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Sample records for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting

  1. Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Perovskite Nanocrystals with Organic-Inorganic Mixed Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, He; Wang, Weigao; Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bing; Karen, Ke Lin; Zheng, Yuanjin; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-03-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials with mixed cations have demonstrated tremendous advances in photovoltaics recently, by showing a significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency and improved perovskite stability. Inspired by this development, this study presents the facile synthesis of mixed-cation perovskite nanocrystals based on FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 (FA = CH(NH2 )2 ). By detailed characterization of their morphological, optical, and physicochemical properties, it is found that the emission property of the perovskite, FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 , is significantly dependent on the substitution content of the Cs cations in the perovskite composition. These mixed-cation perovskites are employed as light emitters in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With an optimized composition of FA0.8 Cs0.2 PbBr3 , the LEDs exhibit encouraging performance with a highest reported luminance of 55 005 cd m(-2) and a current efficiency of 10.09 cd A(-1) . This work provides important instructions on the future compositional optimization of mixed-cation perovskite for obtaining high-performance LEDs. The authors believe this work is a new milestone in the development of bright and efficient perovskite LEDs.

  2. Unique Room Temperature Light Emitting Diode Based on 2D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Low Dimensional Perovskite Semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Room temperature single layer light emitting diode(LED), based on a two dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic semiconductor(HOIS), is demonstrated. This simple, low cost excitonic LED operates at low voltages. Such an excitonic device is presented for the first time as functioning at room temperature. The newly introduced class of perovskite LEDs, until now based on 3D perovksite HOIS, is now broadened with the implementation of the 2D HOIS. Novel functionalities can be realized since it is now possible to access the hybrid's 2D semiconductor advantageous properties, such as the increased excitonic peak wavelength tunability, excitonic binding energy and oscillator strength.

  3. Multicolor Emission from Poly(p-Phenylene)/Nanoporous ZnMnO Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deuk Young; Panin, Gennady N

    2016-12-28

    The voltage-tunable multicolor emission was realized in a poly(p-phenylene)/nanoporous ZnMnO organic-inorganic hybrid light-emitting diode. Red, green, and blue (RGB) colors sequentially appeared with increasing magnitude of the bias voltage (i.e., R → RG → RGB with V↑). At a higher voltage (>2.4 V), eventually, the device emitted the visible light with a mixture of colors including RGB. These unique features may move us a step closer to the application of organic-inorganic hybrid solid-state lighting devices for the full-color display and/or the electrical-to-optical data converter for multivalue electronic signal processes. In-depth analyses on electrical and optical properties are presented, and voltage-controllable multicolor-emission mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Efficient hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes with self-assembled dipole molecule deposited metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Min; Kim, Ji-Seon; Kim, Sang Ouk; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the effect of self-assembled dipole molecules (SADMs) on ZnO surface in hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric light-emitting diodes (HyPLEDs). Despite the SADM being extremely thin, the magnitude and orientation of SADM dipole moment effectively influenced the work function of the ZnO. As a consequence, the charge injection barrier between the conduction band of the ZnO and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene)-co-benzothiadiazole could be efficiently controlled resulting that electron injection efficiency is remarkably enhanced. The HyPLEDs modified with a negative dipolar SADM exhibited enhanced device performances, which correspond to approximately a fourfold compared to those of unmodified HyPLEDs.

  6. Molecularly Engineered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite with Multiple Quantum Well Structure for Multicolored Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Salim, Teddy; Chen, Bingbing; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-09-16

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have the potential to be used as a new class of emitters with tunable emission, high color purity and good ease of fabrication. Recent studies have so far been focused on three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 for green and infrared emission. Here, we explore a new series of hybrid perovskite emitters with a general formula of (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1PbnI3n+1 (where n = 1, 2, 3), which possesses a multiple quantum well structure. The quantum well thickness of these materials is adjustable through simple molecular engineering which results in a continuously tunable bandgap and emission spectra. Deep saturated red emission was obtained with a peak external quantum efficiency of 2.29% and a maximum luminance of 214 cd/m(2). Green and blue LEDs were also demonstrated through halogen substitutions in these hybrid perovskites. We expect these results to open up the way towards high performance perovskite LEDs through molecular-structure engineering of these perovskite emitters.

  7. Molecularly Engineered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite with Multiple Quantum Well Structure for Multicolored Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongwei; Salim, Teddy; Chen, Bingbing; Lam, Yeng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have the potential to be used as a new class of emitters with tunable emission, high color purity and good ease of fabrication. Recent studies have so far been focused on three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3 for green and infrared emission. Here, we explore a new series of hybrid perovskite emitters with a general formula of (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1PbnI3n+1 (where n = 1, 2, 3), which possesses a multiple quantum well structure. The quantum well thickness of these materials is adjustable through simple molecular engineering which results in a continuously tunable bandgap and emission spectra. Deep saturated red emission was obtained with a peak external quantum efficiency of 2.29% and a maximum luminance of 214 cd/m2. Green and blue LEDs were also demonstrated through halogen substitutions in these hybrid perovskites. We expect these results to open up the way towards high performance perovskite LEDs through molecular-structure engineering of these perovskite emitters. PMID:27633084

  8. New blue-light-emitting ultralong [Cd(L)(TeO3)] (L = polyamine) organic-inorganic hybrid nanofibre bundles: their thermal stability and acidic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Bo; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2009-08-03

    A new type of blue-light-emitting ultralong [Cd(L)(TeO(3))] (L = ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine) nanofibre bundle has been synthesised under reflux in a mixed solvent media. Inorganic Cd(TeO(3)) layers are assumed to exist in the structures and are connected by the organic amine molecules through the coordination between nitrogen atoms and cadmium ions. The composition and formulae of these hybrid materials, based on the proposed structures, have been identified through element analysis (EA), thermal gravity analysis (TGA) and energy dispersive spectra (EDS). The thermal stabilities and optical properties of these nanofibre bundles have been investigated. Thermal decomposition of [Cd(en)(TeO(3))] (en = ethylenediamine) and [Cd(DETA)(TeO(3))] (DETA = diethylenetriamine) at 450 degrees C allowed the formation of a mixture of CdTe and Cd(TeO(3)) phases, and a pure CdTe phase, respectively. In addition, this new kind of hybrid bundle, which demonstrates blue emission, was found to be sensitive to acids, and the emission intensity is strongly dependent on the acidity of the solutions, implying that these hybrid nanofibre bundles could be potentially applied as acid sensors.

  9. Hybrid perovskites: Approaches towards light-emitting devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2016-10-06

    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted extensive research for photonic device applications. Using the bromide halide as an example, we present key approaches of our work towards realizing efficient perovskites based light-emitters. The approaches involved determination of optical constants for the hybrid perovskites thin films, fabrication of photonic nanostructures in the form of subwavelength grating reflector patterned directly on the hybrid perovskites as light manipulation layer, and enhancing the emission property of the hybrid perovskites by using microcavity structure. Our results provide a platform for realization of hybrid perovskites based light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting and display applications. © 2016 IEEE.

  10. Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David

    2011-02-01

    Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.

  11. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  12. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  13. Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode Enhanced With Emissive Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii

    This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non...... of the hybrid diode fabrication including process techniques for GaN LED and incorporation of the nanocrystals are presented with the emphasis on the differences with standard LED processing. Results and analysis of optical and electrical characterization including photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL, time...

  14. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  15. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  16. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  17. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  18. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Liu; Lei Xu; Wencheng Wang

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter,thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  19. Hybrid light emitting diodes based on solution processed polymers, colloidal quantum dots, and colloidal metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    This dissertation focuses on solution-processed light-emitting devices based on polymer, polymer/PbS quantum dot, and polymer/silver nanoparticle hybrid materials. Solution based materials and organic/inorganic hybrid light emitting diodes attracted significant interest recently due to many of their advantages over conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs) including low fabrication cost, flexible, high substrate compatibility, as well as tunable emission wavelength of the quantum dot materials. However, the application of these novel solution processed materials based devices is still limited due to their low performances. Material properties and fabrication parameters need to be carefully examined and understood for further device improvement. This thesis first investigates the impact of solvent property and evaporation rate on the polymer molecular chain morphology and packaging in device structures. Solvent is a key component to make the active material solution for spin coating fabrication process. Their impacts are observed and examined on both polymer blend system and mono-polymer device. Secondly, PbS colloidal quantum dot are introduced to form hybrid device with polymer and to migrate the device emission into near-IR range. As we show, the dithiol molecules used to cross-link quantum dots determine the optical and electrical property of the resulting thin films. By choosing a proper ligand for quantum dot ligand exchange, a high performance polymer/quantum dot hybrid LED is fabricated. In the end, the interaction of polymer exciton with surface plasmon mode in colloidal silver nanoparticles and the use of this effect to enhance solution processed LEDs' performances are investigated.

  20. Zero-Dimensional Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Modeling: Insights from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi

    2016-03-03

    We discuss the properties of zero dimensional (cluster) hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite in view of their possible applicability in photovoltaics, light-emitting, and lasing devices. To support the need of theoretical investigations of such systems and pave the way for future investigations of clusters with different orientations, terminations, and compositions, we have assembled and characterized some zero dimensional models of methylammonium lead iodide, MAPbI3, by "cutting" its bulk. Interesting properties of such clusters that have been here theoretically investigated include their charge distribution, bandgap, wave function localization, and reduced effective mass. The surface orientation/termination and the organic/inorganic cation ratios have been discussed together with the roles they play in determining the electronic properties of such clusters. Also in agreement with experiments, it emerges that surface termination is crucial in determining the structural and optoelectronic properties of this largely overlooked, dimensionally reduced class of materials. Analogies and differences between clusters and bulk are discussed.

  1. High mobility solution-processed hybrid light emitting transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young [School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Ullah, Mujeeb; Burn, Paul L.; Namdas, Ebinazar B., E-mail: e.namdas@uq.edu.au, E-mail: seojh@dau.ac.kr [Centre for Organic Photonics and Electronics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Chae, Gil Jo [Department of Materials Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Shinuk [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jung Hwa, E-mail: e.namdas@uq.edu.au, E-mail: seojh@dau.ac.kr [Department of Materials Physics, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-03

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance, solution-processed hybrid (inorganic-organic) light emitting transistors (HLETs). The devices employ a high-mobility, solution-processed cadmium sulfide layer as the switching and transport layer, with a conjugated polymer Super Yellow as an emissive material in non-planar source/drain transistor geometry. We demonstrate HLETs with electron mobilities of up to 19.5 cm{sup 2}/V s, current on/off ratios of >10{sup 7}, and external quantum efficiency of 10{sup −2}% at 2100 cd/m{sup 2}. These combined optical and electrical performance exceed those reported to date for HLETs. Furthermore, we provide full analysis of charge injection, charge transport, and recombination mechanism of the HLETs. The high brightness coupled with a high on/off ratio and low-cost solution processing makes this type of hybrid device attractive from a manufacturing perspective.

  2. Chitosan bio-based organic-inorganic hybrid aerogel microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kadib, Abdelkrim; Bousmina, Mosto

    2012-07-02

    Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted tremendous attention thanks to their outstanding properties, their efficiency, versatility and their promising applications in a broad range of areas at the interface of chemistry and biology. This article deals with a new family of surface-reactive organic-inorganic hybrid materials built from chitosan microspheres. The gelation of chitosan (a renewable amino carbohydrate obtained by deacetylation of chitin) by pH inversion affords highly dispersed fibrillar networks shaped as self-standing microspheres. Nanocasting of sol-gel processable monomeric alkoxides inside these natural hydrocolloids and their subsequent CO(2) supercritical drying provide high-surface-area organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Examples including chitosan-SiO(2), chitosan-TiO(2), chitosan-redox-clusters and chitosan-clay-aerogel microspheres are described and discussed on the basis of their textural and structural properties, thermal and chemical stability and their performance in catalysis and adsorption.

  3. Facile synthesis of zirconia doped hybrid organic inorganic silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, ten M.; Nijmeijer, A.; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organic inorganic silica membranes are interesting candidates for gas-separation applications due to their excellent hydrothermal stability. However, up to now these membranes lack the separation performance required to separate hydrogen from carbon dioxide. In this work a procedure for dopin

  4. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  5. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic-Inorganic Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2015-03-31

    Organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer-encapsulated magnetic nanobead catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takayoshi; Sato, Toru; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Katsumi; Oguma, Koichi; Yanagisawa, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A new strategy for the encapsulation of magnetic nanobeads was developed by using the in situ self-assembly of an organic-inorganic hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer of {[Cu(bpy)(BF(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](bpy)}(n) (bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) was constructed on the surface of amino-functionalized magnetic beads and the resulting hybrid-polymer-encapsulated beads were utilized as catalysts for the oxidation of silyl enolates to provide the corresponding alpha-hydroxy carbonyl compounds in high yield. After the completion of the reaction, the catalyst was readily recovered by magnetic separation and the recovered catalyst could be reused several times. Because the current method did not require complicated procedures for incorporating the catalyst onto the magnetic beads, the preparation and the application of various other types of organic-inorganic hybrid-polymer-coated magnetic beads could be possible.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanofibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning; WEI Qu-fu; LI Qi; XU Wen-zheng

    2006-01-01

    A new class of nanocomposites based on organic and inorganic species integrated at a nanoscale has obtained more attention these years. Organic-inorganic hybrids have both the advantages of organic materials, such as light weight, flexibility and good moldability, and inorganic materials, such as high strength, heat stability and chemical resistance. In this work, PVAc/TiO2 organicinorganic hybrid was prepared by sol-gel process. Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate PVAc/TiO2hybrid nanofibers. The structures and properties of the hybrid nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM),Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) spectra. SEM and AFM were employed to study the topography of the hybrid nanofibers.The chemical structure of the hybrid nanofibers were examined by FTIR. The DSC scansrevealed the second order transition temperature of the hybrid materials were higher than PVAc.

  8. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Kai

    2016-02-07

    Organic and inorganic hybrid perovskites (e.g., CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3)), with advantages of facile processing, tunable bandgaps, and superior charge-transfer properties, have emerged as a new class of revolutionary optoelectronic semiconductors promising for various applications. Perovskite solar cells constructed with a variety of configurations have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency, reaching about 20% from multiple groups after only several years of active research. A key to this success is the development of various solution-synthesis and film-deposition techniques for controlling the morphology and composition of hybrid perovskites. The rapid progress in material synthesis and device fabrication has also promoted the development of other optoelectronic applications including light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and transistors. Both experimental and theoretical investigations on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have enabled some critical fundamental understandings of this material system. Recent studies have also demonstrated progress in addressing the potential stability issue, which has been identified as a main challenge for future research on halide perovskites. Here, we review recent progress on hybrid perovskites including basic chemical and crystal structures, chemical synthesis of bulk/nanocrystals and thin films with their chemical and physical properties, device configurations, operation principles for various optoelectronic applications (with a focus on solar cells), and photophysics of charge-carrier dynamics. We also discuss the importance of further understanding of the fundamental properties of hybrid perovskites, especially those related to chemical and structural stabilities.

  9. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid multilayered photoelectrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-gyeong; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Eun Mi; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Joo-Yul; Cho, Shinuk; Hong, Kihyon; Lim, Dong Chan

    2017-02-01

    The production of hydrogen from water via solar energy conversion has attracted immense attention as a potential solution for addressing energy supply issues. We demonstrated a stable and efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical (H-PEC) cell. Modifying the surface energy and structure of the organic photoactive layer using multi-functional nanomaterials including -OH-modified NiO nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) led to a 2.8-fold enhancement of the water splitting performance in a single junction H-PEC cell. The enhanced performance was attributed to the i) improved water-wettability, ii) enhanced charge extraction property by band-edge alignment, and iii) the catalytic effect of the introduced NiO-OH nanoparticles. In addition, because of the effects of the RGO layer preventing water penetration and photo-corrosion during the oxidation of water, a distinguishable long-term stability was achieved from the H-PEC cell with an RGO capping layer. The best performance was obtained from the organic-inorganic hybrid multi-junction PEC cells consisting of the WO3 photo-anode (activated under UV irradiation) and the H-PEC cell (activated under visible light irradiation). The H-PEC cell with a WO3 photo-anode exhibited significantly enhanced stability and performance by a factor of 11.6 higher than photocurrent of the single H-PEC cell.

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials: challenges for ab initio methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxl, Claudia; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hannewald, Karsten

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic/inorganic hybrid structures are most exciting since one can expect new properties that are absent in either of their building blocks. They open new perspectives toward the design and tailoring of materials with desired features and functions. Prerequisite for real progress is, however, the in-depth understanding of what happens on the atomic and electronic scale. In this respect, hybrid materials pose a challenge for electronic-structure theory. Methods that proved useful for describing one side may not be applicable for the other one, and they are likely to fail for the interfaces. In this Account, we address the question to what extent we can quantitatively describe hybrid materials and where we even miss a qualitative description. We note that we are dealing with extended systems and thus adopt a solid-state approach. Therefore, density-functional theory (DFT) and many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the GW approach for charged and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for neutral excitations, are our methods of choice. We give a brief summary of the used methodology, focusing on those aspects where problems can be expected when materials of different character meet at an interface. These issues are then taken up when discussing hybrid materials. We argue when and why, for example, standard DFT may fall short when it comes to the electronic structure of organic/metal interfaces or where the framework of MBPT can or must take over. Selected examples of organic/inorganic interfaces, structural properties, electronic bands, optical excitation spectra, and charge-transport properties as obtained from DFT and MBPT highlight which properties can be reliably computed for such materials. The crucial role of van der Waals forces is shown for sexiphenyl films, where the subtle interplay between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions is decisive for growth and morphologies. With a PTCDA monolayer on metal surfaces we discuss the performance of DFT in

  11. Optical Properties of Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Thin Film Encapsulation Layers for Flexible Top-Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jae Seok; Jang, Ha Jun; Park, Cheol Young; Youn, Hongseok; Lee, Jong Ho; Heo, Gi-Seok; Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Choong Hun

    2015-10-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid thin film encapsulation layers consist of a thin Al2O3 layer together with polymer material. We have investigated optical properties of thin film encapsulation layers for top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes. The transmittance of hybrid thin film encapsulation layers and the electroluminescent spectrum of organic light-emitting diodes that were passivated by hybrid organic/inorganic thin film encapsulation layers were also examined as a function of the thickness of inorganic Al203 and monomer layers. The number of interference peaks, their intensity, and their positions in the visible range can be controlled by varying the thickness of inorganic Al2O3 layer. On the other hand, changing the thickness of monomer layer had a negligible effect on the optical properties. We also verified that there is a trade-off between transparency in the visible range and the permeation of water vapor in hybrid thin film encapsulation layers. As the number of dyads decreased, optical transparency improved while the water vapor permeation barrier was degraded. Our study suggests that, in top-emission organic light-emitting diodes, the thickness of each thin film encapsulation layer, in particular that of the inorganic layer, and the number of dyads should be controlled for highly efficient top-emission flexible organic light-emitting diodes.

  12. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanostructures for Chemical Plasmonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sehoon

    2011-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation suggests novel design of chemical plasmonic sensors which have been developed based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), and Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomena. The goal of the study is to understand the SERS phenomena for 3D hybrid (organic/inorganic) templates and to design of the templates for trace-level detection of selected chemical analytes relevant to liquid explosives and hazardous chemicals. The key design criteria for the development of the SERS templates are utilizing selective polymeric nanocoatings within cylindrical nanopores for promoting selective adsorption of chemical analyte molecules, maximizing specific surface area, and optimizing concentration of hot spots with efficient light interaction inside nanochannels. The organic/inorganic hybrid templates are optimized through a comprehensive understanding of the LSPR properties of the gold nanoparticles, gold nanorods, interaction of light with highly porous alumina template, and the choice of physical and chemical attributes of the selective coating. Furthermore, novel method to assemble silver nanoparticles in 3D as the active SERS-active substrate has been demonstrated by uniform, in situ growth of silver nanoparticles from electroless deposited silver seeds excluding any adhesive polymer layer on template. This approach can be the optimal for SERS sensing applications because it is not necessary to separate the Raman bands of the polyelectrolyte binding layer from those of the desired analyte. The fabrication method is an efficient, simple and fast way to assemble nanoparticles into 3D nanostructures. Addressable Raman markers from silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles are also introduced and studied. Assembly of silver nanowire crossbar structure is achieved by simple, double-step capillary transfer lithography. The on/off SERS properties can be observed on silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles

  13. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  14. Chemically diverse and multifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Zheming; Deschler, Felix; Gao, Song; Friend, Richard H.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) can have a diverse range of compositions including halides, azides, formates, dicyanamides, cyanides and dicyanometallates. These materials have several common features, including their classical ABX3 perovskite architecture and the presence of organic amine cations that occupy the A-sites. Current research in HOIPs tends to focus on metal halide HOIPs, which show promise for use in solar cells and optoelectronic devices; however, the other subclasses also exhibit a diverse range of physical properties. In this Review, we summarize the chemical variability and structural diversity of all known HOIP subclasses. We also present a comprehensive account of their intriguing physical properties, including photovoltaic and optoelectronic properties, dielectricity, magnetism, ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity and multiferroicity. Moreover, we discuss the current challenges and future opportunities in this exciting field.

  15. ELABORATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID MATERIALS ORGANIC / INORGANIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O BOUBEKKA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials "organic-inorganic" are the subject of immense interest, allowing both to combine some properties of an inorganic material and a polymer. In this work we have carried out a study on conductive polymers, in general, emphasizing the polyaniline. On the other hand, we have presented the inorganic compounds (NbSe2, and ternary compound Nn3Sn SnNb5Se9. From the chemical method, we had to synthesize the following mixtures: PANI/NbSe2, PANI /, Nn3Sn PANI / SnNb5Se9. The structural study of these new compounds are produced by X-ray diffraction and infrared. The morphology of the resulting mixtures to be studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of polymer/clay nanocomposites has been invented in an attempt to develop transparent, lightweight, durable materials for a variety of aerospace applications. As their name suggests, polymer/ clay nanocomposites comprise organic/ inorganic hybrid polymer matrices containing platelet-shaped clay particles that have sizes of the order of a few nanometers thick and several hundred nanometers long. Partly because of their high aspect ratios and high surface areas, the clay particles, if properly dispersed in the polymer matrix at a loading level of 1 to 5 weight percent, impart unique combinations of physical and chemical properties that make these nanocomposites attractive for making films and coatings for a variety of industrial applications. Relative to the unmodified polymer, the polymer/ clay nanocomposites may exhibit improvements in strength, modulus, and toughness; tear, radiation, and fire resistance; and lower thermal expansion and permeability to gases while retaining a high degree of optical transparency.

  17. Isostructural organic-inorganic hybrid compounds: triethylcholine tribromidocadmate and triethylcholine tribromidomercurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yan; Hou, Xue-Li; Li, Xue-Nan

    2015-08-01

    In order to search for new anionic architectures and develop useful organic-inorganic hybrid materials in halometallate systems, two new crystalline organic-inorganic hybrid compounds have been prepared, i.e. catena-poly[triethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)azanium [[bromidocadmate(II)]-di-μ-bromido

  18. Organic Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement By Employing Au Nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Specialists Conference Conference Date: June 14, 2015 Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement by Employing Au Nanocluster Manisha...tunable conductivity, organic polymer, heterojunction, nanocluster I. INTRODUCTION Recently, organic / inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells have...conventional Si p−n junction. These heterojunction devices are intended to exploit the advantageous properties of both organic and inorganic materials

  19. Dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2010-09-01

    This review reports some recent advances on the synthesis, self-assembly, and biofunctionalization of various dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) for various biomedical applications, including but not limited to protein immobilization, gene delivery, and molecular diagnosis. In particular, targeted molecular imaging of cancer using dendrimer-based organic/inorganic hybrid NPs will be introduced in detail.

  20. Laser Crystallization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Taewoo; Jin, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Ju Min; Park, Hyung Il; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae; Shin, Byungha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites attract enormous research interest for next generation solar energy harvest. Synergistic crystalline structures comprising organic and inorganic components enable solution processing of perovskite films. A reliable crystallization method for perovskites, compatible with fast continuous process over large-area flexible substrates, is crucial for high performance solar cell production. Here, we present laser crystallization of hybrid perovskite solar cells using near-infrared (NIR) laser (λ = 1064 nm). Crystalline morphology of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite films are widely controllable with laser irradiation condition while maintaining film uniformity. Photothermal heating effectively assisted by interfacial photoconversion layers is critical for phase transformation without beam damage of multilayered device structures. Notably, laser crystallization attains higher device performances than conventional thermal annealing. Fast laser crystallization with manufacture level scan rate (1 m min(-1)) demonstrates inverted-type perovskite solar cells with 11.3 and 8.0% efficiencies on typical glass and flexible polymer substrates, respectively, without rigorous device optimization.

  1. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  2. Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells via electropolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenchun

    /ZnO photovoltaics. Our electropolymerization approach to integrate the organic and inorganic phases aims at understanding the chemistry at the interface, and the electronic and morphological properties of the system. This work should be generally applicable to other conjugated polymers and nanostructures, and it contributes to an understanding of organic-inorganic interfaces and electronic structures that may be advantageous to a range of electronic/photonic applications.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  4. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  5. Novel blue-light-emitting hybrid materials based on oligothiophene acids and ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Tonggang; Liu, Huibiao; Fu, Liming; He, Xiaorong; Wang, Ning; Li, Yuliang; Ai, Xicheng; Zhu, Daoben

    2004-11-01

    Novel blue-light-emitting materials based on ZnO and 2,2'-bithiophene-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid (DTDA), 4',3″-dipentyl-5,2': 5',2″: 5″,2‴-quaterthiophene-2,5‴-dicarboxylic acid (QTDA) have been prepared. The hybrid materials show that the PL λmax are at 450 and 425 nm for DTDA-ZnO and QTDA-ZnO, respectively.

  6. Hybrid silicon nanocrystal-organic light-emitting devices for infrared electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Anthony, Rebecca; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Holmes, Russell J

    2010-04-14

    We demonstrate hybrid inorganic-organic light-emitting devices with peak electroluminescence (EL) at a wavelength of 868 nm using silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). An external quantum efficiency of 0.6% is realized in the forward-emitted direction, with emission originating primarily from the SiNCs. Microscopic characterization indicates that complete coverage of the SiNCs on the conjugated polymer hole-transporting layer is required to observe efficient EL.

