dakappa, Shruthi Shirur; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kurian, Mathew; Kharbanda, Varun; Shetty, Rohit; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2017-09-01

    Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL. Iris pigments are synthesized by the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and can be detected but not quantified by using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The correlation between dispersed pigments in the aqueous and the extent of melanocyte toxicity due to topical antibiotics in vivo is not well studied. Here, we aimed to study the effect of topical FQLs on iris tissue, the pigment release in the aqueous humor and the development of clinically evident iris atrophic changes. We evaluated this process by measuring the activity of TYR in the aqueous humor of 82 healthy eyes undergoing cataract surgery following topical application of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin (27 eyes, preservative-free) or Ciprofloxacin (29 eyes, with preservative) or the application of non-FQL Tobramycin (26 eyes, with preservative) as a control. In addition, the patients were questioned and examined for ocular side effects in pre- and post-operative periods. Our data showed a significantly higher mean TYR activity in the aqueous humor of Ciprofloxacin-treated eyes compared to Moxifloxacin- (preservative free, p humor from both Ciprofloxacin- and Moxifloxacin-treated eyes showed the presence of soluble TYR enzyme, thus reflecting its toxicity to iris melanocytes and corresponding to its activity in the aqueous humor. Intriguingly, none of these patients developed any clinically appreciable ocular side effects characteristic of BAIT or BADI

  3. Dynamic iris biometry: a technique for enhanced identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDowell Douglas R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The iris as a unique identifier is predicated on the assumption that the iris image does not alter. This does not consider the fact that the iris changes in response to certain external factors including medication, disease, surgery as well as longer term ageing changes. It is also part of a dynamic optical system that alters with light level and focussing distance. A means of distinguishing the features that do not alter over time from those that do is needed. This paper applies iris recognition algorithms to a newly acquired database of 186 iris images from four subjects. These images have greater magnification and detail than iris images in existing databases. Iris segmentation methods are tested on the database. A new technique that enhances segmentation is presented and compared to two existing methods. These are also applied to test the effects of pupil dilation in the identification process. Findings Segmentation results from all the images showed that using the proposed algorithm accurately detected pupil boundaries for 96.2% respectively of the images, which was an increase of 88.7% over the most commonly used algorithm. For the images collected, the proposed technique also showed significant improvement in detection of the limbal boundary compared to the detection rates using existing methods. With regard to boundary displacement errors, only slight errors were found with the proposed technique compared to extreme errors made when existing techniques were applied. As the pupil becomes more dilated, the success of identification is increasingly more dependent on the decision criterion used. Conclusions The enhanced segmentation technique described in this paper performs with greater accuracy than existing methods for the higher quality images collected in this study. Implementation of the proposed segmentation enhancement significantly improves pupil boundary detection and therefore overall iris segmentation. Pupil

  4. [Management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiseliţă, D; Cantemir, Alina; Epifanov, Lucia; Huţuleac, Alexandra; Irod, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of IFIS in male patients whith alfa 1-AB treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who underwent cataract surgery and also the pre and intraoperatory management and IFIS profilaxy. Iasi "Sf Spiridon" Emergency Hospital and "Oftaprof" private practice Observational retrospective study that took place over a period of 2 years (july 2009-july 2011) and reviewed 2484 eyes that underwent cataract surgery. A number of 1199 eyes were from 1049 male patients. Out of the 1049 male patients, 139 (13,25%) underwent treatment for BHP using the medication as follows: 119 used tamsulosin (85,6%); 18 used doxazosin, (12,94%); 2 used alfuzosin (1,43%). Out of the 139 men, 32 (23,02%) showed IFIS but only the ones treated with tamsulosin. After introducing a surgical protocol that comprised of the use of large amounts of vascoelastic material (Viscoat), intracamerular fenilefrin (Mezaton), the use of iris retractors and low faco parameters the incidence and severity of IFIS was significantly reduced. Correct evauation before surgery is necessary in order to anticipate the condition as its frequency and severity can be reduced by a proactive behavior which demands experience and adequate endowment.

  5. GNSS derived TEC data ingestion into IRI 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoya-Orué, Yenca; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro; Alazo-Cuartas, Katy

    2015-04-01

    Experimental vertical total electron content (VTEC) data given by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) has been ingested into the IRI version 2012, aiming to obtain grids of effective input parameter values that allow to minimize the difference between the experimental and modeled vertical TEC. Making use of the experience gained with the technique of model adaptation applied to NeQuick (Nava et al., 2005), it has been found possible to compute IRI world grids of effective ionosphere index parameters (IG). The IG grids thus obtained can be interpolated in space and time to calculate with IRI the 3D electron density at any location and also the TEC along any ground-to-satellite ray-path for a given epoch. In this study, the ingestion technique is presented and a posteriori validation, along with an assessment of the capability of the 'ingested' IRI to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day foF2 variability during disturbed and quiet periods. The foF2 values retrieved are compared with data from about 20 worldwide ionosondes for selected periods of high (year 2000) and moderate to low solar activity (year 2006). It was found that the use of the ingestion scheme enhances the performance of the model when compared with its standard use based on solar activity drivers (R12 and F10.7), especially for high solar activity. As an example, the mean and standard deviation of the differences between experimental and reconstructed F2-peak values for April of year 2000 is 0.09 and 1.28 MHz for ingested IRI, compared to -0.81 and 1.27 MHz (IRI with R12 input) and -0.02 and 1.46 MHz (IRI with F10.7 input).

  6. The iris family (Iridaceae in the flora of eastern Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Averyanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iris family in the countries of eastern part of Indochina Peninsula, such as Cambodia, Laos and Viet­nam includes lone native genus – Iris L. with two aboriginal species – I. japonica Thunb. and I. tectorum Maxim. Iris japonica is often cultivated as an outdoor ornamental plant in mountainous regions in the northern Vietnam, where it occasionally naturalizes. Herbarium specimens of I. japonica, collected in central Laos near Nape town, probably represent southernmost locality of the Iris genus in Eurasia. Iris tectorum was discovered in native, primary plant communities of karstic highly eroded limestone in Cao Bang province (Bao Lac district of the northern Vietnam. This species is recorded as new for the flora of the Indochina Peninsula. The report of I. collettii Hook. f. on the territory of peninsular flora does not yet confirmed by herbaria and remains doubtful. Data on taxonomy, authentic specimens, distribution, habitats, phenology, conservation status and biology are provided for all Iris species. The identification key for Iris species is compiled, as well as dotted distribution maps on the territory of countries of eastern Indochina. Other representatives of the family from such genera as Belamcanda Adans. (B. chinensis (L. Redouté, Crocosmia Planch. (C. × crocosmiiflora (G. Nicholson N. E. Br., Eleutherine Herb. (E. bulbosa (Mill. Urb., Freesia Klatt (F. refracta (Jacq. Klatt., Gladiolus L. (numerous horticultural forms и Trimezia Salisb. ex Herb. (T. martinicensis (Jacq. Herb. reported from Indochina are introduced cultivated ornamental plants capable to occasional naturaliza­tion as an adventive element of the Indochinese flora.

  7. Japanese infrared survey mission IRIS (ASTRO-F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hiroshi

    1998-08-01

    The IR Imaging Survey (IRIS) is the second IR astronomy mission of the Institute of Space and Astronomical Science (ISAS). The IRIS is a 70 cm cooled telescope dedicated for IR sky survey. This project has been approved as ISAS's 21st science mission 'ASTRO-F', and prototype model development has been ongoing since 1997. The IRIS will be launched with ISAS's launch vehicle M-V, into a sun-synchronous polar orbit with an altitude of 750 km. The IRIS telescope has a 70 cm aperture and is cooled to 6K using Stirling-cycle coolers and liquid helium. The primary and secondary mirrors are light-weight mirrors make of silicon carbide. Two focal- plane instruments are installed. One is the far-IR surveyor (FIS) which will survey the entire sky in the wavelength range from 50 to 200 micron with angular resolutions of 30- 50 arcsec. The other focal-plane instrument is the IR camera (IRC). It employs large-format detector arrays and will take deep images of selected sky regions in the near and mid IR range. The field of view of the IRC is 10 arcmin and the spatial resolution is approximately 2 arcsec. The IRIS has much higher sensitivity than that of the IRAS survey. The detection limits are 1-100 micro Jy in the near-MID IR and 10-100 mJy in the far IR. With the IRIS survey, great progress is expected in the research on evolution of galaxies, formation of stars and planets, dark matter and brown dwarfs. The IRIS is now scheduled to be launched in early 2003.

  8. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  9. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  10. A Study on Iris Localization and Recognition on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kang Ryoung; Park, Hyun-Ae; Kang, Byung Jun; Lee, Eui Chul; Jeong, Dae Sik

    2007-12-01

    A new iris recognition method for mobile phones based on corneal specular reflections (SRs) is discussed. We present the following three novelties over previous research. First, in case of user with glasses, many noncorneal SRs may happen on the surface of glasses and it is very difficult to detect genuine SR on the cornea. To overcome such problems, we propose a successive on/off dual illuminator scheme to detect genuine SRs on the corneas of users with glasses. Second, to detect SRs robustly, we estimated the size, shape, and brightness of the SRs based on eye, camera, and illuminator models. Third, the detected eye (iris) region was verified again using the AdaBoost eye detector. Experimental results with 400 face images captured from 100 persons with a mobile phone camera showed that the rate of correct iris detection was 99.5[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] (for images without glasses) and 98.9[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] (for images with glasses or contact lenses). The consequent accuracy of iris authentication was 0.05[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] of the EER (equal error rate) based on detected iris images.

  11. A Study on Iris Localization and Recognition on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Sik Jeong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new iris recognition method for mobile phones based on corneal specular reflections (SRs is discussed. We present the following three novelties over previous research. First, in case of user with glasses, many noncorneal SRs may happen on the surface of glasses and it is very difficult to detect genuine SR on the cornea. To overcome such problems, we propose a successive on/off dual illuminator scheme to detect genuine SRs on the corneas of users with glasses. Second, to detect SRs robustly, we estimated the size, shape, and brightness of the SRs based on eye, camera, and illuminator models. Third, the detected eye (iris region was verified again using the AdaBoost eye detector. Experimental results with 400 face images captured from 100 persons with a mobile phone camera showed that the rate of correct iris detection was 99.5% (for images without glasses and 98.9% (for images with glasses or contact lenses. The consequent accuracy of iris authentication was 0.05% of the EER (equal error rate based on detected iris images.

  12. The design and safety features of the IRIS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, Mario D. E-mail: carellmd@westinghouse.com; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.; Petrovic, B.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.O.; Collado, J.M.; Cinotti, L.; Todreas, N.E.; Grgic, D.; Moraes, M.M.; Boroughs, R.D.; Ninokata, H.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Oriolo, F

    2004-05-01

    Salient features of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) are presented here. IRIS, an integral, modular, medium size (335 MWe) PWR, has been under development since the turn of the century by an international consortium led by Westinghouse and including over 20 organizations from nine countries. Described here are the features of the integral design which includes steam generators, pumps and pressurizer inside the vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield. A brief summary is provided of the IRIS approach to extended maintenance over a 48-month schedule. The unique IRIS safety-by-design approach is discussed, which, by eliminating accidents, at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences/probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The safety-by-design allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which are presented here, together with an assessment of the IRIS response to transients and postulated accidents.

  13. Human identification using correlation metrics of iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Mehmet; Brown, Michael; Luo, Yi; Kaufman, Jason; Ma, Limin; Zhou, Qiang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents work done based on second order statistical features including cross- and auto-correlations as well as co-occurrence matrices of iris images in an attempt to extract a simple, yet powerful, set of features of an iris as a biometric. Prior to our work, the most prevalent methods for iris identification include the frontier work based on the use of quadrature 2-D Gabor wavelets with the Hamming Distance-based classification [1,2], circular Gabor filters with a nearest feature line (NFL) classifier [3], dyadic wavelet transform with the zero-cross detectors [4], texture analysis [9] and transient signal [11], and independent component analysis (ICA) [7], and boundary localization [10]. Our method differs significantly from the earlier approaches to iris recognition in that it relies on the wide-sense stationary approximation to the texture and gray-level characteristics of irises, and aims to lend itself for a single-chip hardware implementation. Our preliminary results show that cross- and auto-correlators along with co-occurrence matrix features are highly likely to be prominent iris discriminators.

  14. Mechanism and clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernschantz, Johan W; Albert, Daniel M; Hu, Dan-Ning; Drago, Filippo; Wistrand, Per J

    2002-08-01

    The new glaucoma drugs latanoprost, isopropyl unoprostone, travoprost, and bimatoprost cause increased pigmentation of the iris in some patients. The purpose of the present article is to survey the available preclinical and clinical data on prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation and to assess the phenomenon from a clinical perspective. Most of the data have been obtained with latanoprost, and it appears that there is a predisposition to latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation in individuals with hazel or heterochromic eye color. As latanoprost and travoprost are selective agonists for the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor, it is likely that the phenomenon is mediated by this receptor. Several studies indicate that latanoprost stimulates melanogenesis in iridial melanocytes, and transcription of the tyrosinase gene is upregulated. The safety aspects of latanoprost-induced iris pigmentation have been addressed in histopathologic studies, and no evidence of harmful consequences of the side effect has been found. Although a final assessment of the clinical significance of prostaglandin-induced iris pigmentation currently is impossible to make, it appears that the only clear-cut disadvantage is a potential heterochromia between the eyes in unilaterally treated patients because the heterochromia is likely to be permanent, or very slowly reversible.

  15. Systemic and Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Iris Coloboma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Ertekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Ocular coloboma is a rare malformation resulting from defective closure of the embryonic optic fissure. It can affect iris, retina, choroid, optic disc or ciliary body. This study reviews the clinical diagnosis and the accompanying ocular and systemic abnormalities in cases of iris coloboma. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Sixteen eyes of ten patients referred to our clinic and diagnosed as iris coloboma were included in the study and were reviewed retrospectively. Re sults: Seven cases were sporadic, and three cases were familial. Isolated iris coloboma was present in only one case, and chorioretinal involvement was present in all the others. Seven cases had involvement of the optic disc. Other ocular anomalies were unilateral microphthalmia in 3 cases, unilateral anophthalmia in 1 case, and unilateral microcornea in one case. Strabismus was present in the familial cases. Dis cus si on: In patients, diagnosed with iris coloboma, routine eye examination should be completed, refractive errors should be corrected, and these patients must be follewed for amblyopia. If strabismus is concominant, surgery can be performed. For potential complications, patients should be checked at regular intervals. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 19-22

  16. Visual outcome after corneal transplantation for corneal perforation and iris prolapse in 37 horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Plummer, C. E.; Mangan, B.;

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation.......We wanted to investigate the visual outcome of horses presented with iris prolapse and treated with corneal transplantation....

  17. Fusion of phase congruency and harris algorithm for extraction of iris corner points

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available iris identification systems. Low cost devices used under uncontrolled environments acquire poor iris images with inconsistent illumination and specular reflections. These factors inflict challenges towards the accurate identification and extraction...

  18. Automatic localization of pupil using eccentricity and iris using gradient based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq M.; Aurangzeb Khan, M.; Malik, Shahzad A.; Khan, Shahid A.; Bashir, Tariq; Dar, Amir H.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic localization of pupil and iris. Pupil and iris are nearly circular regions, which are surrounded by sclera, eyelids and eyelashes. The localization of both pupil and iris is extremely important in any iris recognition system. In the proposed algorithm pupil is localized using Eccentricity based Bisection method which looks for the region that has the highest probability of having pupil. While iris localization is carried out in two steps. In the first step, iris image is directionally segmented and a noise free region (region of interest) is extracted. In the second step, angular lines in the region of interest are extracted and the edge points of iris outer boundary are found through the gradient of these lines. The proposed method is tested on CASIA ver 1.0 and MMU Iris databases. Experimental results show that this method is comparatively accurate.

  19. Ethnicity prediction and classification from iris texture patterns: A survey on recent advances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and classification of ethnicity based on iris texture patterns using image processing, artificial intelligence and computer vision techniques is still a recent topic in iris biometrics. While the large body of knowledge and research...

  20. Iris recognition using image moments and k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yaser Daanial; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a biometric technique for identification of a person using the iris image. The iris is first segmented from the acquired image of an eye using an edge detection algorithm. The disk shaped area of the iris is transformed into a rectangular form. Described moments are extracted from the grayscale image which yields a feature vector containing scale, rotation, and translation invariant moments. Images are clustered using the k-means algorithm and centroids for each cluster are computed. An arbitrary image is assumed to belong to the cluster whose centroid is the nearest to the feature vector in terms of Euclidean distance computed. The described model exhibits an accuracy of 98.5%.

  1. Texture Feature Extraction and Classification for Iris Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Naimin

    Appling computer aided techniques in iris image processing, and combining occidental iridology with the traditional Chinese medicine is a challenging research area in digital image processing and artificial intelligence. This paper proposes an iridology model that consists the iris image pre-processing, texture feature analysis and disease classification. To the pre-processing, a 2-step iris localization approach is proposed; a 2-D Gabor filter based texture analysis and a texture fractal dimension estimation method are proposed for pathological feature extraction; and at last support vector machines are constructed to recognize 2 typical diseases such as the alimentary canal disease and the nerve system disease. Experimental results show that the proposed iridology diagnosis model is quite effective and promising for medical diagnosis and health surveillance for both hospital and public use.

  2. Evaluation of the Yellow IRIS. An automated method for urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C E; Carlson, D A; Daigneault, R W; Statland, B E

    1986-11-01

    The authors evaluated the Yellow IRIS automated urinalysis instrument (International Remote Imaging Systems, Chatsworth, CA 91311) in terms of its analytic performance as well as its ease of use. The Yellow IRIS is a system using automated intelligence microscopy (AIM), coupled with a dipstick reader and specific gravity module. The instrument can handle up to 30 specimens per hour in the authors' setting as compared with 10 specimens per hour using a full manual urinalysis coupled with microscopic examination. The authors conclude that the Yellow IRIS performed better than the manual method in terms of precision, linearity, and throughput. In addition, the diagnostic yield using this system in terms of abnormal results was higher than would have been picked up by manual analysis alone.

  3. IRIS: A Generic Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Ibgui, L; Lanz, T; Stehlé, C

    2012-01-01

    We present IRIS, a new generic three-dimensional (3D) spectral radiative transfer code that generates synthetic spectra, or images. It can be used as a diagnostic tool for comparison with astrophysical observations or laboratory astrophysics experiments. We have developed a 3D short-characteristic solver that works with a 3D nonuniform Cartesian grid. We have implemented a piecewise cubic, locally monotonic, interpolation technique that dramatically reduces the numerical diffusion effect. The code takes into account the velocity gradient effect resulting in gradual Doppler shifts of photon frequencies and subsequent alterations of spectral line profiles. It can also handle periodic boundary conditions. This first version of the code assumes Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and no scattering. The opacities and source functions are specified by the user. In the near future, the capabilities of IRIS will be extended to allow for non-LTE and scattering modeling. IRIS has been validated through a number of te...

  4. Avoiding iris trauma from phacoemulsification in eyes with iridoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Israel; Seabra, Fabíola P

    2004-04-01

    Iridoschisis is a rare condition frequently associated with age-related cataract. Phacoemulsification can be difficult to perform in these eyes, as the detached iris fibrils that are typically present free float in the anterior chamber and are attracted to the phaco tip and the irrigation/aspiration handpiece port. We describe a technique for performing phacoemulsification in eyes with iridoschisis. In this technique, iris fibrils are held in place by 2 ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs) that are injected into the inferior portion of the anterior chamber. An elliptical capsulorhexis is made and limited to the superior half of the pupil for additional stability of the anterior chamber during surgery. The nucleus is chopped with a phaco chopper and a bent-tip, 22-gauge needle. Most of the phacoemulsification is performed under the anterior capsule. The iris comes into contact with the OVDs only and has no mechanical trauma.

  5. Analyzing the IAR with IRI During the Recent Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S.; Klenzing, J.; Simoes, F.

    2012-01-01

    The 2008-2009 solar minimum was deeper than any within the past century. As such, the performance of the empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model was impacted. This impact manifested as a disagreement between predicted and measured characteristic separation in frequency for a wave resonating within an Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR). The predicted value of the characteristic was a factor of three lower than what was measured by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS). Analyzing the model performance and comparing output with measured ionospheric values showed that more than half of the inaccuracy could be explained by inaccuracies in the output of the model. The 2008-2009 solar minimum was outside of the bounds of the effectiveness of the empirical IRI model. Incorporating recent data measurements and new indices would increase the accuracy of IRI during this period.

  6. Thirty Years of Innovation in Seismology with the IRIS Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Aderhold, K.; Ahern, T. K.; Anderson, K. R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Evers, B.; Frassetto, A.; Hafner, K.; Simpson, D. W.; Sweet, J. R.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United States academic seismology community, through the National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Consortium, has promoted and encouraged a rich environment of innovation and experimentation in areas such as seismic instrumentation, data processing and analysis, teaching and curriculum development, and academic science. As the science continually evolves, IRIS helps drive the market for new research tools that enable science by establishing a variety of standards and goals. This has often involved working directly with manufacturers to better define the technology required, co-funding key development work or early production prototypes, and purchasing initial production runs. IRIS activities have helped establish de-facto international standards and impacted the commercial sector in areas such as seismic instrumentation, open-access data management, and professional development. Key institutional practices, conducted and refined over IRIS' thirty-year history of operations, have focused on open-access data availability, full retention of maximum-bandwidth, continuous data, and direct community access to state-of-the-art seismological instrumentation and software. These practices have helped to cultivate and support a thriving commercial ecosystem, and have been a key element in the professional development of multiple generations of seismologists who now work in both industry and academia. Looking toward the future, IRIS is increasing its engagement with industry to better enable bi-directional exchange of techniques and technology, and enhancing the development of tomorrow's workforce. In this presentation, we will illustrate how IRIS has promoted innovations grown out of the academic community and spurred technological advances in both academia and industry.