  7. New hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Song; ZHANG DeQiang; LI Yang; DUAN Lian; DONG GuiFang; WANG LiDuo; QIU Yong

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid encapsulation for flexible organic light-emitting devices on plastic substrate was investi-gated. The hybrid encapsulation consisted of four periods of Alq3/LiF layers as the pre-encapsulation layer and a flexible aluminum foil coated with getter as the encapsulation cap. We measured the device lifetime at a continuous constant current of 20 mA/cm2, which corresponded to an initial luminance of 2000 cd/m2, The half-luminance decay time of the encapsulated device was about 458 h. More over, the hybrid encapsulation is ultrathin and flexible, ensuring device bendability.

  8. Planar organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell by electrospray

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the organic-inorganic perovskite solar cell has attracted great attention due to the easy processing and rapid developed power conversion efficiency. The tri-halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx possessing excellent optical and electronic properties, such as absorption hands span the visible region, long charge carrier diffusion lengths, and appropriate direct band gap, makes them ideal active layer material for photovoltaic devices. In this thesis, electrohydrodynamic spraying is used...

  9. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols using trifunctional organoalkoxysilanes for dispersion agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hoyyul; Kang, Dongjun; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the properties of synthetically produced organic-inorganic hybrid coatings by a sol-gel process. The properties of organic-inorganic hybrid materials arise from the synergism between the properties of the individual components. One of the typical way to synthesize the organic-inorganic hybrid materials is to use silica and silanes. A colloidal silica sol was used as an inorganic material. Methyltrimethoxysilane and phenyltrimethoxysilane were used as the trifunctional organoalkoxysilanes. Hybrid sols of colloidal silica and silanes were synthesized as a function of reaction time and methyltrimethoxysilane/phenyltrimethoxysilane ratio by a sol-gel process. Physical properties of sol solutions such as stability, viscosity, and transmittance were investigated. The surface roughness and surface free energy of the coatings were also measured.

  10. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  11. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    ...% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  12. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solution-Processed H-2-Evolving Photocathodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Berghuis, Matthijs; Protesescu, Loredana; Detz, Remko J.; Reek, Joost N. H.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report for the first time an H-2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A

  13. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  14. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  15. Frequency-Downconversion Stability of PMMA Coatings in Hybrid White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Fulvio; Mosca, Mauro; Rinella, Salvatore; Macaluso, Roberto; Calì, Claudio; Saiano, Filippo; Feltin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We report on the properties of a poly(methyl methacrylate)-based coating used as a host for an organic dye in hybrid white light-emitting diodes. The device is composed by a pump source, which is a standard inorganic GaN/InGaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) emitting at around 450 nm, and a spin-coated conversion layer making use of Lumogen® F Yellow 083. Under prolonged irradiation, the coating exhibits significant bleaching, thus degrading the color rendering performance of the LED. We present experimental results that confirm that the local temperature rise of the operating diode does not affect the conversion layer. It is also proven that, during the test, the photostability of the organic dye is compromised, resulting in a chromatic shift from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) ( x; y) coordinates (0.30;0.39) towards the color of the pump (0.15;0.04). Besides photodegradation of the dye, we address a phenomenon attributed to modification of the polymer matrix activated by the LED's blue light energy as confirmed by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Three methods for improving the overall stability of the organic coating are presented.

  16. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A.; Geenevasen, J.A.J.; Kreiter, R.; Blank, D.H.A.; Vente, J.F.; ten Elshof, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethox

  17. Preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate organic/inorganic hybrid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed S. Shojaie; Timothy G. Rials; Stephen S. Kelley

    1995-01-01

    A series of organic/inorganic hybrid (OIH) films were prepared using cellulose acetate (CA) as the organic component and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the inorganic component. The chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties of these films were evaluated with a variety of analytical techniques. The results of these evaluations showed that crosslinked CA OIH...

  18. Fabrication and characterization of materials and structures for hybrid organic-inorganic photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haško, Daniel; Chovan, Jozef; Uherek, František

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic integrated photonics integrate the organic material, as a part of active layer, with inorganic structure, and it is the organic component that extends the functionalities as compared to inorganic photonics. This paper presents the results of fabrication and characterization of inorganic and organic layers, as well as of hybrid organic-inorganic structures. Inorganic oxide and nitride materials and structures were grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. As a substrate for tested organic layers and for preparation of multilayer structures, commercially available SiO2 created by thermal oxidation on Si was used. The hybrid organic-inorganic structures were prepared by spin coating of organic materials on SiO2/Si inorganic structures. As the basic photonics devices, the testing strip inorganic and organic waveguides were fabricated using reactive ion etching. The shape of fabricated testing waveguides was trapezoidal and etched structures were able to guide the radiation. The presented technology enabled to prepare hybrid organic-inorganic structures of comparable dimensions and shape. The fabricated waveguides dimensions and shape will be used for optimisation and design of new lithographic mask to prepare photonic components with required characteristics.

  19. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A.; Faez, R.

    2017-04-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid tandem solar cell with inverted structure is proposed. This efficient double-junction hybrid tandem solar cell consists of a single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) subcell with n-i-p structure as front cell and a P3HT:PCBM organic subcell with inverted structure as back cell. In order to optimize the hybrid tandem cell, we have performed a simulation based on transfer matrix method. We have compared the characteristics of this novel structure with a conventional structure. As a result, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.1 and 24% improvement compared to the conventional hybrid tandem cell was achieved. We also discuss the high potential of this novel structure for realizing high-stability organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  20. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  2. Electrocatalytic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Films and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In this report, we will present the organic-inorganic hybrid molecular films prepared in our group and their applications in chemical sensors and biosensors.Many types of multi-layered films have been prepared in an alternatively assembled organic-inorganic and layer-by-layer manner. We will focus on the alternatively organized organic surfactant and metal-complex films and their conversion into electrocatalytically active films. Especially, we will demonstrate the preparation of bifunctional films for the detection of two different but correlated species, such as nitric oxide and oxygen, in biomedia.

  3. Electrocatalytic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Films and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; XiaoYuan

    2001-01-01

    In this report, we will present the organic-inorganic hybrid molecular films prepared in our group and their applications in chemical sensors and biosensors.Many types of multi-layered films have been prepared in an alternatively assembled organic-inorganic and layer-by-layer manner. We will focus on the alternatively organized organic surfactant and metal-complex films and their conversion into electrocatalytically active films. Especially, we will demonstrate the preparation of bifunctional films for the detection of two different but correlated species, such as nitric oxide and oxygen, in biomedia.  ……

  4. Efficient Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes for Application of Triplet Harvesting with Simple Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Kyo Min; Lee, Sungkyu; Yoo, Han Kyu; Baek, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jwajin; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on triplet harvesting with simple structure. All the hole transporting material and host in emitting layer (EML) of devices were utilized with same material by using N,N'-di-1-naphthalenyl-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1':4',1":4",1"'-quaterphenyl]-4,4"'-diamine (4P-NPD) which were known to be blue fluorescent material. Simple hybrid WOLEDs were fabricated three color with blue fluorescent and green, red phosphorescent materials. We was investigated the effect of triplet harvesting (TH) by exciton generation zone on simple hybrid WOLEDs. Characteristic of simple hybrid WOLEDs were dominant hole mobility, therefore exciton generation zone was expected in EML. Additionally, we was optimization thickness of hole transporting layer and electron transporting layer was fabricated a simple hybrid WOLEDs. Simple hybrid WOLED exhibits maximum luminous efficiency of 29.3 cd/A and maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.2%. Commission Internatio...

  5. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed.

  6. Preparation and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the properties of hybrid organic-inorganic monolithic materials and summarizes the recent developments in the preparation and applications of these hybrid monolithic materials. Hybrid monolithic materials with porosities, surface functionalities, and fast dynamic transport have developed rapidly, and have been used in a wide range of applications owing to the low cost, good stability, and excellent performance. Basically, these materials can be divided into two major types according to the chemical composition: hybrid silica-based monolith (HSM) and hybrid polymer-based monolith (HPM). Compared to the HPM, HSM monolith has been attracting most wide attentions, and it is commonly synthesized by the sol-gel process. The conventional preparation procedures of two type's hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths are addressed. Applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths in optical devices, capillary microextraction (CME), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chiral separation are also reviewed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  8. Color optimization of conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid white light emitting diodes by incomplete energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Jung, E-mail: changcj@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chun-Feng [Department of Photonics, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Madhusudhana Reddy, P.; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chiou, Wei-Yung [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shinn-Jen [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-15

    By using the wavelength conversion method, white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced by applying mixtures of polysiloxane and fluorescent polymers on InGaN based light emitting diodes. UV curable organic–inorganic hybrid materials with high refractive index (1.561), compromised optical, thermal and mechanical properties was used as encapsulants. Red light emitting fluorescent FABD polymer (with 9,9-dioctylfluorene (F), anthracene (A) and 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (B), and 4,7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (D) repeating units) and green light emitting fluorescent FAB polymer were used as wavelength converters. The encapsulant/fluorescent polymer mixture and InGaN produce the white light by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. WLEDs with high color rendering index (CRI, about 93), and tunable correlated color temperature (CCT) properties can be produced by controlling the composition and chemical structures of encapsulating polymer and fluorescent polymer in hybrid materials, offering cool-white and neutral-white LEDs. - Highlights: • Highly efficient white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) were produced. • Conjugated-polymer/InGaN hybrid WLEDs by incomplete energy transfer mechanism. • WLEDs with high color-rendering index and tunable correlated color temperature. • Polysiloxane encapsulant with superior optical, mechanical and thermal properties.

  9. Synthesis and optical features of an europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franville, A.C.; Zambon, D.; Mahiou, R.; Chou, S.; Cousseins, J.C. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Materiaux Inorganiques; Troin, Y. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Heterocycles et des Glucides, EA 987, Universite Blaise-Pascal and ENSCCF, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    1998-07-24

    A europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid was synthesized by grafting a coordinative group (dipicolinic acid) to a silicate network precursor (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) via a covalent bonding. Sol-gel process and complexation were performed using different experimental conditions. The hybrid materials, in particular the Eu{sup 3+} coordination mode, were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopies. Morphology of the materials and TG analysis showed that grafted silica enhanced thermal and mechanical resistances of the organic part. (orig.) 7 refs.

  10. Hardness and degree of conversion of dental restorative composites based on an organic-inorganic hybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Aurélio de Souza Venter; Silvia Luciana Fávaro; Eduardo Radovanovic; Emerson Marcelo Girotto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a factorial design (mixture design) used to analyze the hardness and degree of monomer conversion into composites containing conventional monomers and an organic-inorganic hybrid polymer-based methacryloyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MEMO). For this purpose, resins (composites with SiO2) were formulated with the hybrid polymer (polycondensed, pMEMO), and two conventional monomers used in dentistry, bisphenol-A dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (T...

  11. Preparation and properties of a POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan Nie; Gang Li; Yang Li; Hong Yao Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel POSS-containing organic-inorganic hybrid crosslinked polymer was prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of octahydridosilsesquioxane (T8H8) with 4,4'-bis(4-allyloxybenzoyloxy)phenyl (diene A). Its structure and property was character-ized by FTIR, 29Si NMR, TGA and ellipsometer, respectively. The results show that the hybrid polymer possesses high thermal stability and low dielectric constant of 1.97 at optical frequencies.

  12. Hydrogen Bonding and Stability of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-09-08

    In the past few years, the efficiency of solar cells based on hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites has exceeded the level needed for commercialization. However, existing perovskites solar cells (PSCs) suffer from several intrinsic instabilities, which prevent them from reaching industrial maturity, and stabilizing PSCs has become a critically important problem. Here we propose to stabilize PSCs chemically by strengthening the interactions between the organic cation and inorganic anion of the perovskite framework. In particular, we show that replacing the methylammonium cation with alternative protonated cations allows an increase in the stability of the perovskite by forming strong hydrogen bonds with the halide anions. This interaction also provides opportunities for tuning the electronic states near the bandgap. These mechanisms should have a universal character in different hybrid organic–inorganic framework materials that are widely used.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials processing and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Mennig, Martin; Nonninger, Ralph; Oliveira, Peter William de; Schirra, Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid materials as inorganic-organic nanostructured composites require tailored surface chemistry in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the matrix. For this reason, nanoparticles with organic functions have been synthesized, first, to provide the desired æ-potential at a given pH value, second, to avoid irreversible agglomeration due to the spacing effect, and third, to provide the appropriate surface chemistry. I could be shown that using this approach, it is...

  14. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids: novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Paul G; Antonio, Mark R; Firestone, Millicent A; Kubatko, Karrie-Ann; Szreder, Tomasz; Wishart, James F; Dietz, Mark L

    2007-05-10

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature "liquid POM" comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  15. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  16. Organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials with vitamin B12 functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hisaeda, Takahiro Masuko, Erika Hanashima and Takashi Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by human serum albumin (HSA and vitamin B12 derivatives. The incorporation of hydrophobic vitamin B12 derivatives, which have ester groups in place of the peripheral amide moieties of the natural cobalamin, into HSA is primarily controlled by the hydrophobicity of the peripheral ester groups. Microenvironmental property around the hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was examined by fluorescence and fluorescence polarization measurements. The hydrophobic vitamin B12 itself in HSA is in a microenvironment equivalent in medium polarity to dichloromethane. The molecular motion of hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA was markedly suppressed under such microenvironmental conditions. Carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction of an alkyl radical derived from an alkyl ligand bound to the hydrophobic vitamin B12 was markedly favored in HSA aqueous solution, relative to the reactions in methanol and benzene. The 1,2-migration of the electron-withdrawing group arises from both the suppression of molecular motion and desolvation effects on the alkylated hydrophobic vitamin B12 in HSA.

  17. Perovskite Materials for Light-Emitting Diodes and Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Sjoerd A; Boix, Pablo P; Yantara, Natalia; Li, Mingjie; Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G

    2016-08-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have cemented their position as an exceptional class of optoelectronic materials thanks to record photovoltaic efficiencies of 22.1%, as well as promising demonstrations of light-emitting diodes, lasers, and light-emitting transistors. Perovskite materials with photoluminescence quantum yields close to 100% and perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 8% and current efficiencies of 43 cd A(-1) have been achieved. Although perovskite light-emitting devices are yet to become industrially relevant, in merely two years these devices have achieved the brightness and efficiencies that organic light-emitting diodes accomplished in two decades. Further advances will rely decisively on the multitude of compositional, structural variants that enable the formation of lower-dimensionality layered and three-dimensional perovskites, nanostructures, charge-transport materials, and device processing with architectural innovations. Here, the rapid advancements in perovskite light-emitting devices and lasers are reviewed. The key challenges in materials development, device fabrication, operational stability are addressed, and an outlook is presented that will address market viability of perovskite light-emitting devices.

  18. Hybrid Tunnel Junction-Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Nitride Lateral Light Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liancheng; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Hongwei; Wang, Guohong

    2016-01-20

    Graphene transparent conductive electrode (TCE) applications in nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) are still limited by the large contact resistance and interface barrier between graphene and p-GaN. We propose a hybrid tunnel junction (TJ)-graphene TCE approach for nitride lateral LEDs theoretically and experimentally. Through simulation using commercial advanced physical models of semiconductor devices (APSYS), we found that low tunnel resistance can be achieved in the n(+)-GaN/u-InGaN/p(+)-GaN TJ, which has a lower tunneling barrier and an enhanced electric field due to the polarization effect. Graphene TCEs and hybrid graphene-TJ TCEs are then modeled. The designed hybrid TJ-graphene TCEs show sufficient current diffusion length (Ls), low introduced series resistance, and high transmittance. The assembled TJ LED with the triple-layer graphene (TLG) TCEs show comparable optoelectrical performance (3.99 V@20 mA, LOP = 10.8 mW) with the reference LED with ITO TCEs (3.36 V@20 mA, LOP = 12.6 mW). The experimental results further prove that the TJ-graphene structure can be successfully incorporated as TCEs for lateral nitride LEDs.

  19. Design of Bioactive Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials with Self-setting Ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T; Machida, S; Morita, Y [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan); Ishida, E, E-mail: tmiya@life.kyutech.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Paste-like materials with ability of self-setting are attractive for bone substitutes, since they can be injected from the small hole with minimized invasion to the patient. Although bone cements which set as apatite are clinically used, there is limitation on clinical applications due to their mechanical properties such as high brittleness and low fracture toughness. To overcome this problem, organic-inorganic hybrids based on a flexible polymer are attractive. We have obtained an idea for design of self-setting hybrids using polyion complex fabricated by ionic interaction of anionic and cationic polymers. We aimed at preparation of organic-inorganic hybrids exhibiting self-setting ability and bioactivity. The liquid component was prepared from cationic chitosan aqueous solution. The powder component was prepared by mixing various carrageenans with {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate ({alpha}-TCP). The obtained cements set within 1 day. Compressive strength showed tendency to increase with increase in {alpha}-TCP content in the powder component. The prepared cements formed the apatite in simulated body fluid within 3 days. Novel self-setting materials based on organic-inorganic hybrid can be designed utilizing ionic interaction of polysaccharide.

  20. Autonomic healable waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids based on aromatic disulfide moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Aguirresarobe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic disulfide dynamic structures were incorporated as chain extenders in waterborne organic-inorganic polyurethane hybrids in order to provide autonomic healable characteristics. The synthesis was carried out following the acetone process methodology and the influence of the introduction of the healing agents in the polymer dispersion stability was analyzed. After the crosslinking process at room temperature, organic-inorganic hybrid films, which presented autonomic healing characteristics, were obtained. These features were evaluated by means of stress-strain tests and the films showed repetitive healing abilities. Thus, the optimum healing time at room temperature (25 °C as well as the influence of different parameters in the healing efficiency, such the aromatic disulfide concentration or the physical properties of the polymer matrix were analyzed.

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of a New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material:

    OpenAIRE

    Hela Ferjani; Habib Boughzala; Ahmed Driss

    2013-01-01

    The title compound is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation reveals that the studied compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca with the following lattice parameters:  (4) Å,  (3) Å,  (6) Å, and . The crystal lattice is composed of a discrete anion surrounded by piperazinium cations, chlorine anions, and water molecules. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between , , organic cations, and water molecules form a thre...

  2. Scripting approach in hybrid organic-inorganic condensation simulation: the GPTMS proof-of-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Maly, Marek; Posocco, Paola; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Pricl, Sabrina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Silica-based hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by sol-gel chemistry exhibit unique chemical and physical properties by virtue of their anisotropic organization. (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS)-based networks represent an archetype of this class of substances, with a vast range of applications. In the present study, a new computational recipe has been developed within Materials Studio software platform to generate atomistic models of GPTMS crosslinked ...

  3. Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-nitride light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erin C.; Yonkee, Benjamin P.; Wu, Feng; Oh, Sang Ho; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate highly doped GaN p-n tunnel junction (TJ) contacts on III-nitride heterostructures where the active region of the device and the top p-GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and highly doped n-GaN was grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy to form the TJ. The regrowth interface in these hybrid devices was found to have a high concentration of oxygen, which likely enhanced tunneling through the diode. For optimized regrowth, the best tunnel junction device had a total differential resistivity of 1.5 × 10-4 Ω cm2, including contact resistance. As a demonstration, a blue-light-emitting diode on a (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) GaN substrate with a hybrid tunnel junction and an n-GaN current spreading layer was fabricated and compared with a reference sample with a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The tunnel junction LED showed a lower forward operating voltage and a higher efficiency at a low current density than the TCO LED.

  4. Bright luminescence from pure DNA-curcumin–based phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Park, Chinho

    2016-08-01

    Recently, significant advances have occurred in the development of phosphors for bio hybrid light-emitting diodes (Bio-HLEDs), which have created brighter, metal-free, rare-earth phosphor-free, eco-friendly, and cost-competitive features for visible light emission. Here, we demonstrate an original approach using bioinspired phosphors in Bio-HLEDs based on natural deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-curcumin complexes with cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) in bio-crystalline form. The curcumin chromophore was bound to the DNA double helix structure as observed using field emission tunnelling electron microscopy (FE-TEM). Efficient luminescence occurred due to tightly bound curcumin chromophore to DNA duplex. Bio-HLED shows low luminous drop rate of 0.0551 s‑1. Moreover, the solid bio-crystals confined the activating bright luminescence with a quantum yield of 62%, thereby overcoming aggregation-induced quenching effect. The results of this study herald the development of commercially viable large-scale hybrid light applications that are environmentally benign.

  5. Colour tuning in white hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckbauer, Jochen; Brasser, Catherine; Findlay, Neil J.; Edwards, Paul R.; Wallis, David J.; Skabara, Peter J.; Martin, Robert W.

    2016-10-01

    White hybrid inorganic/organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by combining a novel organic colour converter with a blue inorganic LED. An organic small molecule was specifically synthesised to act as down-converter. The characteristics of the white colour were controlled by changing the concentration of the organic molecule based on the BODIPY unit, which was embedded in a transparent matrix, and volume of the molecule and encapsulant mixture. The concentration has a critical effect on the conversion efficiency, i.e. how much of the absorbed blue light is converted into yellow light. With increasing concentration the conversion efficiency decreases. This quenching effect is due to aggregation of the organic molecule at higher concentrations. Increasing the deposited amount of the converter does not increase the yellow emission despite more blue light being absorbed. Degradation of the organic converter was also observed during a period of 15 months from LED fabrication. Angular-dependent measurements revealed slight deviation from a Lambertian profile for the blue and yellow emission peaks leading to a small change in ‘whiteness’ with emission angle. Warm white and cool white light with correlated colour temperatures of 2770 K and 7680 K, respectively, were achieved using different concentrations of the converter molecule. Although further work is needed to improve the lifetime and poor colour rendering, these hybrid LEDs show promising results as an alternative approach for generating white LEDs compared with phosphor-based white LEDs.

  6. Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III–nitride light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Young, Erin C.

    2016-01-26

    In this work, we demonstrate highly doped GaN p–n tunnel junction (TJ) contacts on III–nitride heterostructures where the active region of the device and the top p-GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and highly doped n-GaN was grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy to form the TJ. The regrowth interface in these hybrid devices was found to have a high concentration of oxygen, which likely enhanced tunneling through the diode. For optimized regrowth, the best tunnel junction device had a total differential resistivity of 1.5 × 10−4 Ω cm2, including contact resistance. As a demonstration, a blue-light-emitting diode on a ($20\\\\bar{2}\\\\bar{1}$) GaN substrate with a hybrid tunnel junction and an n-GaN current spreading layer was fabricated and compared with a reference sample with a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer. The tunnel junction LED showed a lower forward operating voltage and a higher efficiency at a low current density than the TCO LED.

  7. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on UV light-emitting diodes with conjugated polymers-(CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots as hybrid phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunchul; Chung, Wonkeun; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using GaN-based 380-nm UV LEDs precoated with the composite of blue-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(2-methoxy-5-{2-ethylhexyloxy)-1 ,4-phenylene)]), yellow green-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)]), and 605-nm red-emitting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores were obtained by solvothermal route using CdO, Se precursors and ZnS shells were synthesized by using diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathiane precursors. The optical properties of CdSe/ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structural data and composition of the QDs were transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and EDX technique. The quantum yield and size of the QDs were 58.7% and about 6.7 nm, respectively. Three-band white light was generated by hybridizing blue (430 nm), green (535 nm), and red (605 nm) emission. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the device was extremely improved by introducing the QDs. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinate, color temperature, and CRI of a white LED at 20 mA were (0.379, 0.368), 3969 K, and 90, respectively.

  8. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  9. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  10. Electric-Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ren; Wu, Hua; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Draxl, Claudia; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2017-09-20

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds attract a lot of interest for their flexible structures and multifunctional properties. For example, they can have coexisting magnetism and ferroelectricity whose possible coupling gives rise to magnetoelectricity. Here using first-principles computations, we show that, in a perovskite metal-organic framework (MOF), the magnetic and electric orders are further coupled to optical excitations, leading to an Electric tuning of the Magneto-Optical Kerr effect (EMOKE). Moreover, the Kerr angle can be switched by reversal of both ferroelectric and magnetic polarization only. The interplay between the Kerr angle and the organic-inorganic components of MOFs offers surprising unprecedented tools for engineering MOKE in complex compounds. Note that this work may be relevant to acentric magnetic systems in general, e.g., multiferroics.

  11. Microscopic origin of entropy-driven polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Keith T.; Svane, Katrine; Kieslich, Gregor; Cheetham, Anthony K.; Walsh, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Entropy is a critical, but often overlooked, factor in determining the relative stabilities of crystal phases. The importance of entropy is most pronounced in softer materials, where small changes in free energy can drive phase transitions, which has recently been demonstrated in the case of organic-inorganic hybrid-formate perovskites. In this Rapid Communication we demonstrate the interplay between composition and crystal structure that is responsible for the particularly pronounced role of entropy in determining polymorphism in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Using ab initio based lattice dynamics, we probe the origins and effects of vibrational entropy of four archetype perovskite (A B X3 ) structures. We consider an inorganic material (SrTiO3), an A -site hybrid-halide material (CH3NH3) PbI3 , a X -site hybrid material KSr (BH4)3 , and a mixed A - and X -site hybrid-formate material (N2H5) Zn (HCO2)3 , comparing the differences in entropy between two common polymorphs. The results demonstrate the importance of low-frequency intermolecular modes in determining the phase stability in these materials. The understanding gained allows us to propose a general principle for the relative stability of different polymorphs of hybrid materials as temperature is increased.

  12. Zirconia-based luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials with ternary europium (III) complexes bonded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yige

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a novel red-emitting organic-inorganic hybrid material with europium (III) lanthanide β-diketonate complexes linked to a zirconia was reported, which was realized by adduct formation with zirconia-tethered terpyridine moieties. Luminescence enhancement of the hybrid material has been observed compared with pure Eu(tta)3·2H2O. Transparent and strongly luminescent thin films based on PMMA were also prepared at room temperature, which are highly luminescent under UV-light irradiation and possess a promising prospect in the area of optics.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrids formed between conducting polymers and crystalline antimonic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleze Fábio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis and characterization of novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials between the crystalline antimonic acid (CAA and two conductive polymers: polypyrrole and polyaniline. The hybrids were obtained by in situ oxidative polymerization of monomers by the Sb(V present in the pyrochlore-like CAA structure. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, CHN elemental analysis and electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that both polymers were formed in their oxidized form, with the CAA structure acting as a counter anion.

  14. Design and synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid capsules for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiaoli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Pan, Fusheng; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid capsules, which typically possess a hollow lumen and a hybrid wall, have emerged as a novel and promising class of hybrid materials and have attracted enormous attention. In comparison to polymeric capsules or inorganic capsules, the hybrid capsules combine the intrinsic physical/chemical properties of the organic and inorganic moieties, acquire more degrees of freedom to manipulate multiple interactions, create hierarchical structures and integrate multiple functionalities. Thus, the hybrid capsules exhibit superior mechanical strength (vs. polymeric capsules) and diverse functionalities (vs. inorganic capsules), which may give new opportunities to produce high-performance materials. Much effort has been devoted to exploring innovative and effective methods for the synthesis of hybrid capsules that exhibit desirable performance in target applications. This tutorial review firstly presents a brief description of the capsular structure and hybrid materials in nature, then classifies the hybrid capsules into molecule-hybrid capsules and nano-hybrid capsules based upon the size of the organic and inorganic moieties in the capsule wall, followed by a detailed discussion of the design and synthesis of the hybrid capsules. For each kind of hybrid capsule, the state-of-the-art synthesis methods are described in detail and a critical comment is embedded. The applications of these hybrid capsules in biotechnological areas (biocatalysis, drug delivery, etc.) have also been summarized. Hopefully, this review will offer a perspective and guidelines for the future research and development of hybrid capsules.

  15. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  16. Applications of advanced hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Belleville, Philippe; Popall, Michael; Nicole, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    Today cross-cutting approaches, where molecular engineering and clever processing are synergistically coupled, allow the chemist to tailor complex hybrid systems of various shapes with perfect mastery at different size scales, composition, functionality, and morphology. Hybrid materials with organic-inorganic or bio-inorganic character represent not only a new field of basic research but also, via their remarkable new properties and multifunctional nature, hybrids offer prospects for many new applications in extremely diverse fields. The description and discussion of the major applications of hybrid inorganic-organic (or biologic) materials are the major topic of this critical review. Indeed, today the very large set of accessible hybrid materials span a wide spectrum of properties which yield the emergence of innovative industrial applications in various domains such as optics, micro-electronics, transportation, health, energy, housing, and the environment among others (526 references).

  17. New organic-inorganic hybrid material based on functional cellulose nanowhisker, polypseudorotaxane and Au nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavand, Ali; Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas

    2016-11-05

    Organic-inorganic functional hybrid materials play a major role in the development of advanced functional materials and recently have gained growing interest of the worldwide community. In this context, new hybrid organic-inorganic gel consisting of cellulose nanowhisker xanthate (CNWX) and S-H functionalized polypseudorotaxane (PPR) as organic parts of gel and gold nanorods (GNRs) as inorganic cross-linking agent were prepared. Firstly, thiolated α-cyclodextrin (α-CD-SH) was threaded onto poly-(ethylene glycol) bis (mercaptoethanoate ester) (PEG-SH) to give polypseudorotaxane (PPR) and then it reacted with GNRs in the presence of CNWX to give the new hybrid gel material. The new synthesized gel and its components characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. Interestingly, hybrid gel showed new polygonal plate like morphology with 45-60nm thickness and 400-600nm width. The obtained gel may have potential application in many fields especially in biomedical applications.

  18. Gravimetric chemical sensors based on silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaqiang; Zheng, Qi; Zhu, Yongheng; Lou, Huihui; Xiang, Qun; Cheng, Zhixuan

    2014-09-01

    Silica-based mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid material modified quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors have been examined for their ability to achieve highly sensitive and selective detection. Mesoporous silica SBA-15 serves as an inorganic host with large specific surface area, facilitating gas adsorption, and thus leads to highly sensitive response; while the presence of organic functional groups contributes to the greatly improved specific sensing property. In this work, we summarize our efforts in the rational design and synthesis of novel sensing materials for the detection of hazardous substances, including simulant nerve agent, organic vapor, and heavy metal ion, and develop high-performance QCM-based chemical sensors.

  19. Advances in Organic and Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymeric Supports for Catalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pia Salvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the most recent advances (2014–2016 on the synthesis of new polymer-supported catalysts are reported, focusing the attention on the synthetic strategies developed for their preparation. The polymer-supported catalysts examined will be organic-based polymers and organic-inorganic hybrids and will include, among others, polystyrenes, poly-ionic liquids, chiral ionic polymers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, as well as silica and halloysite-based catalysts. Selected examples will show the synthesis and application in the field of organocatalysis and metal-based catalysis both for non-asymmetric and asymmetric transformations.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid polyphosphazene polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid polyphosphazene polymer was synthesized via sequential nucleophilic substitution using allylamine and phenol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 31P-NMR spectra. The thermal properties were studied by DSC and TGA. It was found that the polymer has good thermal stability. Char yields of the polymer reaches to 48.6% at 800℃. The high char yield makes it possible in theory for the polymer to be used as flame retardant. By cross linking, the thermal stability of the polymer could be improved further.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid polyphosphazene polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid polyphosphazene polymer was synthesized via sequential nucleophilic substitution using allylamine and phenol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 31P-NMR spectra. The thermal properties were studied by DSC and TGA. It was found that the polymer has good thermal stability. Char yields of the polymer reaches to 48.6% at 800 ℃. The high char yield makes it possible in theory for the polymer to be used as flame retardant. By cross linking, the thermal stability of the polymer could be improved further.

  2. Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts for the direct sustainable synthesis of GABAergic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; García-García, Pilar; Corma, Avelino

    2014-08-11

    Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts have been prepared and applied in a new general, practical, and sustainable synthetic procedure toward industrially relevant GABA derivatives. The domino sequence is composed of seven chemical transformations which are performed in two one-pot reactions. The method produces both enantiomeric forms of the product in high enantiopurity as well as the racemate in good yields after a single column purification step. This protocol highlights major process intensification, catalyst recyclability, and low waste generation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials.

  4. Biomineralization-inspired synthesis of functional organic/inorganic hybrid materials: organic molecular control of self-organization of hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Oda, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Kato, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Organisms produce various organic/inorganic hybrid materials, which are called biominerals. They form through the self-organization of organic molecules and inorganic elements under ambient conditions. Biominerals often have highly organized and hierarchical structures from nanometer to macroscopic length scales, resulting in their remarkable physical and chemical properties that cannot be obtained by simple accumulation of their organic and inorganic constituents. These observations motivate us to create novel functional materials exhibiting properties superior to conventional materials--both synthetic and natural. Herein, we introduce recent progress in understanding biomineralization processes at the molecular level and the development of organic/inorganic hybrid materials by these processes. We specifically outline fundamental molecular studies on silica, iron oxide, and calcium carbonate biomineralization and describe material synthesis based on these mechanisms. These approaches allow us to design a variety of advanced hybrid materials with desired morphologies, sizes, compositions, and structures through environmentally friendly synthetic routes using functions of organic molecules.

  5. Proton Conduction in Sulfonated Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Monoliths with Hierarchical Pore Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lehr, Martin; Seidler, Christopher F; Taffa, Dereje H; Wark, Michael; Smarsly, Bernd M; Marschall, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Porous organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with hierarchical porosity exhibiting macro- and mesopores are prepared via sol-gel process under variation of the mesopore size. Organic moieties in the pore walls are incorporated by substituting up to 10% of the silicon precursor tetramethylorthosilicate with bisilylated benzene molecules. After functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, the resulting sulfonated hybrid monoliths featuring a bimodal pore structure are investigated regarding proton conduction depending on temperature and relative humidity. The hierarchical pore system and controlled mesopore design turn out to be crucial for sulfonation and proton conduction. These sulfonated hybrid hierarchical monoliths containing only 10% organic precursor exhibit higher proton conduction at different relative humidities than sulfonated periodic mesoporous organosilica made of 100% bisilylated precursors exhibiting solely mesopores, even with a lower concentration of sulfonic acid groups.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite from polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan

    2010-01-01

    A novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite (EF-POSS) was prepared by Pt-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction of octahydridosilsesquioxane (T8H8, POSS) with a luminescent substituted acetylene (2-ethynyl-7-(4-(4-methylstyryl)styryl)-9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene (EF)) in high yield. The hybrid nanocomposite was soluble in common solvents such as CH2Cl2, CHCl3, THF and 1,4-dioxane. Its structure and property were characterized by FTIR, NMR, TGA, UV and PL, respectively. The results show that the hybrid nanocomposite with high thermal stability emits stable blue light as a result of photo excitation and possesses high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (φfL).

  7. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed from TiO2 nanoparticles and polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitzler Danielle C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed from TiO2 nanoparticles and polyaniline (PANI. The preparation method is based on a sol-gel technique using titanium tetra-isopropoxide as oxide precursor, and two synthetic routes to the hybrids formation were employed, based on the addition of aniline after or before the sol formation. Different amounts of aniline were used to verify this effect on the characteristics of the formed materials. Samples were characterized by electronic spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the different experimental routes are successful to produce hybrids formed by oxides nanoparticles and polyaniline in its conducting form, the emeraldine salt. There are no strong differences between the samples obtained by the two synthetic routes employed, except by the amount of polymer in the final material.

  8. Hard X-rays for processing hybrid organic-inorganic thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Carboni, Davide; Pinna, Alessandra; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-rays, deriving from a synchrotron light source, have been used as an effective tool for processing hybrid organic-inorganic films and thick coatings up to several micrometres. These coatings could be directly modified, in terms of composition and properties, by controlled exposure to X-rays. The physico-chemical properties of the coatings, such as hardness, refractive index and fluorescence, can be properly tuned using the interaction of hard X-rays with the sol-gel hybrid films. The changes in the microstructure have been correlated especially with the modification of the optical and the mechanical properties. A relationship between the degradation rate of the organic groups and the rise of fluorescence from the hybrid material has been observed; nanoindentation analysis of the coatings as a function of the X-ray doses has shown a not linear dependence between thickness and film hardness.

  9. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  10. Fluorescent and cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells for monitoring drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Tianhui; Li, Hua; Yang, Liang; Meng, Lingjie; Lu, Qinghua; Long, Jiangang

    2015-03-04

    Functionalized and monodisperse nanoshells have attracted significant attention owing to their well-defined structure, unique properties, and wide range of potential applications. Here, the synthesis of cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid nanoshells with strong fluorescence properties was reported via a facile precipitation polymerization of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and fluorescein on silica particles used as templates. The resulting poly(cyclotriphosphazene-co-fluorescein) (PCTPF) nanoshells were firm cross-linked shells with ∼2.2 nm mesopores that facilitated the transport of drug molecules. The fluorescent nanoshells also exhibited excellent water dispersibility and biocompatibility; thus, they can be considered as ideal drug vehicles with high doxorubicin storage capacity (26.2 wt %) and excellent sustained release (up to 14 days). Compared to doxorubicin (DOX) alone, the PCTPF nanoshells more efficiently delivered DOX into and killed cancer cells. Moreover, the PCTPF nanoshells also exhibited remarkable fluorescent emission properties and improved photobleaching stability in both suspension and solid state owing to the covalent immobilization of fluorescein in the highly cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrids. The exceptional fluorescent properties enabled the release of DOX as well as the distribution of nanoshells and DOX to be monitored.

  11. Preparation, characterization and application of organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted monolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofang; Sun, Na; Zhu, Quanfei; Wu, Mei; Ye, Yong; Chen, Huaixia

    2013-08-23

    The present work aims to synthesize an organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted monolith using one-step method. The synthesis conditions such as the type of inorganic precursor and porogenic solvent, the molar ratios of the monomer and cross-linker, the volume ratio of the inorganic alcoholysate and organic part were optimized. The morphology of the monolith was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The imprinted factor of the monolith for caffeine reached 3.02. A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of caffeine in children's milk using the organic-inorganic hybrid caffeine imprinted polymer monolith microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiodes array detector was developed. Several parameters affecting the sample pretreatment were investigated, including the type, flow rate and volume of eluent, the flow rate and volume of sample solution. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 8-500μgL(-1) with the correlation coefficient above 0.9987. Lower limits of detection (LOD, at S/N=3) and quantification (LOQ, at S/N=10) in children's milk samples were 2.7 and 8μgL(-1). Recoveries of caffeine from spiked children's milk ranged from 85 to 104% with relative standard deviations of less than 8.9%.

  12. Controlled formation of calcium-phosphate-based hybrid mesocrystals by organic-inorganic co-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Halei; Chu, Xiaobin; Li, Li; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of controlled formation of biomimetic mesocrystals is of great importance in materials chemistry and engineering. Here we report that organic-inorganic hybrid plates and even mesocrystals can be conveniently synthesized using a one-pot reaction in a mixed system of protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)), surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)) and supersaturated calcium phosphate solution. The morphologies of calcium-phosphate-based products are analogous to the general inorganic crystals but they have abnormal and interesting substructures. The hybrids are constructed by the alternate stacking of organic layer (thickness of 1.31 nm) and well-crystallized inorganic mineral layer (thickness of 2.13 nm) at the nanoscale. Their morphologies (spindle, rhomboid and round) and sizes (200 nm-2 μm) can be tuned gradually by changing BSA, AOT and calcium phosphate concentrations. This modulation effect can be explained by a competition between the anisotropic and isotropic assembly of the ultrathin plate-like units. The anisotropic assembly confers mesocrystal characteristics on the hybrids while the round ones are the results of isotropic assembly. However, the basic lamellar organic-inorganic substructure remains unchanged during the hybrid formation, which is a key factor to ensure the self-assembly from molecule to micrometre scale. A morphological ternary diagram of BSA-AOT-calcium phosphate is used to describe this controlled formation process, providing a feasible strategy to prepare the required materials. This study highlights the cooperative effect of macromolecule (frame structure), small biomolecule (binding sites) and mineral phase (main component) on the generation and regulation of biomimetic hybrid mesocrystals.

  13. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes: Hybrid organic-inorganic materials as fuel cell polyelectrolyte membranes and functional nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiterer, Mariya

    2007-05-01

    This dissertation describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Several classes of bridged polysilsesquioxanes are presented. The first class is a membrane material suitable for fuel cell technology as a proton conducting polyelectrolyte. The second class includes hybrid nanoparticles for display device applications and chromatographic media. Chapter 1 is an introduction to hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Sol-gel chemistry is discussed, followed by a survey of prominent examples of silica hybrids. Examples of physical organic-silica blends and covalent organo-silicas, including ORMOCERSRTM, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, and bridged polysilsesquioxanes are discussed. Bridged polysilsesquioxanes are described in great detail. Monomer synthesis, sol-gel chemistry, processing, characterization, and physical properties are included. Chapter 2 describes the design of polyelectrolyte bridged polysilsesquioxane membranes. The materials contain covalently bound sulfonic acid groups originating from the corresponding disulfides. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials integrate a network supporting component which is systematically changed to fine-tune their physical properties. The membranes are characterized as PEM fuel cell electrolytes, where proton conductivities of 4-6 mS cm-1 were measured. In Chapter 3 techniques for the preparation of bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles are described. An inverse water-in-oil microemulsion polymerization method is developed to prepare cationic nanoparticles, including viologen-bridged materials with applications in electrochromic display devices. An aqueous ammonia system is used to prepare neutral nanoparticles containing hydrocarbon bridging groups, which have potential applications as chromatographic media. Chapter 4 describes electrochromic devices developed in collaboration with the Heflin group of Virginia Tech, which incorporate viologen bridged nanoparticles

  14. Highly Efficient Red-Light Emission in An Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ferroelectric: (Pyrrolidinium)MnCl₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Fu, Da-Wei; Ye, Heng-Yun; Chen, Zhong-Ning; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-04-22

    Luminescence of ferroelectric materials is one important property for technological applications, such as low-energy electron excitation. However, the vast majority of doped inorganic ferroelectric materials have low luminescent efficiency. The past decade has envisaged much progress in the design of both ferroelectric and luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid complexes for optoelectronic applications. The combination of ferroelectricity and luminescence within organic-inorganic hybrids would lead to a new type of luminescent ferroelectric multifunctional materials. We herein report a hybrid molecular ferroelectric, (pyrrolidinium)MnCl3, which exhibits excellent ferroelectricity with a saturation polarization of 5.5 μC/cm(2) as well as intense red luminescence with high quantum yield of 56% under a UV excitation. This finding may extend the application of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds to the field of ferroelectric luminescence and/or multifunctional devices.

  15. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs(+) beams (organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  17. A Strip-Loading Optical Waveguide Using Well Poled Stability Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei-Nan; TIAN Mei-Qiang; SUN Xiao-Qiang; WANG Wei; DENG Ling; GAO Lei; ZHANG Da-Ming

    2009-01-01

    An optical waveguide for a polymer modulator based on organic/inorganic hybrid electro-optic (EO) materials is designed and fabricated by utilizing a strip-loading structure.This hybrid material has a controllable refractive index,high EO coefficient and good poled stability,which are suitable for the EO modulators and switches.The embedded waveguide made of the above EO material can reduce the coupling loss. The light is coupled into the gnided-core layer and then undergoes a transition from the buried waveguide into the EO material.Obvious modulation is observed by application of ac voltage to the EO material.The measured Vπ of co-planar waveguide (CPW) is 5 V for the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator in length of 3.5cm.

  18. Organic-inorganic hybrid foams with diatomite addition: Effect on functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdolotti, L.; D'Auria, M.; Lavorgna, M.; Vollaro, P.; Iannace, S.; Capasso, I.; Galzerano, B.; Caputo, D.; Liguori, B.

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams were prepared by using metakaolin, diatomite as a partial (or total) replacement of metakaolin, as matrix, silicon and whipped protein as pore forming. The foamed systems were hardened at defined temperature and time and then characterized by mechanical point of view through compression tests and by functional point of view through fire reaction and acoustic tests. The experimental findings highlighted that the replacement of diatomite in the formulation affected the morphological structure of the foams and consequently their mechanical properties. In particular, the consolidation mechanism in the diatomite based-hybrid foams changed from geopolymerization to a silicate polycondensation mechanism. Therefore, mechanical performances enhanced with increasing of the diatomite content. Fire reaction tests, such as non-combustibility and cone calorimeter tests, showed positive thermal inertia of samples regardless of the content of diatomite.

  19. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  20. Quantum dot-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for optoelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2016-10-01

    Our recent research involves the design, characterization and testing of devices constituting low bandgap conjugated polymers, surface-engineered quantum dots (QDs), carbon nanotube (CNT)-QDs, QDs decorated nanowires, and QD coupled conjugated polymers. The resulting hybrid materials can be used for facilitating the charge/energy transfer and enhancing the charge carrier mobility in highly efficient optoelectronic and photonic devices. Exploiting the full potential of quantum dots (QDs) in optoelectronic devices require efficient mechanisms for transfer of energy or electrons produced in the optically excited QDs. We propose semiconducting π-conjugated molecules as ligands to achieve energy or charge transfer. The hybridization of p-type π-conjugated molecules to the surface of n-type QDs can induce distinct luminescence and charge transport characteristics due to energy and/or charge transfer effects. QDs and π-conjugated molecule hybrids with controlled luminescent properties can be used for new active materials for light-emitting diodes and flexible displays. In addition, such hybrid systems with enhanced charge transfer efficiency can be used for nanoscale photovoltaic devices. We have also explored single nanoparticle based electronics using QDs and π-conjugated molecule hybrids with molecular-scale n-p or n-insulating (ins)-p-heterojunction structures.

  1. Solution-processible organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Gil Jo; Kim, Kang Dae; Cho, Shinuk; Walker, Bright; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid bipolar field-effect transistors (HBFETs) comprising a layer of p-type organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) separated from a parallel layer of n-type inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) were demonstrated by solution processing. In order to achieve balanced hole and electron mobilities, we initially optimized the hole-transporting P3HT channel by the addition of the polar non-solvent acetonitrile (AN) to P3HT solutions in chloroform, which induced a selfassembled nano-fibril morphology and an enhancement of hole mobilities. For the electron channel, a wet-chemically-prepared ZnO layer was optimized by thermal annealing. Unipolar P3HT FET with 5% AN exhibited the highest hole mobility of 7.20 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 while the highest electron mobility (3.64 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1) was observed in unipolar ZnO FETs annealed at 200°C. The organic-inorganic HBFETs consisting of the P3HT layer with 5% AN and ZnO annealed at 200°C exhibited well-balanced hole and electron mobilities of 1.94 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1 and 1.98 × 10-2 cm2V-1s-1, respectively.

  2. Electrochromic conductive polymer fuses for hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Sven; Forrest, Stephen R.; Perlov, Craig; Jackson, Warren; Taussig, Carl

    2003-12-01

    We demonstrate a nonvolatile, write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory device employing a hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor architecture consisting of thin film p-i-n silicon diode on a stainless steel substrate integrated in series with a conductive polymer fuse. The nonlinearity of the silicon diodes enables a passive matrix memory architecture, while the conductive polyethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonic acid polymer serves as a reliable switch with fuse-like behavior for data storage. The polymer can be switched at ˜2 μs, resulting in a permanent decrease of conductivity of the memory pixel by up to a factor of 103. The switching mechanism is primarily due to a current and thermally dependent redox reaction in the polymer, limited by the double injection of both holes and electrons. The switched device performance does not degrade after many thousand read cycles in ambient at room temperature. Our results suggest that low cost, organic/inorganic WORM memories are feasible for light weight, high density, robust, and fast archival storage applications.

  3. Controllable lasing performance in solution-processed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Huang, Jiong-Fu; Chou, Chun-Hsien; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Chen, Fang-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-11-03

    Solution-processed organic-inorganic perovskites are fascinating due to their remarkable photo-conversion efficiency and great potential in the cost-effective, versatile and large-scale manufacturing of optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate that the perovskite nanocrystal sizes can be simply controlled by manipulating the precursor solution concentrations in a two-step sequential deposition process, thus achieving the feasible tunability of excitonic properties and lasing performance in hybrid metal-halide perovskites. The lasing threshold is at around 230 μJ cm(-2) in this solution-processed organic-inorganic lead-halide material, which is comparable to the colloidal quantum dot lasers. The efficient stimulated emission originates from the multiple random scattering provided by the micro-meter scale rugged morphology and polycrystalline grain boundaries. Thus the excitonic properties in perovskites exhibit high correlation with the formed morphology of the perovskite nanocrystals. Compared to the conventional lasers normally serving as a coherent light source, the perovskite random lasers are promising in making low-cost thin-film lasing devices for flexible and speckle-free imaging applications.

  4. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  5. Embedded Metal Electrode for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Han-Don; Choi, Deokjae; Choi, Ahreum; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-06-27

    We demonstrate here an embedded metal electrode for highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells. The electrode proposed here is an effective alternative to the conventional bus and finger electrode which leads to a localized short circuit at a direct Si/metal contact and has a poor collection efficiency due to a nonoptimized electrode design. In our design, a Ag/SiO2 electrode is embedded into a Si substrate while being positioned between Si nanowire arrays underneath poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), facilitating suppressed recombination at the Si/Ag interface and notable improvements in the fabrication reproducibility. With an optimized microgrid electrode, our 1 cm(2) hybrid solar cells exhibit a power conversion efficiency of up to 16.1% with an open-circuit voltage of 607 mV and a short circuit current density of 34.0 mA/cm(2). This power conversion efficiency is more than twice as high as that of solar cells using a conventional electrode (8.0%). The microgrid electrode significantly minimizes the optical and electrical losses. This reproducibly yields a superior quantum efficiency of 99% at the main solar spectrum wavelength of 600 nm. In particular, our solar cells exhibit a significant increase in the fill factor of 78.3% compared to that of a conventional electrode (61.4%); this is because of the drastic reduction in the metal/contact resistance of the 1 μm-thick Ag electrode. Hence, the use of our embedded microgrid electrode in the construction of an ideal carrier collection path presents an opportunity in the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  6. Release of ceria nanoparticles grafted on hybrid organic-inorganic films for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Alessandra; Figus, Cristiana; Lasio, Barbara; Piccinini, Massimo; Malfatti, Luca; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2012-08-01

    The controlled release of nanoparticles from a hybrid organic-inorganic surface allows for developing several applications based on a slow delivery of oxygen scavengers into specific environments. We have successfully grafted ceria nanoparticles on a hybrid film surface and tested their release in a buffer solution; the tests have shown that the particles are continuously delivered within a time scale of hours. The hybrid film has been synthesized using 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane as precursor alkoxide; the synthesis has been performed in highly basic conditions to control the polycondensation reactions of both organic and inorganic networks via controlled aging of the solution. Only films prepared from aged solutions are able to graft ceria nanoparticles on their surface. The ceria nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, the hybrid films have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Raman imaging has been used for the release test. The hybrid film-ceria nanoparticles system fulfils the requirements of optical transparency and stability in buffer solutions which are necessary for biomedical applications.

  7. Preparation of new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric chiral stationary phases for ligand-exchange chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric ligand-exchange chiral stationary phases were developed by radical chain transfer reaction and surface grafting on silica gel, and successfully used for the enantioseparations of DL-amino acids and DL-hydroxyl acids. The resolutions were achieved by using water containing 2.0 × 10-4 mol/L of CuAc2 as a mobile phase, column temperature of 40 ℃, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at UV 254 mn. The elution order of D-isomer before L-isomer was observed for all DL-amino acids resolved except DL-Pro.

  8. Tunable Radiation Response in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Gate Dielectrics for Low-Voltage Graphene Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Heather N; Cress, Cory D; McMorrow, Julian J; Schmucker, Scott W; Sangwan, Vinod K; Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Kumar, Rajan; Puntambekar, Kanan P; Luck, Kyle A; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-03-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor and dielectric materials are attractive for future lightweight, low-voltage, flexible electronics, but their response to ionizing radiation environments is not well understood. Here, we investigate the radiation response of graphene field-effect transistors employing multilayer, solution-processed zirconia self-assembled nanodielectrics (Zr-SANDs) with ZrOx as a control. Total ionizing dose (TID) testing is carried out in situ using a vacuum ultraviolet source to a total radiant exposure (RE) of 23.1 μJ/cm(2). The data reveal competing charge density accumulation within and between the individual dielectric layers. Additional measurements of a modified Zr-SAND show that varying individual layer thicknesses within the gate dielectric tuned the TID response. This study thus establishes that the radiation response of graphene electronics can be tailored to achieve a desired radiation sensitivity by incorporating hybrid organic-inorganic gate dielectrics.

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Characterization of a New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ferjani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation reveals that the studied compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pbca with the following lattice parameters:  (4 Å,  (3 Å,  (6 Å, and . The crystal lattice is composed of a discrete anion surrounded by piperazinium cations, chlorine anions, and water molecules. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between , , organic cations, and water molecules form a three-dimensional network. Room temperature IR, Raman spectroscopy, and optical absorption of the title compound were recorded and analysed. The observed crystal morphology was compared to the simulated one using the Bravais-Friedel, Donnay-Harker model.