  7. Anterior iris-claw lens implantation with single paracentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the technique and results of iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation with corneal incision and single paracentesis were presented. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients who underwent iris-claw implantation surgery with a single paracentesis were included in this prospective study. Iris-claw lens was grasped by its forceps and placed into the anterior chamber through superior corneal opening. While IOL was held by forceps, a blunt enclavation spatula was introduced through inferior paracentesis. Then the spatula was directed toward underneath of iris through pupil and toward sides where iris was entrapped into the claw by gentle push of iris through the slotted center of the lens haptics. Mean age of patients was 54.28±25.21 years (7-76 years. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.07±0.32 mm and mean keratometric power was 43.01±2.73 D. Preoperative BCVA was 20/63 or better in 8 (44.4% patients. At the first postoperative month BCVA was 20/63 or better in 14 (77.8% patients. Preoperative mean spherical refraction was +11.05±2.62 D, preoperative astigmatism was 2.15±0.85. Postoperative mean spherical refraction was - 0.58±0.25 D and mean astigmatism was - 1.92±0.67 D. The most frequent postoperative complication was mild corneal edema seen in three patients that resolved completely during the first week with medical treatment. Irisclaw IOL implantation can be performed easily with corneal incision and single paracentesis. Single paracentesis does not increase surgical time or cause inconvenience during the procedure.

  8. Pedagogical Innovation within Facebook: A Case Study in Tertiary Education in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Yousuf Shraim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of Facebook use among students and teachers has created a new learning culture by providing innovative ways for teachers to enable learners to engage actively in different learning activities. This paper investigates the potential use of the Facebook social network site to support faculty in implementing a social constructivist approach to facilitate student-centred learning. To alleviate problems arising from poor student engagement in large classes, 240 students from An-Najah National University, Palestine, enrolled in four sections of an undergraduate Educational Technology course, were encouraged to participate in a number of formative activities through Facebook. A mixed-methods case study approach was followed. The quantitative data from a questionnaire were analyzed and triangulated alongside the qualitative analysis of the content analysis of postings on the Facebook group page and classroom observation. The results show that the technological affordances of Facebook have a very valuable role in facilitating a constructive approach by faculty members. A majority of students showed a positive attitude to learning via Facebook, being provided with more opportunities to engage personally, communicate and work collaboratively, helping them to construct their own learning and develop 21st century skills for life and learning through social interaction. The key to the successful implementation of social networking is initiating institutional change to facilitate the dissemination of the new pedagogical culture.

  9. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and domestic animals in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suheir Ereqat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3% collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n=10, B. chomelii (n=6, and B. koehlerae (n=1. Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3% obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n=2 and B. rochalimae (n=2. Among canine blood samples (n=110, we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region.

  10. Between Acceleration and Occupation: Palestine and the Struggle for Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This article explores the contemporary politics of global violence through an examination of the particular challenges and possibilities facing Palestinians who seek to defend their communities against an ongoing settler-colonial project (Zionism that is approaching a crisis point.  As the  colonial dynamic in Israel/Palestine returns to its most elemental level – land, trees, homes – it also continues to be a laboratory for new forms of accelerated violence whose global impact is hard to overestimate.  In such a context, Palestinians and international solidarity activists find themselves confronting a quintessential 21st century activist dilemma: how to craft a strategy of what Paul Virilio calls “popular defense” at a time when everyone seems to be implicated in the machinery of global violence? I argue that while this dilemma represents a formidable challenge for Palestinians, it also helps explain why the Palestinian struggle is increasingly able to build bridges with wider struggles for global justice, ecological sustainability, and indigenous rights.  

  11. Hallyu across the Desert: K-pop Fandom in Israel and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissim Otmazgin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role that fan communities in Israel and Palestine play in the transcultural dissemination of Korean popular music, or “K-pop.” Based on in-depth interviews with fans, a survey of K-pop online communities, discourse analysis of online discussions, and participation in K-pop gatherings, this article examines the practice of K-pop, its localization and institutionalization, and its influence on the identities of fans. Special attention is given to the role of K-pop fans as cultural mediators who create necessary bridges between the music industry and local consumers and thus play a decisive role in globalizing cultures. Typically, literature on the globalization of popular culture either utilizes a top-down approach, depicting powerful media industries as making people across the world consume their products, or emphasizes a bottom-up resistance to the imposition of foreign cultures and values. This article suggests that popular culture consumption not only changes the lives of a few individuals but that these individuals may themselves play a decisive role in connecting globalized culture with local fandom.

  12. Formation of Medical Units in Response to Epidemics in the Australian Imperial Force in Palestine 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. G Dennis Shanks MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the closing days of the First World War, British cavalry operations defeated the Turkish Armies in Palestine. Australian Light Horse Regiments as part of the Australian Imperial Forces (AIF were prominent in the capture of Amman, Beirut and Damascus. Epidemic infectious diseases were part of the severe desert environment faced by soldiers in the Middle East. Cholera and dysentery epidemics required reformation of medical units to emphasize mobility in an austere environment. A large epidemic of falciparum malaria coinciding with pandemic influenza shut down military operations and caused many deaths in late 1918. Three separate military medical units were formed in Egypt to address epidemic infectious diseases during mobile operations in the desert: ANZAC Field Laboratory, 5th Malaria Diagnosis Station and 7th Mobile Sanitary Section. Laboratory and preventive medicine units were critical to the military’s ability to conduct operations in the Middle East in 1918 and are likely to become vital for future missions in developing countries. As was the case in 1918, military medical units may have to be acutely restructured to control infectious disease outbreaks

  13. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer SHADEED

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  14. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed......BACKGROUND: The population of Palestine comprises almost 200 000 Palestinians aged 60 or older. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and to evaluate changes from 2006 to 2010. METHODS: The study combined...... into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14...

  15. Water Grabbing in Colonial Perspective: Land and Water in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gasteyer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Water grabbing' and 'land grabbing' have been referred to as a new colonialism, dispossessing small farmers and indigenous people of land and water for the sake of investors. The current 'grabbing' is driven by perceived scarcity of food and sustainable energy, and is enabled by global financial instruments and commodity speculation. In this paper, we argue that while in many ways different, the 'new colonialism' of land/water grabbing may be better understood through analysis of old colonialism. We use actor network and place modernisation theories to analyse the history and practice of Zionist land/water grabbing in Israel/Palestine as an ongoing remnant of old colonialism. While there are clearly unique aspects to this case, there are similarities in processes, such as the narrative of modernising 'barren', 'infertile', and 'undeveloped' land. The ongoing power imbalance in water management and access, the disproportionate burden on Palestinians of growing water scarcity, and the inability of technical fixes to address the problems of relative deprivation may be seen as cautionary tales for current 'water grabbing'.

  16. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  17. Between Acceleration and Occupation: Palestine and the Struggle for Global Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This article explores the contemporary politics of global violence through an examination of the particular challenges and possibilities facing Palestinians who seek to defend their communities against an ongoing settler-colonial project (Zionism that is approaching a crisis point.  As the  colonial dynamic in Israel/Palestine returns to its most elemental level – land, trees, homes – it also continues to be a laboratory for new forms of accelerated violence whose global impact is hard to overestimate.  In such a context, Palestinians and international solidarity activists find themselves confronting a quintessential 21st century activist dilemma: how to craft a strategy of what Paul Virilio calls “popular defense” at a time when everyone seems to be implicated in the machinery of global violence? I argue that while this dilemma represents a formidable challenge for Palestinians, it also helps explain why the Palestinian struggle is increasingly able to build bridges with wider struggles for global justice, ecological sustainability, and indigenous rights.  

  18. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Marwan M.; Ibrik, Imad H. [Energy Research Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus, P.O. Box 721, West Bank (Palestine)

    2006-04-01

    As a contribution to the development program of rural areas in Palestine, this paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. A computer-aided dynamic economic evaluation method with five indicators is used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more feasible than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (author)

  19. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrik, Imad [An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (PS). Energy Research Centre; Lecumberri, Marta

    2010-07-01

    The energy situation in Palestine is somewhat unique when compared to other countries in the Middle East. There are virtually no available natural resources, and due to the ongoing political situation, the Palestinians rely (or have to rely) almost totally on Israel for their energy needs. This paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. Economic evaluation methods are used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more useful than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (orig.)

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of EGBE that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  1. Off-Angle Iris Correction using a Biological Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This work implements an eye model to simulate corneal refraction effects. Using this model, ray tracing is performed to calculate transforms to remove refractive effects in off-angle iris images when reprojected to a frontal view. The correction process is used as a preprocessing step for off-angle iris images for input to a commercial matcher. With this method, a match score distribution mean improvement of 11.65% for 30 degree images, 44.94% for 40 degree images, and 146.1% improvement for 50 degree images is observed versus match score distributions with unmodified images.

  2. Off-Angle Iris Correction using a Biological Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This work implements an eye model to simulate corneal refraction effects. Using this model, ray tracing is performed to calculate transforms to remove refractive effects in off-angle iris images when reprojected to a frontal view. The correction process is used as a preprocessing step for off-angle iris images for input to a commercial matcher. With this method, a match score distribution mean improvement of 11.65% for 30 degree images, 44.94% for 40 degree images, and 146.1% improvement for 50 degree images is observed versus match score distributions with unmodi ed images.

  3. Comparisons of IRI global TEC maps with CODE GIMs

    CERN Document Server

    Coisson, P; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) produced at CODE are used in this work as experimental reference to evaluate the performance of IRI in predicting global vertical TEC during a period of high solar activity. The analysis has been done for the four seasons of year 2001, comparing monthly median GIMs for 12 different UTs. The attention is focused on the correct reproduction of large scale features like the equatorial anomaly or behavior at high latitudes, to understand where and under which conditions the IRI model could present unexpectable features.

  4. Iris image enhancement for feature recognition and extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza, GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 2002. Digital Image Processing 2nd Edition, Instructor?s manual .Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, pp 17-36. Proen?a, H. and Alexandre, L.A. 2007. Toward Noncooperative Iris Recognition: A classification approach using... for performing such tasks and yielding better accuracy (Gonzalez & Woods, 2002). METHODOLOGY The block diagram in Figure 2 demonstrates the processes followed to achieve the results. Figure 2: Methodology flow chart Iris image enhancement for feature...

  5. [The automatic iris map overlap technology in computer-aided iridiagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-feng; Ye, Hu-nian; Ye, Miao-yuan

    2002-11-01

    In the paper, iridology and computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies are briefly introduced and the extraction method of the collarette contour is then investigated. The iris map can be overlapped on the original iris image based on collarette contour extraction. The research on collarette contour extraction and iris map overlap is of great importance to computer-aided iridiagnosis technologies.

  6. An Analysis on Better Testing than Training Performances on the Iris Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Marten; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Iris dataset is a well known dataset containing information on three different types of Iris flowers. A typical and popular method for solving classification problems on datasets such as the Iris set is the support vector machine (SVM). In order to do so the dataset is separated in a set used fo

  7. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to e...

  9. Developmental validation of the IrisPlex system: determination of blue and brown iris colour for forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Lindenbergh, Alexander; Zuniga, Sofia B; Sijen, Titia; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Ballantyne, Kaye N

    2011-11-01

    The IrisPlex system consists of a highly sensitive multiplex genotyping assay together with a statistical prediction model, providing users with the ability to predict blue and brown human eye colour from DNA samples with over 90% precision. This 'DNA intelligence' system is expected to aid police investigations by providing phenotypic information on unknown individuals when conventional DNA profiling is not informative. Falling within the new area of forensic DNA phenotyping, this paper describes the developmental validation of the IrisPlex assay following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines for the application of DNA-based eye colour prediction to forensic casework. The IrisPlex assay produces complete SNP genotypes with only 31pg of DNA, approximately six human diploid cell equivalents, and is therefore more sensitive than commercial STR kits currently used in forensics. Species testing revealed human and primate specificity for a complete SNP profile. The assay is capable of producing accurate results from simulated casework samples such as blood, semen, saliva, hair, and trace DNA samples, including extremely low quantity samples. Due to its design, it can also produce full profiles with highly degraded samples often found in forensic casework. Concordance testing between three independent laboratories displayed reproducible results of consistent levels on varying types of simulated casework samples. With such high levels of sensitivity, specificity, consistency and reliability, this genotyping assay, as a core part of the IrisPlex system, operates in accordance with SWGDAM guidelines. Furthermore, as we demonstrated previously, the IrisPlex eye colour prediction system provides reliable results without the need for knowledge on the bio-geographic ancestry of the sample donor. Hence, the IrisPlex system, with its model-based prediction probability estimation of blue and brown human eye colour, represents a useful tool for

  10. Plateau iris Íris em platô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Diniz Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The term plateau iris was first coined in 1958 to describe the iris configuration of a patient. Two years later the concept of plateau iris was published. In 1977, the plateau iris configuration was classically defined as presurgical changes of an eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth, flat iris by conventional biomicroscopy, but displaying an extremely narrow or closed angle on gonioscopic examination. On the other hand, the plateau iris syndrome was defined as an acute glaucoma crisis in one eye with a relative normal central anterior chamber depth and patent iridotomy on direct examination, presenting angle closure confirmed by gonioscopic examination after mydriasis. In 1992, the anatomic aspects of plateau iris were studied using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Finally, plateau iris has been considered an anatomic variant of iris structure in which the iris periphery angulates sharply forward from its insertion point and then again angulates sharply and centrally backward, along with an anterior positioning of the ciliary processes seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy. The clinical treatment of plateau iris syndrome is carried out with topical use of pilocarpine. However, the definitive treatment should be fulfilled by performing an argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.O termo íris em platô foi primeiramente inventado em 1958 para descrever a configuração da íris de um paciente. Dois anos depois o conceito de íris em platô foi publicado. Em 1977, a configuração de íris em platô foi classicamente definida como alterações pré-cirúrgicas de um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal, íris plana pela biomicroscopia convencional, mas mostrando um ângulo extremamente estreito ou fechado pela gonioscopia. Por outro lado, a síndrome de íris em platô foi definida como uma crise de glaucoma agudo em um olho com uma profundidade de câmara anterior relativamente normal e uma iridectomia patente ao

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EGYPT AND PALESTINE IN THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (CA.2000-1550/1500 BCE.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoDantong

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between Egypt and Palestine during the Bronze Age has been discussed since the 1940s. For the period of the Middle Bronze Age, the problem is both chronological and interpretative. The end of the Middle Bronze Age is fixed by the initial military activities of Dynasty 18 in Palestine around the end of the 16th century BCE. But the dates for the beginning of this period and the transition from one archaeological phase to another are still debated. Lacking a generally accepted solution, the chronology adopted here is that of Dever --- the transition from MB Ⅰ to MB Ⅱ occurred around 1800 BCE,

  12. Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, C.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2005-01-01

    asterisk inside a circle sign Visible senescence of the flag tepals in Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) was preceded by a large increase in endoprotease activity. Just before visible senescence about half of total endoprotease activity was apparently due to cysteine proteases, somewhat less than h

  13. Daffodil flower delay senescence in cut Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering daf

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is m...

  15. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Data Reduction System

    CERN Document Server

    Walth, Gregory; Weiss, Jason; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Chapin, Edward L; Do, Tuan; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Marshall, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L; Simard, Luc; Sohn, Ji Man; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincensten, James

    2016-01-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the diffraction-limited first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 $\\mu$m) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS). The IFS makes use of a lenslet array and slicer for spatial sampling, which will be able to operate in 100's of different modes, including a combination of four plate scales from 4 milliarcseconds (mas) to 50 mas with a large range of filters and gratings. The imager will have a field of view of 34$\\times$34 arcsec$^{2}$ with a plate scale of 4 mas with many selectable filters. We present the preliminary design of the data reduction system (DRS) for IRIS that need to address all of these observing modes. Reduction of IRIS data will have unique challenges since it will provide real-time reduction and analysis of the imaging and spectroscopic data during observational sequences, as well as advanced post-processing algorithms. The DRS will support three basic modes of operation of IRIS; reduc...

  16. Intraocular lens iris fixation. Clinical and macular OCT outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Rojas Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the efficacy, clinical outcomes, visual acuity (VA, incidence of adverse effects, and complications of peripheral iris fixation of 3-piece acrylic IOLs in eyes lacking capsular support. Thirteen patients who underwent implantation and peripheral iris fixation of a 3-piece foldable acrylic PC IOL for aphakia in the absence of capsular support were followed after surgery. Clinical outcomes and macular SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany were analyzed. Findings The final CDVA was 20/40 or better in 8 eyes (62%, 20/60 or better in 12 eyes (92%, and one case of 20/80 due to corneal astigmatism and mild persistent edema. No intraoperative complications were reported. There were seven cases of medically controlled ocular hypertension after surgery due to the presence of viscoelastic in the AC. There were no cases of cystoid macular edema, chronic iridocyclitis, IOL subluxation, pigment dispersion, or glaucoma. Macular edema did not develop in any case by means of SD-OCT. Conclusions We think that this technique for iris suture fixation provides safe and effective results. Patients had substantial improvements in UDVA and CDVA. This surgical strategy may be individualized however; age, cornea status, angle structures, iris anatomy, and glaucoma are important considerations in selecting candidates for an appropriate IOL fixation method.

  17. Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) entrance aperture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheimets, P.; Park, S.; Bergner, H.; Chou, C.; Gates, R.; Honsa, M.; Podgorski, W.; Yanari, C.

    2014-07-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a complementary follow-on to Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) and funded as a member of the NASA SMEX program. This paper presents the thermal design of the IRIS telescope front end, with a focus on the IRIS door and entrance aperture assembly. The challenge of the IRIS entrance aperture, including the door design, was to manage the solar flux, both before and after the door was opened. This is especially a problem with instruments that are permanently pointed directly at the sun. Though there is an array of effective flux-rejecting coatings, they are expensive, hard to apply, harder to measure, delicate, prone to unpredictable performance decay with exposure, and very often a source of contamination. This paper presents a thermal control and protection method based on robust, inexpensive coatings and materials, combined to produce high thermal and structural isolation. The end result is a first line of thermal protection whose performance is easy to predict and well isolated from the instrument it is protecting.

  18. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    -out of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop...

  19. A Field Study of an Iris Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    and hygiene problems associated with finger scanning); fast; and highly individualistic (with an estimated 173 bits of entropy in each iris template[4...IEEE, May 3–6 1998. [5] G. Doddington, W. Liggett, A. Martin, M. Przybocki, and D. Reynolds. Sheep, goats, lambs and wolves a statistical analysis of

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of tetrachloroethylene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and ...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. N/A

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (External Review Draft, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of methanol (non-cancer) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 3, 2013, the Toxicological Review of Methanol (noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft) was posted for public review and comment. Subsequently, the draft Toxicological Review, Appendices, and draft IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agenci...

  4. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: sensitivities and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Shelley A; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Crampton, David; Simard, Luc

    2010-01-01

    We present sensitivity estimates for point and resolved astronomical sources for the current design of the InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) on the future Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS, with TMT's adaptive optics system, will achieve unprecedented point source sensitivities in the near-infrared (0.84 - 2.45 {\\mu}m) when compared to systems on current 8-10m ground based telescopes. The IRIS imager, in 5 hours of total integration, will be able to perform a few percent photometry on 26 - 29 magnitude (AB) point sources in the near-infrared broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, K). The integral field spectrograph, with a range of scales and filters, will achieve good signal-to-noise on 22 - 26 magnitude (AB) point sources with a spectral resolution of R=4,000 in 5 hours of total integration time. We also present simulated 3D IRIS data of resolved high-redshift star forming galaxies (1 < z < 5), illustrating the extraordinary potential of this instrument to probe the dynamics, assembly, and chemical abunda...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is m...

  6. Preface: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) at equatorial latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research includes papers that report and discuss improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). IRI is the international standard for the representation of the plasma in Earth's ionosphere and recognized as such by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Standardization Organization (ISO). As requested, particularly by COSPAR and URSI, IRI is an empirical model relying on most of the available and reliable ground and space observations of the ionosphere. As new data become available and as older data sources are fully exploited the IRI model undergoes improvement cycles to stay as close to the existing data record as possible. The latest episode of this process is documented in the papers included in this issue using data from the worldwide network of ionosondes, from a few of the incoherent scatter radars, from the Alouette and ISIS topside sounders, and from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The focus of this issue is on the equatorial and low latitude region that is of special importance for ionospheric physics because it includes the largest densities and steep density gradients in the double hump latitudinal structure, the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA), which is characteristic for this region.

  7. Gene expression during anthesis and senescence in Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Balk, P.A.; Houwelingen, van A.M.; Hoebrechts, F.A.; Hall, R.D.; Vorst, O.; Schoot, van der C.; Wordragen, van M.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated changes in gene expression in Iris hollandicaflowers by microarray technology. Flag tepals were sampled daily, from three days prior to flower opening to the onset of visible senescence symptoms. Gene expression profiles were compared with biochemical data including lipid and protein

  8. Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pak, C.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2005-01-01

    asterisk inside a circle sign Visible senescence of the flag tepals in Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) was preceded by a large increase in endoprotease activity. Just before visible senescence about half of total endoprotease activity was apparently due to cysteine proteases, somewhat less than

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the, Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  10. Comparison of ionospheric radio occultation CHAMP data with IRI 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS radio occultation measurements on board low Earth orbiting satellites can provide vertical electron density profiles of the ionosphere from satellite orbit heights down to the bottomside. Ionospheric radio occultation (IRO measurements carried out onboard the German CHAMP satellite mission since 11 April 2001 were used to derive vertical electron density profiles (EDP’s on a routine basis. About 150 vertical electron density profiles may be retrieved per day thus providing a huge data basis for testing and developing ionospheric models. Although the validation of the EDP retrievals is not yet completed, the paper addresses a systematic comparison of about 78 000 electron density profiles derived from CHAMP IRO data with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2001. The results are discussed for quite different geophysical conditions, e.g. as a function of latitude, local time and geomagnetic activity. The comparison of IRO data with corresponding IRI data indicates that IRI generally overestimates the upper part of the ionosphere whereas it underestimates the lower part of the ionosphere under high solar activity conditions. In a first order correction this systematic deviation could be compensated by introducing a height dependence correction factor in IRI profiling.

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Iris pseudacorus and Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ramtin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, the effects of antibacterial activity of Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus essential oils, native plant northern of Iran, were investigated for some selected bacteria. Material and Methods: The influence of essential oils was tested by the using of disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods against standard strains of the picked out bacteria. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS analysis, bioactivity determination, Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of essential oils were utilized for this goal. Results: This study showed that, Inhibition zone diameter varied from 11 to 19 mm and 9 to 17 mm for Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus respectively. In contrast, this figure fluctuated from 19 to 28 mm and 7 to 17 mm for gentamicin and ampicillin separately. By the application of micro-broth dilution technique, MICs for 1% essential oils were 1.8-7.5 μg/ml and 3.75-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and Iris pseudacorus against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria individually. Furthermore, the MBCs of herbal essences were 1.8-15 μg/ml for, Urtica dioica and 15-30 μg/ml for Iris. Conclusion: The application of essential oils for the bio-control of diseases, as a novel emerging alternative to antimicrobial treatments, lead to safer and more environmental management for infective diseases4T.4T

  12. Design and performance of a cryogenic iris aperture mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Laauwen, W. M.; de Vries, E. A.; Smit, H. P.; Detrain, A.; Eggens, M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Dieleman, P.

    2014-07-01

    A cryogenic iris mechanism is under development as part of the ground calibration source for the SAFARI instrument. The iris mechanism is a variable aperture used as an optical shutter to fine-tune and modulate the absolute power output of the calibration source. It has 4 stainless steel blades that create a near-circular aperture in every position. The operating temperature is 4.5 Kelvin to provide a negligible background to the SAFARI detectors, and `hot spots' above 9K should be prevented. Cryogenic testing proved that the iris works at 4K. It can be used in a broad range of cryogenic optical instruments where optical throughput needs to be controlled. Challenges in the design include the low cooling power available (5mW) and low friction at cryogenic temperatures. The actuator is an `arc-type' rotary voice-coil motor. The use of flexural pivots creates a mono-stable mechanism with a resonance frequency at 26Hz. Accurate and fast position control with disturbance rejection is managed by a PID servo loop using a hall-sensor as input. At 4 Kelvin, the frequency is limited to 4Hz to avoid excess dissipation and heating. In this paper, the design and performance of the iris are discussed. The design was optimized using a thermal, magnetic and mechanical model made with COMSOL Finite Element Analysis software. The dynamical and state-space modeling of the mechanism and the concept of the electrical control are presented. The performance of the iris show good agreement to the analytical and COMSOL modeling.

  13. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) NASA SMEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, James; Title, A.; De Pontieu, B.; Schrijver, C.; Tarbell, T.; Wuelser, J.; Golub, L.; Kankelborg, C.

    2011-05-01

    The solar chromosphere and transition region (TR) is highly structured, dynamic, and intimately connected to the corona. It requires more than ten times the energy required to heat the corona, and yet it has received far less interest because of the complexity of the required observational and analytical tools. In the TR the density drops by six orders of magnitude and the temperature increases by three orders of magnitude. Hinode observations reveal the importance the magnetic field has on this region of the solar atmosphere that acts as the interface between the photosphere and the corona. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) was selected for a NASA SMEX mission in 2009 and is scheduled to launch in December 2012. IRIS addresses critical questions in order to understand the flow of energy and mass through the chromosphere and TR, namely: (1) Which types of non-thermal energy dominate in the chromosphere and beyond? (2) How does the chromosphere regulate mass and energy supply to the corona and heliosphere? (3) How do magnetic flux and matter rise through the lower atmosphere, and what roles dos flux emergence play in flares and mass ejections? These questions are addressed with a high-resolution imaging spectrometer that observes Near- and Far-VU emissions that are formed at temperatures between 5,000K and 1.5 x 106 K. IRIS has a field-of-view of 120 arcsec, a spatial resolution of 0.4 arcsec, and velocity resolution of 0.5 km/s. Members of the IRIS investigation team are developing advanced radiative MHD codes to facilitate comparison with and interpretation of observations. We present the status of the IRIS observatory development, which completed its Critical Design Review in December 2010.

  14. Alpha antagonists and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome: A spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif A Issa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharif A Issa, Omar H Hadid, Oliver Baylis, Margaret DayanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKBackground: To determine occurrence of features of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-antagonists (AA.Methods: We prospectively studied patients on AA and who underwent phacoemulsification. The following were recorded: pupil diameter preoperatively, iris flaccidity, iris prolapse and peroperative miosis.Results: We studied 40 eyes of 31 subjects. Mean age was 78 years. Overall, 14 eyes (13 patients showed signs of IFIS: 9/13 (69% eyes of patients on tamsulosin, 1/18 (6% eyes in the doxazosin group, 2/2 prazosin patients, 1/4 eyes in the indoramin group, and 1/2 eyes in two patients on a combination of doxazosin and tamsulosin. Most cases (92% had only one or two signs of IFIS. Bilateral cataract surgery was undertaken in 9 patients but only one patient (on tamsulosin had features of IFIS in both eyes, while 4 patients (2 on tamsulosin and 2 on other AA showed signs of IFIS in one eye only, and 4 patients did not show IFIS in either eye.Conclusion: Most AA were associated with IFIS, but it tends to present as a spectrum of signs rather than full triad originally described. Tamsulosin was most likely to be associated with IFIS; however, its intake does not necessarily mean that IFIS will occur. For patients on AA, the behavior of the iris intraoperatively in one eye is a poor predictor of the other eye. Surgeons should anticipate the occurrence of IFIS in any patient on AA.Keywords: alpha blocker, alpha antagonist, cataract surgery, intraoperative floppy iris syndrome, tamsulosin.

  15. Topography of Lymphatic Markers in Human Iris and Ciliary Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Schrödl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Motloch, Karolina; Bruckner, Daniela; Laimer, Martin; Schlereth, Simona L; Heindl, Ludwig M; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-07-01

    Reports of lymphatics in the anterior human uvea are contradictory. This might be caused due to a certain topography, which has not been considered yet. Therefore, here we systematically analyze iris and adjacent ciliary body with immunohistochemistry by combining various lymphatic markers. Human iris and ciliary body were obtained from cornea donors and prepared for cryosectioning. Cross sections of tissue blocks at 12/3/6/9 o'clock position and at corresponding intersections (1:30/4:30/7:30/10:30) were processed for immunohistochemistry of LYVE-1, PDPN, PROX1, FOXC2, VEGFR3, and CCL21, and when necessary, these lymphatic markers were combined with CD31, α-smooth muscle-actin, CD68, and 4',6-diamidino-2 phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI). Double, triple, and quadruple marker combinations were documented using confocal microscopy. Numerous podoplanin+ cells were mainly located at the anterior border of the iris while LYVE-1+ cells were distributed throughout the nonpigmented part. Both cell populations were PROX1/FOXC2/CCL21/VEGFR3-. Blood vessels, iris smooth muscles, and individual cells were VEGFR3+. While PDPN+ cells were rarely detected posteriorly of the iris root, many LYVE-1+ cells were present within the ciliary body muscle and villi. Within the muscle, occasionally PDPN+ vessel-like structures were detectable, but these were never colocalized with LYVE-1. Similar vessel-like structures were VEGFR3+/PROX1-/CCL21-, but CD31+. Further, ciliary muscle fibers and ciliary epithelium were immunoreactive for VEGFR3/CCL21, but were LYVE-1/PDPN-. A certain topography of structures at the various uvea-positions investigated was not obvious. The majority of LYVE-1+ cells displayed immunoreactivity for CD68. Lymphatic vessels colocalizing for at least two lymphatic markers were not detectable. Therefore, if present, putative lymphatic channels of the anterior uvea might display a different marker panel than generally presumed.

  16. The IRIS Federator: Accessing Seismological Data Across Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabant, C. M.; Van Fossen, M.; Ahern, T. K.; Weekly, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 the International Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN) approved a specification for web service interfaces for accessing seismological station metadata, time series and event parameters. Since then, a number of seismological data centers have implemented FDSN service interfaces, with more implementations in development. We have developed a new system called the IRIS Federator which leverages this standardization and provides the scientific community with a service for easy discovery and access of seismological data across FDSN data centers. These centers are located throughout the world and this work represents one model of a system for data collection across geographic and political boundaries.The main components of the IRIS Federator are a catalog of time series metadata holdings at each data center and a web service interface for searching the catalog. The service interface is designed to support client­-side federated data access, a model in which the client (software run by the user) queries the catalog and then collects the data from each identified center. By default the results are returned in a format suitable for direct submission to those web services, but could also be formatted in a simple text format for general data discovery purposes. The interface will remove any duplication of time series channels between data centers according to a set of business rules by default, however a user may request results with all duplicate time series entries included. We will demonstrate how client­-side federation is being incorporated into some of the DMC's data access tools. We anticipate further enhancement of the IRIS Federator to improve data discovery in various scenarios and to improve usefulness to communities beyond seismology.Data centers with FDSN web services: http://www.fdsn.org/webservices/The IRIS Federator query interface: http://service.iris.edu/irisws/fedcatalog/1/

  17. First-Year Students' Priorities and Choices in STEM Studies--IRIS Findings from Germany and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, D.

    2014-01-01

    IRIS (Interests and Recruitment in Science; http://iris.fp-7.org/about-iris/) is a European 7th framework project focusing on the challenge that only few young people in general, and women in particular, choose an education and career in science and technology. Project IRIS aims to contribute to the improvement of recruitment, retention and gender…

  18. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Al-Khatib

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis. Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively, having 4–6 family members (OR 0.52 and “nursing” being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48. The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively and “nursing” being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57. Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately.

  19. Measurements of indoor radon concentration levels in dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2013-02-01

    Indoor radon level measurements were carried out in 42 dwellings in Bethlehem, Palestine, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The measurements were performed during winter and spring seasons of the year 2010, for a period ranging from 97-118 d using a total of 100 detectors. The detectors were installed in living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, and storage areas of 39 houses, as well as in three schools, selected randomly in the surveyed area. The results of indoor radon levels and the annual effective dose in houses were found to vary from 26 - 611 Bq m(-3) and 0.65 - 14.1 m Sv y(-1), with average values of 117.0 Bq m(-3) and 2.95 m Sv y(-1), respectively. The mean values of radon concentration levels in bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are, respectively, 106.5, 113.1, 101.5, and 164.2 Bq m(-3). The corresponding mean values of annual effective dose for the bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms, basements, and storage areas are 2.66, 2.83, 2.54, 14.1 m Sv y(-1), respectively. In schools, the radon levels are found to vary from 31 - 400 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 125.1 Bq m(-3). The average annual effective dose in schools is found to be 3.12 mSv y(-1). This value is higher than the assigned international value. In general, the results show that radon concentration levels in 83% of the investigated dwellings are lower than the indoor radon action level of 150 Bq m(-3) for the United States.

  20. Occupational Safety Precautions among Nurses at Four Hospitals, Nablus District, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, I A; El Ansari, W; Areqat, T A; Darkhawaja, R A; Mansour, S H; Tucktuck, M A; Khatib, J I

    2015-10-01

    Occupational hazards, exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) accidents and safety precautions constitute an important public health issue. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of exposure to occupational hazards among nurses, and their knowledge of occupational safety precautions. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed 332 nurses working in 4 hospitals, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine, by a questionnaire. Bivariate analysis tested the associations between ever exposure and the high likelihood of BBF exposure and the independent socio-demographic and occupational variables. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the same two exposures and selected independent variables (those significant in the bivariate analysis). Prevalence of ever exposure to BBF was 51.7%, and was associated with working in private and charitable hospitals (OR 2.62, 2.68, respectively), having 4-6 family members (OR 0.52) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice at university (OR 0.48). The prevalence of high likelihood of BBF exposure was 62.2%, and was associated with working in charitable and private hospitals (OR 7.81, 2.43, respectively) and "nursing" being as one's top career choice (OR 0.57). Regarding knowledge, most respondents believed it is necessary to enact laws and regulations regarding occupational safety precautions, reported the use of sharps containers, immediate disinfection after an accident, reporting an accident, and using personal protective equipment. Nurses had adequate knowledge of the risks of their hospital work. Nevertheless, they exhibited high prevalence of exposure to BBF accidents. Future studies are needed to re-evaluate existing occupational safety guidelines in hospitals, establish monitoring and evaluation protocols for health care workers' adherence to the guidelines, and institute well-defined policies for reporting occupational injury incidents so these can be handled appropriately.

  1. Molecular characterization of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospitals environments and patients in Northern Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Adwan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is considered one of the most common pathogen to humans. Infections caused by this mocroorganism can be acquired through both hospital and community settings. This study was carried out to investigate molecular characterization of MRSA strains isolated from the patients and their environment in two hospitals (Rafidia hospital and Thabet hospital inNorthern Palestine, and to determine the clonal identity between these strains and their possible contribution to nosocomial infections.METHODS: Two hundred sixty five swabbed samples were collected from these hospitals, S. aureus was isolated,  antibiotic resistant genes were Panton–Valentin leukocidin (PVL gene were detected and SCCmec and spA were typed by PCR and/or sequencing.RESULTS: The prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus isolates was 29% and 8.2% in Rafidia hospital and Thabet hospital, respectively. All strains resistant to oxacilllin disk were carried mecA gene. Majority of strains (84.6% carried SCCmec type II (n = 11, type IVa and non-typeable were also detected. In addition, PVL was detected in 2 (14.3% clinical strains. ERIC PCR patterns revealed that 2 strains recovered from patient bed and nasal swab isolated from Thabet Hospital were nontypeable, spA typing showed that they belonged to type t386 and have identical DNA sequences. Other 2 clinical isolates were spa typed, one belonged to clone t044, while the other is new clone not exist in database.CONCLUSIONS: Results may give evidence that environmental contamination possibly contributing to nosocomial infections.

  2. Prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Khader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine. As part of this study, the following parameters were studied: District, gender, age and presumed cause. This cross-sectional study was undertaken during the period 26-30 December 2010 at all dialysis units in the West Bank, and included all cases of ESRD on dialysis. The total prevalence of patients with ESRD on dialysis during the study period was 240.3 per million population (PMP. The highest prevalence was seen in Jericho city. There were 57.7% males and 42.4% females in the study. The majority of patients (62.3% were living in villages, while 28.8% were living in cities and 8.9% were living in refugee camps. Most of the patients (45% were aged between 45 and 64 years. The vast majority of patients were either diabetic (22.5% or hypertensive (11.1% or both at the same time (10.6%. There were a considerable number of patients in whom the cause was undetermined (27.6%. The majority of recorded cases of congenital causes were from the Hebron, Jenin and Tubas districts. The prevalence of ESRD noted in our study is comparable with other regional countries but far below the rate recorded in industrialized countries. In the Palestinian territories, there is a general lack of national statistics and surveys, particularly in the public health section. Increased efforts and awareness should be focused on the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as they are the main causes of ESRD. There should also be an additional enhancement and implementation of strategies for the registration of data in order to conduct periodic comparisons and analytical studies to improve the management and quality of life of ESRD patients.

  3. Iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammed Sirdah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of nutritional anemia; it has been recognized as an important health problem in Palestine. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and to identify possible risk factors of iron deficiency anemia among kindergarten children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip and to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing oral iron formula in the anemic children. Methods: the study included 735 (384 male and 351 female kindergarten children. Data was collected by questionnaire interviews, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count analysis. All iron deficient anemic children were treated using an oral iron formula (50 mg ferrous carbonate + 100 mg vitamin C /5 mL and the complete blood count was reassessed after three months. A univariate analysis and a multiple logistic regression model were constructed; crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated. Results: the overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 33.5% with no significant differences between boys and girls. Significantly different prevalences of iron deficiency anemia were reported between different governorates of the Gaza Strip. Governorate, low education level of the parents and smoking are significant risk factors for children developing anemia. Significantly lower complete blood count parameters, except for WBC, were reported in anemic children. The oral iron treatment significantly improved hemoglobin concentrations, and normalized the iron deficiency marker. Conclusions: iron deficiency anemia is a serious health problem among children living in the marginalized areas of the Gaza Strip, which justifies the necessity for national intervention programs to improve the health status for the less fortunate development areas.

  4. Geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Wadi Gaza catchment, Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaineldeen, Usama; Aish, Adnan

    2012-11-01

    The geological, geomorphological and hydrological features along the course of the Wadi Gaza (Palestine) are discussed. The study confirms the existence of Pleistocene loess sediments along the Wadi. Wadi Gaza is characterized by meandering features along its course. The watershed of Wadi Gaza is estimated to cover more than 3500 km2 of the Northern Negev Desert and the Hebron Mountains as well as the small catchment sub-area in the Gaza Strip itself. Storm water drains the hills and mountains of Hebron and the northern Negev desert, accumulates in the Beer-Sheva area, crosses the Gaza Strip and discharges into the Mediterranean Sea. In winter the Wadi Gaza brings about 20 million cubic meter of rainwater into the area. Field investigations demonstrate the existence of loess sediments in the Wadi Gaza area, deposited during the dry periods that affected the area during the Pleistocene. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) applied for the Gaza Strip confirmed the existence of three Kurkar ridges within the Gaza Strip. Arranged from west to east (i) Sheikh Ejlin Ridge extends up to the current coastline in the west, (ii) Al Montar Ridge occurs near the armistice line in the east and (iii) Bait Hanon Ridge of which a part is present to the northeast of the Gaza Strip and a part to the east of the armistice line (the intermediate part not being accessible for observation due to political reasons. It is considered as a security zone). All three ridges are running NE-SW, parallel to the Mediterranean coastline.

  5. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Shai

    2014-01-01

    The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea) will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control), sucrose solution (0.75 mol) or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol). As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution): 1) Parents (especially females) increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2) Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  6. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  7. Iris Segmentation using Gradient Magnitude and Fourier Descriptor for Multimodal Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defiana Sulaeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.

  8. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: optical design of IRIS imager with "Co-axis double TMA"

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuzuki, Toshihiro; Harakawa, Hiroki; Ikenoue, Bungo; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Phillips, Andrew C; Saito, Sakae; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley; Hayano, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is one of the first-generation instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is composed of a combination of near-infrared (0.84--2.4 $\\mu$m) diffraction limited imager and integral field spectrograph. To achieve near-diffraction limited resolutions in the near-infrared wavelength region, IRIS uses the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS (Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System) and integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS). However, IRIS itself has challenging specifications. First, the overall system wavefront error should be less than 40 nm in Y, z, J, and H-band and 42 nm in K-band over a 34.0 $\\times$ 34.0 arcsecond field of view. Second, the throughput of the imager components should be more than 42 percent. To achieve the extremely low wavefront error and high throughput, all reflective design has been newly proposed. We have adopted a new design policy called "Co-Axis double-TMA", which cancels the asymmetric aberrations generated by "col...

  9. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: optical design of IRIS imager with "co-axis double TMA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Harakawa, Hiroki; Ikenoue, Bungo; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Phillips, Andrew C.; Saito, Sakae; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Wincentsen, James; Wright, Shelley; Hayano, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is one of the first-generation instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is composed of a combination of near-infrared (0.84-2.4 μm) diffraction limited imager and integral field spectrograph. To achieve near-diffraction limited resolutions in the near-infrared wavelength region, IRIS uses the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS (Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System) and integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS). However, IRIS itself has challenging specifications. First, the overall system wavefront error should be less than 40 nm in Y, z, J, and H-band and 42 nm in K-band over a 34.0 × 34.0 arcsecond field of view. Second, the throughput of the imager components should be more than 42 percent. To achieve the extremely low wavefront error and high throughput, all reflective design has been newly proposed. We have adopted a new design policy called "Co-Axis double-TMA", which cancels the asymmetric aberrations generated by "collimator/TMA" and "camera/TMA" efficiently. The latest imager design meets all specifications, and, in particular, the wavefront error is less than 17.3 nm and throughput is more than 50.8 percent. However, to meet the specification of wavefront error and throughput as built performance, the IRIS imager requires both mirrors with low surface irregularity after high-reflection coating in cryogenic and high-level Assembly Integration and Verification (AIV). To deal with these technical challenges, we have done the tolerance analysis and found that total pass rate is almost 99 percent in the case of gauss distribution and more than 90 percent in the case of parabolic distribution using four compensators. We also have made an AIV plan and feasibility check of the optical elements. In this paper, we will present the details of this optical system.

  10. Improving Micro-Planning in Education through a Geographical Information System: Studies on Ethiopia and Palestine. School Mapping and Local-Level Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, Ian; Tamiru, Mathewos; Parolin, Bruno; De Grauwe, Anton

    This book contains reports of two projects--one in Ethiopia, one in Palestine--that integrated a Geographical Information System (GIS) into the educational planning process. (A GIS is a computer program that combines two databases: numerical data such as traditional data on schools, teachers, and students; and geographic data such as the location…

  11. [The significance of activities in the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society for progression of medicine in the Middle East (to the 130th anniversary of foundation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelova, L Ye; Afanasiyeva, Ye A

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the history of foundation of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Jerusalem and its input into progression of medicine in the Middle east. The medical activity of Russian physicians in medical institutions of the Society is reflected too.

  12. A Novel Edge-Map Creation Approach for Highly Accurate Pupil Localization in Unconstrained Infrared Iris Images

    OpenAIRE

    Vineet Kumar; Abhijit Asati; Anu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Iris segmentation in the iris recognition systems is a challenging task under noncooperative environments. The iris segmentation is a process of detecting the pupil, iris’s outer boundary, and eyelids in the iris image. In this paper, we propose a pupil localization method for locating the pupils in the non-close-up and frontal-view iris images that are captured under near-infrared (NIR) illuminations and contain the noise, such as specular and lighting reflection spots, eyeglasses, nonunifor...