  10. A novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition for controllably synthesizing AgI nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxue; He, Sheng; An, Changhua; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The ability to control the shape and morphology of semiconductor macro/nanocrystals is critical to applications such as photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photonics and nanoelectronics. Despite significant advances in controlling the shapes by thermal decomposition and solvothermal methods, rigorous shape control by low temperature and aqueous phase controlling remains challenging. Herein, a facile synthetic method based on ethylenediamine assisted precursor transformation technique has been developed for the fabrication of AgI nanocrystals. The central features of our approach are the use of ethylenediamine (en) as complexant and the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping surfactants to form Ag(en)xI precursor, which is followed by removing en to form AgI crystals. This work provides new insights into the use of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid composition as precursors for nanocrystals synthesis and offers a potential route to achieve well-defined morphology of inorganic nanostructures with uniform shape and size.

  11. Anomalous photovoltaic effect in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Li, Tao; Wang, Qi; Xing, Jie; Gruverman, Alexei; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) have been demonstrated to be highly successful photovoltaic materials yielding very-high-efficiency solar cells. We report the room temperature observation of an anomalous photovoltaic (APV) effect in lateral structure OIHP devices manifested by the device’s open-circuit voltage (VOC) that is much larger than the bandgap of OIHPs. The persistent VOC is proportional to the electrode spacing, resembling that of ferroelectric photovoltaic devices. However, the APV effect in OIHP devices is not caused by ferroelectricity. The APV effect can be explained by the formation of tunneling junctions randomly dispersed in the polycrystalline films, which allows the accumulation of photovoltage at a macroscopic level. The formation of internal tunneling junctions as a result of ion migration is visualized with Kelvin probe force microscopy scanning. This observation points out a new avenue for the formation of large and continuously tunable VOC without being limited by the materials’ bandgap. PMID:28345043

  12. Aptamer modified organic-inorganic hybrid silica monolithic capillary columns for highly selective recognition of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nan; Liang, Zhen; Liang, Yu; Sui, Zhigang; Zhang, Liyuan; Wu, Qi; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-12-04

    A novel kind of aptamer modified organic-inorganic hybrid silica monolithic capillary column has been developed, via the covalent bonding of 5'-NH(2)-modified aptamer for human α-thrombin on hybrid silica monolith, prepared by sol-gel method, with tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as precursors. Due to the large specific surface area of the hybrid matrix, the average coverage density of aptamer reached 568 pmol/μL, and the thrombin binding capacity was 1.15 μg/μL, 14 times higher than that of aptamer modified open tubular capillaries. By such an affinity capillary column, the limit of detection of thrombin was decreased to 3.4 nM with a UV detector. Furthermore, even when thrombin was mixed with 1000 times more concentrated human serum, it could be selectively enriched and detected with the signal-to-noise ratio as ca.10. These results indicate that the developed preparation strategy for aptamer based hybrid silica monolithic capillary column might provide an effective method to achieve highly selective recognition of trace targets.

  13. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres and the corresponding mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xinlin

    2013-12-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid-co-3-(methacryloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane) (P(MAA-co-MPS)) organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres were prepared by distillation-precipitation copolymerization of MAA and MPS in acetonitrile in absence of any surfactant and additive. The resultant hybrids had a spherical shape when the MPS inorganic precursor was varied from 0% to 60% in the comonomers during the polymerization. The hybrid microspheres can be facilely cross-linked via the hydrolysis of methoxy groups of polyMPS network and further self-condensation of the hydroxyl groups of silanols. As a result, the hybrid microspheres were facilely converted to mesoporous silica particles via the removal of the organic component through calcination. The narrow dispersed mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 554.2 m(2)/g as well as the average pore size of 8 nm and pore volume of 0.24 cm(3)/g. The corresponding microspheres were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and nitrogen sorption-desorption.

  14. Polaron self-localization in white-light emitting hybrid perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Cortecchia, Daniele

    2017-02-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites with the general formula APbX are attracting increasing interest as solution processable, white-light emissive materials. Recent studies have shown that their broadband emission is related to the formation of intra-gap colour centres. Here, we provide an in-depth description of the charge localization sites underlying the generation of such radiative centres and their corresponding decay dynamics, highlighting the formation of small polarons trapped within their lattice distortion field. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques and first-principles calculations to study the white-light emitting 2D perovskites (EDBE)PbCl and (EDBE)PbBr, we infer the formation of Pb , Pb, and X (where X = Cl or Br) species confined within the inorganic perovskite framework. Due to strong Coulombic interactions, these species retain their original excitonic character and form self-trapped polaron-excitons acting as radiative colour centres. These findings are expected to be relevant for a broad class of white-light emitting perovskites with large polaron relaxation energy.

  15. Quantum dot-block copolymer hybrids with improved properties and their application to quantum dot light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Matthias; Bae, Wan Ki; Kwak, Jeonghun; Lee, Hyemin; Lee, Changhee; Zentel, Rudolf; Char, Kookheon

    2009-05-26

    To combine the optical properties of CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with the electrical properties of semiconducting polymers, we prepared QD/polymer hybrids by grafting a block copolymer (BCP) containing thiol-anchoring moieties (poly(para-methyl triphenylamine-b-cysteamine acrylamide)) onto the surfaces of QDs through the ligand exchange procedure. The prepared QD/polymer hybrids possess improved processability such as enhanced solubility in various organic solvents as well as the film formation properties along with the improved colloidal stability derived from the grafted polymer shells. We also demonstrated light-emitting diodes based on QD/polymer hybrids, exhibiting the improved device performance (i.e., 3-fold increase in the external quantum efficiency) compared with the devices prepared by pristine (unmodified) QDs.

  16. Domain-dependent electronic structure and optical absorption property in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Qianfan

    2016-10-05

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, represented by materials in the CH3NH3PbI3 series, have become one of the most promising materials for solar cells with a high power conversion efficiency and low cost. The ordered Pb-I cage in such hybrid perovskites can induce the polarized cations to form a variety of polarization domains with long-range order, which will lead to the formation of specific atomic conformations or metastable crystalline phases, unique electronic band structures and optical absorption properties. Such domain-dependent characteristics play a critical role in the phase transition and service stability of such solar cells, and also open up the opportunity of tuning their electronic structure. In the present study, we systematically investigate the band structures and optical absorption properties of different electronically ordered domains in CH3NH3PbI3. By comparing different perovskites containing various cations, we have clarified the important influence of cation polarization on domain-dependent properties. Our results provide not only a possible pathway for the manipulation of band structure by applying an external field, but also a novel scheme for improving the performance and stability of hybrid perovskites.

  17. Medical applications of organic-inorganic hybrid materials within the field of silica-based bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Regí, María; Colilla, Montserrat; González, Blanca

    2011-02-01

    Research on bioceramics has evolved from the use of inert materials for mere substitution of living tissues towards the development of third-generation bioceramics aimed at inducing bone tissue regeneration. Within this context hybrid bioceramics have remarkable features resulting from the synergistic combination of both inorganic and organic components that make them suitable for a wide range of medical applications. Certain bioceramics, such as ordered mesoporous silicas, can exhibit different kind of interaction with organic molecules to develop different functions. The weak interaction of these host matrixes with drug molecules confined in the mesoporous channels allows these hybrid systems to be used as controlled delivery devices. Moreover, mesoporous silicas can be used to fabricate three (3D)-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this last case, different osteoinductive agents (peptides, hormones and growth factors) can be strongly grafted to the bioceramic matrix to act as attracting signals for bone cells to promote bone regeneration process. Finally, recent research examples of organic-inorganic hybrid bioceramics, such as stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems and nanosystems for targeting of cancer cells and gene transfection, are also tackled in this tutorial review (64 references).

  18. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRIDS PREPARED FROM ALKYL PHOSPHONIUM SALTS INTERCALATED MONTMORILLONITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHELI GANGULY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation is focused on systematic and detailed characterization of alkyl phosphonium intercalated montmorillonite (MMT. The objective of the work is to provide a better understanding of the specific changes in properties of the hybrid material with changes in structure of incoming organic cations. In the present work, Na-MMT was intercalated with phosphonium salts of two different cationic head compositions namely alkyl triphenyl and alkyl tributyl groups. Length of alkyl chain was also varied. Resultant organic-inorganic hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Thermogravimetry (TG and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Effective volume occupied by the cationic heads influenced interlayer arrangements. Intercalated MMT with two different cationic heads behaved differently in relation to thermal decomposition patterns. Possible explanation was given based on hybridization of bonds. Van der Waals attachment of alkyl chains influenced the interlayer stacking and organic loading. Attempts were made to correlate the changes in properties of intercalated MMT with the structural aspects of incoming organic cations.

  19. Fabrication and Characterisation of Polyaniline/Laponite based Semiconducting Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt V.K. Wheelwright

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel organic-inorganic semiconducting hybrid material is developed by chemically grafting polyaniline (PANI onto an inorganic template, Laponite. The surface active silanol groups of the Laponite sheets were silylated with an aniline functionalised 3-phenylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (PAPTMOS coupling agent followed by deposition of PANI onto the silylated surface. The method includes the reaction of Laponite with PAPTMOS dissolved in a very small amount of methanol at 110 °C for 44 h in a vacuum oven, interaction of the silylated product with PANI via in situ polymerisation of aniline and one-step isolation process by means of the removal of the non-connected PANI with N-methylpyrrolidinone-diethylamine binary solvent. After isolation and re-doping with methane sulfonic acid the Laponite-PAPTMOS-PANI hybrid becomes electrically conductive. The chemical attachment of PANI with silylated Laponite in the hybrids were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 193-197, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.7185

  20. Spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Patrick; Talmadge, William; Gundlach, Nathan; Wang, Ruizhi; Zhang, Chuang; Sun, Dali; Yu, Zhi-Gang; Valy Vardeny, Z.; Li, Yan S.

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as a new class of semiconductors that exhibit excellent performance as active layers in photovoltaic solar cells. These compounds are also highly promising materials for the field of spintronics due to their large and tunable spin-orbit coupling, spin-dependent optical selection rules, and their predicted electrically tunable Rashba spin splitting. Here we demonstrate the optical orientation of excitons and optical detection of spin-polarized exciton quantum beating in polycrystalline films of the hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbClxI3-x. Time-resolved Faraday rotation measurement in zero magnetic field reveals unexpectedly long spin lifetimes exceeding 1 ns at 4 K, despite the large spin-orbit couplings of the heavy lead and iodine atoms. The quantum beating of exciton states in transverse magnetic fields shows two distinct frequencies, corresponding to two g-factors of 2.63 and -0.33, which we assign to electrons and holes, respectively. These results provide a basic picture of the exciton states in hybrid perovskites, and suggest they hold potential for spintronic applications.

  1. Photochromic dynamics of organic-inorganic hybrids supported on transparent and flexible recycled PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R. P.; Nalin, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Molina, C.

    2017-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids (OIH) synthesized by sol gel process containing phosphotungstic acid (PWA) entrapped have been attracted much attention for ultraviolet sensitive materials. However, the limitations for practical photochromic application of these materials are the poor interaction with flexible polymer substrates such as Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) and also photo response under ultraviolet radiation. This paper describes the use of the d-ureasil HOI, based on siliceous network grafted through linkages to both ends of polymer chain containing 2.5 poly(oxyethylene) units with PWA entrapped prepared as films on recycled PET. Films were characterized by IR-ATR, XRD, TG/DTG, UV-Vis and Contact angle. XRD patterns showed that both pristine hybrid matrix and those containing PWA are amorphous. IR showed that PWA structure is preserved in the matrix and interactions between them occur by intermolecular forces. Films are thermally stable up to 325 °C and contact angle of 25.1° showed a good wettability between substrate and hybrid matrix. Furthermore, films showed fast photochromic response after 1 min of ultraviolet exposure time. The bleaching process revealed that the relaxation process is dependent of the temperature and the activation energy of 47.2 kJ mol-1 was determined. The properties of these films make them potential candidates for applications in flexible photochromic materials.

  2. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  3. Organic/Inorganic Nano-hybrids with High Dielectric Constant for Organic Thin Film Transistor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang-Yen; Jiang, Ai-Hua; Lee, Wen-Ya

    2016-11-01

    The organic material soluble polyimide (PI) and organic-inorganic hybrid PI-barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticle dielectric materials (IBX, where X is the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a PI matrix) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effects of various BaTiO3 contents on the hybrid film performance and performance optimization were investigated. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with PI-BaTiO3/polymethylmethacrylate or cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-modified gate dielectrics were fabricated and examined. The hybrid materials showed effective dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PI matrix and favorable thermal properties. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the BaTiO3 nanoparticles had a perovskite structure. The hybrid films exhibited high formability and planarity. The IBX hybrid dielectric films exhibited tunable insulating properties such as the dielectric constant value and capacitance in ranges of 4.0-8.6 and 9.2-17.5 nF cm-2, respectively. Adding the modified layer caused the decrease of dielectric constant values and capacitances. The modified dielectric layer without cross-linking displayed a hydrophobic surface. The electrical characteristics of the pentacene-based OTFTs were enhanced after the surface modification. The optimal condition for the dielectric layer was 10 wt% hybrid film with the COC-modified layer; moreover, the device exhibited a threshold voltage of 0.12 V, field-effect mobility of 4.32 × 10-1 cm2 V-1 s-1, and on/off current of 8.4 × 107.

  4. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P; Freitas, Vânia T; André, Paulo S; Carlos, Luis D; Ferreira, Rute A S

    2015-10-09

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er(3+), Yb(3+) codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er(3+)- and Yb(3+)-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Polystyrene/Nanosilica Organic-Inorganic Hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A polystyrene(PS)/nanosilica organic-inorganic hybrid material was prepared from styrene monomer and commercial aqueous silica sol containing large amounts of Si-OH by means of emulsion polymerization. The nanosilica sol was modified by the addition of the reactive coupling agent methacryloxy propyltrimethoxysilane(MPS), and the resulting latex particles were protected by surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulphonate(SDS), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose(HMPC), and poly(vinylpyrrolidone)(PVP). The effects of the type of surfactant, the amount of surfactant, and the coupling agent on the shape and stability of the resulting latex particles were investigated. The TEM observation indicates that among SDS, HMPC, and PVP, SDS is the best surfactant. When the content of SDS is 0.5% and the amount of MPS is 7% in the system, the latex with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained. The average diameters of the monodispersed particles range from 182 to278 nm, and the average number of silica beads for each composite are 1325 and 4409, respectively. The FTIR analysis shows that PS was chemically linked to silica through MPS. The thermal gravimetric analysis shows that when there is a higher silica content, the hybrid composites have a better heat resistance.

  6. In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sebastian; Garnett, Oliver; Tokmoldin, Nurlan; Tsoi, Wing C; Haque, Saif A; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The performance of hybrid (organic-inorganic) photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the thin film morphology. This work studies the film formation process using the in situ thermal decomposition of a soluble precursor to form a well-distributed network of CdS nanoparticles within a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer matrix. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the formation of the inorganic nanoparticles and the corresponding changes in the molecular order of the polymer. We find that the CdS precursor decomposes rapidly upon heating to 160 °C, but that this has a disruptive effect on the P3HT. The extent of this disruption can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, and nanowire aggregates of P3HT are found to have increased susceptibility. Atomic force microscopy reveals that at high temperatures (>200 °C), cracks form in the film, resulting in a 'plateau'-like microstructure. In order to retain the preferable 'granular' microstructure and to control the molecular disruption, low decomposition temperatures are needed. This work identifies a particular problem for optimising the hybrid thin film morphology and shows how it can be partially overcome.

  7. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  8. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid azobenzene materials for the preparation of nanofibers by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bućko, Aleksandra; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina; Larkowska, Maria; Barille, Regis

    2014-12-01

    The new photochromic hybrid materials containing different mole fractions of highly photoactive 4-[(E)-[4-[ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]azo]-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (SMERe) were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process. The guest-host systems with triethoxyphenylsilane matrix were obtained. These materials were used to form thin transparent films by a spin-coating technique. Then the ability of thin hybrid films to reversible trans-cis photoisomerization under illumination was investigated using ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The reversible changes of refractive index of the films under illumination were in the range of 0.005-0.056. The maximum absorption of these materials was located at 462-486 nm. Moreover, the organic-inorganic azobenzene materials were used to form nanofibers by electrospinning using various parameters of the process. The microstructure of electrospun fibers depended on sols properties (e.g. concentration and viscosity of the sols) and process conditions (e.g. the applied voltage, temperature or type of the collector) at ambient conditions. The morphology of obtained nanofibers was analyzed by an optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In most instances, the beadless fibers were obtained. The wettability of the surface of electrospun fibers deposited on glass substrates was investigated.

  9. Functional-template directed self-assembly (FTDSA) of mesostructured organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LeLe; SUN LingDong; ZHANG YaWen; YAN ChunHua

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of a surfactant directed self-assembly approach for the fabrication of mesoporous silica in 1992,increasing attention has been focused on the design and synthesis of mesostructured functional materials.Organic functionalization is becoming a major topic in this research field,since highly ordered mesostructured organic-inorganic hybrids offer novel functionalities and enhanced performance over their individual components.We begin with a brief overview of the three fundamental methods (post-synthetic grafting technique,co-condensation method,and preparation of periodic mesoporous organosilicas) for the preparation of organically functionalized mesostructured silica,and focus on one of the most promising approaches,which herein was named as functional-template directed self-assembly (FTDSA) approach,and in the eyes of the authors it has a special position in the preparation of this class of hybrid materials.A comprehensive overview of the state of research in the area of FTDSA and its potential applications will be given.

  10. Rashba and Dresselhaus Effects in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: From Basics to Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Robles, Roberto; Katan, Claudine; Sapori, Daniel; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky

    2015-12-22

    We use symmetry analysis, density functional theory calculations, and k·p modeling to scrutinize Rashba and Dresselhaus effects in hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites. These perovskites are at the center of a recent revolution in the field of photovoltaics but have also demonstrated potential for optoelectronic applications such as transistors and light emitters. Due to a large spin-orbit coupling of the most frequently used metals, they are also predicted to offer a promising avenue for spin-based applications. With an in-depth inspection of the electronic structures and bulk lattice symmetries of a variety of systems, we analyze the origin of the spin splitting in two- and three-dimensional hybrid perovskites. It is shown that low-dimensional nanostructures made of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) lead to spin splittings that can be controlled by an applied electric field. These findings further open the door for a perovskite-based spintronics.

  11. Lead-free Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskites for Photovoltaic Applications: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zejiao; Guo, Jia; Chen, Yonghua; Li, Qi; Pan, Yufeng; Zhang, Haijuan; Xia, Yingdong; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-03

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI3 ) have recently emerged as novel active materials for photovoltaic applications with power conversion efficiency over 22%. Conventional perovskite solar cells (PSCs); however, suffer the issue that lead is toxic to the environment and organisms for a long time and is hard to excrete from the body. Therefore, it is imperative to find environmentally-friendly metal ions to replace lead for the further development of PSCs. Previous work has demonstrated that Sn, Ge, Cu, Bi, and Sb ions could be used as alternative ions in perovskite configurations to form a new environmentally-friendly lead-free perovskite structure. Here, we review recent progress on lead-free PSCs in terms of the theoretical insight and experimental explorations of the crystal structure of lead-free perovskite, thin film deposition, and device performance. We also discuss the importance of obtaining further understanding of the fundamental properties of lead-free hybrid perovskites, especially those related to photophysics.

  12. Siloxane based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers and their Applications for Nanostructured Optical/Photonic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer precursors by sol-gel technique and their utilization for nanostructured optical components for photonic applications. The gel polymer precursors were prepared from siloxane modified by polymerizable acrylate groups, which can be processed further by photopolymerization process. Molecular structure characterizations by means of the FTIR measurements indicate the conversion of C=C bonds into C-C bonds after photopolymerization. This bond conversion produces high cross-linking between the organic and inorganic moieties, resulting in thermally stable and chemically resistant thin polymer layer which provide unique advantages of this material for particular optical/photonic applications. By employing laser interference technique, gratings with periodicity between 400-1000 nm have been successfully fabricated. Application of those sub-micron periodicity of grating structure as active elements in optically pumped polymer laser system and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR based measurement system have been also explored. The experimental results therefore also show the potential applications of this hybrid polymer as a building material for micro/nano-photonics components.

  13. Organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid systems. Structure, morphology, and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Helou, Mira

    2012-08-22

    This dissertation addresses the preparation and characterization of hybrid semiconducting systems combining organic with inorganic materials. Characterization methods used included to determine the structure, morphology, and thermal stability comprised X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). One organic-inorganic semiconducting system was pentacene (C{sub 22}H{sub 14}) and zinc oxide. This interface was investigated in detail for pentacene on an oxygen-terminated zinc oxide surface, i.e. ZnO(000 anti 1). An extended study on the promising p-n junction was carried out for pentacene on ZnO with different orientations which exhibit different chemical and structural characteristics: ZnO(000 anti 1), ZnO(0001), and ZnO(10 anti 10). Moreover, the organic crystal structure of pentacene was selectively tuned by carefully choosing the substrate temperature. This defined interface with a physisorbed pentacene layer on ZnO was characterized by optical absorption which depends on the temperature of the measured system, the pentacene film thickness, and the molecular orientation and packing. The high quality of the pentacene films allowed in one case to characterize the Davydov splitting by linear polarized light focused on a single crystallite. Another subject in the field of organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprised conjugated dithiols used as self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for immobilizing semiconducting CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Au substrates. It was demonstrated that an appropriate selection and preparation of the conjugated SAMs is crucial for building up a light-addressable potentiometric sensor with a sufficient efficiency. An optimized electron transfer was achieved with SAMs of long range ordering, high stability, and adequate conductivity. This was examined for different linkers and was best for stilbenedithiol immobilized in solution at higher temperatures. Due

  14. High abrasion resistance coating materials from organic/inorganic hybrid materials produced by the sol-gel method

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A series of new high abrasion resistance coating materials have been prepared utilizing organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed by cohydrolyzing a metal alkoxide sol (e.g. silicon, aluminum, titanium, or zirconium metal alkoxide sol) with one or more bis(trialkoxysilane-containing) organic components or related functionalized species. These hybrid materials show optical clarity and improve the abrasion resistance of polymer substrates when applied as coatings and cured on such substrates.

  15. Bright hybrid white light-emitting quantum dot device with direct charge injection into quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wei, Xiang; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Chao-Ping; Wang, Zi-Xing; Jhun, Chulgyu

    2016-12-01

    A bright white quantum dot light-emitting device (white-QLED) with 4-[4-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-2- [3-(tri-phenylen-2-yl)phen-3-yl]quinazoline deposited on a thin film of mixed green/red-QDs as a bilayer emitter is fabricated. The optimized white-QLED exhibits a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V and a maximum brightness of 3660 cd/m2@8 V with the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity in the region of white light. The ultra-thin layer of QDs is proved to be critical for the white light generation in the devices. Excitation mechanism in the white-QLEDs is investigated by the detailed analyses of electroluminescence (EL) spectral and the fluorescence lifetime of QDs. The results show that charge injection is a dominant mechanism of excitation in the white-QLED. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 21302122) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13ZR1416600).

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsonakis, I. A., E-mail: ikartsonakis@ims.demokritos.gr [IAMPPNM, NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , Sol-Gel Laboratory (Greece); Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering NTUA (Greece); Kordas, G. [IAMPPNM, NCSR ' DEMOKRITOS' , Sol-Gel Laboratory (Greece)

    2013-08-15

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 {+-} 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  17. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  18. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico [Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Iannace, Salvatore [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy and IMAST SCRAL, Piazza Bovio 22 Napoli 80133 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (∼500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  19. Magnetic mesoporous organic-inorganic NiCo2O4 hybrid nanomaterials for electrochemical immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunfang; Zeng, Lingxing; Wang, Jinchao; Tang, Dianping; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2011-04-01

    This study demonstrates a facile and feasible strategy toward the development of advanced electrochemical immunosensors based on chemically functionalized magnetic mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials, and the preparation, characterization, and measurement of relevant properties of the immunosensor for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, as a model analyte) in clinical immunoassays. The as-prepared nanomaterials composed of a magnetic mesoporous NiCo(2)O(4) nanosheet, an interlayer of Nafion/thionine organic molecules and a nanogold layer show good adsorption properties for the attachment of horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary anti-CEA antibody (HRP-anti-CEA). With a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the functional bionanomaterials present good analytical properties to facilitate and modulate the way it was integrated onto the electrochemical immunosensors, and allows the detection of CEA at a concentration as low as 0.5 pg/mL. Significantly, the immunosensor could be easily regenerated by only using an external magnet without the need of any dissociated reagents. Importantly, the as-synthesized magnetic mesoporous NiCo(2)O(4) nanomaterials could be further extended for detection of other biomarkers or biocompounds.

  20. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  1. Rashba Effect and Carrier Mobility in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-08-18

    The outstanding photovoltaic performance in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) relies on their desirable carrier transport properties. In the HOIPs, strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and structural inversion asymmetry give rise to a giant spin splitting in the conduction and valence bands, that is, the Rashba effect (RE), a subject intensively studied in spintronics. Here we show that this giant RE can manifest itself in charge transport and is the key to understanding carrier mobility and its temperature dependence in the HOIPs. The RE greatly enhances acoustic-phonon scattering (APS) and alters the temperature dependence of carrier mobility from T(-3/2) to T(-1). Meanwhile, it reduces polar-optical phonon scattering (POPS). In CH3NH3PbI3, the carrier mobility is limited by the APS for temperatures up to 100 K, above which the POPS becomes dominant. The effective polar coupling is moderate, α = 1.1, indicating that band conduction is still a valid description of charge transport. Our results account for the observed carrier transport behaviors over the entire temperature range and highlight the importance of SOC in charge transport in the HOIPs.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID P(NIPAM-co-AM-co-TMSPMA) MICROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Cao; Tian-you Chen; Xiao-lei Guo; Xian-jing Zhou; Jing-jing Nie; Jun-ting Xu; Zhi-qiang Fan; Bin-yang Du

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the hydrolysis and condensation of the methoxysilyl moieties, organic-inorganic hybrid poly(Nisopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate) P(NIPAM-co-AM-co-TMSPMA) microgels were prepared via two different methods. The first method was that the microgels were post-fabricated from the crosslinkable linear P(NIPAM-co-AM-co-TMSPMA) terpolymer aqueous solutions above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the terpolymer. For the second method, the microgels were directly synthesized by conventional surfactant free emulsion copolymerization of NIPAM, AM, and TMSPMA. The hydrodynamic diameter and stability of the resultant P(NIPAM-co-AM-co-TMSPMA) microgels strongly depend on the pH and temperature of the microgel aqueous solution.The hydrodynamic diameters of the microgels decreased with increasing the measuring temperature. The phase transition temperature of the microgels was found to be around 34℃, which was independent of the initial terpolymer concentration and shifted to lower temperature with increasing the preparation temperature. Increasing the initial amount of AM will enhance the instability of the microgels at high pH values. Moreover, the P(NIPAM-co-AM-co-TMSPMA) microgels obtained from the linear terpolymer had more homogeneous microstructures as compared with the corresponding NIPAM/AM/TMSPMA microgels prepared by one step emulsion copolymerization as revealed by light scattering measurements.