  13. Real-Time IRI driven by GIRO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Huang, Xueqin; Reinisch, Bodo; Bilitza, Dieter; Vesnin, Artem

    Real-time extensions of the empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model are based on assimilative techniques that preserve the IRI formalism which is optimized for the description of climatological ionospheric features. The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) team has developed critical parts of an IRI Real Time Assimilative Model (IRTAM) for the global ionospheric plasma distribution using measured data available in real time from ~50 ionosondes of the GIRO network, The current assimilation results present global assimilative maps of foF2 and hmF2 that reproduce available data at the sensor sites and smoothly return to the climatological specifications when and where the data are missing, and are free from artificial sharp gradients and short-lived artifacts when viewed in time progression. Animated real-time maps of foF2 and hmF2 are published with a few minutes latency at http://giro.uml.edu/IRTAM/. Our real-time IRI modeling uses morphing, a technique that transforms the climatological ionospheric specifications to match the observations by iteratively computing corrections to the original coefficients of the diurnal/spatial expansions, used in IRI to map the key ionospheric characteristics, while keeping the IRI expansion basis formalism intact. Computation of the updated coefficient set for a given point in time includes analysis of the latest 24-hour history of observations, which allows the morphing technique to sense evolving ionospheric dynamics even with a sparse sensor network. A Non-linear Error Compensation Technique for Associative Restoration (NECTAR), one of the features in our morphing approach, has been in operation at the Lowell GIRO Data Center since 2013. The cornerstone of NECTAR is a recurrent neural network optimizer that is responsible for smoothing the transitions between the grid cells where observations are available. NECTAR has proved suitable for real-time operations that require the assimilation code to be

  14. Iris color and associated pathological ocular complications:a review of epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Peng Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To elucidate the associations of iris color with major eye diseases.METHODS:A systematic search on Medline with coverage up to August 2013 was conducted. Assessment of the quality of studies based on their levels of evidence was in accordance with the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom.RESULTS:A relationship between darker iris color and an increased risk of age-related cataract has been reported from cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies. There was no consistent evidence supporting a major role of iris color in the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration. The association of iris color with ocular uveal melanoma has been confirmed by a meta-analysis of observational studies previously. The etiologic synergism between light iris color and environmental exposure such as UV the exposure of UV radiation was found. There were no studies evaluating the refractive associations with iris color but there may be a possible link between iris color and myopia.CONCLUSION:Darker iris color is associated with an increased risk of cataractand a reduced risk ofocular uveal melanoma. The association of iris color with age-related macular degeneration is not confirmed. Ophthalmologists should be aware that the risk of ocular disorders appears to vary by differences in iris color.

  15. A fast and robust iris localization method based on texture segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiali; Wang, Yunhong; Tan, Tieniu; Ma, Li; Sun, Zhenan

    2004-08-01

    With the development of the current networked society, personal identification based on biometrics has received more and more attention. Iris recognition has a satisfying performance due to its high reliability and non-invasion. In an iris recognition system, preprocessing, especially iris localization plays a very important role. The speed and performance of an iris recognition system is crucial and it is limited by the results of iris localization to a great extent. Iris localization includes finding the iris boundaries (inner and outer) and the eyelids (lower and upper). In this paper, we propose an iris localization algorithm based on texture segmentation. First, we use the information of low frequency of wavelet transform of the iris image for pupil segmentation and localize the iris with a differential integral operator. Then the upper eyelid edge is detected after eyelash is segmented. Finally, the lower eyelid is localized using parabolic curve fitting based on gray value segmentation. Extensive experimental results show that the algorithm has satisfying performance and good robustness.

  16. Iris color and associated pathological ocular complications: a review of epidemiologic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Peng; Sun; Yi; Lin; Chen-Wei; Pan

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To elucidate the associations of iris color with major eye diseases.· METHODS:A systematic search on Medline with coverage up to August 2013 was conducted. Assessment of the quality of studies based on their levels of evidence was in accordance with the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom.RESULTS:A relationship between darker iris color and an increased risk of age-related cataract has been reported from cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies. There was no consistent evidence supporting a major role of iris color in the development or progression of age-related macular degeneration. The association of iris color with ocular uveal melanoma has been confirmed by a meta-analysis of observational studies previously. The etiologic synergism between light iris color and environmental exposure such as UV the exposure of UV radiation was found. There were no studies evaluating the refractive associations with iris color but there may be a possible link between iris color and myopia.CONCLUSION:Darker iris color is associated with an increased risk of cataract and a reduced risk of ocular uveal melanoma. The association of iris color with agerelated macular degeneration is not confirmed.Ophthalmologists should be aware that the risk of ocular disorders appears to vary by differences in iris color.

  17. Improving iris recognition performance using segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel

    2008-08-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for iris segmentation, quality enhancement, match score fusion, and indexing to improve both the accuracy and the speed of iris recognition. A curve evolution approach is proposed to effectively segment a nonideal iris image using the modified Mumford-Shah functional. Different enhancement algorithms are concurrently applied on the segmented iris image to produce multiple enhanced versions of the iris image. A support-vector-machine-based learning algorithm selects locally enhanced regions from each globally enhanced image and combines these good-quality regions to create a single high-quality iris image. Two distinct features are extracted from the high-quality iris image. The global textural feature is extracted using the 1-D log polar Gabor transform, and the local topological feature is extracted using Euler numbers. An intelligent fusion algorithm combines the textural and topological matching scores to further improve the iris recognition performance and reduce the false rejection rate, whereas an indexing algorithm enables fast and accurate iris identification. The verification and identification performance of the proposed algorithms is validated and compared with other algorithms using the CASIA Version 3, ICE 2005, and UBIRIS iris databases.

  18. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, James E; Barton, Elizabeth J; Bauman, Brian; Bui, Khanh; Canfield, John; Crampton, David; Delacroix, Alex; Fletcher, Murray; Hale, David; Loop, David; Niehaus, Cyndie; Phillips, Andrew C; Reshetov, Vladimir; Simard, Luc; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Usuda, Tomonori; Wright, Shelley A

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.85 - 2.5 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of 4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a very large vacuum cryogenic system.

  19. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Anna M; Wright, Shelley A; Bauman, Brian; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Phillips, Andrew C; Simard, Luc; Suzuki, Ryuji; Zhang, Kai; Aliado, Ted; Brims, George; Canfield, John; Chen, Shaojie; Dekany, Richard; Delacroix, Alex; Do, Tuan; Herriot, Glen; Ikenoue, Bungo; Johnson, Chris; Meyer, Elliot; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Pazder, John; Reshetov, Vladimir; Riddle, Reed; Saito, Sakae; Smith, Roger; Sohn, Ji Man; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Usuda, Tomonori; Wang, Eric; Wang, Lianqi; Weiss, Jason; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the design of IRIS, an infrared (0.84 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph and imaging camera for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). With extremely low wavefront error (<30 nm) and on-board wavefront sensors, IRIS will take advantage of the high angular resolution of the narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) to dissect the sky at the diffraction limit of the 30-meter aperture. With a primary spectral resolution of 4000 and spatial sampling starting at 4 milliarcseconds, the instrument will create an unparalleled ability to explore high redshift galaxies, the Galactic center, star forming regions and virtually any astrophysical object. This paper summarizes the entire design and basic capabilities. Among the design innovations is the combination of lenslet and slicer integral field units, new 4Kx4k detectors, extremely precise atmospheric dispersion correction, infrared wavefront sensors, and a very large vacuum cryogenic system.

  20. The Evolution of Transition Region Loops Using IRIS and AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; DePontieu, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the model for the structure of the solar transition region has evolved from a simple transition layer between the cooler chromosphere to the hotter corona to a complex and diverse region that is dominated by complete loops that never reach coronal temperatures. The IRIS slitjaw images show many complete transition region loops. Several of the "coronal" channels in the SDO AIA instrument include contributions from weak transition region lines. In this work, we combine slitjaw images from IRIS with these channels to determine the evolution of the loops. We develop a simple model for the temperature and density evolution of the loops that can explain the simultaneous observations. Finally, we estimate the percentage of AIA emission that originates in the transition region.

  1. Eye and Iris Detection Using Projection and Radial Symmetry Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Shu-lan; CAO Cheng; Aishy Amer

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an eye and iris detection algorithm for human facial images. The authors combine three features of the eye to develop the algorithm: 1) the pixels surrounding the eyes are more variable than other parts of the face; 2) eye pixels are darker than their neighbors; 3) eyes often exhibit radial symmetric properties. Through the first feature, two rough regions of both eyes are detected on the face. Eye masks are then formed based on the second feature, and a fast radial symmetry transform is applied to the two rough regions of both eyes. Finally, accurate iris centers are located by searching the maximum value of the radial symmetry transform results. Using 450 human facial images from the Caltech face database, experiments show that the success rate of the proposed method is 91.7%. The effectiveness of the method was also verified through detection of video frames.

  2. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Instrument Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, James E; Wright, Shelley A; Wincentsen, James E; Anderson, David; Chisholm, Eric M; Dekany, Richard G; Dunn, Jennifer S; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Hayano, Yutaka; Phillips, Andrew C; Simard, Luc; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Weber, Robert W; Weiss, Jason L; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    IRIS is a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 microns) integral field spectrograph and wide-field imager being developed for first light with the Thirty Meter (TMT). It mounts to the advanced optics (AO) system NFIRAOS and has integrated on-instrument wavefront sensors (OIWFS) to achieve diffraction-limited spatial resolution at wavelengths longer than 1 micron. With moderate spectral resolution (R ~4,000 - 8,000) and large bandpass over a continuous field of view, IRIS will open new opportunities in virtually every area of astrophysical science. It will be able to resolve surface features tens of kilometers across Titan, while also mapping the distant galaxies at the scale of an individual star forming region. This paper summarizes the entire design and capabilities, and includes the results from the nearly completed preliminary design phase.

  3. Boimsja togo, tshego ne znajem / Iris Pettai ; interv. Nelli Kuznetsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Iris, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Presidendi juures asuva vähemusrahvuste ümarlaua ning poliitikute ja ekspertide kohtumisel esinenud sotsioloogi Iris Pettai hinnangul on riigile ohtlik, kui kaks kogukonda elavad paralleelselt, puutuvad vähe kokku. Mida väiksem on sallivus või tolerantsus põhirahva hulgas, seda rohkem tõukab ta ühiskonnast eemale teistest rahvustest inimesi. Sallivuse viiest arengufaasist

  4. Simultaneous observation of a hot explosion by NST and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Han; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Il-Hyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Jaejin; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Young-Deuk; Yang, Heesu; Ahn, Kwangsu; Goode, Philip R.; Jang, Bi-Ho

    2015-09-01

    We present the first simultaneous observations of so-called “hot explosions” in the cool atmosphere of the Sun made by the New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in space. The data were obtained during the joint IRIS-NST observations on 2014 July 30. The explosion of interest started around 19:20 UT and lasted for about 10 minutes. Our findings are as follows: (1) the IRIS brightening was observed in three channels of slit-jaw images, which cover the temperature range from 4000 to 80,000 K; (2) during the brightening, the Si iv emission profile showed a double-peaked shape with highly blue and redshifted components (-40 and 80 km s-1) (3) wing brightening occurred in Hα and Ca ii 8542 Å bands and related surges were observed in both bands of the NST Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) instrument; (4) the elongated granule, seen in NST TiO data, is clear evidence of the emergence of positive flux to trigger the hot explosion; (5) the brightening in Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 1600 Å images is quite consistent with the IRIS brightening. These observations suggest that our event is a hot explosion that occurred in the cool atmosphere of the Sun. In addition, our event appeared as an Ellerman bomb (EB) in the wing of Hα, although its intensity is weak and the vertical extent of the brightening seems to be relatively high compared with the typical EBs.

  5. IRIS: a generic three-dimensional radiative transfer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibgui, L.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; Stehlé, C.

    2013-01-01

    Context. For most astronomical objects, radiation is the only probe of their physical properties. Therefore, it is important to have the most elaborate theoretical tool to interpret observed spectra or images, thus providing invaluable information to build theoretical models of the physical nature, the structure, and the evolution of the studied objects. Aims: We present IRIS, a new generic three-dimensional (3D) spectral radiative transfer code that generates synthetic spectra, or images. It can be used as a diagnostic tool for comparison with astrophysical observations or laboratory astrophysics experiments. Methods: We have developed a 3D short-characteristic solver that works with a 3D nonuniform Cartesian grid. We have implemented a piecewise cubic, locally monotonic, interpolation technique that dramatically reduces the numerical diffusion effect. The code takes into account the velocity gradient effect resulting in gradual Doppler shifts of photon frequencies and subsequent alterations of spectral line profiles. It can also handle periodic boundary conditions. This first version of the code assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and no scattering. The opacities and source functions are specified by the user. In the near future, the capabilities of IRIS will be extended to allow for non-LTE and scattering modeling. Results: IRIS has been validated through a number of tests. We provide the results for the most relevant ones, in particular a searchlight beam test, a comparison with a 1D plane-parallel model, and a test of the velocity gradient effect. Conclusions: IRIS is a generic code to address a wide variety of astrophysical issues applied to different objects or structures, such as accretion shocks, jets in young stellar objects, stellar atmospheres, exoplanet atmospheres, accretion disks, rotating stellar winds, cosmological structures. It can also be applied to model laboratory astrophysics experiments, such as radiative shocks produced with high

  6. Implementation of Reliable Open Source IRIS Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Ikhar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RELIABLE automatic recognition of persons has long been an attractive goal. As in all pattern recognition problems, the key issue is the relation between inter-class and intra-class variability: objects can be reliably classified only if the variability among different instances of a given class is less than the variability between different classes.The objective of this paper is to implement an open-source iris recognition system in order to verify the claimed performance of the technology. The development tool used will be MATLAB, and emphasis will be only on the software for performing recognition and not hardware for capturing an eye image. A reliable application development approach will be employed in order to produce results quickly. MATLAB provides an excellent environment, with its image processing toolbox. To test the system, a database of 756 grayscale eye images courtesy of Chinese Academy of Sciences-Institute of Automation (CASIA is used. The system is to be composed of a number of sub-systems, which correspond to each stage of iris recognition. These stages are- image acquisition, segmentation, normalization and feature encoding. The input to the system will be an eye image, and the output will be an iris template, which will provide a mathematical representation of the iris region. Which conclude the objectives to design recognition system are- study of different biometrics and their features? Study of different recognition systems and their steps, selection of simple and efficient recognition algorithm for implementation, selection of fast and efficient tool for processing, apply the implemented algorithm to different database and find out performance factors.

  7. Assimilation of GIRO Data into a Real-Time IRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X.; Bilitza, D.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly accurate and detailed global 3-D specification of the Earth's space plasma environment is required to further understand its intricate organization and behavior. For a long time space physics and aeronomy research has been data starved due to the great variety of natural time scales involved in the plasma phenomenology. We have started developing a new approach to the global ionospheric specification called Real-Time Assimilative Mapping (RTAM). The IRI-RTAM will use data from the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to smoothly transform International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI's) background empirical maps of the ionospheric characteristics to match the observations. Such empirical assimilative modeling will provide a high-resolution, global picture of the ionospheric response to various short-term events observed during periods of storm activity or the impact of gravity waves coupling the ionosphere to the lower atmosphere, including timelines of the vertical restructuring of the plasma distribution. It will also contribute to the challenging task of providing a rapid insight into the temporal and spatial space weather development using the real-time GIRO data streams. The new assimilation technique "updates" the IRI electron density distribution while preserving the overall integrity of IRI s typical ionospheric feature representations. The technique adjusts the coefficients of the spherical/diurnal expansions used by the CCIR and URSI-88 model to obtain the global sub-peak electron density distribution. The set of global corrected coefficients can be generated as frequently as every 15 min and easily disseminated using a single real-time RTAM server operated by GIRO.

  8. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: data reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley A.; Weiss, Jason; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Do, Tuan; Dunn, Jennifer; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Marshall, Daniel; Riddle, Reed L.; Simard, Luc; Sohn, Ji Man; Suzuki, Ryuji; Wincentsen, James

    2016-08-01

    IRIS (InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph) is the diffraction-limited first light instrument for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) that consists of a near-infrared (0.84 to 2.4 μm) imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS). The IFS makes use of a lenslet array and slicer for spatial sampling, which will be able to operate in 100's of different modes, including a combination of four plate scales from 4 milliarcseconds (mas) to 50 mas with a large range of filters and gratings. The imager will have a field of view of 34×34 arcsec2 with a plate scale of 4 mas with many selectable filters. We present the preliminary design of the data reduction system (DRS) for IRIS that need to address all of these observing modes. Reduction of IRIS data will have unique challenges since it will provide real-time reduction and analysis of the imaging and spectroscopic data during observational sequences, as well as advanced post-processing algorithms. The DRS will support three basic modes of operation of IRIS; reducing data from the imager, the lenslet IFS, and slicer IFS. The DRS will be written in Python, making use of open-source astronomical packages available. In addition to real-time data reduction, the DRS will utilize real-time visualization tools, providing astronomers with up-to-date evaluation of the target acquisition and data quality. The quick look suite will include visualization tools for 1D, 2D, and 3D raw and reduced images. We discuss the overall requirements of the DRS and visualization tools, as well as necessary calibration data to achieve optimal data quality in order to exploit science cases across all cosmic distance scales.

  9. Two new isoflavanoids from the rhizomes of Iris soforana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta-ur-Rahman; Nasim, Shama; Baig, Irfan; Sener, Bilge; Orhan, Ilkay; Ayanoglu, Filiz; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2004-10-01

    Two new isoflavones 1 and 2 along with eleven known compounds 3-13, have been isolated for the first time from the rhizomes of Iris soforana. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods and found to be 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyisoflavone (1) (Soforanarin A), and 5,7,5'-trimethoxy-6,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (2) (Soforanarin B).

  10. Beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever among parents: a cross-sectional study from Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Awang, Rahmat; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2013-04-28

    Fever is an extremely common occurrence in paediatric patients and the most common cause for a child to be taken to the doctor. The literature indicates that parents have too many misconceptions and conflicting information about fever management. The aim of this study was to identify parents' beliefs and practices regarding childhood fever management. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among parents whose children were enrolled and presented for health care at primary health care clinics in the Nablus region of Palestine. Data were collected using structured questionnaire interviews with parents. The questionnaire consisted of 'yes/no' responses and multiple-response questions. Descriptive statistics were used. Overall, 402 parents were interviewed. All parents believed that fever could cause at least one harmful effect if left untreated. The harmful effects most frequently reported by parents were brain damage (38.1%), dehydration (15.7%), and other organs damage such as liver and kidney damage (14.2%). The study showed that 65.4% of parents would recognise fever by only touching the child, 31.6% would measure the temperature and 3.0% would assess temperature by touching and measuring the child. Antipyretic was preferred to be used by 34.8% of parents, while 49.8% stated that they preferred cold sponges, and 3.2% stated that they preferred homeopathic methods to treat fever. The most common factors influencing frequency of medication administration included physician's instruction (61.7%), the degree of elevated temperature (14.9%) and instructions on the medication leaflet (13.7%). Of the participant parents, 53.2% believed antipyretics used to reduce fever were harmful. Parents reported the most harmful outcomes from these antipyretics to be allergic reactions (20.9%), effects on the stomach (16.9%), kidney damage (16.2%) and overdose (11.4%). Parents were anxious when dealing with a feverish child, which resulted in incorrect or inappropriate practices

  11. An inquiry into socio-historical factors contributing to poverty within the Early Church in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Kakwata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate the root causes of poverty in the early Christian community.The view that is put forward and argued in this article is that poverty was widespread in early Christianity with particular reference to the converted Jews in Palestine. This was the result of socio-historical factors, namely the Israelites’ contact with Canaanites during the conquest,and the implementation of the secular leadership paradigm derived from those paga n nations around Israel, which led to their subjugation under the oppressive and exploitative and economic structures of the Roman Empire. For that reason many believers, newly converted Jews, at that time were destitute and impoverished as they belonged to the lower classes in society. In spite of this state of affairs, the early Christians in Jerusalem seemed to have faced the challenges of poverty with a measure of success as can be attested by the statement ‘for there was no needy person amongst them …’ (Ac 4:34.’n Ondersoek na sosio-historiese faktore wat tot armoede binne die vroeë Christelikekerk in Palestina bygedra het. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die grondoorsake van armoede in die vroeë Christelike gemeenskap te ondersoek met spesifieke verwysing na die bekeerde Jode in Palestina. Die standpunt wat in hierdie artikel gestel en beredeneer word, is dat armoede algemeen in die vroeë Christendom voorgekom het. Dit was as gevolg van verskeie sosio-historiese faktore, waaronder die Israeliete se kontak met die Kanaäniete ná die inname, asook die instelling van die sekulêre paradigma oor leierskap wat Israel aan die naburige heidennasies ontleen het en wat op hulle verknegting onder die Romeinse Ryk se onderdrukkende en uitbuitende strukture uitgeloop het. ’n Groot aantal gelowiges, bekeerde Jode, was in daardie tyd behoeftig en armoedig omdat hulle deel van die laer klasse in die samelewing was. Tog, ten spyte van hierdie omstandighede, het die vroeë Christene

  12. Self-therapy practices among university students in Palestine: focus on herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ansam F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Jabi, Samah W

    2008-12-01

    Herbal self-therapy is a common practice among Palestinians. However, no published data are available on herbal self-therapy in the Middle East in general, and in Palestine in particular. This study was conducted to (1) determine the extent of herbal self-therapy among university students, (2) investigate the different types of herbal remedies used and (3) investigate the correlates and reasons associated with such practices. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out using a structured questionnaire that contained five sections: (1) demographics; (2) medication knowledge and self-care orientation; (3) types of herbal remedies used; (4) clinical conditions treated; and finally, (5) the reasons reported by students for herbal self-therapy practice. Pearson chi(2), multiple logistic regression and one-way ANOVA were performed using SPSS 13 program. 33.9% of the respondents reported using herbal remedies in self-therapy. Female gender, students at medical colleges and those with high self-care orientation were significant predictive model for herbal use. Sage (Salvia fruticosa L.), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) were the most commonly utilized herbal remedies. The types of herbal remedies selected were significantly influenced by gender, but not by the level of medication knowledge or self-care orientation. Herbal remedies were used primarily for the treatment of headache, flu, menstrual pain and sore throat. The main motivating factor for using herbal remedies reported for using herbal remedies was simplicity of symptoms. Herbal self-therapy was a common practice among university students. Health care providers need to be aware of the students' self-therapy practices and need to have sufficient knowledge regarding herbs not simply because of the widespread use, but also because of significant reported side effects. Academics need to consider offering courses about herbal remedies to

  13. Prominence and tornado dynamics observed with IRIS and THEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Mein, Pierre; Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Zapior, Maciek

    2017-08-01

    Several prominences were observed during campaigns in September 2013 and July 2014 with the IRIS spectrometer and the vector magnetograph THEMIS (Tenerife). SDO/AIA and IRIS provided images and spectra of prominences and tornadoes corresponding to different physical conditions of the transition region between the cool plasma and the corona. The vector magnetic field was derived from THEMIS observations by using the He D3 depolarisation due to the magnetic field. The inversion code (PCA) takes into account the Hanle and Zeeman effects and allows us to compute the strength and the inclination of the magnetic field which is shown to be mostly horizontal in prominences as well as in tornadoes. Movies from SDO/AIA in 304 A and Hinode/SOT in Ca II show the highly dynamic nature of the fine structures. From spectra in Mg II and Si IV lines provided by IRIS and H-alpha observed by the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass (MSDP) spectrograph in the Meudon Solar Tower we derived the Doppler shifts of the fine structures and reconstructed the 3D structure of tornadoes. We conclude that the apparent rotation of AIA tornadoes is due to large-scale quasi-periodic oscillations of the plasma along more or less horizontal magnetic structures.

  14. LDPC and SHA based iris recognition for image authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel way to authenticate an image using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA based iris recognition method with reversible watermarking scheme, which is based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT and threshold embedding technique. The parity checks and parity matrix of LDPC encoding and cancellable biometrics i.e., hash string of unique iris code from SHA-512 are embedded into an image for authentication purpose using reversible watermarking scheme based on IWT and threshold embedding technique. Simply by reversing the embedding process, the original image, parity checks, parity matrix and SHA-512 hash are extracted back from watermarked-image. For authentication, the new hash string produced by employing SHA-512 on error corrected iris code from live person is compared with hash string extracted from watermarked-image. The LDPC code reduces the hamming distance for genuine comparisons by a larger amount than for the impostor comparisons. This results in better separation between genuine and impostor users which improves the authentication performance. Security of this scheme is very high due to the security complexity of SHA-512, which is 2256 under birthday attack. Experimental results show that this approach can assure more accurate authentication with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate and outperforms the prior arts in terms of PSNR.

  15. Optimal Features Subset Selection and Classification for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kaushik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of the optimal features subset and the classification have become an important issue in the field of iris recognition. We propose a feature selection scheme based on the multiobjectives genetic algorithm (MOGA to improve the recognition accuracy and asymmetrical support vector machine for the classification of iris patterns. We also suggest a segmentation scheme based on the collarette area localization. The deterministic feature sequence is extracted from the iris images using the 1D log-Gabor wavelet technique, and the extracted feature sequence is used to train the support vector machine (SVM. The MOGA is applied to optimize the features sequence and to increase the overall performance based on the matching accuracy of the SVM. The parameters of SVM are optimized to improve the overall generalization performance, and the traditional SVM is modified to an asymmetrical SVM to treat the false accept and false reject cases differently and to handle the unbalanced data of a specific class with respect to the other classes. Our experimental results indicate that the performance of SVM as a classifier is better than the performance of the classifiers based on the feedforward neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, and the Hamming and the Mahalanobis distances. The proposed technique is computationally effective with recognition rates of 99.81% and 96.43% on CASIA and ICE datasets, respectively.

  16. Optimal Features Subset Selection and Classification for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Bhattacharya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the optimal features subset and the classification have become an important issue in the field of iris recognition. We propose a feature selection scheme based on the multiobjectives genetic algorithm (MOGA to improve the recognition accuracy and asymmetrical support vector machine for the classification of iris patterns. We also suggest a segmentation scheme based on the collarette area localization. The deterministic feature sequence is extracted from the iris images using the 1D log-Gabor wavelet technique, and the extracted feature sequence is used to train the support vector machine (SVM. The MOGA is applied to optimize the features sequence and to increase the overall performance based on the matching accuracy of the SVM. The parameters of SVM are optimized to improve the overall generalization performance, and the traditional SVM is modified to an asymmetrical SVM to treat the false accept and false reject cases differently and to handle the unbalanced data of a specific class with respect to the other classes. Our experimental results indicate that the performance of SVM as a classifier is better than the performance of the classifiers based on the feedforward neural network, the k-nearest neighbor, and the Hamming and the Mahalanobis distances. The proposed technique is computationally effective with recognition rates of 99.81% and 96.43% on CASIA and ICE datasets, respectively.

  17. A bayesian approach to deformed pattern matching of iris images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jason; Savvides, Marios; Vijaya Kumar, B V K

    2007-04-01

    We describe a general probabilistic framework for matching patterns that experience in-plane nonlinear deformations, such as iris patterns. Given a pair of images, we derive a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate of the parameters of the relative deformation between them. Our estimation process accomplishes two things simultaneously: It normalizes for pattern warping and it returns a distortion-tolerant similarity metric which can be used for matching two nonlinearly deformed image patterns. The prior probability of the deformation parameters is specific to the pattern-type and, therefore, should result in more accurate matching than an arbitrary general distribution. We show that the proposed method is very well suited for handling iris biometrics, applying it to two databases of iris images which contain real instances of warped patterns. We demonstrate a significant improvement in matching accuracy using the proposed deformed Bayesian matching methodology. We also show that the additional computation required to estimate the deformation is relatively inexpensive, making it suitable for real-time applications.

  18. [Iris heterochromia: variations in form, age changes, sex dimorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, O

    1979-06-01

    On a sample of n = 25,346 individuals from Vienna (10,855 males, 14,491 females) the iris pigmentation has been typed by the author. In this sample 65 cases of different types of heterochromia were found. The frequency of the occurrence of the different types of this anomaly could be calculated for the first time. Neglecting age, sex, and type of heterochromia the total frequency amounts to 0.256 (males: 0.157; females: 0.37) %. The variants of heterochromia very from cases of total heterochromia to those of various size; in addition to it a number of special types could be observed. The localization of the heterochrome parts of the iris shows certain variations; mostly, however, it is seen in the lower half of the iris. The nasal part is concerned in only one case; the temporal region never. Thus, the partial heterochromia is characteristic by a marked dependency of its localization. The colour of heterochromia varies from 2 a-14 according to the Martin-Schultz standard set of coloured eyes. However, No. 9 (ca. 50%) and No. 7 (ca. 20%) were the most frequent colours. The age variations are considerable. 5/6 of all heterochromias were found between the age from 2-19 years. Finally, a marked sexual dimorphism was observed, as in females heterochromia is much more frequent than in males.

  19. Design of bipod flexure mounts for the IRIS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingrod, Isaac; Chou, Catherine Y.; Holmes, Buck; Hom, Craig; Irwin, James Wes; Lindstrom, Obert; Lopez, Frank; Stubbs, David M.; Wüelser, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is a NASA SMall Explorer (SMEX) mission launched onboard a Pegasus™ booster on June 27, 2013. The spacecraft and instrument were designed and built at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company. The primary mission goal is to learn how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS will obtain high-resolution UV spectra and images in space (0.4 arcsec) and time (1s), focusing on the chromosphere and transition region of our sun, which is a complex interface region between the photosphere and corona. The IRIS instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope to feed a dual spectrograph and slit-jaw imager, which operate in the 133-141 nm and 278-283 nm wavelengths, respectively. Within the spectrograph there are sixteen optics, each requiring subtle mounting features to meet exacting surface figure and stability requirements. This paper covers the opto-mechanical design for the most challenging optic mounts, which include the Collimator, UV Fold Mirrors, and UV Gratings. Although all mounts are unique in size and shape, the fundamental design remains the same. The mounts are highly kinematic, thermally matched, and independent of friction. Their development will be described in detail, starting with the driving requirements and an explanation of the underlying design philosophy.

  20. Outcomes of Sutureless Iris-Claw Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Jünemann, Anselm G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2). The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21). The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27). No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was −0.27 Dsph (−3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28). The mean postoperative astigmatism was −1.82 Dcyl (min −0.25, max −5.5; median −1.25, SD 1.07). Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4). Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction. PMID:27642519

  1. Iris Recognition System Based on Feature Level Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. R. Ganorkar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems utilize the evidence presented by multiple biometric sources (e.g., face and fingerprint, multiple fingers of a single user, multiple matchers, etc. in order to determine or verify the identity of an individual. Information from multiple sources can be consolidated in several distinct levels. But fusion of two different biometric traits are difficult due to (i the feature sets of multiple modalities may be incompatible (e.g., minutiae set of fingerprints and eigen-coefficients of face; (ii the relationship between the feature spaces of different biometric systems may not be known; (iii concatenating two feature vectors may result in a feature vector with very large dimensionality leading to the `curse of dimensionality problem, huge storage space and different processing algorithm. Also if we are use multiple images of single biometric trait, then it doesn’t show much variations. So in this paper, we present a efficient technique of feature-based fusion in a multimodal system where left eye and right eye are used as input. Iris recognition basically contains iris location, feature extraction, and identification. This algorithm uses canny edge detection to identify inner and outer boundary of iris. Then this image is feed to Gabor wavelet transform to extract the feature and finally matching is done by using indexing algorithm. The results from the analysis of works indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in performance.

  2. Uso de la triamcinolona subtenoniana en pacientes con rubeosis del iris Use of intravitreal triamcinolone in patients with iris rubeosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rojas Rondón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el comportamiento de la rubeosis del iris luego de la aplicación de triamcinolona subtenoniana. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte longitudinal con 25 pacientes para un total de 32 ojos con diferentes afecciones oculares. Se efectuaron pruebas estadísticas con las variables del estudio y en algunas se utilizó la prueba de los signos de comparación para datos pareados y en otras se aplicó chi cuadrado. Se caracterizaron las variables: edad, sexo, causa de rubeosis del iris y sus estadios, síntomas y tratamiento con láser de panfotocoagulación retiniana. RESULTADOS: La retinopatía diabética proliferativa fue la afección más frecuente en el 76 % de los pacientes, seguida de la oclusión de la vena central retiniana. Del total de pacientes tratados, el 37,5 % evolucionó satisfactoriamente el estado de la rubeosis del iris. Fue mayor el número de pacientes que mejoraron el grado de la rubeosis con tratamiento combinado de láser y triamcinolona subtenoniana, aunque estadísticamente no fue significativo. El estado de la rubeosis mejoró en más de la mitad de los pacientes con tiempo de evolución menor de 6 meses. En aquellos con un tiempo mayor de 6 meses y neovascularización del iris grado III, se pudo estabilizar el glaucoma neovascular. CONCLUSIÓN: Se plantea que la triamcinolona subtenoniana constituye una alternativa para el manejo de este tipo de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the behaviour of iris rubeosis after using intravitreal triamcinolone. METHODS: A longitudinal descriptive study was performed on 25 patients for a total number of 32 eyes with several ocular diseases. Statistical tests were made with the study variables; sign comparison for paired data and Chi square tests were applied. The variables were age, sex, cause of iris rubeosis and its staging, symptoms and treatment with retinal photocoagulation laser. RESULTS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was the most common

  3. A New IRIS Normalization Process For Recognition System With Cryptographic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nithyanandam, S; Priyadarshini, P L K

    2011-01-01

    Biometric technologies are the foundation of personal identification systems. It provides an identification based on a unique feature possessed by the individual. This paper provides a walkthrough for image acquisition, segmentation, normalization, feature extraction and matching based on the Human Iris imaging. A Canny Edge Detection scheme and a Circular Hough Transform, is used to detect the iris boundaries in the eye's digital image. The extracted IRIS region was normalized by using Image Registration technique. A phase correlation base method is used for this iris image registration purpose. The features of the iris region is encoded by convolving the normalized iris region with 2D Gabor filter. Hamming distance measurement is used to compare the quantized vectors and authenticate the users. To improve the security, Reed-Solomon technique is employed directly to encrypt and decrypt the data. Experimental results show that our system is quite effective and provides encouraging performance. Keywords: Biome...

  4. A data hiding approach for the self-security of iris recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Attacks to biometric data are the primary danger to the self-security of biometrics.To improve the iris feature template data security,a data hiding approach based on bit streams is proposed,in which an iris feature template is embedded into a face image. The proposed approach is applicable to present dominant techniques of iris recognition.With the low computation cost and the zero decoding-error-rate,this data hiding approach,embedding target biometric data into other biometric data for improving the security of target data in identity recognition,data storage and transmission,can deceive attackers more effectively.Furthermore,it does not degrade the iris recognition performances.Experimental results prove that the proposed approach can be used to protect iris feature templates and enhance the security of the iris recognition system itself.

  5. A New IRIS Normalization Process For Recognition System With Cryptographic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nithyanandam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric technologies are the foundation of personal identification systems. It provides an identification based on a unique feature possessed by the individual. This paper provides a walkthrough for image acquisition, segmentation, normalization, feature extraction and matching based on the Human Iris imaging. A Canny Edge Detection scheme and a Circular Hough Transform, is used to detect the iris boundaries in the eye's digital image. The extracted IRIS region was normalized by using Image Registration technique. A phase correlation base method is used for this iris image registration purpose. The features of the iris region is encoded by convolving the normalized iris region with 2D Gabor filter. Hamming distance measurement is used to compare the quantized vectors and authenticate the users. To improve the security, Reed-Solomon technique is employed directly to encrypt and decrypt the data. Experimental results show that our system is quite effective and provides encouraging performance.

  6. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Siryani

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype

  7. Observations of solar flares with IRIS and SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Innes, D. E.; Ning, Z. J.

    2016-03-01

    Flare kernels brighten simultaneously in all Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) channels making it difficult to determine their temperature structure. The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is able to spectrally resolve Fe xxi emission from cold chromospheric brightenings, so it can be used to infer the amount of Fe xxi emission in the 131 Å AIA channel. We use observations of two small solar flares seen by IRIS and SDO to compare the emission measures (EMs) deduced from the IRIS Fe xxi line and the AIA 131 Å channel to determine the fraction of Fe xxi emission in flare kernels in the 131 Å channel of AIA. Cotemporal and cospatial pseudo-raster AIA images are compared with the IRIS results. We use multi-Gaussian line fitting to separate the blending chromospheric emission so as to derive Fe xxi intensities and Doppler shifts in IRIS spectra. We define loop and kernel regions based on the brightness of the 131 Å and 1600 Å intensities. In the loop regions the Fe xxi EMs are typically 80% of the 131 Å values, and range from 67% to 92%. Much of the scatter is due to small misalignments, but the largest site with low Fe xxi contributions was probably affected by a recent injection of cool plasma into the loop. In flare kernels the contribution of Fe xxi increases from less than 10% at the low-intensity 131 Å sites to 40-80% in the brighter kernels. Here the Fe xxi is superimposed on bright chromospheric emission and the Fe xxi line shows blueshifts, sometimes extending up to the edge of the spectral window, 200 km s-1. The AIA 131 Å emission in flare loops is due to Fe xxi emission with a 10-20% contribution from continuum, Fe xxiii, and cooler background plasma emission. In bright flare kernels up to 52% of the 131 Å is from cooler plasma. The wide range seen in the kernels is caused by significant structure in the kernels, which is seen as sharp gradients in Fe xxi EM at sites of molecular and transition region

  8. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by GPS and ionosonde with IRI model over China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe year 2011. Observed NmF2 and hmF2 values at the three stations are compared with IRI2007 andIRI2012 predictions, respectively. The results show that there are clear linear correlations between theobserved values and the IRI model predicted values. The IRI model gives overestimations at the threestations mostly in 2011. For the NmF2 and hmF2 values, most of the results show that the IRI2012predicted values are closer to the observed values compared with those of IRI2007. Additionally, theGPS TEC values derived from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) arecompared with the IRI2012 predictions. From the results, it is evident that the IRI2012 model predictionsfollow the normal trend of diurnal variation of GPS measured TEC monthly means but do not reproducethe measured data well. The IRI2012 model overestimates electron density in the latter part of spring aswell as the first half of autumn and winter and underestimates electron density in early spring and thelatter part of autumn. Referring to GPS TEC, the precision of the IRI2012 model predicted TEC valuesis ∼5 TECU over China. It may also be noted that there are two discontinuities of IRI-TEC monthlymeans appearing in November and December of the year 2011. This brings a bias of ∼3 TECU of TECvalues between two adjacent months.

  9. Perancangan Program Aplikasi Deteksi Iris Mata untuk Absensi Karyawan Menggunakan Metode Gabor Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To take the employees’ absences in a company, a variety of invented tools or technologies are and already used, for example, attendance cards, fingerprints attendance tool, and attendance tool that uses facial recognition. Attendance tool with a facial recognition uses iris recognition of those employees. Iris code has many properties that hard to forge. Thus, the detection and iris recognition is one of the most secure and accurate for identification. 

  10. Susceptibility of human iris stromal cells to herpes simplex virus 1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-04-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis.

  11. CHARACTERIZING HABITUATION USING THE TIME-ON-TASK METRIC IN AN IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselgren, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents a characterization of biometric habituation in an iris recognition study using qualitative analysis of a distributed habituation survey and quantitative analysis of iris images collected in 2010 and 2012. The performed analyses answered the following two questions: a) How consistently does the biometric community define habituation?; and b) Does the time-on-task variable provide enough evidence to indicate the existence of habituation in an iris recognition system? The qu...

  12. Lantionpohjan toimintahäiriöt : Fysioterapeuttiset hoitokäytännöt

    OpenAIRE

    Halinen, Erika; Pulkkinen, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Lantionpohjan toimintahäiriöt ovat merkittävä naisten elämänlaatua heikentävä vaiva. Lantionpohjan toimintahäiriöitä ovat virtsaamiseen, ulostamiseen ja seksuaalitoimintoihin liittyvät häiriöt sekä laskeumat ja lantionpohjan alueen kiputilat. Suurimmat riskitekijät toimintahäiriöiden synnylle ovat raskauksien, synnytysten ja ikääntymisen mukanaan tuomat lantionpohjan lihas-, sidekudos- ja hermovauriot tai -muutokset. Lantionpohjan eri rakenteet ja toiminnat ovat läheisessä yhteydessä toisiins...

  13. Iridectomy of the anterior iris stroma using the vitreocutter during phacoemulsification in patients with iridoschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Vinícius Coral; Ghanem, Emir Amin; Ghanem, Ramon Coral

    2003-11-01

    We present a technique to manage iridoschisis. This technique for anterior iridectomy of the affected iris fibers avoids intraoperative obstruction of the phaco tip and prevents postoperative complications such as corneal decompensation and glaucoma. Before the capsulorhexis is created, a vitreocutter is inserted in the anterior chamber and used to cut the iris strands at the site of the iridoschisis, making an anterior sectorial stromal iridectomy and preserving the iris pigment epithelium. Phacoemulsification is then performed. After the pupil is constricted with carbacol, remnants of the loose anterior iris fibers are excised with the vitreocutter and the scleral incision is sutured.

  14. Local Media in Global Conflict: Southeast Asian Newspapers and the Politics of Peace in Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Ozohu-Suleiman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often assumed that local media are a potential deescalating tool in global conflict. This study examines how four leading newspapers in Southeast Asia (Star of Malaysia, Philstar of the Philippines, Jakarta Post of Indonesia, and The Nation of Thailand reported the Israeli-Palestinian conflict during the year after the 2009 Gaza War. A census of 536 reports was coded for tones (to detect alignment, frames (to detect characterization of the conflict, and sources (to examine correlation with coverage tones. The results show fragmented alignment of the newspapers with Palestine and Israel. Conflict frames on offensives, fighting, threats, military strategies, demonization, death, and destruction were most prevalent. Coverage tones were significantly correlated with sources, suggesting that the potential of local media to serve as deescalating tools in global conflicts is subject to the varying political contexts in which they operate in relation to specific conflicts.

  15. The family is worthy of being rebuilt: perceptions of the Jewish family in Mandate Palestine, 1918-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Although the Jewish community of Palestine was an extremely family-oriented society and the institute of the family played a major role in the establishment of the new Zionist nationhood, the historiography has henceforth paid little attention to its role, images, and functions. This article will examine the diverse and often contradictory perceptions and influences that have shaped the Zionist period. Traditional Jewish perceptions intertwined with modern, bourgeois, and revolutionary notions of the family, whether national or socialist. These contradictory perceptions were manifested in the contested professional and public discourse regarding the many dysfunctional urban families in Tel Aviv, who were treated by welfare authorities and mental health specialists during the 1930s and 1940s.

  16. Primary healthcare reform in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, A; Abu-Rmeileh, N; Khader, A; Seita, A; McKee, M

    2016-09-25

    Palestinian refugees served by the United Nation Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) are experiencing increasing rates of diagnosis of non-communicable diseases. In response, in 2011 UNRWA initiated an Agency-wide programme of primary healthcare reform, informed by the Chronic Care Model framework. Health services were reorganized following a family-centred approach, with delivery by multidisciplinary family health teams supported by updated technical advice. An inclusive clinical information system, termed e-Health, was implemented to collect a wide range of health information, with a focus on continuity of treatment. UNRWA was able to bring about these wide-ranging changes within its existing resources, reallocating finances, reforming its payment mechanisms, and modernizing its drug-procurement policies. While specific components of UNRWA's primary healthcare reform are showing promising results, additional efforts are needed to empower patients further and to strengthen involvement of the community.

  17. Socio-environmental cooperation and conflict? A discursive understanding and its application to the case of Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ide

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature faces difficulties when accounting for the simultaneity of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation. We suggest that this puzzle can be solved by more recent constructivist works, which argue that conflictive or cooperative behavior is driven by discursively constructed interests, identities and situation assessments. Based on a literature review and field interviews, we analyze and compare the dominant national water discourses in Israel and Palestine with the discourse of a transnational water cooperation project between communities from Israel and the West Bank. Our main result is that discourses are indeed crucial for understanding water-related conflict and cooperation. This finding highlights the relevance of constructivist approaches in the study of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation as well as of practices of discursive conflict transformation.