  3. Mechanism of charge recombination in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin; organic Group Team

    2015-03-01

    In the recent popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and open circuit voltages, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this work we study the recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells and its roles on determining the device performance. Based on macroscopic device model simulations, the recombination resistances (Rrec) under different applied voltages are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism, and the current density-voltage (J - V) curves are simulated to describe the device performance under at the same time. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy (IS) extracted Rrec data, it is found that bimolecular recombination (BR) is the dominant recombination process in the whole applied voltage regime and can determine the open circuit voltage, while the trap-assisted SRH monomolecular recombination (MR) is only important if the trap density is high or the BR rate is significantly reduced. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can induce different patterns for the Rrec- V characteristics. Under the cases of increased band gap or decreased BR rate, the Rrec's are enhanced which leads to high open circuit voltages. We are grateful to the support from the state key laboratory of surface physics, Fudan University.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  5. Thin film encapsulation for organic light-emitting diodes using inorganic/organic hybrid layers by atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ding, He; Wei, Mengjie; Li, Chunya; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid nanolaminates consisting of Al2O3/ZrO2/alucone (aluminum alkoxides with carbon-containing backbones) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were reported for an encapsulation of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The electrical Ca test in this study was designed to measure the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of nanolaminates. We found that moisture barrier performance was improved with the increasing of the number of dyads (Al2O3/ZrO2/alucone) and the WVTR reached 8.5 × 10(-5) g/m(2)/day at 25°C, relative humidity (RH) 85%. The half lifetime of a green OLED with the initial luminance of 1,500 cd/m(2) reached 350 h using three pairs of the Al2O3 (15 nm)/ZrO2 (15 nm)/alucone (80 nm) as encapsulation layers.

  6. Silver Nanowire-IZO-Conducting Polymer Hybrids for Flexible and Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho Jun; Kim, Se Jung; Hwang, Ju Hyun; Shim, Yong Sub; Jung, Sun-Gyu; Park, Young Wook; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed silver nanowire (AgNW) has been considered as a promising material for next-generation flexible transparent conductive electrodes. However, despite the advantages of AgNWs, some of their intrinsic drawbacks, such as large surface roughness and poor interconnection between wires, limit their practical application in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Herein, we report a high-performance AgNW-based hybrid electrode composed of indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) and poly (3,4-ethylenediowythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS]. The IZO layer protects the underlying AgNWs from oxidation and corrosion and tightly fuses the wires together and to the substrate. The PEDOT:PSS effectively reduces surface roughness and increases the hybrid films’ transmittance. The fabricated electrodes exhibited a low sheet resistance of 5.9 Ωsq−1 with high transmittance of 86% at 550 nm. The optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of the AgNW-based hybrid films were investigated in detail to determine the structure-property relations, and whether optical or electrical properties could be controlled with variation in each layer’s thickness to satisfy different requirements for different applications. Flexible OLEDs (f-OLEDs) were successfully fabricated on the hybrid electrodes to prove their applicability; their performance was even better than those on commercial indium doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. PMID:27703182

  7. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ming; Qiu, Feng; Lin, Zhiqun

    2013-06-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganic nanocrystal (NC) semiconductors have garnered considerable attention as a potential alternative to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high-efficiency solar energy in a cost-effective manner. The combination of advantageous characteristics of CPs and NCs enables the construction of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low-cost hybrid solar cells. However, it remains a grand challenge to control the film morphology and interfacial structure of such organic/inorganic semiconductor blends on the nanoscale. In this Perspective, we highlight the strategies of implementing close contact between CPs and NCs by tailoring the colloidal synthesis, the coordination reaction, and the chemical modification of CPs. As such, they offer promising opportunities for rationally controlling the phase separation between electron-donating CPs and electron-accepting NCs, increasing the interfacial areas between them, enhancing their electronic interaction, and thus substantially promoting the photovoltaic performance of the resulting organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  8. Effect of halide-mixing on the switching behaviors of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bohee; Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Donghwa; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Mixed halide perovskite materials are actively researched for solar cells with high efficiency. Their hysteresis which originates from the movement of defects make perovskite a candidate for resistive switching memory devices. We demonstrate the resistive switching device based on mixed-halide organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx (x = 0, 1, 2, 3). Solvent engineering is used to deposit the homogeneous CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx layer on the indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The memory device based on CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx exhibits write endurance and long retention, which indicate reproducible and reliable memory properties. According to the increase in Br contents in CH3NH3PbI3−xBrx the set electric field required to make the device from low resistance state to high resistance state decreases. This result is in accord with the theoretical calculation of migration barriers, that is the barrier to ionic migration in perovskites is found to be lower for Br− (0.23 eV) than for I− (0.29–0.30 eV). The resistive switching may be the result of halide vacancy defects and formation of conductive filaments under electric field in the mixed perovskite layer. It is observed that enhancement in operating voltage can be achieved by controlling the halide contents in the film. PMID:28272547

  9. Preparation and Conducting Behavior of Amphibious Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Proton Exchange Membranes Based on Benzyltetrazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Li-gen; SHI Wen-fang

    2012-01-01

    A series of novel amphibious organic/inorganic hybrid proton exchange membranes with H3PO4 doped which could be used under both wet and dry conditions was prepared through a sol-gel process based on acrylated triethoxysilane(A-TES)and benzyltetrazole-modified triethoxysilane(BT-TES).The dual-curing approach including UV-curing and thermal curing was used to obtain the crosslinked membranes.Polyethylene glycol(400)diacrylate(PEGDA)was used as an oligomer to form the polymeric matrix.The molecular structures of precursors were characterized by 1H,13C and 29Si NMR spectra.The thermogravimetric analysis(TGA)results show that the membranes exhibit acceptable thermal stability for their application at above 200 ℃.The differential scanning calorimeter(DSC)determination indicates that the crosslinked membranes with the mass ratios of below 1.6 of BT-TES to A-TES and the same mass of H3PO4 doped as that of A-TES possess the-Tgs,and the lowest Tg(-28.9 ℃)exists for the membrane with double mass of H3PO4 doped as well.The high proton conductivity in a range of 9.4-17.3 mS/cm with the corresponding water uptake of 19.1%-32.8% of the membranes was detected at 90 ℃ under wet conditions.Meanwhile,the proton conductivity in a dry environment for the membrane with a mass ratio of 2.4 of BT-TES to A-TES and double H3PO4 loading increases from 4.89× 10-2 mS/cm at 30 ℃ to 25.7 mS/cm at 140 ℃.The excellent proton transport ability under both hydrous and anhydrous conditions demonstrates a potential application in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  10. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

  11. Supramolecular organization in organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalysts formed from polyoxometalate and poly(ampholyte) polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gijo; Swalus, Colas; Guillet, Alain; Devillers, Michel; Nysten, Bernard; Gaigneaux, Eric M

    2013-04-02

    Hybridization of polyoxometalates (POMs) via the formation of an organic-inorganic association constitutes a new route to develop a heterogeneous POM catalyst with tunable functionality imparted through supramolecular assembly. Herein, we report on strategies to obtain tunable well-defined supramolecular architectures of an organic-inorganic heterogeneous hybrid catalyst formed by the association of a hydrophobically substituted polyampholyte copolymer (poly N, N-diallyl-N-hexylamine-alt-maleic acid) and phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) POMs. The self-assembling property of the initial polyampholyte copolymer matrix is modulated by controlling the pH of the hybridization solution. When deposited on a mica surface, isolated, long and extended polymer chains are formed under basic conditions (pH 7.9), while globular or coiled structures are formed under acidic conditions (pH 2). The supramolecular assembly of the POM-polymer hybrid is found to be directed by the type and quantities of charges present on the polyampholyte copolymer, which themselves depend on the pH conditions. The hypothesis is that the Keggin type [PW12O40](3-) anions, which have a size of ~1 nm, electrostatically bind to the positive charge sites of the polymer backbone. The hybrid material stabilized at pH 5.3 consists of POM-decorated polymer chains. Statistical analysis of distances between pairs of POM entities show narrow density distributions, suggesting that POM entities are attached to the polymer chains with a high level of order. Conversely, under acidic conditions (pH 2), the hybrid shows the formation of a core-shell type of structure. The strategies reported here, to tune the supramolecular assembly of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, are highly valuable for the design and a more rational utilization of POM heterogeneous catalysts in several chemical transformations.

  12. Characterization, phase change and conductivity crossover of new luminescent ferroelectric Mn (II) organic-inorganic hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Mohga F., E-mail: Mohga40@yahoo.com; El Dean, Thana Sh., E-mail: th_sh2000@yahoo.com; Tammam, Ahmed K., E-mail: physicsoman@yahoo.com

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis and characterization of new luminescent ferroelectric [(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}P]{sub 2}MnBr{sub 4} organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) are reported. Powder x-ray diffraction showed the following phases: {sup P2/m} {sup (280 K)} Phase (IV) {sup P21} {sup (298 K)} Phase (III) {sup Pna21} {sup (350 K)} Phase (II) {sup Pnma} {sup (370 K)} Phase (I). Room temperature lattice parameters are a = 9.6233 (Å), b = 12.5653 (Å) c = 16.4503 (Å) and β = 105.6° (T = 298 K). UV-VIS and Ac magnetic susceptibility confirm tetrahedral symmetry of [MnBr{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. DSC and dielectric measurements showed four phase transitions at T{sub 4peak} = 279.1 ± 1 K (ΔS = 1.03 J/mol K), T{sub 3peak} = 300.1 ± 2 K (ΔS = 2.33 J/mol K), T{sub 2peakt} = 353.2 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.68 J/mol K) and T{sub 1peak} = 379.1 ± 3 K (ΔS = 2.43 J/mol K). Calculated lattice potential energy values vary from 827 (kJ/mol) at 280 K to (797 kJ/mol) at 370 K. Ac conductivity measurements (220 < T(K) < 400) and (0.081 < f (kHz) < 30) are presented. It is ferroelectric with Curie temperature T{sub c} = 309 K. Hybrid is semiconductor in the temperature range 309 ± 14 K, where conductivity follows Jonscher’s universal dielectric response otherwise it is an insulator where crossover to super-linear power law prevails. Comparison to the corresponding chloride is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Plot of real part of permittivity [ln(ε′)] versus temperature (K). - Highlights: • Conductivity crossover from SlPL to UDR is confirmed. • Change from semiconductor to insulator. • Structural phase transformation.

  13. A study of tin oxide as an election injection layer in hybrid polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li Ping; Finlayson, Chris E.; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the n-type metal oxide tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) as an electron injection and transport layer in hybrid polymer light-emitting diodes. SnO2 is air stable and bio-safe, with high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, and with a deep valence band energy, making it highly suitable for such applications. Results reveal that SnO2 is effective as an electron injecting cathode material when a thin hole-blocking interlayer of Cs2CO3 or Ba(OH)2 is coated on it. Devices are optimized with respect to injection-layer thickness and hole-blocking layer configuration, with high performance metrics (current efficiencies of 20 cd A-1, external quantum efficiencies of 6.5%) being demonstrated in the device with Ba(OH)2 as the inorganic interlayer in the hybrid architecture. Also, we characterize thin films of spray-pyrolysis-deposited SnO2, as compared with the commonly used interlayer material ZnO, in terms of film morphology and interfacial photophysics.

  14. Green route synthesis of high quality CdSe quantum dots for applications in light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Susnata; Singh, Shashi B.; Ray, S. K.

    2012-05-01

    Investigation was made on light emitting diodes fabricated using CdSe quantum dots. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized chemically using olive oil as the capping agent, instead of toxic phosphine. Room temperature photoluminescence investigation showed sharp 1st excitonic emission peak at 568 nm. Bi-layer organic/inorganic (P3HT/CdSe) hybrid light emitting devices were fabricated by solution process. The electroluminescence study showed low turn on voltage (˜2.2 V) .The EL peak intensity was found to increase by increasing the operating current.

  15. Hybrid white organic light-emitting devices based on phosphorescent iridium-benzotriazole orange-red and fluorescent blue emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhen-Yuan, E-mail: xiazhenyuan@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Su, Jian-Hua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chang, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Chin H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We demonstrate that high color purity or efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) can be generated by integrating a phosphorescent orange-red emitter, bis[4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-aniline-N{sup 1},C{sup 3}] iridium acetylacetonate, Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) with fluorescent blue emitters in two different emissive layers. The device based on deep blue fluorescent material diphenyl-[4-(2-[1,1 Prime ;4 Prime ,1 Double-Prime ]terphenyl-4-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-amine BpSAB and Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) shows pure white color with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.33,0.30). When using sky-blue fluorescent dopant N,N Prime -(4,4 Prime -(1E,1 Prime E)-2,2 Prime -(1,4-phenylene)bis(ethene-2,1-diyl) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(2-ethyl-6-methyl-N-phenylaniline) (BUBD-1) and orange-red phosphor with a color-tuning phosphorescent material fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy){sub 3} ), it exhibits peak luminance yield and power efficiency of 17.4 cd/A and 10.7 lm/W, respectively with yellow-white color and CIE color rendering index (CRI) value of 73. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iridium-based orange-red phosphor Ir(TBT){sub 2}(acac) was applied in hybrid white OLEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Duel- and tri-emitter WOLEDs were achieved with either high color purity or efficiency performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak luminance yield of tri-emitter WOLEDs was 17.4 cd/A with yellow-white color and color rendering index (CRI) value of 73.

  16. Multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: synthesis and application as a colorimetric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayu; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Lan, Minhua; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yanming; Niu, Zhongwei

    2013-12-01

    This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2, and greatly enhances the sensitivity of glucose detection. Thus, the obtained multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers can be unquestionably used as highly sensitive colorimetric sensors for the detection of glucose. Notably, this work presents a very facile route for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded nanomaterials for the simultaneous catalysis of multi-step cascade enzymatic reactions. Furthermore, it has great potential for application in biotechnology, and biomedical and environmental chemistry.This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2.3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2

  17. Density Functional Theory Simulations of Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications: Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites and III/V Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Even

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentialities of density functional theory (DFT based methodologies are explored for photovoltaic materials through the modeling of the structural and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites and GaAs/GaP heterostructures. They show how the properties of these bulk materials, as well as atomistic relaxations, interfaces, and electronic band-lineups in small heterostructures, can be thoroughly investigated. Some limitations of available standard DFT codes are discussed. Recent improvements able to treat many-body effects or based on density-functional perturbation theory are also reviewed in the context of issues relevant to photovoltaic technologies.

  18. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  19. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Open a New Era for Low-Cost, High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramping solar energy to electricity conversion efficiencies of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells during the last five years have opened new doors to low-cost solar energy. The record power conversion efficiency has climbed to 19.3% in August 2014 and then jumped to 20.1% in November. In this review, the main achievements for perovskite solar cells categorized from a viewpoint of device structure are overviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of this field are also briefly presented.

  20. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Po-Shen; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Ming-Hsien; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Chen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV) technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  1. Design of heterogeneous catalysts via multiple active site positioning in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, Véronique; Davis, Mark E

    2003-08-06

    Catalytic materials bearing multiple sulfonic acid functional groups and positioned at varying distances from one another on the surface of mesoporous solids are prepared to explore the effects that the spatial arrangement of active sites have on catalytic activity and selectivity. A series of organosiloxane precursors containing either disulfide or sulfonate ester functionalities (synthons of the eventual sulfonic acid groups) are synthesized. From these molecular precursors, a variety of organic-inorganic hybrid, mesostructured SBA-15 silica materials are prepared using a postsynthetic grafting procedure that leads to disulfide and sulfonate ester modified silicas: [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SS-pyridyl, 2.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)SSCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 3.SBA, [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OCH(2)CH(3), 4.SBA, and [Si]CH(2)CH(2)(C(6)H(4))(SO(2))OC(6)H(4)O(SO(2))(C(6)H(4))CH(2)CH(2)[Si], 6.SBA ([Si] = (tbd1;SiO)(x)()(RO)(3)(-)(x)()Si, where x = 1, 2). By subsequent chemical derivatization of the grafted species, thiol and sulfonic acid modified silicas are obtained. The materials are characterized by a variety of spectroscopic ((13)C and (29)Si CP MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction) and quantitative (TGA/DTA, elemental analysis, acid capacity titration) techniques. In all cases, the organic fragment of the precursor molecule is grafted onto the solid without measurable decomposition, and the precursors are, in general, attached to the surface of the mesoporous oxide by multiple siloxane bridges. The disulfide species 2.SBA and 3.SBA are reduced to the corresponding thiols 7.SBA and 8.SBA, respectively, and 4.SBA and 6.SBA are transformed to the aryl sulfonic acids 11.SBA and 12.SBA, respectively. 7.SBA and 8.SBA differ only in terms of the level of control of the spatial arrangement of the thiol groups. Both 7.SBA and 8.SBA are further modified by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to produce the alkyl sulfonic acid modified materials 9.SBA and 10.SBA, respectively. The performances

  2. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  3. Cascade energy transfer versus charge separation in ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene)/ZnO hybrid structures for light-emitting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, F.; Sadofev, S.; Schlesinger, R.; Koch, N.; Henneberger, F.; Blumstengel, S., E-mail: sylke.blumstengel@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kobin, B.; Hecht, S. [Institut für Chemie and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-08

    Usability of inorganic/organic semiconductor hybrid structures for light-emitting applications can be intrinsically limited by an unfavorable interfacial energy level alignment causing charge separation and nonradiative deactivation. Introducing cascaded energy transfer funneling away the excitation energy from the interface by transfer to a secondary acceptor molecule enables us to overcome this issue. We demonstrate a substantial recovery of the light output along with high inorganic-to-organic exciton conversion rates up to room temperature.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of silicon-based polymers for use as organic/inorganic hybrids and silicon carbide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellinger, Alan

    Organic/inorganic hybrids from silsesquioxanes. This Dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of methacrylate, epoxy and liquid crystalline (LC)-containing organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on silsesquioxanes. While the methacrylate and epoxy groups provide polymerizable moieties to the hybrids, the LC component is anticipated to provide toughness, and oxidative stability as well as minimize shrinkage during curing. The inorganic silsesquioxane portion, ((RSiOsb{1.5})sb8, cubes), which closely resembles specific crystalline forms of silica and zeolites, may be covalently linked to a variety of organic functional groups. As a result, single-phase organic/inorganic hybrids are formed that when polymerized mimic silica-reinforced composites. The resultant hybrids are liquids at room temperature, and hence allow for single-phase composite processing, ideal for abrasion-resistant coatings and filling molds, as in dental restorative applications. The reactions are based on inexpensive starting materials, have high yields (>80%), and form soluble products containing up to 65% masked silica. The hybrids were characterized using NMR spectroscopy (sp1H,\\ sp{13}C,\\ sp{29}Si), FTIR, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC). A modified polymethylsilane as a precursor of silicon carbide. It is generally known that polymer precursor routes to silicon carbide (SiC) are very important in the processing of SiC fibers and high performance SiC parts with specific shapes. It is further known that commercial SiC precursor polymers are often not resistant to oxidation, and are based on monomers rich in carbon. As a result of this, their pyrolysis yields SiC rich in oxygen and carbon, a feature which drastically reduces the final materials' ultimate properties (high temperature resistance, tensile strength, modulus). To remedy this, we describe in this work the synthesis and characterization of a modified polymethylsilane (mPMS) which

  5. Conformal organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer thin films by molecular layer deposition using trimethylaluminum and glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Peng, Qing; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-05-19

    Growing interest in nanoscale organic-inorganic hybrid network polymer materials is driving exploration of new bulk and thin film synthesis reaction mechanisms. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) is a vapor-phase deposition process, based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) which proceeds by exposing a surface to an alternating sequence of two or more reactant species, where each surface half-reaction goes to completion before the next reactant exposure. This work describes film growth using trimethyl aluminum and heterobifunctional glycidol at moderate temperatures (90-150 °C), producing a relatively stable organic-inorganic network polymer of the form (-Al-O-(C(4)H(8))-O-)(n). Film growth rate and in situ reaction analysis indicate that film growth does not initially follow a steady-state rate, but increases rapidly during early film growth. The mechanism is consistent with subsurface species transport and trapping, previously documented during MLD and ALD on polymers. A water exposure step after the TMA produces a more linear growth rate, likely by blocking TMA subsurface diffusion. Uniform and conformal films are formed on complex nonplanar substrates. Upon postdeposition annealing, films transform into microporous metal oxides with ∼5 Å pore size and surface area as high as ∼327 m(2)/g, and the resulting structures duplicate the shape of the original substrate. These hybrid films and porous materials could find uses in several research fields including gas separations and diffusion barriers, biomedical scaffolds, high surface area coatings, and others.

  6. Novel hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel materials based on highly efficient heterocyclic push-pull chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbotto, Alessandro; Bozio, Renato; Brusatin, Giovanna; Facchetti, Antonio; Guglielmi, Massimo; Innocenzi, Plinio; Meneghetti, Moreno; Pagani, Giorgio A.; Signorini, Raffaella

    1999-10-01

    We report the synthesis of sol-gel materials based on highly efficient heterocycle-based push-pull chromophores showing second- and third-order nonlinear optical activity. We show the proper functionalization of the best performing chromophores and their incorporation into a hybrid organic- inorganic sol-gel matrix. Different types of functionalization of the active molecule have been considered, including hydroxyl and alkoxysilyl end-groups. The functionalization strategy responded to different criteria such as stability and synthetic availability of the final molecular precursors, their solubility, and the used synthetic approach to the sol-gel material. The synthesis of the sol-gel materials has been tuned in order to preserve molecular properties and control important factors such as final concentration of the active dye in the matrix. Both acid- and base-catalyzed sol-gel synthesis has been taken into account. 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and 3- aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used as the organically modified alkoxides to prepare the hybrid organic-inorganic matrix. Characterization of the spectroscopic properties of the sol-gel materials is presented.

  7. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places.

  8. Multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers: synthesis and application as a colorimetric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiayu; Ge, Jiechao; Liu, Weimin; Lan, Minhua; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Yanming; Niu, Zhongwei

    2014-01-07

    This study reports a facile method for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers, using glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the organic components, and Cu3(PO4)2 · 3H2O as the inorganic component. The synthesized nanoflowers enable the combination of a two-enzyme cascade reaction in one step, in which the GOx component of the nanoflowers oxidizes glucose to generate H2O2, which then reacts with the adjacent HRP component on the nanoflowers to oxidize the chromogenic substrates, resulting in an apparent color change. Given the close proximity of the two enzyme components in a single nanoflower, this novel sensor greatly reduces the diffusion and decomposition of H2O2, and greatly enhances the sensitivity of glucose detection. Thus, the obtained multi-enzyme co-embedded organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers can be unquestionably used as highly sensitive colorimetric sensors for the detection of glucose. Notably, this work presents a very facile route for the synthesis of multi-enzyme co-embedded nanomaterials for the simultaneous catalysis of multi-step cascade enzymatic reactions. Furthermore, it has great potential for application in biotechnology, and biomedical and environmental chemistry.

  9. Rheological Behavior of a Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid: Micro/Nano-Tin Fluorophosphate Glass-Polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Liu, Huiwen; Yu, Honglin; Zou, Xiaoxuan; Jing, Bo; Dai, Wenli

    2016-03-01

    The rheological behavior of a novel, binary organic-inorganic hybrid consisting of an ultra-low Tg tin fluorophosphate glass (Pglass) and polycarbonate (PC) was investigated using oscillatory rheometry. It was found that the complex viscosity of the hybrid showed Pglass content dependence. Under low Pglass content (10-30%), the complex viscosity of the hybrid was lower than that of pure PC. While the complex viscosity was dramatically increased and higher than that of pure PC with the content of Pglass above 30%. This phenomenon was particularly remarkable at low frequencies. Besides, with the addition of Pglass the hybrid material exhibited shear-thinning behavior and the shear-thinning characteristics became more obvious with the enhancement of the Pglass content, indicating the presence of nonlinear chemical and physical interactions between the hybrid components. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements revealed that increasing the content of Pglass caused a decrease of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the hybrids, suggesting that Pglass was acting as a macromolecular plasticizer for the PC. The microstructure of the Pglass in the hybrid material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the Pglass were dispersed as micro- and nano-bead in the continuous phase of PC and the Pglass appeared aggregation partly with the increase of the Pglass content. This contribution was anticipated to be a guideline for the processing of this promising new class of hybrid materials.

  10. Giant barocaloric effect in the ferroic organic-inorganic hybrid [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] perovskite under easily accessible pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-García, Juan M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Castro-García, Socorro; López-Beceiro, Jorge; Artiaga, Ramón; Señarís-Rodríguez, María A.

    2017-06-01

    The fast growing family of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic-inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic-inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies.

  11. Giant barocaloric effect in the ferroic organic-inorganic hybrid [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] perovskite under easily accessible pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-García, Juan M; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Castro-García, Socorro; López-Beceiro, Jorge; Artiaga, Ramón; Señarís-Rodríguez, María A

    2017-06-01

    The fast growing family of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds has recently been attracting increased attention owing to the remarkable functional properties (magnetic, multiferroic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic) displayed by some of its members. Here we show that these compounds can also have great potential in the until now unexplored field of solid-state cooling by presenting giant barocaloric effects near room temperature already under easily accessible pressures in the hybrid perovskite [TPrA][Mn(dca)3] (TPrA: tetrapropylammonium, dca: dicyanamide). Moreover, we propose that this will not be an isolated example for such an extraordinary behaviour as many other organic-inorganic hybrids (metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers) exhibit the basic ingredients to display large caloric effects which can be very sensitive to pressure and other external stimuli. These findings open up new horizons and great opportunities for both organic-inorganic hybrids and for solid-state cooling technologies.