  18. Socio-environmental cooperation and conflict? A discursive understanding and its application to the case of Israel and Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, T.; Fröhlich, C.

    2015-10-01

    The existing literature faces difficulties when accounting for the simultaneity of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation. We suggest that this puzzle can be solved by more recent constructivist works, which argue that conflictive or cooperative behavior is driven by discursively constructed interests, identities and situation assessments. Based on a literature review and field interviews, we analyze and compare the dominant water discourses in Israel and Palestine with the discourse dominant among the activists of a water cooperation project between communities from Israel and the West Bank. Our main result is that discourses are indeed crucial for understanding water-related conflict and cooperation. This finding highlights the relevance of constructivist approaches in the study of socio-environmental conflict and cooperation as well as of practices of bottom-up discursive conflict transformation.

  19. Three new species of cercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758, Buccinum) snails in Al-Bathan fresh water body, Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate other new species of cercariae encountered in Melanopsis praemorsa (M. praemorsa) snails collected from Palestine. Methods: A total of 1 100 M. praemorsa were collected from Al-Bathan water body, Palestine, from November, 2010 to November, 2011. Cercariae in M. praemorsa were obtained by emerging and crushing methods. Results: Other three new different species of cercariae have been identified from this snail. These species were Xiphidiocercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia IV), Microcercous (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia V) and Longifurcate cercaria (Cercaria melanopsi palestinia VI). The infection rate ofM. praemorsa with these three different cercariae was (42.2%). Coinfection with Xiphidiocercariae and Longifurcate cercariae or Xiphidiocercariae and Microcercous cercariae has been noted and coinfection rate was 1.23% among the infected snails. The highest cercarial infection rate was in June (64.3%). No infected snails were found in September. It was also noted that infected snails attained a larger size than uninfected ones and all infected snails had a size between 17-22 mm (average 20 mm). Conclusions: Our studies imply that there are potentially more new species of trematodes in this area than were found until now. Due to the presence of infected M. praemorsa and may be species of other snails, water resources could be contaminated by the emerging new cercariae, consequently attack the local people directly via the skin or are transferred to them by metacercariae ingestion. More surveys are needed to identify the real prevalence of the trematodes both in human and animal hosts, and also to determine the range of snail hosts of the parasite in enzootic areas of the disease, as well as the life cycle and biology of trematodes and its effects on man should be elucidated.

  20. Extended Spectrum β-lactamases and antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Essawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Class D oxacillinases are frequently acquired by gram negative bacteria in general and P. aeruginosa in particular.P. aeruginosa is commonly implicated in causing nosocomial infections. The evolution of antibiotic resistance inP. aeruginosa and the acquisition of blaOXA genes interfere with successful treatment.Methods: A total of 49 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from Rafidia Hospital, West Bank, Palestine.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following theguidelines of CLSI. The prevalence of class D β-lactamases (OXA groups I, II and III as well as the pseudomonas specificenzymes (CARB-3 were determined by PCR.Results: Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems was the highest 89%, and lowest to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid70%. This study revealed that P. aeruginosa produced oxacillinase enzymes at rates of: OXA-10 (40.8%, OXA-2 (20.4%and OXA-1 (18.4%. All ceftazidime resistant strains expressed OXA-1 and OXA-2, 18.4%. PSE group was expressed in10.2%.Conclusions: This is the first research conducted to investigate the correlation between OXA genes (blaOXA-1, bla-OXA-2 and blaOXA-10 and antimicrobial resistance among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in Palestine. The results obtainedcould contribute to better treatment and reduction of the evolution of resistant strains. In addition, it will provideimportant information regarding the geographical distribution of class D β-lactamases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2:56-60Key words: P. aeruginosa, β-lactamase, susceptibility, oxacillinases, blaOXA genes

  1. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients.

  2. ISRAEL AND PALESTINE: NEGOTIATION PROCESS TESTING ("OSLO-1" AND "OSLO-2" CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. ABRAMOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the review of the practical experience of foreign policy negotiations, Israel and Palestine, which deserves special attention, as this analogue in the history of international relations, in particular the Arab-Israel conflict, no. Examine the current state of the Arab-Israel conflict is unthinkable without the experience of I. Rabin, who most vividly demonstrates the evolution of Israel foreign policy, his openness and readiness for dialogue, first of all, to a real compromise. This does not imply that all can be repeated. Experience frequent repetition of a repetition error usually. At the same time it said that the search for common programs relative parties were extremely complex Arab- Israel conflict task, because between them there was a deep split that has paralyzed the foreign policy dialogue and led to a sharp demarcation of positions both within the country and abroad. We would like to emphasize the fact that the further advancing the foreign policy talks, the more he helped outbreaks of violence, intensified them, caused his return character, rather than weakened. As a result, the Israel-Palestinian conflict as an integral part of the Arab-Israel conflict "increases the number of Arabs who are ready to die in a protracted historical conflict with Israel." The paper focuses on the relation of social forces to the idea of the world, desperately sought for him, and the results of the agreements reached in the course of which the hopes and disappointments of successive. It is said that the parties have not been able to overcome the aggressive perceptions of each other, while in captivity their traditional ideas and prejudices that inevitably dooms the conflict on false interpretation. It is obvious that the lack of consensus, balancing on the verge of war and peace, creates confusion and confusion in the minds of people who make their own history and the circumstances that they

  3. Hyaluronic acid production and hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during lens regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulyk, W.M.; Zalik, S.E.; Dimitrov, E.

    1987-09-01

    The process of lens regeneration in newts involves the dedifferentiation of pigmented iris epithelial cells and their subsequent conversion into lens fibers. In vivo this cell-type conversion is restricted to the dorsal region of the iris. We have examined the patterns of hyaluronate accumulation and endogenous hyaluronidase activity in the newt iris during the course of lens regeneration in vivo. Accumulation of newly synthesized hyaluronate was estimated from the uptake of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine into cetylpyridinium chloride-precipitable material that was sensitive to Streptomyces hyaluronidase. Endogenous hyaluronidase activity was determined from the quantity of reducing N-acetylhexosamine released upon incubation of iris tissue extract with exogenous hyaluronate substrate. We found that incorporation of label into hyaluronate was consistently higher in the regeneration-activated irises of lentectomized eyes than in control irises from sham-operated eyes. Hyaluronate labeling was higher in the dorsal (lens-forming) region of the iris than in ventral (non-lens-forming) iris tissue during the regeneration process. Label accumulation into hyaluronate was maximum between 10 and 15 days after lentectomy, the period of most pronounced dedifferentiation in the dorsal iris epithelium. Both normal and regenerating irises demonstrated a high level of endogenous hyaluronidase activity with a pH optimum of 3.5-4.0. Hyaluronidase activity was 1.7 to 2 times higher in dorsal iris tissue than in ventral irises both prior to lentectomy and throughout the regeneration process. We suggest that enhanced hyaluronate accumulation may facilitate the dedifferentiation of iris epithelial cells in the dorsal iris and prevent precocious withdrawal from the cell cycle. The high level of hyaluronidase activity in the dorsal iris may promote the turnover and remodeling of extracellular matrix components required for cell-type conversion.

  4. Virtual Ionosonde Construction by using ITS and IRI-2012 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal, Mehmet; Toker, Cenk

    2016-07-01

    Ionosonde is a kind of radar which is used to examine several properties of the ionosphere, including the electron density and drift velocity. Ionosonde is an expensive device and its installation requires special expertise and a proper area clear of sources of radio interference. In order to overcome the difficulties of installing an ionosonde hardware, the target of this study is to construct a virtual ionosonde based on communication channel models where the model parameters are determined by ray tracing obtained by the PHaRLAP software and the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model. Although narrowband high frequency (HF) communication models have been widely used to represent the behaviour of the radio channel, they are applicable to a limited set of actual propagation conditions and wideband models are needed to better understand the HF channel. In 1997, the Institute for Telecommunication Science (ITS) developed a wideband HF ionospheric model, the so-called ITS model, however, it has some restrictions in real life applications. The ITS model parameters are grouped into two parts; the deterministic and the stochastic parameters. The deterministic parameters are the delay time (tau _{c}) of each reflection path based on the penetration frequency (f _{p}), the height (h _{0}) of the maximum electron density and the half thickness (sigma) of the reflective layer. The stochastic parameters, delay spread (sigma _{tau}), delay rise time (sigma _{c}), Doppler spread (sigma _{D}), Doppler shift (f _{s}), are to calculate the impulse response of the channel. These parameters are generally difficult to obtain and are based on the measured data which may not be available in all cases. In order to obtain these parameters, we propose to integrate the PHaRLAP ray tracing toolbox and the IRI-2012 model. When Total Electron Content (TEC) estimates obtained from GNSS measurements are input to IRI-2012, the model generates electron density profiles close to the

  5. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    OpenAIRE

    Knipschild, P

    1988-01-01

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the ...

  6. Thirty Years Supporting Portable Arrays: The IRIS Passcal Instrument Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Anderson, K. R.; Bilek, S. L.; Woodward, R.

    2014-12-01

    Thirty years have passed since establishment of the IRIS Program for the Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere (PASSCAL). PASSCAL was part of a coordinated plan proposed to the National Science Foundation (NSF) defining the instrumentation, data collection and management structure to support a wide range of research in seismology. The PASSCAL program has surpassed the early goal of 6000 data acquisition channels with a current inventory of instrumentation capable of imaging from the near surface to the inner core. Here we present the evolution of the PASSCAL program from instrument depot to full service community resource. PASSCAL has supported close to 1100 PI driven seismic experiments since its inception. Instruments from PASSCAL have covered the globe and have contributed over 7400 SEED stations and 242 assembled data sets to the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Since the combination in 1998 of the Stanford and Lamont instrument centers into the single PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) at New Mexico Tech, the facility has grown in scope by adding the EarthScope Array Operations Facility in 2005, the incorporation of the EarthScope Flexible Array, and a Polar support group in 2006. The polar support group enhances portable seismic experiments in extremely harsh polar environments and also extends to special projects such as the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) and the recent development effort for Geophysical Earth Observatory for Ice Covered Environments (GEOICE). Through these support efforts the PIC has established itself as a resource for field practices, engineered solutions for autonomous seismic stations, and a pioneer in successful seismic recording in polar environments. We are on the cusp of a new generation of instrumentation driven in part by the academic community's desire to record unaliased wavefields in multiple frequency bands and industry's interest in utilizing lower frequency data. As part of the recently

  7. The Iris biometric feature segmentation using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibitayo LANLEGE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents a method for segmentation of iris images based on a deformable contour (active contour paradigm. The deformable contour is a novel approach in image segmentation. A type of active contour is the Snake. Snake is a parametric curve defined within the domain of the image. Snake properties are specified through a function called energy functional. This means they consist of packets of energy which expressed as partial Differential Equations. The partial Differential Equation is the controlling engine of the active contour since this project, the Finite Element Method (Standard Galerkin Method implementation for deformable model is presented.

  8. Iris sector heterochromia as a marker for neural crest disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazel, S M; Sullivan, T J; Thorner, P S; Clarke, M P; Hunter, W S; Morin, J D

    1992-02-01

    A 6-month-old female infant with biopsy-proved Hirschsprung's disease had associated sector heterochromia of the irides. The association between sector heterochromia and Hirschsprung's disease has been previously reported and both conditions have been ascribed to neural crest defects. Histologic characteristics of the ocular involvement have not previously been reported, to our knowledge. Histopathologic examination of the globes revealed decreased iris stroma, decreased pigmentation in the anterior stroma, and reduced numbers of pigment-producing cells in the affected areas. Both the ocular and gastrointestinal findings reflect abnormalities in tissues of neural crest origin.

  9. EST and EST-SSR marker resources for Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Christopher A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited DNA sequence and DNA marker resources have been developed for Iris (Iridaceae, a monocot genus of 200–300 species in the Asparagales, several of which are horticulturally important. We mined an I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST database for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and developed ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers for genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris. Here, we describe the abundance and other characteristics of SSRs identified in the transcript assembly (EST database and the cross-species utility and polymorphisms of I. brevicaulis-I. fulva EST-SSR markers among wild collected ecotypes and horticulturally important cultivars. Results Collectively, 6,530 ESTs were produced from normalized leaf and root cDNA libraries of I. brevicaulis (IB72 and I. fulva (IF174, and assembled into 4,917 unigenes (1,066 contigs and 3,851 singletons. We identified 1,447 SSRs in 1,162 unigenes and developed 526 EST-SSR markers, each tracing a different unigene. Three-fourths of the EST-SSR markers (399/526 amplified alleles from IB72 and IF174 and 84% (335/399 were polymorphic between IB25 and IF174, the parents of I. brevicaulis × I. fulva mapping populations. Forty EST-SSR markers were screened for polymorphisms among 39 ecotypes or cultivars of seven species – 100% amplified alleles from wild collected ecotypes of Louisiana Iris (I.brevicaulis, I.fulva, I. nelsonii, and I. hexagona, whereas 42–52% amplified alleles from cultivars of three horticulturally important species (I. pseudacorus, I. germanica, and I. sibirica. Ecotypes and cultivars were genetically diverse – the number of alleles/locus ranged from two to 18 and mean heterozygosity was 0.76. Conclusion Nearly 400 ortholog-specific EST-SSR markers were developed for comparative genetic mapping and other genotyping applications in Iris, were highly polymorphic among ecotypes and cultivars, and have broad utility for genotyping applications within

  10. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  11. Iris Marion Young's Imaginations of Gift Giving: Some Implications for the Teacher and the Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses Iris Marion Young's idea of asymmetric reciprocity that rethinks typical understandings of gift giving. Iris Marion Young's proposals for asymmetric ethical relationships have important implications for democratic contexts that seek to take differences seriously. Imagining oneself in the place of the other or expecting from the…

  12. Gaze estimation for off-angle iris recognition based on the biometric eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Barstow, Del; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Thompson, Joseph; Bolme, David; Boehnen, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ORNL biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  13. Influence of tamsulosin on the iris and its implications for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Leppänen, Esa; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Mauriala, Timo; Dugué, Benoit; Lehtonen, Marko

    2006-09-01

    To study iris-related complications during cataract surgery in patients on tamsulosin medication. Twenty-one consecutive cataract patients administered tamsulosin and 21 control patients were studied. Characteristics of the iris during surgery were recorded. Pupillary diameters of 16 patients were measured before and after iris dilatation. Tamsulosin concentrations in the aqueous humor and serum were analyzed. In five patients, surgery on the second eye was carried out after a 7- to 28-day pause in tamsulosin medication. Each patient administered tamsulosin had a sluggish hypotonic iris, along with a tendency toward miosis and a tendency for prolapse of the iris into the phaco tunnel or into the side port during cataract surgery. Sluggish irises also often adhered to the phaco tip or to the irrigation-aspiration tip. Despite a pause of 7 to 28 days in the use of tamsulosin, the adverse effects persisted. Tamsulosin concentrations varied between 0.1 and 1.0 ng/mL in the anterior chamber fluid. In three of five cases, tamsulosin remained in detectable amounts the aqueous humor after the 7- to 28-day pause. Preoperative pupillary diameter was smaller in the patients using tamsulosin than in the controls. Tamsulosin has selective alpha1A-adrenoreceptor antagonistic properties and obviously binds for a long period to the postsynaptic nerve endings of the iris dilator muscle, thus affecting iris dilatation and leading to complications in cataract surgery. The iris remained floppy after 7- to 28-day interruption of the tamsulosin regimen.

  14. Iris: Constructing and Analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions with the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, O.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Busko, I.; Cresitello-Dittmar, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Doe, S.; Evans, J.; Pevunova, O.

    2014-05-01

    We present Iris 2.0, the latest release of the Virtual Astronomical Observatory application for building and analyzing Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). With Iris, users may read in and display SEDs inspect and edit any selection of SED data, fit models to SEDs in arbitrary spectral ranges, and calculate confidence limits on best-fit parameters. SED data may be loaded into the application from VOTable and FITS files compliant with the International Virtual Observatoy Alliance interoperable data models, or retrieved directly from NED or the Italian Space Agency Science Data Center; data in non-standard formats may also be converted within the application. Users may seamlessy exchange data between Iris and other Virtual Observatoy tools using the Simple Application Messaging Protocol. Iris 2.0 also provides a tool for redshifting, interpolating, and measuring integratd fluxes, and allows simple aperture corrections for individual points and SED segments. Custom Python functions, template models and template libraries may be imported into Iris for fitting SEDs. Iris may be extended through Java plugins; users can install third-party packages, or develop their own plugin using Iris' Software Development Kit. Iris 2.0 is available for Linux and Mac OS X systems.

  15. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  16. A Summary and Perspective of Recent IRIS Assessments and Impact on Planning Environmental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    IRIS)  IRIS values also inform regulatory decisions (MCLs etc.) BUILDING STRONG® Emerging Contaminants (ECs)  Are chemicals or materials of...there is an existing health standard, but the standard is evolving or being re-evaluated. 4 Source: “Initiation of Emerging Contaminants Characterization

  17. Membrane degradation and phospholipase D activity during developmental cell death in Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de T.; Schoot, van der C.; Pak, C.; Doorn, van W.G.

    1996-01-01

    Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers show the first symptoms of senescence within 4 days after the onset of flower opening. Wilting of the tepals starts at the distal edges, rapidly proceeds to the base, and is followed by total discolouration of the tepal. Senescence of Iris flowers is not

  18. The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: latest science cases and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Shelley A; Do, Tuan; Marshall, Daniel; Larkin, James E; Moore, Anna M; Adamkovics, Mate; Andersen, David; Armus, Lee; Barth, Aaron; Cote, Patrick; Cooke, Jeff; Chisholm, Eric M; Davidge, Timothy; Dunn, Jennifer S; Dumas, Christophe; Ellerbroeck, Brent L; Ghez, Andrea M; Hao, Lei; Hayano, Yutaka; Liu, Michael; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Lu, Jessica R; Mao, Shude; Marois, Christian; Pandey, Shashi B; Philips, Andrew C; Schoeck, Matthias; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Subramanian, Smitha; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tan, Jonathan C; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Treu, Tommaso; Simard, Luc; Weiss, Jason L; Wincensten, James; Wong, Michael; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) will complete its preliminary design phase in 2016. The IRIS instrument design includes a near-infrared (0.85 - 2.4 micron) integral field spectrograph (IFS) and imager that are able to conduct simultaneous diffraction-limited observations behind the advanced adaptive optics system NFIRAOS. The IRIS science cases have continued to be developed and new science studies have been investigated to aid in technical performance and design requirements. In this development phase, the IRIS science team has paid particular attention to the selection of filters, gratings, sensitivities of the entire system, and science cases that will benefit from the parallel mode of the IFS and imaging camera. We present new science cases for IRIS using the latest end-to-end data simulator on the following topics: Solar System bodies, the Galactic center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. We then briefl...

  19. [Use of computer technologies for studying the morphological characteristics of the iris color in anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, A A; Khrustalev, A V; Krylov, Iu V; Bocharov, D A; Negasheva, M A

    2010-01-01

    Digital images of the iris were received for study peculiarities of the iris color during the anthropological examination of 578 students aged 16-24 years. Simultaneously with the registration of the digital images, the visual assessment of the eye color was carried out using the traditional scale of Bunak, based on 12 ocular prostheses. Original software for automatic determination of the iris color based on 12 classes scale of Bunak was designed, and computer version of that scale was developed. The software proposed allows to conduct the determination of the iris color with high validity based on numerical evaluation; its application may reduce the bias due to subjective assessment and methodological divergences of the different researchers. The software designed for automatic determination of the iris color may help develop both theoretical and applied anthropology, it may be used in forensic and emergency medicine, sports medicine, medico-genetic counseling and professional selection.

  20. Free-Floating Iris Cyst in a Patient with Recurrent Iritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teong, Joanne M.Y.; Adler, Paul A.; Fuzzard, Dujon R.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We describe an unusual clinical finding of a free-floating iris cyst in a patient with recurrent iritis. Method The clinical finding of a free-floating iris cyst was recorded using slit-lamp photography. Results A 39-year-old male with a 5-year history of recurrent right iritis was found to have a small mobile iris cyst within his right anterior chamber, first identified 3 years ago. The patient did not experience any discomfort or visual symptoms resulting from the cyst. Conclusion Surgical removal is not indicated for asymptomatic non-progressive free-floating iris cysts. The significance of a free-floating iris cyst in the setting of recurrent iritis remains unknown. PMID:26120316

  1. Performance evaluation of IRI-2007 at equatorial latitudes and its Matlab version for GNSS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Srinivas, V.; Sarma, A. D.; Swamy, K. C. T.; Satyanarayana, K.

    2013-11-01

    International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model is the widely used empirical model for ionospheric predictions, especially TEC which is an important parameter for radio navigation and communication. The Fortran based IRI-2007 does not support real-time interactive visualization and debugging. Therefore, the source code is converted into Matlab and is validated for the purposes of this study. This facilitates easy representation of results and for near real-time implementation of IRI in the applications including spacecraft launching, now casting, pseudolite based navigation systems etc. In addition, the vertical delay results over the equatorial region derived from IRI and GPS data of three IGS stations namely Libreville (Garbon, Africa), Brasilia (Brazil, South America) and Hyderabad (India, Asia) are compared. As the IRI model does not account for plasmasphere TEC, the vertical delays are underestimated compared to vertical delays of GPS signals. Therefore, the model should be modified accordingly for precise TEC estimation.