  12. Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin "nanosponges" for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkas, Michael; Allabashi, Roza; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Mattausch, Eva-Maria; Perfler, Reinhard

    2006-04-15

    Long-alkyl chain functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, poly(ethylene imine) hyperbranched polymer, and beta-cyclodextrin derivatives, which are completely insoluble in water, have the property of encapsulating organic pollutants from water. Ceramic porous filters can be impregnated with these compounds resulting in hybrid organic/ inorganic filter modules. These hybrid filter modules were tested for the effective purification of water, by continuous filtration experiments, employing a variety of water pollutants. It has been established that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be removed very efficiently (more than 95%), and final concentrations of several ppb (microg/ L) are easily obtained. Representatives of the pollutant group of trihalogen methanes (THMs), monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTX), and pesticides (simazine) can also be removed (>80%), although the filters are saturated considerably faster in these cases.

  13. Direct Electrochemistry of Cytochrome c on EDTA-ZrO2 Organic-inorganic Hybrid Film Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静娟; 彭影; 刘守清; 陈洪渊

    2004-01-01

    A composite film of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-ZrO2 organic-inorganic hybrid was prepared based on the chelation between Zr(Ⅳ) and EDTA. The direct electrochemical behavior of cytochrome c (cyt. c) at the hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrodes was investigated. The immobilized EDTA can promote the redox of heme in horse heart cyt. c which gives rise to a pair of reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of 40 mV (vs. SCE). The peak current increased linearly with the increase of cyt. c concentration in the range of 1.6 × 10-6_the electron transfer of cyt. c. The impediment capability of metal ions depends on their coordination capability with EDTA and their valence number.

  14. Multiple-stage structure transformation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qiong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we have achieved a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3) to fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (cm), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (Stage 1 - 4, with Stage 1 being the pristine state) along a primary structure degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out th...

  15. Effect of organic-inorganic hybrid P123-em-SBA15 on lithium transport properties of composite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jingyu; HUANG Xiaobin; TANG Xiaozhen

    2004-01-01

    A novel PEO-based composite polymer electrolyte by using organic-inorganic hybrid EO20PO70EO20-em- mesoporous silica (P123-em-SBA15) as the filler has been developed. The experiment results show that P123-em- SBA15 can enhance the lithium-ion transference number of the composite polymer electrolyte, which is induced by the special topology structure of P123 in P123-em-SBA15 hybrid. In addition, room temperature ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolyte can also be increased by about two orders of magnitude. The excellent lithium transport properties suggest that PEO-LiClO4-P123-em-SBA15 composite polymer electrolyte can be used as electrolyte materials for all solid-state rechargeable lithium polymer batteries.

  16. Photo-triggered molecular release based on auto-degradable polymer-containing organic-inorganic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Ohashi, Wataru; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The photo-triggered molecular release from the organic-inorganic polymer hybrids is presented in this manuscript. Initially, the preparation of the auto-degradable polymer is explained with the photo-cleavable group at the end of the polymer main-chain. The silica-based dye-loaded hybrids containing these polymers were fabricated. It was found that by UV irradiation, the end capping was removed, and then the auto-degradation occurs through the polymer main-chain. Finally, the molecular release of the loaded dyes was accomplished in various media by the UV irradiation. In particular, it was shown that both of hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes can be applied in this system.

  17. Ti/Au Cathode for Electronic transport material-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tongfei; Chen, Jian; Zheng, Jianqiang; Li, Xinhua; Zhou, Bukang; Cao, Huaxiang; Wang, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    We have fabricated organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cell that uses a Ti/Au multilayer as cathode and does not use electron transport materials, and achieved the highest power conversion efficiency close to 13% with high reproducibility and hysteresis-free photocurrent curves. Our cell has a Schottky planar heterojunction structure (ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/Ti/Au), in which the Ti insertion layer isolate the perovskite and Au layers, thus proving good contact between the Au and perovskite and increasing the cells’ shunt resistance greatly. Moreover, the Ti/Au cathode in direct contact with hybrid perovskite showed no reaction for a long-term exposure to the air, and can provide sufficient protection and avoid the perovskite and PEDOT:PSS layers contact with moisture. Hence, the Ti/Au based devices retain about 70% of their original efficiency after 300 h storage in the ambient environment.

  18. General Deposition of Metal-Organic Frameworks on Highly Adaptive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrospun Fibrous Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Yi-Nan; Morlay, Catherine; Gu, Yifan; Gebremariam, Binyam; Yuan, Xiao; Li, Fengting

    2016-02-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous mats are ideal substrates for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) crystal deposition because of their specific structural parameters and chemical tenability. In this work, we utilized organic-inorganic hybrid electrospun fibrous mats as support material to study the deposition of various MOF particles. HKUST-1 and MIL-53(Al) were produced through solvothermal method, while ZIF-8 and MIL-88B(Fe) were prepared using microwave-induced heating method. The synthesis procedure for both methods were simple and effective because the hybrid nanofibrous mats showed considerable affinity to MOF particles and could be used without additional modifications. The obtained MOF composites exhibited effective incorporation between MOF particles and the porous substrates. MIL-53(Al) composite was applied as fibrous sorbent and showed enhanced adsorption capacity and removal rate, as well as easier operation, compared with thepowdered sample. Moreover, MIL-53(Al) composite was easier to be regenerated compared with powder form.

  19. Dissociation of Methylammonium Cations in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Liu, Lijia; Yang, Linju; Shen, Pengfei; Sun, Baoquan; McLeod, John A

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic lead perovskites have shown great promise as photovoltaic materials, and within this class of materials (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is of particular interest. Herein we use soft X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations to demonstrate that the methylammonium cations in a typical photovoltaic layer may dissociate into a metastable arrangement of CH3I-Pb2 defects and trapped NH3. The possibility that other metastable configurations of the organic components in (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is rarely considered but adds an entirely new dimension in understanding the charge trapping, ionic transport, and structural degradation mechanisms in these materials. Understanding the influence of these other configurations is of critical importance for further improving the performance of these photovoltaics.

  20. Syntheses and Characterizations of Two New Organic-inorganic Hybrids Based on Heteropolymolybdates and Piperidine Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new organic-inorganic compounds [(CH2)5NH2]3[PMo12O40]·3[(CH2)5NH] 1 and [(CH2)5NH2]6[P2Mo18O62]·5H2O 2 have been synthesized using conventional and hydrothermal methods, respectively, and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, TG and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. X-ray analyses show that in these compounds heteropolymolybdates [PMo12O40]3- and [P2Mo18O62]6- are reserved their Keggin or Dawson structures and linked to piperidine through electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  1. Organic-inorganic hybrid protonic polymeric electrolytes grafted by sulfonic acid/sulfonamide moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depre, L.; Poinsignon, C.; Popall, M.

    2000-07-01

    Thin proton conducting membranes of an organic-inorganic polymer electrolyte bearing sulphonamide and sulfonic groups are prepared by sol-gel process. Polycondensation of alkoxysilanes provides the inorganic silicate backbone whereas the organic network is formed from reactive functional groups R{prime}(({minus}DH{sub 2}){sub 3}-SO{sub 3}H) and [({minus}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-SO{sub 2}NH{sub 2}] of alkoxysilanes of R{prime}Si[OR{sub 3}] type. Proton conductivity measured in the dry and wet state under controlled Temperature and Relative Humidity increases from 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm under vacuum to 6 10{sup {minus}2} S/cm at 70 C and 96% RH. Conductivity dependence on temperature and associated conduction mechanisms are discussed in both states.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(St-co-BA) Latex with an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound as Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 周树学; 廖建和; 武利民

    2003-01-01

    A poly (St-co-BA) latex was successfully synthesized by using an organic-inorganic hybrid compound (OIHC), an aliphatic carboxylate sodium/nano-silica composite, as the emulsifier, and investigated by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical contact angle measurement (OCA) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). It was found that the protective agent, sodium polyacrylate (PA),could obviously improve the polymerization stability and the functional monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), could enhance the store stability of the latex. The particle size of poly(St-co-BA) latex decreased and then leveled off as OIHC content increased. TEM shows that the prepared polymers were a~:tually organic-inorganic nanocomposites, and these films have better waterproof property than those prepared by traditional poly(St-co-BA) latex or organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) latex. The nanocomposite polymer has much higher glass transition temperature than organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) polymer containing the same organic silicone content.

  3. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-powered pH sensor based on a flexible organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Soyoon, Shin; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2014-08-27

    In this study, we developed an innovative, flexible, organic-inorganic hybrid composite nanogenerator, which was used to drive a self-powered microwire-based pH sensor. The hybrid composite nanogenerator was fabricated using ZnO nanowire and piezoelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride), through a simple, inexpensive solution-casting technique. The fabricated hybrid composite nanogenerator delivered a maximum open-circuit voltage of 6.9 V and a short-circuit current of 0.96 μA, with an output power of 6.624 μW under uniaxial compression. This high-performance, electric poling free composite nanogenerator opens up the possibility of industrial-scale fabrication. The hybrid nanogenerator demonstrated its ability to drive five green LEDs simultaneously, without using an energy-storage device. Additionally, we constructed a self-powered pH sensor, using a ZnO microwire powered with our hybrid nanogenerator. The output voltage varied according to changes in the pH level. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a hybrid nanogenerator as a self-powered device that can be extended for use as a biosensor for environmental monitoring and/or as a smart, wearable, vibration sensor in future applications.

  5. GaAs-Based Superluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes with 290-nm Emission Bandwidth by Using Hybrid Quantum Well/Quantum Dot Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ziyang; Childs, David; Zhou, Kejia; Orchard, Jonathan; Kennedy, Ken; Hugues, Maxime; Clarke, Edmund; Ross, Ian; Wada, Osamu; Hogg, Richard

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance superluminescent light-emitting diode (SLD) based upon a hybrid quantum well (QW)/quantum dot (QD) active element is reported and is assessed with regard to the resolution obtainable in an optical coherence tomography system. We report on the appearance of strong emission from higher order optical transition from the QW in a hybrid QW/QD structure. This additional emission broadening method contributes significantly to obtaining a 3-dB linewidth of 290 nm centered at 1200 nm, with 2.4 mW at room temperature.

  6. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  7. Gas sensing performance of polyaniline/ZnO organic-inorganic hybrids for detecting VOCs at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Taili Yang; Yanfei Kang; Yao Wang; Shurong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline,and ZnO,with the mean particle size of 28 nm,was synthesized by a non-aqueous solvent method.The organic-inorganic PANI/ZnO hybrids with different mass fractions of PANI were obtained by mechanically mixing the prepared PANI and ZnO.The gas sensing properties of PANI/ZnO hybrids to different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including methanol,ethanol and acetone were investigated at a low operating temperature of 90 ℃.Compared with the pure PANI and ZnO,the PANI/ZnO hybrids presented much higher response to VOCs.Meanwhile,the PANI/ZnO hybrid exhibited a good reversibility and a short response-recovery time,implying its potential application for gas sensors.The sensing mechanism was suggested to be related to the existence of p-n heterojunctions in the PANI/ZnO hybrids.

  8. Crystal structure of an organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on morpholinium cations and a β-type Anderson polyanion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianova, Tamara J; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-11-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, penta-morpholinium hexa-hydrogen hexa-molybdoferrate(III) sulfate 3.5-hydrate, (C4H10NO)5[Fe(III)(OH)6Mo6O18](SO4)·3.5H2O, was obtained from an aqueous solution. The polyoxidomolybdate (POM) anion is of the Anderson β-type with a central Fe(III) ion. Three of five crystallographically independent morpholinium cations are disordered over two sets of sites. An intricate network of inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O inter-actions between cations, POMs, sulfate anions and non-coordinating water mol-ecules creates a three-dimensional network structure.

  9. Reaction of Silane Alkoxide with Acid Anhydride as a Novel Synthetic Method for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Fujiwara

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Sol-gel method is a potent method to produce new inorganic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The key step of this methodology is the hydrolysis of a metal alkoxide or other metal substrates such as acetylacetonates to form hydroxyl metal species, followed by their condensation to metal-oxygen-metal (M - O - M)bonds. In this process, the utilization of water, generally in excess, is essential and alcoholic solvents such as ethanol are often required to homogenize the solution when organic compounds coexist. As the common sol-gel method using water allows for limited uses of organic substrates due to their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution, modified variations of sol-gel method are required. Recently, some processes were reported for preparing metal oxides from metal alkoxides without the utilization of water.

  10. Carbon nanotubes noncovalently functionalized by an organic-inorganic hybrid: new building blocks for constructing superhydrophobic conductive coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mao; Qi, Ji; Zhou, Zhi; Liao, Zhangjie; Zhu, Zhongming; Guo, Honglei

    2010-08-17

    A facile method for constructing superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings is presented. Pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are first noncovalently (wrapped) modified by an organic-inorganic hybrid of an amphiphilic copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride and silica with the existence of gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (a silane coupling agent). The modified MWNTs were mixed with tetraethyl orthosilicate in ethanol, air sprayed, coated with a fluoroalkylsilane, and then heat treated to obtain the superhydrophobic, conductive, and transparent/translucent coatings. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a micrometer- and nanometer-scale hierarchical structure similar to that of lotus leaves; therefore, they show both high water contact angles (>160 degrees) and low sliding angles (coatings also exhibit good transmittance and greatly improved conductivities. This method is convenient, inexpensive, and easy to scale up. Moreover, it does not require any chemical modification of the MWNTs or use any harsh chemicals.

  11. Dehydrocoupling and Silazane Cleavage Routes to Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers with NBN Units in the Main Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Thomas; Lik, Artur; Plamper, Felix A; Helten, Holger

    2016-06-13

    Despite the great potential of both π-conjugated organoboron polymers and BN-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organic optoelectronics, our knowledge of conjugated polymers with B-N bonds in their main chain is currently scarce. Herein, the first examples of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers are presented, which consist of alternating NBN and para-phenylene units. Polycondensation with B-N bond formation provides facile access to soluble materials under mild conditions. The photophysical data for the polymer and molecular model systems of different chain lengths reveal a low extent of π-conjugation across the NBN units, which is supported by DFT calculations. The applicability of the new polymers as macromolecular polyligands is demonstrated by a cross-linking reaction with Zr(IV) .

  12. Hydrophilic solid-phase extraction of melamine with ampholine-modified hybrid organic-inorganic silica material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Zhu, Yiming; Ma, Junfeng; Xuan, Rongrong; Gao, Haoqi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent was successfully used to extract melamine from a milk formula sample by a hydrophilic interaction solid-phase extraction protocol. Primary factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the material such as extraction solvent, elution solvent, sample loading volume, and elution volume have been thoroughly optimized. Under the optimized hydrophilic solid-phase extraction conditions, the recoveries of melamine spiked in milk formula samples ranged from 86.2 to 101.8% with relative standard deviations of 4.1-9.4% (n = 3). The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.32 μg/g. The adsorption capacity toward melamine was 30 μg of melamine per grams of sorbent. Due to its simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, the newly developed hydrophilic solid-phase extraction method should provide a promising tool for daily monitoring of doped melamine in milk formula.

  13. Proline and benzylpenicillin derivatives grafted into mesoporous MCM-41: Novel organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts for direct aldol reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dwairath Dhar; Ian Beadham; Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2003-10-01

    New organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts were synthesized by covalent grafting of proline and benzylpenicillin derivatives into mesoporous MCM-41. These catalysts were extensively characterized using FT-IR, 13C CP MAS solid state NMR, XRD and TEM techniques. These were used as catalysts for direct, asymmetric aldol reaction between acetone and activated aromatic aldehydes. In the reaction of 4-nitro and 4-fluoro benzaldehyde, the aldol products were obtained in 36% and 59% ee respectively. The catalysts were reusable with neither significant drop in enantioselectivity nor loss of mesostructure. An attempt was made to substantiate the proposed `enamine’ mechanism for direct aldol reaction by trapping the intermediate between proline-MCM-41 and acetone.

  14. Multiple-Stage Structure Transformation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiong; Liu, Henan; Kim, Hui-Seon; Liu, Yucheng; Yang, Mengjin; Yue, Naili; Ren, Gang; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Shengzhong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-15

    By performing spatially resolved Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy with varying excitation wavelength, density, and data acquisition parameters, we achieve a unified understanding towards the spectroscopy signatures of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, transforming from the pristine state (CH3NH3PbI3) to the fully degraded state (i.e., PbI2) for samples with varying crystalline domain size from mesoscopic scale (approximately 100 nm) to macroscopic size (centimeters), synthesized by three different techniques. We show that the hybrid perovskite exhibits multiple stages of structure transformation occurring either spontaneously or under light illumination, with exceptionally high sensitivity to the illumination conditions (e.g., power, illumination time, and interruption pattern). We highlight four transformation stages (stages I-IV, with stage I being the pristine state) along either the spontaneous or photoinduced degradation path exhibiting distinctly different Raman spectroscopy features at each stage, and point out that previously reported Raman spectra in the literature reflect highly degraded structures of either stage III or stage IV. Additional characteristic optical features of partially degraded materials under the joint action of spontaneous and photodegradation are also given. This study offers reliable benchmark results for understanding the intrinsic material properties and structure transformation of this unique category of hybrid materials, and the findings are pertinently important to a wide range of potential applications where the hybrid material is expected to function in greatly different environment and light-matter interaction conditions.

  15. Photochromic hybrid organic-inorganic liquid-crystalline materials built from nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates: elaboration and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Andreas S; Constantin, Doru; Davidson, Patrick; Impéror, Marianne; Pansu, Brigitte; Panine, Pierre; Nicole, Lionel; Sanchez, Clément

    2008-06-17

    This work reports the elaboration and structural study of new hybrid organic-inorganic materials constructed via the coupling of liquid-crystalline nonionic surfactants and polyoxometalates (POMs). X-ray scattering and polarized light microscopy demonstrate that these hybrid materials, highly loaded with POMs (up to 18 wt %), are nanocomposites of liquid-crystalline lamellar structure (Lalpha), with viscoelastic properties close to those of gels. The interpretation of X-ray scattering data strongly suggests that the POMs are located close to the terminal -OH groups of the nonionic surfactants, within the aqueous sublayers. Moreover, these materials exhibit a reversible photochromism associated to the photoreduction of the polyanion. The photoinduced mixed-valence behavior has been characterized through ESR and UV-visible-near-IR spectroscopies that demonstrate the presence of W(V) metal cations and of the characteristic intervalence charge transfer band in the near-IR region, respectively. These hybrid nanocomposites exhibit optical properties that may be useful for applications involving UV-light-sensitive coatings or liquid-crystal-based photochromic switches. From a more fundamental point of view, these hybrid materials should be very helpful models for the study of both the static and dynamic properties of nano-objects confined within soft lamellar structures.

  16. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Daniel R.; Hagstrom, Erika; Pace, Aaron K.; Sisto, Krisanne; Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A.; Desai, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the early 1990s, the biological significance of light-emitting diodes was realized. Since this discovery, various light sources have been investigated for their cutaneous effects. Study design: A Medline search was performed on light-emitting diode lights and their therapeutic effects between 1996 and 2010. Additionally, an open-label, investigator-blinded study was performed using a yellow light-emitting diode device to treat acne, rosacea, photoaging, alopecia areata, and androgenetic alopecia. Results: The authors identified several case-based reports, small case series, and a few randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of four different wavelengths of light-emitting diodes. These devices were classified as red, blue, yellow, or infrared, and covered a wide range of clinical applications. The 21 patients the authors treated had mixed results regarding patient satisfaction and pre- and post-treatment evaluation of improvement in clinical appearance. Conclusion: Review of the literature revealed that differing wavelengths of light-emitting diode devices have many beneficial effects, including wound healing, acne treatment, sunburn prevention, phototherapy for facial rhytides, and skin rejuvenation. The authors’ clinical experience with a specific yellow light-emitting diode device was mixed, depending on the condition being treated, and was likely influenced by the device parameters. PMID:26155326

  18. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability.

  19. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  20. Effect of "bridge" on the performance of organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes via KH550

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hailan; Li, Hai Qiang; Liu, Meiyu; Xu, Lishuang; Xu, Jingmei; Wang, Shuang; Ni, Hongzhe; Wang, Zhe

    2017-02-01

    A series of novel organic-inorganic crosslinked hybrid proton exchange membranes were prepared using sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) polymers containing carboxyl groups (C-SPAEKS), (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (KH550), and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). KH550 acted as a "bridge" after reacting with carboxyl and sulfonic groups of C-SPAEKS to form covalent and ionic crosslinked structure between the C-SPAEKS and SiO2 phase. The crosslinked hybrid membranes (C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2) were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, and electrochemistry, etc. The thermal stability, mechanical properties and proton conductivity of the crosslinked hybrid membranes were improved by the presence of both crosslinked structure and inorganic phase. The proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was recorded as 0.110 S cm-1, higher than that of Nafion® (0.028 S cm-1) at 120 °C. Moreover, the methanol permeability of the C-SPAEKS/K-SiO2-8 was measured as 3.86 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, much lower than that of Nafion® 117 membranes (29.4 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) at 25 °C.

  1. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  2. Very-High Color Rendering Index Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Double Emitting Nanolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiquan Liu; Miao Xu; Lei Wang; Hong Tao; Yueju Su; Dongyu Gao; Linfeng Lan; Jianhua Zou; Junbiao Peng

    2014-01-01

    A very-high color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) based on a simple structure was successfully fabricated. The optimized device exhibits a maximum total efficiency of 13.1 and 5.4 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2. A peak color rendering index of 90 and a relatively stable color during a wide range of luminance were obtained. In addition, it was demonstrated that the 4,40,40-tri(9-carbazoyl) triphenylamine host influenced strongly the performance of this WOLED. These results may be beneficial to the design of both material and device architecture for high-performance WOLED.

  3. 有机无机杂化太阳能电池研究进展%Progress in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健茂; 彭彦玲; 田启威; 陈志钢

    2011-01-01

    The structure and working mechanism of organic/inorganic hybrid solar eells.as well as the proccsa of exciton generation, diffusion and charge transfer,are briefly introduced- The research progress in the organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanocrystals containing Cd,Pb and other metal elements, is reviewed. The advantages of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells and the related problems are concluded. The development trend of organic /inorganic hybrid solar cells is put forwards in the end.%简要介绍了有机无机杂化太阳能电池的结构及原理,以及激子的产生、分离及电荷的传输过程,综述了基于Cd基化合物纳米晶的杂化电池、Pb基化合物纳米晶的杂化电池以及其它半导体纳米晶的杂化电池的研究进展,并指出它们的优缺点和改进有机无机杂化电池性能的研究方向.

  4. Fabrication of 2×2 Thermo-Optic Switches with Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2×2 Mach-Zehnder interferometric thermo-optic switch was fabricated with organic/inorganic hybrid materials by sol-gel technique and direct UV patterning. The switching time of device was measured to be 4.2 ms and switching power 9.3 mW.

  5. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  6. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the stru

  7. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the stru

  8. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials: from self-organization to nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Figus, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The advantage of inorganic–organic hybrids is that they can combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; this provides the opportunity to invent new materials with a large spectrum properties. The synthesis of hybrid materials through the precise structure control from the molecular to the macroscopic level is a key point for a variety of applications. 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is one of the most common precursors for the prepar...

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Polymers Containing Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yao XU; Xiao Yan GAO; Shan Yi GUANG; Feng Zhi CHANG

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid polymers, poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-isobutyl styryl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes)s (PVP-POSS) were synthesized by one step polymerization and characterized using GPC and DSC. Addition of POSS significantly increases the Tg of polyvinylpyrrolidone at a fair high POSS content and obtained high molecular weight polymers with very narrow molecular distribution. The POSS content in the resulted hybrids can be controlled by varying the POSS feed ratio.

  10. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)(2)CuCl4

  11. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds : (NH4)(2)CuCl4, (CH3NH3)(2)CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)(2)CuCl4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zolfaghari, P.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions

  12. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  14. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid sols with nano silica particles and organoalkoxysilanes for transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films using sol-gel reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Moonkyong; Park, Hoyyul; Ahn, Myeongsang; Lee, Hyeonhwa; Chung, Ildoo

    2010-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized from nano silica particles dispersed in water and from organoalkoxysilanes, using the sol-gel reaction. This work focuses on the effects of the three multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMS), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) to form a transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating film. The stability of the hybrid sol was evaluated as a function of the reaction time for 10 d through the variation of the viscosity. The viscosity of the silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS sol was slightly increased for 10 d. The multifunctional organoalkoxysilanes formed dense silica networks through hydrolysis and condensation reaction, which enhanced the thermal resistance of the coating films. No thermal degradation of the silica/DMDMS sample occurred up to 600 degrees C, and none of the silica/MTMS and silica/TMOS samples occurred either up to 700 degrees C. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols were coated on the glass substrate using a spin-coating procedure. The organic-inorganic hybrid sols formed flat coating films without cracks. The transmittance of the hybrid sol coating films using MTMS and DMDMS was shown to be over 90%. The transmittance of the silica/TMOS sol coating film reacted for 10 d abruptly decreased due to faster gelation. The silica/DMDMS and silica/MTMS hybrid sols formed smooth coating films while the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film markedly increased when the hybrid sol reacted for 10 d. The increase of the surface roughness of the silica/TMOS coating film can be attributed to the degradation of the stability of the hybrid sol and to the loss of transmittance of the coating film. It was confirmed in this study that the use of organic-inorganic hybrid sol can yield transparent and high-thermal-resistance coating films.

  15. Advances in organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants in different types of food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk-Ting; Kamaruddin, Amirah Farhan; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Abdul Keyon, Aemi S

    2017-08-21

    The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  17. Organic-inorganic Polymer Nano-hybrids Based on Sol-gel Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki; Chujo

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Nano-ordered composite materials consisting of organic polymers and inorganic materials have been attracting attention for the purpose of the creation of high-performance or high-functional polymeric materials. Especially,the word of "polymer hybrid" claims the blends of organic and inorganic components at nano-level dispersion. By using this idea,an enhancement of mechanical strength of organic polymers with silica particles is possible.High transparency of this material is another important ...