  2. A Narrative Methodology to Recognize Iris Patterns By Extracting Features Using Gabor Filters and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shristi Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris pattern Recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-Recognition techniques on images of one or both of the irises of an individual’s eyes, whose complex random patterns are unique, stable, and can be seen from some distance. Iris recognition uses video camera technology with subtle near infrared illumination to acquire images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the iris which are visible externally. In this narrative research paper the input image is captured and the success of the iris recognition depends on the quality of the image so the captured image is subjected to the preliminary image preprocessing techniques like localization, segmentation, normalization and noise detection followed by texture and edge feature extraction by using Gabor filters and wavelets then the processed image is matched with templates stored in the database to detect the Iris Patterns.

  3. Twin Layer Iris Certification for Confidential Archive by Conceiving Shares (ICCA-CS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinduja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iris is one of the most challenging biometric techniques. In many proposed biometric recognition technique, template’s are store in the database for comparison. But there exists a vital problem in storing the template in the database since it can be easily bootlegged. In order to overcome these issues a novel method for person identification by their Iris, through securely storing the template is proposed. Visual Cryptography Encryption (VCE technique is used for securely storing the iris template. By means of VCE, shares are generated for the iris template which is stored in the database instead of storing the entire template. Shares are generated by pixel expansion method. Authentication is provided by comparing the shares. Comparison is done by using Hamming Code. So it is a very effective method of person identification. The proposed method gives an extra security in iris recognition.

  4. Measuring Biometric Sample Quality in terms of Biometric Feature Information in Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Youmaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.

  5. Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K

    2011-09-01

    Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.

  6. Free-Floating Iris Cyst in a Patient with Recurrent Iritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M.Y. Teong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We describe an unusual clinical finding of a free-floating iris cyst in a patient with recurrent iritis. Method: The clinical finding of a free-floating iris cyst was recorded using slit-lamp photography. Results: A 39-year-old male with a 5-year history of recurrent right iritis was found to have a small mobile iris cyst within his right anterior chamber, first identified 3 years ago. The patient did not experience any discomfort or visual symptoms resulting from the cyst. Conclusion: Surgical removal is not indicated for asymptomatic non-progressive free-floating iris cysts. The significance of a free-floating iris cyst in the setting of recurrent iritis remains unknown.

  7. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  8. Fractional Scaling Analysis for IRIS pressurizer reduced scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra da Silva, Mario Augusto, E-mail: mabs500@gmail.co [Departamento de Energia Nuclear - Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, 50740-540 Recife, PE (Brazil); Brayner de Oliveira Lira, Carlos Alberto, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.b [Departamento de Energia Nuclear - Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, 50740-540 Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira Barroso, Antonio Carlos de, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-900 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    About twenty organizations joined in a consortium led by Westinghouse to develop an integral, modular and medium size pressurized water reactor (PWR), known as international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS), which is characterized by having most of its components inside the pressure vessel, eliminating or minimizing the probability of severe accidents. The pressurizer is responsible for pressure control in PWRs. A small continuous flow is maintained by the spray system in conventional pressurizers. This mini-flow allows a mixing between the reactor coolant and the pressurizer water, warranting acceptable limits for occasional differences in boron concentrations. There are neither surge lines nor spray in IRIS pressurizer, but surge and recirculation orifices that promote a circulation flow between primary system and pressurizer, avoiding power transients whether outsurges occur. The construction of models is a routine practice in engineering, being supported by similarity rules. A new method of scaling systems, Fractional Scaling Analysis, has been successfully used to analyze pressure variations, considering the most relevant agents of change. The aim of this analysis is to obtain the initial boron concentration ratio and the volumetric flows that ensure similar behavior for boron dispersion in a prototype and its model.

  9. TEC Longitude Difference Using GIMS and the IRI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Mendoza, Gastón

    2016-07-01

    The main geomagnetic field declination has a global distribution with positive and negative values showing maximum east-west differences over North America and Oceania and minimum differences over America and Asia. Several authors study one or more of these regions using TEC data derived from GNSS observations to describe variations in TEC. They reported a pronounced longitudinal variation respect to zero magnetic declination. One of the important factors that cause the longitude difference at mid-latitude is a combined effect of the longitude variations of magnetic declination and the variations of the zonal thermospheric winds with local time. We propose to study this effect using Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) and the respective TEC values generated from the International Reference Ionospheric (IRI) model, during a solar cycle, applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Our works is focused over different local times and regions at mid-latitude. PCA involves a mathematical procedure that transforms a number of correlated variables into a number of uncorrelated variables using the data itself. The spatial structure of the ionosphere variability and its temporal evolution, together are called modes, and there are ordered according to their percentage of the variability of data from highest to lowest. In this analysis the first mode has more than the 90 % of the variability, representing the nominal behavior of the ionosphere, and the second and third modes are the more important for our analysis, because they show the strong longitudinal variation in the different regions using either GIMs or the IRI model.

  10. Posterior Iris Fixated Intraocular Lens for Pediatric Traumatic Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, V.; Balasubramanian, Preethi; Heralgi, Mallikarjun M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative visual outcomes and complications of posterior iris fixated intraocular lens (IFIOL) implantation for pediatric traumatic cataract. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was performed of all the pediatric traumatic cataract patients who underwent lens removal and iris fixated lens implantation due to inadequate capsular support with or without corneal tear repair between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative and postoperative visual outcomes and complications. Results: Twenty-five children (25 eyes; 21 males and 4 females) were enrolled with the mean age of 11 ± 4.0 years. There were 72% of eyes that underwent primary cataract removal with IFIOL implantation. Twenty-eight percent of eyes underwent corneal tear repair prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in 32% eyes, counting fingers in 24%, and perception of light in 44%. Postoperative BCVA of 0-0.2 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was reported in the 64% of eyes. One eye developed secondary glaucoma, one eye underwent re-enclavation, and none developed retinal complications. Conclusion: Posterior IFIOL implantation resulted in an improved visual outcome, low incidence of postoperative complications, and is a good alternative to other IOL, in the cases of pediatric traumatic cataract without adequate capsular support. PMID:27162456

  11. Unilatelaral iris plateau syndrome after the use of ecstasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground. Courmon street name for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is ecstasy. This widely abused 'recreational' drug causes both an increased release of monoamine neurotransmitters, including serotonine and dopamine, and an increased reuptake inhibition of serotonin. As a consequence, mydriasis and increased intraocular pressure (IOP in predisposed patients occur. We present herein a rare case of acute increased IOP after use of ecstasy. Case report. A female patient, aged 38 years, visited doctor complaing of a decreased vision acuity and severe pain in the left eye and in the left part of the head. The initial treatment was urgent antiglaucomatous therapy followed by withdrawal of subjective problems of the patient and improvement of objective finding. History taking procedure reveled that just before the onset of the pain the patient had used ecstasy and had had similar 'experience' 6 years ago after cocaine snorting. She had not been to a doctor although she had experienced sporadic migrenous pain. Previous medical records excavation of revealed optic disk (cup-to-dise C/D=06, Bjerum arcuate scotoma and iris plateau with narrow chamber angle (Scheie II- III so the diagnosis was a rare unilateral iris plateau syndrome of the left eye. Although the patient was given some pieces of information about the dangerous and possible deadly consequences of psychoactive substance abuse, she has not continue the treatment. Conclusion. Ecstasy abuse might cause a complete loss of vision, thus medicametous and surgical treatment are obligatory.

  12. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2011-03-01

    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.

  13. RANK LEVEL FUSION USING FINGERPRINT AND IRIS BIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Authentication of users is an essential and difficult to achieve in all systems. Shared secrets like Personal Identification Numbers (PIN or Passwords and key devices such as Smart cards are not presently sufficient in few situations. The biometric improves the capability to recognize the persons. A biometric identificationsystem is an automatic recognition system that recognizes a person based on the physiological (e.g., fingerprints,face, retina, iris, ear or behavioral (e.g., gait, signature, voice characteristics. In many real-world applications,unimodal biometric systems often face has significant limitations due to sensitivity to noise, intra classvariability, data quality, non-universality, and other factors. Multimodal biometric systems overcome some of these limitations. Multimodal biometric system provides more accuracy when compared to unimodal biometric system. The main goal of multimodal biometric system is to develop the security system for the areas that require high level of security. The proposed system focused on developing a multimodal biometrics system,which uses biometrics such as fingerprint and iris. Fusion of biometrics is performed by means of rank level fusion. The features from the biometrics are obtained by using the FLD (Fisher Linear Discriminant. The experimental result shows the performance of the proposed multimodal biometrics system. In this paper, the decision is made using rank level fusion and the ranks of individual persons are calculated using the Borda count, and Logistic regression approaches.

  14. Human Iris Recognition System using Wavelet Transform and LVQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Yong; Lim, Shin Young [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea); Cho, Seong Won [Hongik University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The popular methods to check the identity of individuals include passwords and ID cards. These conventional methods for user identification and authentication are not altogether reliable because they can be stolen and forgotten. As an alternative of the existing methods, biometric technology has been paid much attention for the last few decades. In this paper, we propose an efficient system for recognizing the identity of a living person by analyzing iris patterns which have a high level of stability and distinctiveness than other biometric measurements. The proposed system is based on wavelet transform and a competitive neural network with the improved mechanisms. After preprocessing the iris data acquired through a CCD camera, feature vectors are extracted by using Haar wavelet transform. LVQ(Learning Vector Quantization) is exploited to classify these feature vectors. We improve the overall performance of the proposed system by optimizing the size of feature vectors and by introducing an efficient initialization of the weight vectors and a new method for determining the winner in order to increase the recognition accuracy of LVQ. From the experiments, we confirmed that the proposed system has a great potential of being applied to real applications in an efficient and effective way. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Some Physiological Responses of Chinese Iris to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wen-Bo; LI Pin-Fang; LI Bao-Guo; H. FUJIYAMA; FAN Fen-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Chinese iris (Iris lactea Pall. Var. Chinensis (Fisch) Koidz.), a robust iridaceous plant, is widesprcad in arid and semiarid regions with high salinity. However, the mechanism of its salt tolerance is not well understood. In this study,plant growth, water status, content and distribution of inorganic ions, cell membrane permeability, and proline content of I. Lactea under salt stress were investigated using nutrient solutions with six NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 350 mmol L-1. The results indicated that the biomass, height, fresh weight, K+ content, and K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ratios decreased with increasing NaCl stress, whereas plant water deficit and contents of Na+ and Cl- increased with increasing NaCl stress. In all salt treatments, water deficit of shoots was found to be higher than that of roots and had a positive correlation with salt concentration. When the NaCl concentration was less than 280 mmol L-1, the ion absorption selectivity ratio and the transportation selectivity ratio sharply increased with increasing NaCl stress. Under medium salt stress, I. Lactea exhibited a strong K+ selective absorption and the transportation of K+ from roots to shoots increased, whereas Na+ was not transported and was mostly retained in roots. The plants were able to maintain osmotic adjustment through the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, and proline. On the basis of its biomass production under salt stress,I. Lactea could be considered as a facultative halophyte.

  16. Foreign body embedded in the iris after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Bueso, E; Jiménez-Santos, M; Díaz-Valle, D; Gegúndez-Fernández, J A; Cuiña-Sardiña, R; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J

    2016-03-01

    a 75-year old woman who had had cataract surgery in her left eye and showed a visual acuity of 0.8 twenty-four hours post-surgery. Biomicroscopy revealed a foreign body attached to the iris in the nasal sector that coincided with the main incision of the phacoemulsification, which was then removed in a second surgical procedure. It was analysed and described as an inert structure made of plastic. The possible origin of the presence of a fragment of plastic in the postoperative period following cataract surgery is established. In this case, its inert nature did not cause any further intraocular inflammation. Its rigid structure also favoured its attachment to the iris, thus avoiding any other complications. There must be greater preventative measures during cataract surgery, including checking the instruments and accessories before and after the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. The Infrared Imaging Surveyor (Iris) Project: Astro-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibai, H.

    IRIS (Infrared Imaging Surveyor) is the first Japanese satellite dedicated solely to infrared astronomy. The telescope has 70-cm aperture, and is cooled down to 6 K with super-fluid helium assisted by two-stage Stirling cycle coolers. On the focal plane, the two instruments, the InfraRed Camera (IRC) and the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), are mounted. IRC is a near- and mid-infrared camera for deep imaging-surveys in the wavelength region from 2 to 25 microns. FIS is a far-infrared instrument for a whole sky survey in the wavelength region from 50 to 200 microns. The diffraction-limited spatial resolution is achieved except in the shortest waveband. The point source sensitivity and the survey coverage are significantly improved compared to previous missions. The primary scientific objective is to investigate birth and evolution of galaxies in the early universe by surveys of young normal galaxies and starburst galaxies. IRIS is thrown by a Japanese M-V rocket into a sun-synchronous orbit, in which the cooled telescope can avoid huge emissions from the Sun and the Earth. The expected holding time of the super-fluid helium is more than one year. After consumption of the helium, the near-infrared observation can be continued by the mechanical coolers

  18. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with IRI-2007 and IRI-2012 modeled TEC at an equatorial latitude station, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunpold, Sanit; Tripathi, Nitin K.; Rajesh Chowdhary, V.; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the first vertical total electron content (VTEC) data derived from a dual-frequency GPS receiver installed at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok, as part of project SCINDA (Scintillation Network and Decision Aid) with a magnetic dip latitude of 14°N, The diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variation in TEC, measured between August 2010 and July 2012, was compared with values derived from two International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models: the IRI-2007 and the recently released IRI-2012. The highest diurnal TEC always occurred between 08:00 and 12:00 Universal Time (UT). The diurnal pattern of GPS-TEC reached its maximum values during equinoctial months (March, April, September, and October) and minimum values during solstice months (June, July, December, and January), which can be attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E×B drift. The modeled TEC was underestimated in 2010 and 2011 and overestimated in 2012, especially with the IRI-2007 model. The measured values were better correlated with the IRI-2012 model, especially in 2012. However, neither of the IRI models responded to geomagnetic activity, despite the selection of the “storm” option, generally showing a smooth curve and underestimating TEC during a storm. To verify this phenomenon, the impacts of geomagnetic storms were considered.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  20. Fluid and structure coupling analysis of the interaction between aqueous humor and iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjia; Qian, Xiuqing; Song, Hongfang; Zhang, Mindi; Liu, Zhicheng

    2016-12-28

    Glaucoma is the primary cause of irreversible blindness worldwide associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated intraocular pressure will affect the normal aqueous humor outflow, resulting in deformation of iris. However, the deformation ability of iris is closely related to its material properties. Meanwhile, the passive deformation of the iris aggravates the pupillary block and angle closure. The nature of the interaction mechanism of iris deformation and aqueous humor fluid flow has not been fully understood and has been somewhat a controversial issue. The purpose here was to study the effect of IOP, localization, and temperature on the flow of the aqueous humor and the deformation of iris interacted by aqueous humor fluid flow. Based on mechanisms of aqueous physiology and fluid dynamics, 3D model of anterior chamber (AC) was constructed with the human anatomical parameters as a reference. A 3D idealized standard geometry of anterior segment of human eye was performed. Enlarge the size of the idealization geometry model 5 times to create a simulation device by using 3D printing technology. In this paper, particle image velocimetry technology is applied to measure the characteristic of fluid outflow in different inlet velocity based on the device. Numerically calculations were made by using ANSYS 14.0 Finite Element Analysis. Compare of the velocity distributions to confirm the validity of the model. The fluid structure interaction (FSI) analysis was carried out in the valid geometry model to study the aqueous flow and iris change. In this paper, the validity of the model is verified through computation and comparison. The results indicated that changes of gravity direction of model significantly affected the fluid dynamics parameters and the temperature distribution in anterior chamber. Increased pressure and the vertical position increase the velocity of the aqueous humor fluid flow, with the value increased of 0.015 and 0.035 mm/s. The results

  1. Positive Selection of Iris, a Retroviral Envelope-Derived Host Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes can usurp enzymatic functions encoded by mobile elements for their own use. A particularly interesting kind of acquisition involves the domestication of retroviral envelope genes, which confer infectious membrane-fusion ability to retroviruses. So far, these examples have been limited to vertebrate genomes, including primates where the domesticated envelope is under purifying selection to assist placental function. Here, we show that in Drosophila genomes, a previously unannotated gene (CG4715, renamed Iris was domesticated from a novel, active Kanga lineage of insect retroviruses at least 25 million years ago, and has since been maintained as a host gene that is expressed in all adult tissues. Iris and the envelope genes from Kanga retroviruses are homologous to those found in insect baculoviruses and gypsy and roo insect retroviruses. Two separate envelope domestications from the Kanga and roo retroviruses have taken place, in fruit fly and mosquito genomes, respectively. Whereas retroviral envelopes are proteolytically cleaved into the ligand-interaction and membrane-fusion domains, Iris appears to lack this cleavage site. In the takahashii/suzukii species groups of Drosophila, we find that Iris has tandemly duplicated to give rise to two genes (Iris-A and Iris-B. Iris-B has significantly diverged from the Iris-A lineage, primarily because of the "invention" of an intron de novo in what was previously exonic sequence. Unlike domesticated retroviral envelope genes in mammals, we find that Iris has been subject to strong positive selection between Drosophila species. The rapid, adaptive evolution of Iris is sufficient to unambiguously distinguish the phylogenies of three closely related sibling species of Drosophila (D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana, a discriminative power previously described only for a putative "speciation gene." Iris represents the first instance of a retroviral envelope-derived host gene

  2. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  3. Computer Models for IRIS Control System Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Storrick; Bojan Petrovic; Luca Oriani

    2007-01-31

    This report presents results of the Westinghouse work performed under Task 3 of this Financial Assistance Award and it satisfies a Level 2 Milestone for the project. Task 3 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on developing computer models for transient analysis. This report summarizes the work performed under Task 3 on developing control system models. The present state of the IRIS plant design – such as the lack of a detailed secondary system or I&C system designs – makes finalizing models impossible at this time. However, this did not prevent making considerable progress. Westinghouse has several working models in use to further the IRIS design. We expect to continue modifying the models to incorporate the latest design information until the final IRIS unit becomes operational. Section 1.2 outlines the scope of this report. Section 2 describes the approaches we are using for non-safety transient models. It describes the need for non-safety transient analysis and the model characteristics needed to support those analyses. Section 3 presents the RELAP5 model. This is the highest-fidelity model used for benchmark evaluations. However, it is prohibitively slow for routine evaluations and additional lower-fidelity models have been developed. Section 4 discusses the current Matlab/Simulink model. This is a low-fidelity, high-speed model used to quickly evaluate and compare competing control and protection concepts. Section 5 describes the Modelica models developed by POLIMI and Westinghouse. The object-oriented Modelica language provides convenient mechanisms for developing models at several levels of detail. We have used this to develop a high-fidelity model for detailed analyses and a faster-running simplified model to help speed the I&C development process

  4. Results of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens Implantation in Aphakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tahir Şam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of iris-claw intraocular lenses (ICIOL implanted in cases of aphakia or in cataract surgery with insufficient capsule support. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 34 eyes of 34 patients who had undergone ICIOL implantation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months in Bucak State Hospital and in a private hospital between November 2007 and November 2012. Results: Twenty-one eyes with complicated cataract accompanied by zonular deficiency, 8 eyes with aphakia, and 5 eyes with dislocated IOL were operated and ICIOL implanted. Mean preoperative BCVA was 1.46±1.05 LogMAR and postoperative BCVA was 0.20±0.21 LogMAR. There was an improvement in visual acuity in 31 eyes of the 34 patients, and 29 of them had a visual acuity better than 6/12 postoperatively. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent (SE was -0.76±0.94 D, and deviation from estimated SE was -0.26±0.94 D. Mean preoperative astigmatism was -1.36±0.77 Cyl D and mean postoperative astigmatism was -0.98±0.82 Cyl D. In second postoperative month, one case had a pupillary block glaucoma due to the closure of peripheral iridotomy, and after ND-YAG laser treatment, intraocular pressure return to normal value. One eye had iris pigment precipitates on the ICIOL in early postoperative period, and in one case, there was a pupillary ovalization. Three months after a cataract surgery, retinal detachment developed in one eye of a patient who had a history of severe ocular trauma; anterior vitrectomy and ICIOL implantation were performed. Visual acuity remained unchanged after a successful pars plana vitrectomy operation. Conclusion: Iris-claw lenses provide fairly good visual outcomes in aphakic eyes without capsular support and in challenging cataract cases with zonular deficiency. They are safe regarding complications when compared to other alternative intraocular lens implantation methods

  5. An iris recognition method based on multi-orientation features and Non-symmetrical SVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hong-ying; ZHUANG Yue-ting; PAN Yun-he

    2005-01-01

    A new iris feature extraction approach using both spatial and frequency domain is presented. Steerable pyramid is adopted to get the orientation information on iris images. The feature sequence is extracted on each sub-image and used to train Support Vector Machine (SVM) as iris classifiers. SVM has drawn great interest recently as one of the best classifiers in machine learning, although there is a problem in the use of traditional SVM for iris recognition. It cannot treat False Accept and False Reject differently with different security requirements. Therefore, a new kind of SVM called Non-symmetrical SVM is presented to classify the iris features. Experimental data shows that Non-symmetrical SVM can satisfy various security requirements in iris recognition applications. Feature sequence combined with spatial and frequency domain represents the variation details of the iris patterns properly. The results in this study demonstrate the potential of our new approach, and show that it performs more satisfactorily when compared to former algorithms.

  6. Image Resolution Related Behavior for Iris Identification Based on Color Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ciobanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most used approach for iris identification is based on analyzing its texture by methods introduced and refined by John Daugman. In order to obtain very good rates of correct identification, a relatively good iris image is required, i.e. the iris must have at least a radius of 70 pixels in a nearinfrared monochrome image. In latest years, we have developed a method of extracting color features from color images based on the LAB color system. The method constructs complex histograms over the LAB color space, made of bins corresponding to optimized rectangular parallelepipeds. We tested our method to see the minimum acceptable radius of an iris image that can still be correctly identified in most of the cases. To this end, we degraded four times the very good iris images in the UPOL database. The results obtained over the five sets of images, with radii varying from 250 pixels to only 16 pixels for each iris, show that our method can produce very good identification results at iris radii as low as 32 pixels.