  18. Hybrid organic-inorganic polyoxometalates : synthesis and characterisation of organoarsonate and organophosphonate functionalised polyoxovanadate clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Breen, John Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a significant contribution of research to the field of hybrid inorganic- organic polyoxometalates. Herein the functionalisation of polyoxovanadate clusters with aryl arsonates and aryl phosphonates is described and the structural and physiochemical properties of the product materials are discussed. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the field of research, highlights recent significant achievements and puts accomplishments into a broader context. TARA (Trinity’s Access ...

  19. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light.

  20. Cool and warm hybrid white organic light-emitting diode with blue delayed fluorescent emitter both as blue emitter and triplet host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Joo; Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) with an external quantum efficiency above 20% was developed using a new blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent material, 4,6-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (DCzIPN), both as a blue emitter and a host for a yellow phosphorescent emitter. DCzIPN showed high quantum efficiency of 16.4% as a blue emitter and 24.9% as a host for a yellow phosphorescent emitter. The hybrid WOLEDs with the DCzIPN host based yellow emitting layer sandwiched between DCzIPN emitter based blue emitting layers exhibited high external quantum efficiency of 22.9% with a warm white color coordinate of (0.39, 0.43) and quantum efficiency of 21.0% with a cool white color coordinate of (0.31, 0.33) by managing the thickness of the yellow emitting layer. PMID:25598436

  1. Germania-based, sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for capillary microextraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Kulkarni, Sameer; Alhooshani, Khalid; Malik, Abdul

    2007-12-15

    Germania-based, sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were developed for capillary microextraction and gas chromatography (GC). Being an isostructural analogue of SiO2, GeO2 is compatible with the silica network. Because of this similarity, germania-based materials possess great potential for being used in the areas of chromatographic separation and sample preparation. These possibilities, however, remain practically unexplored. To our knowledge, this is the first instance that a germania-based hybrid sol-gel material is used as a sorbent in analytical sample preparation or chromatographic separation. Tetramethoxygermane was used as a precursor to create a sol-gel network via hydrolytic polycondensation reactions performed within a fused-silica capillary. The growing sol-gel germania network was simultaneously reacted with an organic ligand that contained sol-gel-active sites in its chemical structure. Three different sol-gel-active ligands were used: (a) hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane), (b) hydroxy-terminated poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane), and (c) 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Sol-gel germania-coated capillaries of desired polarity and extraction selectivity were prepared by using an appropriately selected sol-gel-active ligand in the sol solution. These capillaries were further used to extract trace concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, and free fatty acids from aqueous samples. The extracted solutes were further analyzed by GC-FID. The new germania-based coatings showed excellent stability under harsh operation conditions involving extreme pH values, high temperatures, and aggressive solvents. Our preliminary results also indicate that sol-gel hybrid germania coatings have the potential to offer great analytical performance as GC stationary phases.

  2. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  3. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  4. SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL ORGANIC/INORGANIC HYBRID NONLINEAR OPTICAL POLYMER VIA SOL-GEL PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-xia Xi; Zhong Li; Zhao-xi Liang

    2001-01-01

    A new organic/inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical (NLO) material was developed by the sol-gel process of an alkoxysilane dye with tetraethoxysilane. A NLO moiety based on 4-nitro-4′-hydroxy azobenzene was covalently bonded to the triethoxysilane derivative, i.e. γ-isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane. The preparation process and properties of the sol-gel derived NLO polymer were studied and characterized by SEM, FTIR, 1H-NMR, UV-Vis, DSC and second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement. The results indicated that the chemical bonding of the chromophores to the inorganic SiO2 networks induces Iow dipole alignment relaxation and preferable orientational stability. The SHG measurements also showed that the bonded polymer film containing 75 wt% of the akoxysilane dye has a high electro-optic coefficient (r33) of7. 1 pm/V at 1.1 μm wavelength, and exhibit good SHG stability, the r33 values can maintain about 92.7% of its initial value at room temperature for 90 days, and can maintain about 59.3% at 100℃ for 300 min.``

  5. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hollow Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles for Efficient Ultrasound-Based Imaging and Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel anticancer drug delivery system with contrast-enhanced ultrasound-imaging performance was synthesized by a typical hard-templating method using monodispersed silica nanoparticles as the templates, which was based on unique molecularly organic/inorganic hybrid hollow periodic mesoporous organosilicas (HPMOs. The highly dispersed HPMOs show the uniform spherical morphology, large hollow interior, and well-defined mesoporous structures, which are very beneficial for ultrasound-based theranostics. The obtained HPMOs exhibit excellent performances in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography both in vitro and in vivo and can be used for the real-time determination of the progress of lesion tissues during the chemotherapeutic process. Importantly, hydrophobic paclitaxel- (PTX- loaded HPMOs combined with ultrasound irradiation show fast ultrasound responsiveness for controlled drug release and higher in vitro and in vivo tumor inhibition rates compared with free PTX and PTX-loaded HPMOs, which is due to the enhanced ultrasound-triggered drug release and ultrasound-induced cavitation effect. Therefore, the achieved novel HPMOs-based nanoparticle systems will find broad application potentials in clinically ultrasound-based imaging and auxiliary tumor chemotherapy.

  6. Three iodometalate organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on methylene blue cation: Syntheses, structures, properties and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Jian; Song, Li; Qin, Lai-Shun; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Guo, Jia-Yu; Shu, Kang-Ying

    2012-08-01

    The functional dye of methylene blue (MB) has been employed for seeking new organic-inorganic hybrid photochromic materials. Although the photochromism has not been observed yet, three iodometalate compounds, namely (MB) (PbI3) (DMF) (1), (MB)4(Cu2I4)2 (2), and (MB)3(Bi2I9) (DMF)2 (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The iodometalate anion features as a [PbI3]∞- chain in 1, a dinuclear unit of Cu2I42- in 2, and a dinuclear unit of Bi2I93- in 3. Due to the synergy of cations and anions, the MB+ cations present supramolecular column stacks in 1 and 3, but a novel supramolecular octamer structure in 2. Their thermogravimetric analyses reveal that the polymeric inorganic anion structure is helpful to increase the stability of cation whereas the discrete structure is adverse. For seeking some clues which is significant to searching new photochromic systems, the density functional theory (DFT) studies have been performed on 1, in which the electronic structure analyses suggests that the stacking mode of cations and anions could be also an important factor influencing the charge transfer between them. In addition, dielectric hysteresis loop testing has been performed on 1 due to its polar space group of Cc.

  7. Perovskite-Like Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide with a Large Organic Cation Incorporated within the Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Chen-Jie; Mo, Chong-Jiao; Li, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Guang-Lin; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2017-03-06

    A great effort has been made to investigate 2D perovskites to improve the stability and controllability in the fabrication of photoelectronic devices. As far as we know, only small organic cations such as methylammonium can incorporate into the multilayered perovskite structure except the cations sandwiched between the inorganic layers. We report here a new layered lead iodide, (H2Aepz)3Pb4I14 (1), where larger organic cations, bis-protonated 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyrazole (Aepz), not only were sandwiched between the inorganic layers but also were incorporated within the perovskite-like PbI layered structure. Another 2D compound, (H2Aepz)PbI4 (2), was also prepared that was a one-layer perovskite. A simple Schottky device was prepared to investigate the photoelectroresponsive properties of the compounds in comparison with that of a typical organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite. In general, the energy gap is decreased with an increase in the perovskite layers, but the band gap of two-layered 1 is larger than that of one-layered 2. The photocurrent densities of the compounds are in the order of 1 < 2 < (CH3NH3)PbI3, which is discussed based on the crystal structures and band energy gaps.

  8. Piezoelectric scattering limited mobility of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites CH3NH3PbI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Kong, Xianghua; Chen, Xiaobin; Cooke, David G.; Guo, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Carrier mobility is one of the most important parameters for semiconducting materials and their use in optoelectronic devices. Here we report a systematic first principles analysis of the acoustic phonon scattering mechanism that limits the mobility of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskites. Due to the unique hybrid organic-inorganic structure, the mechanical, electronic and transport properties are dominated by the same factor, i.e. the weak interatomic bond and the easy rotation of methylammonium (MA) molecules under strain. Both factors make MAPbI3 soft. Rotation of MA molecule induces a transverse shift between Pb and I atoms, resulting in a very low deformation potential and a strong piezoelectricity in MAPbI3. Hence the carrier mobility of pristine MAPbI3 is limited by the piezoelectric scattering, which is consistent to the form of its temperature dependence. Our calculations suggest that in the pristine limit, a high mobility of about several thousand cm2 V‑1 S‑1 is expected for MAPbI3.

  9. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, Roger A.; Baugher, Brigitta M.; Beach, James V.; Loy, Douglas A.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Small, James H.; Tran, Joseph

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing mobilization of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  10. A metallocene molecular complex as visible-light absorber for high-voltage organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2014-04-14

    A thin solid-state dye-sensitized photovoltaic cell is fabricated by composing organic and inorganic heterojunctions in which the visible-light sensitizers are cyclopentadiene derivatives (Cp*) coordinated to a metal oxide, typically TiO2. The coordination bonds of the metallocene molecular complex (Ti-Cp*) create a new LMCT (ligand-to-metal charge transfer) absorption band and induce a rectified charge transfer from the organic ligands to TiO2, leading to photocurrent generation. Photovoltaic junctions are completed by coating crystalline organic molecules (perylene) as a hole-transport layer on the Cp*-coordinated TiO2 surface by using the vapor deposition method. The molecular plane of Cp* on the TiO2 surfaces seems to help the hole-transport layer to form ordered structures, which effectively improve carrier conductivities and minimize interfacial resistance. The organic-inorganic hybrid thin-film photocell with metallocene molecular complexes is capable of generating high open-circuit voltages exceeding 1.2 V. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Strain tuning of ferroelectric polarization in hybrid organic inorganic perovskite compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saurabh; Di Sante, Domenico; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2015-11-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid crystalline compounds comprised of an extended ordered network made up of organic molecules, organic linkers and metal cations. In particular, MOFs with the same topology as inorganic perovskites have been shown to possess interesting properties, e.g., coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. Using first-principles density functional theory, we have investigated the effect of strain on the compounds C(NH2)3Cr(HCOO)3 and (CH3CH2NH3)Mn(HCOO)3. Here, we show that compressive strain can substantially increase the ferroelectric polarization by more than 300%, and we discuss the mechanism involved in the strain enhancement of polarization. Our study highlights the complex interplay between strain and organic cations' dipoles and put forward the possibility of tuning of ferroelectric polarization through appropriate thin film growing.

  12. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions.

  13. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  14. Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Field-Effect Transistors with High Performance and Operational Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Abhishek S; Opoku, Charles; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Camara, Nicolas; Daumont, Christophe; Barbagiovanni, Eric G; Franzò, Giorgia; Mirabella, Salvo; Alquier, Daniel

    2017-01-11

    The production of high-quality semiconducting nanostructures with optimized electrical, optical, and electromechanical properties is important for the advancement of next-generation technologies. In this context, we herein report on highly obliquely aligned single-crystalline zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnO NSs) grown via the vapor-liquid-solid approach using r-plane (01-12) sapphire as the template surface. The high structural and optical quality of as-grown ZnO NSs has been confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, respectively. To assess the potential of our NSs as effective building materials in high-performance flexible electronics, we fabricate organic (parylene C)/inorganic (ZnO NS) hybrid field-effect transistor (FET) devices on flexible substrates using room-temperature assembly processes. Extraction of key FET performance parameters suggests that as-grown ZnO NSs can successfully function as excellent n-type semiconducting modules. Such devices are found to consistently show very high on-state currents (Ion) > 40 μA, high field-effect mobility (μeff) > 200 cm(2)/(V s), exceptionally high on/off current modulation ratio (Ion/off) of around 10(9), steep subthreshold swing (s-s) low hysteresis, and negligible threshold voltage shifts with prolonged electrical stressing (up to 340 min). The present study delivers a concept of integrating high-quality ZnO NS as active semiconducting elements in flexible electronic circuits.

  15. Nanocomposite Based Organic-Inorganic Cu3BiS3 High Sensitive Hybrid Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S B

    2015-04-01

    We report the synthesis and application Cu3BiS3 nanorods in infrared photodectection. Cu3BiS3 nano rods were characterized structurally, optically and electrically. The detailed IR photodectection properties in terms of photo response were demonstrated with IR lamp and 1064 nm laser illuminations. The rapid photocurrent time constants followed by the slower components, resulting due to the defect states. The photo detecting properties for different concentrations of nanorods blended with the conjugate polymer devices were demonstrated. Further the photocurrent was enhanced to threefold increase from 3.47 x 10(-7) A to 2.37 x 10(-3) A at 1 V for 10 mg nanorods embedded in the polymer device. Responsivity of hybrid device was enhanced from 0.0158 A/W to 102 A/W. The detailed trap assisted space charge transport properties were studied considering the different regimes. Hence Cu3BiS3 can be a promising candidate in the nano switchable near IR photodetectors.

  16. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid of polyaniline/α-zirconium phosphate for efficient removal of organic pollutants in water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Xi-Lin; Xu, Wei-Hong; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Liu, Jin-Huai; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-05-01

    In this article, organic-inorganic hybrid materials of polyaniline/α-zirconium phosphate (PANI/α-ZrP) was synthesized by in situ oxidative polymerization reaction and characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopic (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that polyaniline (PANI) was successfully grown on the surface of α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) nanoplates. The PANI/α-ZrP nanocomposites were further applied to remove methyl orange (MO), which was used as a model of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. A synergistic effect of PANI and α-ZrP on promoting the adsorption removal of MO was observed. The PANI/α-ZrP nanocomposites exhibited excellent maximum adsorption capacity toward MO (377.46 mg g(-1)), which is superior to that of PANI nanotubes (254.15 mg g(-1)) and much higher than that of many other adsorbents. The adsorption isotherms of MO can be well-fitted with the Langmuir model and the adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model. MO adsorption decreased with increasing solution pH at pH > 4.0 implying that MO adsorption on PANI/α-ZrP may via electrostatic interactions between amine and imine groups on the surface of PANI/α-ZrP and MO molecules. This study implies that the hybrid materials of PANI/α-ZrP can be suggested as potential adsorbents to remove organic dyes from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  17. Synthesis of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid of polyaniline/titanium phosphate for Re(VII) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chen, Changlun; Chen, He; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-05-21

    The organic-inorganic hybrid material of polyaniline/titanium(IV) (PANI/Ti(HPO4)2) was synthesized by an oxidative polymerization reaction. The PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 was applied to remove Re(VII). The size of Ti(HPO4)2 nanoplates has no obvious effect on the sorption capacity. The effects of various environmental factors (such as pH, extra anions (NO3(-) and MO4(2-)) and temperature) on Re(VII) sorption to PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 were investigated by batch experiments. The sorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The nitrogen-containing functional groups of PANI promoted Re(VII) sorption. The PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 exhibited excellent maximum sorption capacity to Re(VII) (47.62 mg g(-1)), which was superior to that of PANI (10.75 mg g(-1)) and much higher than that of many other sorbents. The sorption isotherms of Re(VII) can be well fitted with the Langmuir model. Re(VII) sorption decreased with increasing solution pH at pH > 4.0, which implied that Re(VII) sorption on PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 might be attributed to the outer-sphere complexation between amine and imine groups on the surface of PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 and Re(VII). This study implies that the hybrid material of PANI/Ti(HPO4)2 can be regarded as a potential sorbent to remove Re(VII) and its analogues from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

  18. Ultrathin, flexible organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires and PEDOT:PSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Elam, David; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-03-26

    Recently, free-standing, ultrathin, single-crystal silicon (c-Si) membranes have attracted considerable attention as a suitable material for low-cost, mechanically flexible electronics. In this paper, we report a promising ultrathin, flexible, hybrid solar cell based on silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The free-standing, ultrathin c-Si membranes of different thicknesses were produced by KOH etching of double-side-polished silicon wafers for various etching times. The processed free-standing silicon membranes were observed to be mechanically flexible, and in spite of their relatively small thickness, the samples tolerated the different steps of solar cell fabrication, including surface nanotexturization, spin-casting, dielectric film deposition, and metallization. However, in terms of the optical performance, ultrathin c-Si membranes suffer from noticeable transmission losses, especially in the long-wavelength region. We describe the experimental performance of a promising light-trapping scheme in the aforementioned ultrathin c-Si membranes of thicknesses as small as 5.7 μm employing front-surface random SiNW texturization in combination with a back-surface distribution of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). We report the enhancement of both the short-circuit current density (JSC) and the open-circuit voltage (VOC) that has been achieved in the described devices. Such enhancement is attributable to the plasmonic backscattering effect of the back-surface Ag NPs, which led to an overall 10% increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the devices compared to similar structures without Ag NPs. A PCE in excess of 6.62% has been achieved in the described devices having a c-Si membrane of thickness 8.6 μm. The described device technology could prove crucial in achieving an efficient, low-cost, mechanically flexible photovoltaic device in the near future.

  19. Carrier recombination spatial transfer by reduced potential barrier causes blue/red switchable luminescence in C8 carbon quantum dots/organic hybrid light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xifang Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The underlying mechanism behind the blue/red color-switchable luminescence in the C8 carbon quantum dots (CQDs/organic hybrid light-emitting devices (LEDs is investigated. The study shows that the increasing bias alters the energy-level spatial distribution and reduces the carrier potential barrier at the CQDs/organic layer interface, resulting in transition of the carrier transport mechanism from quantum tunneling to direct injection. This causes spatial shift of carrier recombination from the organic layer to the CQDs layer with resultant transition of electroluminescence from blue to red. By contrast, the pure CQDs-based LED exhibits green–red electroluminescence stemming from recombination of injected carriers in the CQDs.

  20. Wavelength-tunable and white-light emission from polymer-converted micropixellated InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliotis, G.; Gu, E.; Griffin, C.; Jeon, C. W.; Stavrinou, P. N.; Dawson, M. D.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2006-07-01

    We report the use of light-emitting conjugated polymer materials to wavelength-convert the emission from a two-dimensional array of micropixellated InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We demonstrate hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices that can operate across the entire visible spectrum, and we also fabricate white-emitting versions of these devices by employing single layers of carefully adjusted polymer blends in which cascade non-radiative energy transfer occurs between the constituent materials. Additional colours may be easily obtained by tuning the composition of the polymer blends. Our work demonstrates that the combination of conjugated polymers and UV micro-LED arrays provides an attractive approach to developing microscale wavelength-tunable light sources and may provide a route to low-cost full-colour microdisplays and other instrumentation devices.

  1. Solution-processed hybrid light emitting and photovoltaic devices comprising zinc oxide nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to prepare inverted optoelectronic devices with improved performance by combining zinc oxide (ZnO nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide (WO3 layer. ZnO seed layers with thickness of 52 nm were established, followed by growth of ZnO nanorods with length of 300 nm vertical to the ITO substrates in the precursor bath. The ZnO nanorod arrays possess high transmittance up to 92% in the visible range. Inverted light-emitting devices with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/Au were constructed. The best device achieved a max brightness and current efficiency of 10,620 cd/m2 and 0.25 cd/A at 10 V, respectively, revealing much higher brightness compared with conventional devices using Ca/Al as cathode, or inverted devices based on ZnO thin film. By inserting a WO3 thin layer between PEDOT:PSS and Au electrode, the max brightness and current efficiency were further improved to 21,881 cd/m2 and 0.43 cd/A, respectively. Inverted polymer solar cells were also fabricated with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT/WO3/Au. The best device parameters, including the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency, reached 0.54 V, 14.87 mA/cm2, 41%, and 3.31%, respectively

  2. Induction of Syndecan-4 by Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Molecules with a 1,10-Phenanthroline Structure in Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takato; Kojima, Takayuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroka; Nakamura, Takehiro; Yoshida, Eiko; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Saito, Shinichi; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-02-08

    Organic-inorganic hybrid molecules constitute analytical tools used in biological systems. Vascular endothelial cells synthesize and secrete proteoglycans, which are macromolecules consisting of a core protein and glycosaminoglycan side chains. Although the expression of endothelial proteoglycans is regulated by several cytokines/growth factors, there may be alternative pathways for proteoglycan synthesis aside from downstream pathways activated by these cytokines/growth factors. Here, we investigated organic-inorganic hybrid molecules to determine a variant capable of analyzing the expression of syndecan-4, a transmembrane heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and identified 1,10-phenanthroline (o-Phen) with or without zinc (Zn-Phen) or rhodium (Rh-Phen). Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were treated with these compounds, and the expression of syndecan-4 mRNA and core proteins was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our findings indicated that o-Phen and Zn-Phen specifically and strongly induced syndecan-4 expression in cultured vascular endothelial cells through activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/β pathway via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase-domain-containing protein 2. These results demonstrated an alternative pathway involved in mediating induction of endothelial syndecan-4 expression and revealed organic-inorganic hybrid molecules as effective tools for analyzing biological systems.

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of APbX{sub 3} (A=methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium; X=I, Br, Cl) hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Alessandro; Quadrelli, Paolo; Amoroso, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara [Department of Chemistry and INSTM, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Boiocchi, Massimo [University of Pavia, Centro Grandi Strumenti, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sironi, Angelo [University of Milano and INSTM, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Patrini, Maddalena; Guizzetti, Giorgio [University of Pavia and CNISM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Malavasi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.malavasi@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry and INSTM, University of Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis, the crystal structure and the optical response of APbX{sub 3} (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br) hybrid organic-inorganic materials including some new phases. We observe that as the cation group increases in size, the optical absorption edge shifts to higher energies with energy steps which are systematic and independent on the anion. A linear correlation between the optical bad gap and the tolerance factor has been shown for the series of samples investigated. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure and the optical response of the two series of hybrid organic-inorganic materials APbX{sub 3} (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br), which include some new phases, are reported. A dependence of crystal structure and band-gap with tolerance factor is shown. Display Omitted - Highlights: • DMAPbI{sub 3}, TMAPbI{sub 3} and TMAPbBr{sub 3} are reported as new hybrid organic-inorganic compounds. • Crystal structure and optical properties as a function of the number of methyl groups are provided. • Correlation between structure and optical properties are given as a function of tolerance factor.

  4. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX.

  5. The interaction between hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts in perovskite solar cells: an infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idígoras, J; Todinova, A; Sánchez-Valencia, J R; Barranco, A; Borrás, A; Anta, J A

    2016-05-11

    The interaction of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite and selective contacts is crucial to get efficient, stable and hysteresis-free perovskite-based solar cells. In this report, we analyze the vibrational properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites deposited on different substrates by infrared absorption (IR) measurements (4000-500 cm(-1)). The materials employed as substrates are not only characterized by different chemical natures (TiO2, ZnO and Al2O3), but also by different morphologies. For all of them, we have investigated the influence of these substrate properties on perovskite formation and its degradation by humidity. The effect of selective-hole contact (Spiro-OmeTad and P3HT) layers on the degradation rate by moisture has also been studied. Our IR results reveal the existence of a strong interaction between perovskite and all ZnO materials considered, evidenced by a shift of the peaks related to the N-H vibrational modes. The interaction even induces a morphological change in ZnO nanoparticles after perovskite deposition, pointing to an acid-base reaction that takes place through the NH3(+) groups of the methylammonium cation. Our IR and X-ray diffraction results also indicate that this specific interaction favors perovskite decomposition and PbI2 formation for ZnO/perovskite films subjected to humid conditions. Although no interaction is observed for TiO2, Al2O3, and the hole selective contact, the morphology and chemical nature of both contacts appear to play an important role in the rate of degradation upon exposure to moisture.

  6. New organic-inorganic hybrid compounds constructed from polyoxometalates and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, De-Chuan; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2016-02-14

    Five new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on different polyoxoanions [HxGeW12O40](n-) or [H3As2W18O62](3-) (x = 0, 2; n = 4, 2), namely [Cu3(2,2'-bpy)3(inic)(OH)(H2O)][GeW12O40]·1.5H2O (1), [Cu2(phen)2(μ2-Cl)2(inic)]2[H2GeW12O40]·2H2O (2), [Cu2(phen)2(μ2-Cl)Cl(nic)]2[H2GeW12O40] (3), [Cu2(2,2'-bpy)2(hnic)Cl]2[H2GeW12O40] (4), [Cu(phen)(inic)H2O][Cu2(phen)2(inic)2(H2O)][H3As2W18O62]·3H2O (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that compound 1 is isomorphous and isostructural with a compound reported by us recently, the main difference between the two is the heteroatom of the polyoxoanions in the two compounds. Compound 2 is a supramolecular structure constructed from polyoxoanions and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes. Compound 3 is a novel polyoxoanion bi-supported transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complex. Compound 4 is a 1-D chain structure constructed from polyoxoanions and transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes. The photodegradation properties of compounds 1-5 have been analyzed.

  7. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao; Wu, Chang-Qin

    2015-04-01

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (Rrec-V) and the current density-voltage (J-V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted Rrec data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the Rrec-V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the Rrec's are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the Rrec decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  8. Mechanism of charge recombination in meso-structured organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells: A macroscopic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenchao; Yao, Yao, E-mail: yaoyao@fudan.edu.cn; Wu, Chang-Qin, E-mail: cqw@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-04-21

    In the currently popular organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, the slowness of the charge recombination processes is found to be a key factor for contributing to their high efficiencies and high open circuit voltages, but the underlying recombination mechanism remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the bimolecular recombination (BR) and the trap-assisted monomolecular recombination (MR) in meso-structured perovskite solar cells under steady state working condition, and try to reveal their roles on determining the device performance. Some interfacial effects such as the injection barriers at the selective contacts are examined as well. Based on the macroscopic device modeling, the recombination resistance-voltage (R{sub rec}−V) and the current density-voltage (J–V) curves are calculated to characterize the recombination mechanism and describe the device performance, respectively. Through comparison with the impedance spectroscopy extracted R{sub rec} data, it is found that under the typical BR reduction factor and deep trap densities observed in experiments, the MR dominates the charge recombination in the low voltage regime, while the BR dominates in the high voltage regime. The short circuit current and the fill factor could be reduced by the significant MR but the open circuit voltage is generally determined by the BR. The different electron injection barriers at the contact can change the BR rate and induce different patterns for the R{sub rec}–V characteristics. For the perovskites of increased band gaps, the R{sub rec}'s are significantly enhanced, corresponding to the high open circuit voltages. Finally, it is revealed that the reduced effective charge mobility due to the transport in electron and hole transporting material makes the R{sub rec} decrease slowly with the increasing voltage, which leads to increased open circuit voltage.