  7. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: multi-tiered wavefront measurements and novel mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of

  8. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P skin cancer (P skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. SVD-EBP Algorithm for Iris Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Babasaheb G. Patil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a neural network approach based on Error Back Propagation (EBP for classification of different eye images. To reduce the complexity of layered neural network the dimensions of input vectors are optimized using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. The main objective of this work is to prove usefulness of SVD to form a compact set of features for classification by EBP algorithm. The results of our work indicate that optimum classification values are obtained with SVD dimensions of 20 and maximum number of classes as 9 with the state-of-the art computational resources The details of this combined system named as SVD-EBP system for Iris pattern recognition and the results thereof are presented in this paper

  10. Efficient Iris Recognition Algorithm Using Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimi Jain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient biometric algorithm for iris recognition using Fast Fourier Transform and moments. Biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature or characteristic possessed by the individual. The Fast Fourier Transform converts image from spatial domain to frequency domain and also filters noise in the image giving more precise information. Moments are area descriptors used to characterize the shape and size of the image. The moments values are invariant to scale and orientation of the object under study, also insensitive to rotation and scale transformation. At last Euclidean distance formula is used for image matching. The CASIA database clearly demonstrates an efficient method for Biometrics. As per experimental result,the algorithm is achieving higher Correct Recognition Rate.

  11. Efficient Iris Recognition Algorithm Using Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimi Jain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient biometric algorithm for iris recognition using Fast Fourier Transform andmoments. Biometric system provides automatic identification of an individual based on a unique feature orcharacteristic possessed by the individual. The Fast Fourier Transform converts image from spatialdomain to frequency domain and also filters noise in the image giving more precise information. Momentsare area descriptors used to characterize the shape and size of the image. The moments values areinvariant to scale and orientation of the object under study, also insensitive to rotation and scaletransformation. At last Euclidean distance formula is used for image matching.The CASIA database clearly demonstrates an efficient method for Biometrics. As per experimentalresult,the algorithm is achieving higher Correct Recognition Rate.

  12. IRIS/USGS Plans for Upgrading the Global Seismograph Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This report has been prepared to provide information to organizations that may be asked to participate in a program to upgrade the global seismographic network. In most cases, the organizations that will be offered new instrumentation by the U.S. Geological Survey currently operate stations in the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) or the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The deployment of the WWSSN in the 1960's and the subsequent equipping of some WWSSN stations with digital equipment and borehole seismometers during the 1970's has been a remarkably successful program that generated the high- quality data needed to fuel an unprecedented period of progress in earthquake and tectonic research. The success of the WWSSN can be attributed to the importance of the data, to the strong commitment by participating organizations to international scientific cooperation, to the dedication and skill of the station operators, and to the resourcefulness of the staff supporting the network. Benefits have been widespread. The community of scientists world-wide has benefited from unrestricted access to a standardized base of calibrated data, and the participating stations have benefited from the donation of modern observatory instruments that have been useful for local earthquake studies and for the training of scientists and engineers. Now, an exciting opportunity has arisen to deploy a new generation of seismograph systems to replace the outdated equipment at many of the WWSSN and GDSN stations. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is cooperating with the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) in a program to upgrade the global seismograph network. The equipment development phase is nearly complete with a prototype of the new broadband seismograph system currently undergoing final testing at the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. Deployment of the new equipment is expected to begin in early 1990. As this report will

  13. Flavonoids from Iris songarica and their antioxidant and estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mahmood R; Khan, Shabana I; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ayatollahi, Syed A; Kobarfard, Farzad; Nasim, Shama; Choudhary, Muhammad I; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2008-10-01

    A new dihydroflavonol, songaricol ( 1) and seven known flavonoids, ayamenin A ( 2), irisflavone A ( 3), 5,7-dihydroxy-2',6-dimethoxyisoflavone ( 4), irilin B ( 5), 5,3'-dihydroxy-7,8,2'-trimethoxyisoflavone ( 6) and irisoid A ( 7) were isolated from rhizome and roots of IRIS SONGARICA. Structure elucidation of 1 was achieved through extensive NMR and circular dichroism techniques. Compounds 1, 5 and 7 showed antioxidant activity in HL-60 cells (IC50 values of 21, 11 and 3.8 microg/mL), whereas 2, 5 and the previously isolated irisone B were able to show estrogenic response (EC50 values of 305.5, 159.7 and 322.0 microg/mL) in yeast cells expressing human estrogen receptor (ER-alpha).

  14. Mechanical Properties of the TiAl IRIS Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Thomas; Monchoux, Jean-Philippe; Thomas, Marc; Deshayes, Christophe; Couret, Alain

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of the mechanical properties at room and high temperature of the boron and tungsten containing IRIS alloy (Ti-48Al-2W-0.08B at. pct). This alloy was densified by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The resultant microstructure consists of small lamellar colonies surrounded by γ regions containing B2 precipitates. Tensile tests are performed from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Creep properties are determined at 973 K (700 °C)/300 MPa, 1023 K (750 °C)/120 MPa, and 1023 K (750 °C)/200 MPa. The tensile strength and the creep resistance at high temperature are found to be very high compared to the data reported in the current literature while a plastic elongation of 1.6 pct is preserved at room temperature. A grain size dependence of both ductility and strength is highlighted at room temperature. The deformation mechanisms are studied by post-mortem analyses on deformed samples and by in situ straining experiments, both performed in a transmission electron microscope. In particular, a low mobility of non-screw segments of dislocations at room temperature and the activation of a mixed-climb mechanism during creep have been identified. The mechanical properties of this IRIS alloy processed by SPS are compared to those of other TiAl alloys developed for high-temperature structural applications as well as to those of similar tungsten containing alloys obtained by more conventional processing techniques. Finally, the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructural features together with the elementary deformation mechanisms are discussed.

  15. IRIS Observation of a Sunspot and the Surrounding Plage Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Weber, M.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Testa, P.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's IRIS mission is providing high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the solar transition region and chromosphere. We present preliminary results from IRIS observation of a sunspot and the surrounding plage region. The major findings in this observation can be summarized as following: (1) The slit jaw images in the filters of 1400Å and 1330Å reveal the presence of many rapidly evolving fibril-like structures in the transition region for the first time. These thin and long structures mainly reside in the plage region. They could be strands of low-lying cool transition region loops or the transition region counterpart of chromospheric spicules. (2) The C II and Mg II line profiles are almost Gaussian in the sunspot umbra and clearly exhibit a deep reversal at the line center in the plage region, suggesting a greatly reduced opacity in the sunspot atmosphere. (3) Bidirectional jets are frequently occurring mainly in the plage region immediately outside the sunspot throughout the observation. Triple or double Gaussian fit to the line profiles of Si IV suggests a velocity as high as 100 km/s. These velocity values are of the same order of the Alfven speed in the transition region. (4)Three-minute oscillation is clearly present in the sunspot umbra. The oscillation is identified in not only the slit jaw images of 2796Å, 1400Å and 1330Å, but also in spectra of the bright Mg II, C II and Si IV lines. Strong non-linearity is clearly seen in the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations. Interestingly, the obvious increase of the line width only occurs at the times of largest blue shift. The correlated change of the intensity and Doppler shift suggests an upward propagating magneto-acoustic shock wave.

  16. A Novel Method for Iris Recognition Using BP Neural Network and Parallel Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sahebi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we seek a new method in designing an iris recognition system. In this method, first the Haar wavelet features are extracted from iris images. The advantage of using these features is the high-speed extraction, as well as being unique to each iris. Then the back propagation neural network (BPNN is used as a classifier. In this system, the BPNN parallel algorithms and their implementation on GPUs have been used by the aid of CUDA in order to speed up the learning process. Finally, the system performance and the speeding outcomes in a way that this algorithm is done in series are presented.

  17. IDENTIFIKASI IRIS MATA MENGGUNAKAN TAPIS GABOR WAVELET DAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN LEARNING VECTOR QUANTIZATION (LVQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiyono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric represents the human identification method development using natural characteristic of humanbeing as its bases. Every iris has the detail and unique texture, even differ between right and left eye.Theeye iris identification process in this research are data acquisition, early processing, feature exctractionand classification. Algorithm used for classification of texture slice the eye is Gabor wavelet filtering, andclassification process of slice the eye texture will be used by a Artificial Neural Network LVQ. Recognitionthe value of feature vektor in each iris obtained from to the number of right recognition value or thepercentage of right one. The best recognition percentage is 87,5 %.

  18. Subgenotypes and mutations in the s and polymerase genes of hepatitis B virus carriers in the West Bank, palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakeih Abdelnabi

    Full Text Available The mutation rate and genetic variability of hepatitis B virus (HBV are crucial factors for efficient treatment and successful vaccination against HBV. Until today, genetic properties of this virus among the Palestinian population remain unknown. Therefore, we performed genetic analysis of the overlapping S and polymerase genes of HBV, isolated from 40 Palestinian patients' sera. All patients were HBsAg positive and presented with a viral load above 105 HBV genome copies/ml. The genotyping results of the S gene demonstrated that HBV D1 was detected in 90% of the samples representing the most prominent subgenotype among Palestinians carrying HBV. Various mutations existed within the S gene; in five patients four known escape mutations including the common G145R and D144E were found. Furthermore, a ratio of 4.25 of non-synonymous to synonymous mutations in the S gene indicated a strong selection pressure on the HBs antigen loops of HBV strains circulating in those Palestinian patients. Although all patients were treatment-naïve, with the exception of one, several mutations were found in the HBV polymerase gene, but none pointed to drug resistance. The study presented here is the first report to address subgenotypes and mutation analyses of HBV S and polymerase genes in Palestine.

  19. Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan; Abu Zayed, Ishtaiwi; Abujilban, Sanaa; Shehab, Tariq; Atoum, Maysoun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a sample of women visiting health care centers in Palestine refugee camps in Jordan. We found that different types of IPV, including physical, emotional, sexual, economic, and control behaviors by the partners were experienced by the participants. This study was among a number of studies that investigated this phenomenon in residents of Palestinian camps. It adds to existing studies in this field, however, as it focuses on the prevalence of the top five types of IPV in these women. Co-occurrence of IPV, that is, experiencing two or more types of partner violence at the same time, was noticed in these women. Experiencing control by one's partner and the presence of different attitudes between men and women toward the use of violence were factors contributing to the occurrence of this phenomenon in these women. National efforts aiming at breaking the cycle of violence should be fostered through media and public awareness campaigns. Changing people's attitudes concerning men's use and women's acceptance of violence should be the aim of these efforts.

  20. Safety Culture in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the Gaza Strip, Palestine: A Need for Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim; Hamdan, Motasem Abduallah; Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Radwan, Abdal-Karim Said; Alshaer, Ahmed Ali

    Assessment of the prevailing safety culture within the Gazan health care system can be used to identify problem areas. Specifically, the need for improvements, raising awareness about patient safety, the identification and evaluation of existing safety programs and interventions for improving the safety culture. This study aims to assess the safety culture in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Gaza Strip hospitals and to assess the safety culture in regards to caregivers' characteristics. In a cross-sectional study using a census sample, we surveyed all nurses and physicians working in at all the NICUs in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) which includes six scales was used to assess participants' attitudes towards safety culture. The overall score for SAQ was 63.9. Domains' scores ranged between 55.5 (perception of management) and 71.8 (stress recognition). The scores reported by our participants fell below the 75 out of a possible score of 100, which was considered as a cut-off point for a positive score. Moreover, our results revealed substantial variation in safety culture domain scores among participating NICUs. These results should be an indicator to our health care policy makers to modify current or adopt new health care policies to improve safety culture. It should also be a call to design customized programs for improving the safety culture in NICUs in the Gaza Strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m(-3) for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m(-3) for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m(-3) in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m(-3) in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels.

  2. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  3. A Case Study of Mobile Technology-enabled English Language Learning: the Amazon Kindle e-Reader Initiative in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khitam Yousuf Shraim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of increasingly interactive e-reader devices such as the Amazon Kindle represents an opportunity to explore their evolving pedagogical value. This study aims to investigate how use of the Kindle can enhance individuals’ English language learning—more specifically their attitudes, reading comprehension, vocabulary development and pronunciation performance—in the context of informal and lifelong learning in Palestine, and to explore the further potential of scaling up the use of e-readers at a national level. At the piloting stage of this initiative, the study operated at two levels (micro and meso of the M3 evaluation framework. Mixed methods were used: qualitative data were obtained through a case study of the practices and perceptions of two teachers in two classrooms in the Qalqilia center and quantitative data were collected through a survey of 114 learners. The study shows that the Kindle’s technological affordances are effective in creating a flexible, authentic and interactive environment for English language learning, provided that teachers change their teaching methods to take full advantage of the features of mobile technologies to create innovative learning approaches aligned with the needs of the e-generation. It was also found that despite some concerns with the usability issue, attitudes towards learning English changed positively and learners’ vocabulary and pronunciation improved.

  4. A simulation/optimization study to assess seawater intrusion management strategies for the Gaza Strip coastal aquifer (Palestine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentoni, Marta; Deidda, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Qahman, Khalid; Lecca, Giuditta

    2015-03-01

    Seawater intrusion is one of the major threats to freshwater resources in coastal areas, often exacerbated by groundwater overexploitation. Mitigation measures are needed to properly manage aquifers, and to restore groundwater quality. This study integrates three computational tools into a unified framework to investigate seawater intrusion in coastal areas and to assess strategies for managing groundwater resources under natural and human-induced stresses. The three components are a three-dimensional hydrogeological model for density-dependent variably saturated flow and miscible salt transport, an automatic calibration procedure that uses state variable outputs from the model to estimate selected model parameters, and an optimization module that couples a genetic algorithm with the simulation model. The computational system is used to rank alternative strategies for mitigation of seawater intrusion, taking into account conflicting objectives and problem constraints. It is applied to the Gaza Strip (Palestine) coastal aquifer to identify a feasible groundwater management strategy for the period 2011-2020. The optimized solution is able to: (1) keep overall future abstraction from municipal groundwater wells close to the user-defined maximum level, (2) increase the average groundwater heads, and (3) lower both the total mass of salt extracted and the extent of the areas affected by seawater intrusion.

  5. Management of healthcare waste in circumstances of limited resources: a case study in the hospitals of Nablus city, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Al-Qaroot, Yousef S; Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammad S

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were the assessment of healthcare waste management and the characterization of healthcare waste material generated in the hospitals in Nablus city, Palestine, and furthermore, to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B among the cleaning personnel working in these hospitals. The medical waste generation rate in kg per bed per day was between 0.59 and 0.93 kg bed(-1) day(-1). The waste generation rate in the healthcare facilities of Nablus city hospitals was similar to some other developing countries; however, the percentage of medical wastes in the total waste stream was comparatively high. The density of medical waste at the four hospitals studied ranged between 144.9 and 188.4 kg m(-3) with a mean value of 166.7 kg m(-3). The waste segregation and handling practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave integrated with a shredder should be evaluated and implemented. The system of healthcare waste management in Nablus city is in need of immediate improvement and attention. Formulating rules and guidelines for medical waste and developing strategies for overcoming the obstacles related to waste management should be considered as an urgent matter.

  6. The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR): A High Speed, Multispectral, Thermal Instrument Development in Support of HyspIRI-TIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission was recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey and includes a visible shortwave infrared (SWIR) pushboom spectrometer and a multispectral whiskbroom thermal infrared (TIR) imager. Data from the HyspIRI mission will be used to address key science questions related to the Solid Earth and Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus areas of the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The HyspIRI TIR system will have 60m ground resolution, better than 200mK noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT), 0.5C absolute temperature resolution with a 5-day repeat from LEO orbit. PHyTIR addresses the technology readiness level (TRL) of certain key subsystems of the TIR imager, primarily the detector assembly and scanning mechanism. PHyTIR will use Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology at the focal plane and operate in time delay integration mode. A custom read out integrated circuit (ROIC) will provide the high speed readout hence allowing the high data rates needed for the 5 day repeat. PHyTIR will also demonstrate a newly developed interferometeric metrology system. This system will provide an absolute measurement of the scanning mirror to an order of magnitude better than conventional optical encoders. This will minimize the reliance on ground control points hence minimizing post-processing (e.g. geo-rectification computations).

  7. Computational model for transient studies of IRIS pressurizer behavior; Modelo computacional para el estudio de transitorios en el compensador de presion IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rives Sanz, R.; Montesino Otero, M.E.; Gonzalez Mantecon, J.; Rojas Mazaira, L., E-mail: mmontesi@instec.cu [Higher Institute of Technology and Applied Science, La Habana (Cuba). Department of Nuclear Engineering; Lira, C.A. Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) excels other Small Modular Reactor (SMR) designs due to its innovative characteristics regarding safety. IRIS integral pressurizer makes the design of larger pressurizer system than the conventional PWR, without any additional cost. The IRIS pressurizer volume of steam can provide enough margins to avoid spray requirement to mitigate in-surge transient. The aim of the present research is to model the IRIS pressurizer's dynamic using the commercial finite volume Computational Fluid Dynamic code CFX 14. A symmetric tridimensional model equivalent to 1/8 of the total geometry was adopted to reduce mesh size and minimize processing time. The model considers the coexistence of three phases: liquid, steam, and vapor bubbles in liquid volume. Additionally, it takes into account the heat losses between the pressurizer and primary circuit. The relationships for interfacial mass, energy, and momentum transport are programmed and incorporated into CFX by using expressions in CFX Command Language (CCL) format. Moreover, several additional variables are defined for improving the convergence and allow monitoring of boron dilution sequences and condensation-evaporation rate in different control volumes. For transient states a non - equilibrium stratification in the pressurizer is considered. This paper discusses the model developed and the behavior of the system for representative transients sequences such as the in/out-surge transients and boron dilution sequences. The results of analyzed transients of IRIS can be applied to the design of pressurizer internal structures and components. (author)

  8. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  9. Combination of fractional Brownian random field and lacunarity for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Zhou, Weidong; Wang, Yu

    2011-10-01

    Feature extraction plays a vital role in iris recognition, affecting the performance of iris recognition algorithm strongly. In this paper, we present an individual recognition algorithm using fractal dimension based on fractional Brownian random field and lacunarity in feature extraction. Making use of the fractal feature of iris, such as self-similarity and random patterns, fractal dimension can extract texture information effectively. Lacunarity overcomes the limitation of fractal dimension that fractal sets with different textures may share the same fractal dimension value. The combination of fractal dimension and lacunarity makes the feature extraction more comprehensive and distinguishable. The experimental results show that this recognition algorithm can obtain great performance on CASIA 1.0 iris database

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  11. Pars plana vitrectomy and artisan iris fixated intraocular lens for aphakia in complicated vitreoretinal referrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Pattnaik

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Artisan iris fixated IOL's are a safe and effective option in eyes with concomitant poor capsular support and vitreoretinal complications requiring PPV. The postoperative visual acuity depends on the underlying pathological features present preoperatively.

  12. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  13. A new species of the genus Iris L. (Iridaceae Juss. from the Ferghana Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sh. Tojibaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Iridaceae, Iris austrotschatkalica Tojibaev, F. Karim. et Turgunov from Fergana valley is described. A morphological description is given and differences from related species are discussed.

  14. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    CERN Document Server

    Padmavathi, V S Meenakshi; Dr G

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function is changed new revocable/cancelable templates are generated. Soft biometrics is ancillary information that can be combined with primary biometrics to identify a person in a better way. Iris has certain advantage compared to other biometric traits like fingerprint. Iris is an internal part that is less prone to damage. Moreover is very difficult for an attacker to capture an iris. The key advantage of iris biometrics is its stability or template longevity. Biometric systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. This work...

  15. High Performance and Accurate Change Detection System for HyspIRI Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and high performance change detection algorithms to process HyspIRI data, which have been used for monitoring changes in vegetation, climate,...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  17. The IRIS Data Management Center: Enabling Access to Observational Time Series Spanning Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, T.; Benson, R.; Trabant, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to operate the facilities to generate, archive, and distribute seismological data to research communities in the United States and internationally. The IRIS Data Management System (DMS) is responsible for the ingestion, archiving, curation and distribution of these data. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) manages data from more than 100 permanent seismic networks, hundreds of temporary seismic deployments as well as data from other geophysical observing networks such as magnetotelluric sensors, ocean bottom sensors, superconducting gravimeters, strainmeters, surface meteorological measurements, and in-situ atmospheric pressure measurements. The IRIS DMC has data from more than 20 different types of sensors. The IRIS DMC manages approximately 100 terabytes of primary observational data. These data are archived in multiple distributed storage systems that insure data availability independent of any single catastrophic failure. Storage systems include both RAID systems of greater than 100 terabytes as well as robotic tape robots of petabyte capacity. IRIS performs routine transcription of the data to new media and storage systems to insure the long-term viability of the scientific data. IRIS adheres to the OAIS Data Preservation Model in most cases. The IRIS data model requires the availability of metadata describing the characteristics and geographic location of sensors before data can be fully archived. IRIS works with the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN) in the definition and evolution of the metadata. The metadata insures that the data remain useful to both current and future generations of earth scientists. Curation of the metadata and time series is one of the most important activities at the IRIS DMC. Data analysts and an automated quality assurance system monitor the quality of the incoming data. This insures data

  18. A New Algorithm for Creating Digital Certificate’s Private Key from Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Koropi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises are now global, virtual and dependent on dynamic information access. Naturally, digital information is constant throughout its lifecycle. In this shifting landscape, the battlefront in security is rapidly changing from securing the perimeter to protecting the information itself. The primary advantage of public-key cryptography is increased security and convenience: private keys never need to be transmitted or revealed to anyone, but loss of a private key may cause the loss of valuable data. In this paper, we proposed a new method of using iris biometric instead of private keys, so that the iris cannot be lost, stolen or even misused. The two first stages of iris recognition are implemented as the preliminary result. Our approach is feasible to produce an iris template for using as a private key in identity identification and biometric watermarking applications.

  19. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Halogenated Platinum Salts and Platinum Compounds (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the draft toxicological review for public comment under the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program. The original draft assessment (January 2009) has been archived but is available on this web page for the sake of transparency.