  9. Ultrafast pulse generation from erbium-doped fiber laser modulated by hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobao; Miao, Lili; Yi, Jun; Huang, Bin; Peng, Wei; Zou, Yanhong; Huang, Huihui; Hu, Wei; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-04-01

    We report the nonlinear optical responses of organic-inorganic halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its application in ultrafast pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber laser in the optical communication band. By adopting the Z-scan technique, the third-order nonlinear optical responses of the organic-inorganic halide perovskites have been characterized. An ultrafast optical pulse with a pulse width of 661 fs centered at a wavelength of 1555 nm has been delivered via the nonlinear optical material introduced into the fiber laser cavity. Our experimental results confirm that the organic-inorganic halide perovskite possesses obvious third-order nonlinear optical responses in the C-band window and manifests its application potential in nonlinear optoelectronic devices.

  10. Study of the Distribution of Radiative Defects and Reabsorption of the UV in ZnO Nanorods-Organic Hybrid White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ijaz; Bano, Nargis; Hussain, Sajjad; Soomro, Yousuf; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-07-08

    In this study, the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method was employed to synthesized ZnO nanorods to process-organic hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs) on glass substrate. Electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid white LEDs demonstrate the combination of emission bands arising from radiative recombination of the organic and ZnO nanorods (NRs). Depth resolved luminescence was used for probing the nature and spatial distribution of radiative defects, especially to study the re-absorption of ultraviolet (UV) in this hybrid white LEDs structure. At room temperature the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra intensity of the deep band emission (DBE) is increased with the increase of the electron beam penetration depth due to the increase of defect concentration at the ZnO NRs/Polyfluorene (PFO) interface and probably due to internal absorption of the UV. A strong dependency between the intensity ratio of the UV to the DBE bands and the spatial distribution of the radiative defects in ZnO NRs has been found. The comparison of the CL spectra from the PFO and the ZnO NRs demonstrate that PFO has a very weak violet-blue emission band, which confirms that most of the white emission components originate from the ZnO NRs.

  11. Study of the Distribution of Radiative Defects and Reabsorption of the UV in ZnO Nanorods-Organic Hybrid White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Soomro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG method was employed to synthesized ZnO nanorods to process-organic hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs on glass substrate. Electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid white LEDs demonstrate the combination of emission bands arising from radiative recombination of the organic and ZnO nanorods (NRs. Depth resolved luminescence was used for probing the nature and spatial distribution of radiative defects, especially to study the re-absorption of ultraviolet (UV in this hybrid white LEDs structure. At room temperature the cathodoluminescence (CL spectra intensity of the deep band emission (DBE is increased with the increase of the electron beam penetration depth due to the increase of defect concentration at the ZnO NRs/Polyfluorene (PFO interface and probably due to internal absorption of the UV. A strong dependency between the intensity ratio of the UV to the DBE bands and the spatial distribution of the radiative defects in ZnO NRs has been found. The comparison of the CL spectra from the PFO and the ZnO NRs demonstrate that PFO has a very weak violet-blue emission band, which confirms that most of the white emission components originate from the ZnO NRs.

  12. Very thin ITO/metal mesh hybrid films for a high-performance transparent conductive layer in GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Hong; Kwak, Hoe-Min; Kim, Kiyoung; Jeong, Woo-Lim; Lee, Dong-Seon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce very thin Indium tin oxide (ITO) layers (5, 10, and 15 nm) hybridized with a metal mesh to produce high-performance transparent conductive layers (TCLs) in near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV LEDs). Using UV–vis–IR spectrometry, Hall measurement, and atomic force microscopy, we found that 10 nm was the optimal thickness for the very thin ITO layers in terms of outstanding transmittance and sheet resistance values as well as stable contact properties when hybridized with the metal mesh. The proposed layers showed a value of 4.56 Ω/□ for sheet resistance and a value of 89.1% for transmittance. Moreover, the NUV LEDs fabricated with the hybrid TCLs achieved ∼140% enhanced light output power compared to that of 150 nm thick ITO layers. Finally, to verify the practical usage of the TCLs for industrial applications, we packaged the NUV LED chips and obtained improved turn-on voltage (3.48 V) and light output power (∼116%) performance.

  13. Synthesis of an imprinted hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric sol-gel matrix toward the specific binding and isotherm kinetics investigation of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong-Sheun; Ko, Ting-Hsien; Hsu, Ting-Jung; Syu, Mei-Jywan

    2009-03-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric sol-gel materials imprinted with creatinine template molecules were synthesized for the specific binding of creatinine. Creatinine is a metabolite from creatine and is the final product from kidney metabolism. Therefore, creatinine can be an important index to estimate the function of the kidney. It was then chosen as the target molecule in this work. To achieve the specific binding toward creatinine, molecular imprinting was used to create a polymeric matrix for the regarding purpose. Sol-gel was further added to create a rigid network structure for the absorption of creatinine. An inorganic precursor, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), was mixed with an organic functional monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS), and the creatinine template to form a hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted polymer. The chemical functionality was achieved as well as a confined matrix via the polymerization and the hydrolysis-condensation of the sol-gel. The imprinting effect from the hybrid materials against the corresponding nonimprinted was investigated. BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) analysis was carried out for the imprinted and the nonimprinted materials. The specificity of the hybrid materials was further examined by capping the surface silanol groups with chloro-trimethylsilane (CTMS) and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), respectively. The capping effect was compared and discussed from the binding results. Selectivity of the materials toward creatinine was obtained using mixture solutions in the presence of creatinine and its analogues. Reutilization and storage stability of the hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted material were also studied. Additionally, the affinity distribution of the hybrid imprinted materials derived from the allosteric model was also analyzed from the adsorption isotherm data.

  14. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on Basket-like {Ca⊂P6Mo18O73} Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Yu, Kai; Lv, Jing-hua; Gong, Li-hong; Wang, Chun-mei; Wang, Chun-xiao; Sun, Di; Zhou, Bai-Bin

    2015-07-20

    Four basket-like organic-inorganic hybrids, formulated as [{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca4(H2O)4(HO0.5)3(en)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo4(V)Mo14(VI)O73}]·7H2O (1), (H4bth)[{Fe(II)(H2O)}{Ca⊂P6Mo18(VI)O73}]·4H2O (2), (H2bih)3[{Cu(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V)Mo16(VI)O73}]·2H2O (3), (H2bib)3[{Fe(II)(H2O)2}{Ca⊂P6Mo2(V) Mo16(VI)O73}]·4H2O (4), (bth = 1,6-bis(triazole)hexane; bih = 1,6-bis(imidazol)hexane; bib = 1,4-bis(imidazole)butane) have been hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized. Compounds 1-4 contain polyoxoanion [Ca⊂P6Mon(V)Mo18-n(VI)O73]((6+n)-) (n = 0, 2, or 4) (abbreviated as {P6Mo18O73}) as a basic building block, which is composed of a "basket body" {P2Mo14} unit and a "handle"-liked {P4Mo4} fragment encasing an alkaline-earth metal Ca(2+) cation in the cage. Compound 1 exhibits an infrequent 2D layer structure linked by the Cu(H2O)2 linker and an uncommon tetranuclear calcium complex, while compound 2 is 8-connected 2-D layers connected by binuclear {Fe2(H2O)3} segaments, which are observed for the first time as 2-D basket-like assemblies. Compounds 3 and 4 are similar 1D Z-typed chains bonded by M(H2O)2 units (M = Cu for 3 and Fe for 4). The optical band gaps of 1-4 reveal their semiconductive natures. They exhibit universal highly efficient degradation ability for typical dyes such as methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B under UV light. The lifetime and catalysis mechanism of the catalysts have been investigated. The compounds also show good bifunctional electrocatalytic behavior for oxidation of amino acids and reduction of NO2(-).

  15. White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Ozel, Tuncay; Koldemir, Unsal; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Tuncel, Donus; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-01-21

    We develop and demonstrate high-quality white light generation that relies on the use of a single-type simple conjugated polymer of polyfluorene functionalized with azide groups (PFA) integrated on a near-UV LED platform. The high-quality white emission from the polyfluorene is achieved by using the azide functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN LED at 378 nm, the PFA emitters collectively generate a very broad down-converting photoluminescence at longer wavelengths across the entirety of the visible spectrum, yielding high color rendering indices up to 91.

  16. Construction of optical glucose nanobiosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity at physiological pH on the basis of organic-inorganic hybrid microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weitai; Zhou, Ting; Aiello, Michael; Zhou, Shuiqin

    2010-08-15

    A new class of optical glucose nanobiosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity at physiological pH is described. To construct these glucose nanobiosensors, the fluorescent CdS quantum dots (QDs), serving as the optical code, were incorporated into the glucose-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-2-acrylamidomethyl-5-fluorophenylboronic acid) copolymer microgels, via both in situ growth method and "breathing in" method, respectively. The polymeric gel can adapt to surrounding glucose concentrations, and regulate the fluorescence of the embedded QDs, converting biochemical signals into optical signals. The gradual swelling of the gel would lead to the quenching of the fluorescence at the elevated glucose concentrations. The hybrid microgels displayed high selectivity to glucose over the potential primary interferents of lactate and human serum albumin in the physiologically important glucose concentration range. The stability, reversibility, and sensitivity of the organic-inorganic hybrid microgel-based biosensors were also systematically studied. These general properties of our nanobiosensors are well tunable under appropriate tailor on the hybrid microgels, in particular, simply through the change in the crosslinking degree of the microgels. The optical glucose nanobiosensors based on the organic-inorganic hybrid microgels have shown the potential for a third generation fluorescent biosensor.

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers fabricated by using (CTA)2S2O8 as self-decomposed soft templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Du, Binyang; Fan, Zhiqiang

    2012-10-23

    Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully synthesized by using a template-directed free radical polymerization technique in aqueous solution at 0-5 °C with oxidative complexes as self-decomposed soft templates. The oxidative complexes ((CTA)(2)S(2)O(8)), which were formed between anionic oxidant (S(2)O(8)(2-)) and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) at 0-5 °C, can be automatically decomposed due to the reduction of S(2)O(8)(2-). No additional treatment was needed to remove the templates. The reactive functional monomer, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), was used as main monomer. Styrene was used as the comonomer. With simultaneous free radical copolymerization of TMSPMA and styrene, condensation of methoxysilyl groups, and the self-decomposition of (CTA)(2)S(2)O(8), organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous polymers were successfully obtained. The mesoporous structures and morphologies of the resultant hybrid mesoporous polymers were found to be strongly dependent on the feed amounts of TMSPMA and styrene. In the absence of styrene, the hybrid polymer PTMSPMA exhibited mesh-like bicontinuous structures with mesopores and high surface area (335 m(2)/g). With the incorporation of styrene, mesoporous nanoparticles were obtained. The surface areas of the mesoporous nanoparticles decreased with the increase of styrene contents. The adsorption capabilities of such mesoporous polymers for organic dye (Congo red) and protein (bovine serum albumin) were also studied.

  18. Direct electro-optical pumping for hybrid CdSe nanocrystal/III-nitride based nano-light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulics, M.; Arango, Y. C.; Winden, A.; Adam, R.; Hardtdegen, A.; Grützmacher, D.; Plinski, E.; Gregušová, D.; Novák, J.; Kordoš, P.; Moonshiram, A.; Marso, M.; Sofer, Z.; Lüth, H.; Hardtdegen, H.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a device concept for a hybrid nanocrystal/III-nitride based nano-LED. Our approach is based on the direct electro-optical pumping of nanocrystals (secondary excitation) by electrically driven InGaN/GaN nano-LEDs as the primary excitation source. To this end, a universal hybrid optoelectronic platform was developed for a large range of optically active nano- and mesoscopic structures. The advantage of the approach is that the emission of the nanocrystals can be electrically induced without the need of contacting them. The proof of principal was demonstrated for the electro-optical pumping of CdSe nanocrystals. The nano-LEDs with a diameter of 100 nm exhibit a very low current of ˜8 nA at 5 V bias which is several orders of magnitude smaller than for those conventionally used. The leakage currents in the device layout were typically in the range of 8 pA to 20 pA/cm2 at 5 V bias. The photon-photon down conversion efficiency was determined to be 27%. Microphotoluminescence and microelectroluminescence characterization demonstrate the potential for future optoelectronics and highly secure "green" information technology applications.

  19. Immobilized Palladium on Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials: A Novel and Reusable Catalyst for the Copper-Free Sonogashira Coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Yuan; WANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The immobilized palladium on organic-inorganic hybrid materials catalyzing the copper-free Sonogashira cou pling reaction has been described.Terminal alkynes were reacted with aryl iodides and aryl bromides in the pres ence of 3-[N,N-bis(diphenylphosphino)amino]propyl functionalized silica gel immobilized palladium catalyst.The protocol involved the use of ethylene glycol as a solvent,and triethylamine as a base.The reactions generated the corresponding cross-coupling products in excellent yields.Furthermore,the silica-supported phosphine palladium complexes and ethylene glycol could be recovered and recycled for six consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  20. Synthesis, structural and optical characterization of APbX3 (A=methylammonium, dimethylammonium, trimethylammonium; X=I, Br, Cl) hybrid organic-inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Alessandro; Quadrelli, Paolo; Amoroso, Giuseppe; Milanese, Chiara; Boiocchi, Massimo; Sironi, Angelo; Patrini, Maddalena; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis, the crystal structure and the optical response of APbX3 (A=MA, DMA, and TMA; X=I, Br) hybrid organic-inorganic materials including some new phases. We observe that as the cation group increases in size, the optical absorption edge shifts to higher energies with energy steps which are systematic and independent on the anion. A linear correlation between the optical bad gap and the tolerance factor has been shown for the series of samples investigated.

  1. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Lantratov, V. M.; Maximov, M. V.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm-2 for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm-2 for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm-1 and 37 A cm-2 per layer, respectively.

  2. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S A; Kalyuzhnyy, N A; Lantratov, V M; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A E

    2015-09-25

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm(-2) for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm(-2) for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm(-1) and 37 A cm(-2) per layer, respectively.

  3. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  4. Non-cytotoxic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds: An efficient bedding for rapid growth of bone-like apatite and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Baltrukiewicz, Marta; Sobota, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Brykner, Renata; Cwynar-Zajac, Lucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Dziegiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego, 61-781 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic macroporous hybrid scaffolds were investigated. The materials were prepared by combining 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) chemically modified by Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions via sol-gel route. In this study we have constructed a sugar-based cracks-free three-dimensional (3D) network with interconnected porous architecture within the range of 150-300 {mu}m and rough topography. The obtained results revealed that both topography and composition of prepared materials allow rapid growth of the bone-like apatite (HAp) layer on their surface after soaking in biological medium. Preliminary studies have shown that hybrids covered by HAp are non-cytotoxic and allow cell proliferation that make them a promising scaffolds in the field of bone regenerative medicine. The materials were mainly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived biomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D organic-inorganic hybrid composites for bone tissue engineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sugar-templated cracks-free macroporous scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/triethoxyvinylsilane blend doped with calcium and phosphate ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-cytotoxic bedding for fibroblasts proliferation.

  5. Bright Visible-Infrared Light Emitting Diodes Based on Hybrid Halide Perovskite with Spiro-OMeTAD as a Hole-Injecting Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Sanchez, Rafael S; Rincon, Marina; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2015-05-21

    Hybrid halide perovskites that are currently intensively studied for photovoltaic applications, also present outstanding properties for light emission. Here, we report on the preparation of bright solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on a solution-processed hybrid lead halide perovskite (Pe). In particular, we have utilized the perovskite generally described with the formula CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) and exploited a configuration without electron or hole blocking layer in addition to the injecting layers. Compact TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD were used as electron and hole injecting layers, respectively. We have demonstrated a bright combined visible-infrared radiance of 7.1 W·sr(-1)·m(-2) at a current density of 232 mA·cm(-2), and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.48%. The devices prepared surpass the EQE values achieved in previous reports, considering devices with just an injecting layer without any additional blocking layer. Significantly, the maximum EQE value of our devices is obtained at applied voltages as low as 2 V, with a turn-on voltage as low as the Pe band gap (V(turn-on) = 1.45 ± 0.06 V). This outstanding performance, despite the simplicity of the approach, highlights the enormous potentiality of Pe-LEDs. In addition, we present a stability study of unsealed Pe-LEDs, which demonstrates a dramatic influence of the measurement atmosphere on the performance of the devices. The decrease of the electroluminescence (EL) under continuous operation can be attributed to an increase of the non-radiative recombination pathways, rather than a degradation of the perovskite material itself.

  6. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  7. Flexible SiInZnO thin film transistor with organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectric processed at 150 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Hwang, B.-U.; Lee, N.-E.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon indium zinc oxide (SIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate by using organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics of poly-4vinyl phenol (PVP) and Al2O3. To improve the mechanical stability, Al2O3 has been used as a buffer layer on the flexible substrate. The Al2O3 layer of hybrid gate dielectrics protected the organic gate dielectric and improved mechanical flexibility. The different surface roughness of the gate dielectrics is investigated. The performance of the device with smooth surface roughness was significantly improved. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the TFTs with hybrid gate dielectrics were measured as well as the promising electrical endurance characteristics at the bending radius of 5 mm.

  8. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  9. Research Progress on Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells%有机无机杂化太阳能电池的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷明哲; 宋箭叶; 刘建强

    2013-01-01

    The structure and working mechanism of organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, as well as the prepara tion method, are briefly introduced. The influence of the specific form of inorganic materials and types of organic mate rials on the integral transformation efficiency are reviewed,and the research progress on hybrid solar cells which per formance improved by other methods are discovered. The research direction of improvement of organic/inorganic hy brid battery performance is also pointed out.%概括介绍了有机无机杂化太阳能电池的结构、原理及制备方法,从无机材料的具体形态和有机材料种类的选择入手阐述其对电池整体转化效率的影响,探索了其他方法完善杂化电池性能的研究进展,指出了改进有机无机杂化太阳能电池性能的相关途径.

  10. The electronic structure of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds: (NH₄)₂CuCl₄, (CH₃NH₃)₂CuCl₄ and (C₂H₅NH₃)₂CuCl₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, P; de Wijs, G A; de Groot, R A

    2013-07-24

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds are an intriguing class of materials that have been experimentally studied over the past few years because of a potential broad range of applications. The electronic and magnetic properties of three organic-inorganic hybrid compounds with compositions (NH4)2CuCl4, (CH3NH3)2CuCl4 and (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 are investigated for the first time with density functional theory plus on-site Coulomb interaction. A strong Coulomb interaction on the copper causes a relatively weak exchange coupling within the layers of the octahedral network, in good agreement with experiment. The character of the exchange interaction (responsible for magnetic behavior) is analyzed. The calculations reveal that (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 has the strongest Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion in comparison with the two other compounds. The easy axis of magnetization is investigated, showing a weak anisotropic interaction between inter-layer Cu(2+) ions in the (C2H5NH3)2CuCl4 structure. Orbital ordering is concluded from our partial density of states calculations: a cooperation of the JT distortion with an antiferro-distortive pattern.

  11. All-optical logic gate based on transient grating from disperse red 1 doped organic-inorganic hybrid films with an improved figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Tianxi; Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Shao, Jinyou [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, International Center for Dielectric Research, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Yushu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 Tenth Street NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30318 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Azobenzene dyes have large refractive index near their main resonance, but the poor figure of merit (FOM) limits their potential for all-optical applications. To improve this situation, disperse red 1 (DR1) molecules were dispersed in a sol-gel germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid matrix. Z-scan measurement results showed a good compatibility between the dopant and the matrix, and also, an improved FOM was obtained as compared to the DR1/polymer films reported previously. To demonstrate the all-optical signal processing effect, a cw Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm and a He-Ne laser emitting at 632.8 nm were used as pump and probe beams, respectively. DR1 acts as an initiator of the photo-induced transient holographic grating, which is attributed to the trans-cis-trans photoisomerization. Thus, a three inputs AND all-optical logic gate was achieved by using choppers with different frequencies. The detailed mechanism of operation is discussed. These results indicate that the DR1 doped germanium/Ormosil organic-inorganic hybrid film with an improved FOM has a great potential in all-optical devices around its main resonance.

  12. Synthesis of a novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for the selective isolation and determination of fluoroquinolones in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Ruiling; Wang, Weihua; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiu, Mande; Song, Yanxue

    2014-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid polymer (MI-MAA/APTS) based on a dummy molecular imprinting technique and an organic-inorganic hybrid material technique was synthesised and used as a sorbent in solid-phase extraction for the selective isolation and determination of ofloxacin (OFL), lomefloxacin (LOM), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in tilapia samples. The MI-MAA/APTS sorbent was prepared from 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilanes (APTS) as an inorganic source and methacrylic acid (MAA) as an organic source and exhibited high mechanical strength and special affinities to the analytes. A comparison of MI-MAA/APTS with other conventional sorbents (C18 and HLB) showed that MI-MAA/APTS displayed good selectivity and affinity for OFL, LOM, and CIP, and the recoveries of the analytes at three spiked levels were in the range of 85.1-101.0%, with the relative standard deviations ≤5.1%. The presented MI-MAA/APTS-SPE-HPLC method could be potentially applied to the determination of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in complex fish samples.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid material and multifunctional fibers%有机/无机杂化材料与多功能纤维研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相恒学; 王世超; 成艳华; 周哲; 陈龙; 孙宾; 陈志钢; 王雪芬; 朱美芳

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can achieve the multi-scale composites of organic polymers and inorganic materials in the nano or molecular level.On one hand,such hybrid materials can exert each component's characteristics.On the other hand,they reflect the unique collaboration features,such as new performance and multifunction.This principle can also be implemented in organic-organic hybrid system.With the continuous development of industrial fiber materials,their applications continue to be expanded.The development of new polymer materials to achieve multifunctional fibers has become a hot topic.According to the requirement of multifunctional fibers development,researchers try to build hybrid functional materials at the molecular level,build hybrid functional materials system and fiber-forming polymer hybrid system using the methods of structural design and construct interface combining with the organic-inorganic hybrid mechanism.This paper takes the structural design and condensed control of fiber-forming polymers,the structure-controllable preparation of nano-fibers and low-dimensional nano-fibers for example,introducing the research progress of organic-inorganic hybrid principles in the aspect of multi-functional fibers.Finally,it prospects the development of multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid fibers.%有机/无机杂化材料能够实现有机高分子材料与无机材料在纳米或分子水平上的复合,在发挥各自组分特性的同时,体现出特有的协同效应,如新性能、多功能.该原理同样适用于有机/有机杂化体系.随着产业用纤维材料的不断发展,其应用领域也随之拓展,开发新型高分子材料,实现纤维的多功能化成为研究热点.根据纤维多功能化的发展需求,结合有机/无机杂化机理,在分子水平上设计构筑杂化功能材料,采用结构设计、界面构筑的方法建立杂化功能材料与成纤高聚物杂化体系.以成纤高分子的结构设计及凝聚

  14. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the Tg and Tm are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO4/15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g(-1) @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  15. Solution-Processed Hybrid Light-Emitting Devices Comprising TiO2 Nanorods and WO3 Layers as Carrier-Transporting Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Tsung-Yan; Yan, Po-Ruei; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to prepare inverted light-emitting devices with improved performance by combining titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods and tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer. TiO2 nanorods with different lengths were established directly on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the hydrothermal method. The prepared TiO2 nanorods with lengths shorter than 200 nm possess transmittance higher than 80% in the visible range. Inverted light-emitting devices with the configuration of ...

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical properties and theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Hajer; Elleuch, Slim; Feki, Habib; Abid, Younes

    2016-11-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material of formula (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, Infrared absorption, Raman scattering, UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The molecule crystallizes as an organic-inorganic two-dimensional (2D) structure built up from infinite PbI6 octahedra surrounded by organic cations. Such a structure may be regarded as quantum wells system in which the inorganic layers act as semiconductor wells and the organic cations act as insulator barriers. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra were recorded in the 520-3500 and 10-3500 cm-1 frequency range, respectively. Optical absorption measurements performed on thin films of (C4H3SC2H4NH3)2[PbI4] revealed three distinct bands at 2.4, 2.66 and 3.25 eV. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), polarizability (α), the static first hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound investigated by GAUSSIAN 09 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 11.46 × 10-31 esu.

  17. Preparation of polythiophene/WO3 organic-inorganic hybrids and their gas sensing properties for NO2 detection at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Yanfei Kang; Taili Yang; Yao Wang; Shurong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Polythiophene/WO3 (PTP/WO3) organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized by an in situ chemical oxidative polymerization method,and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA).The Polythiophene/WO3 hybrids have higher thermal stability than pure polythiophene,which is beneficial to potential application as chemical sensors.Gas sensing measurements demonstrate that the gas sensor based on the Polythiophene/WO3 hybrids has high response and good selectivity for detecting NO2 of ppm level at low temperature.Both the operating temperature and PTP contents have an influence on the response of PTP/WO3 hybrids to NO2.The 10 wt% PTP/WO3 hybrid showed the highest response at low operating temperature of 70 ℃.It is expected that the PTP/WO3 hybrids can be potentially used as gas sensor material for detecting the low concentration of NO2 at low temperature.

  18. Crystal structure, vibrational studies and optical properties of a new organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C₁₀H₂₈N₄)CuCl₅Cl⋅4H₂O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, A; Belhouchet, M; Suñol, J J; Abid, Y; Mhiri, T

    2015-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, 1,4-bis(3-ammoniumpropyl) piperazinium pentachloridocuprate(II) chloride tetrahydrate [(C₁₀H₂₈N₄)CuCl₅Cl⋅4H₂O], has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible absorption, Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and Pnma space group with a=8.18 (3)Å, b=10.96 (5)Å, c=21.26 (9)Å, V=2254.3 (15)Å(3). In this structure, the Cu(2+) ion, surrounded by five chlorides, adopts the square pyramidal coordination geometry. The structure of this compound consists of tetraprotonated 1,4-bis(3-ammoniumpropyl) piperazinium cations and the anionic sublattice is built up of isolated, square pyramid [CuCl₅](3)(-) units, chloride ion Cl(-) and water molecules connected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Organic and inorganic entities are interconnected by means of hydrogen bonding contacts [NH⋯O(Cl), O(W)H⋯Cl and O(W)H⋯O]. Furthermore, the room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed on the basis of literature data. The optical study was also investigated by UV-Vis absorption. In fact, the organic-inorganic hybrid crystal thin film can be easily prepared by spin-coating method from the ethanol solution of the (C₁₀H₂₈N₄)CuCl₅Cl⋅4H₂O hybrid compound and it showed absorptions characteristics of CuCl based layered compounds centered at 275 and 374 nm.

  19. Synthesis and Structure of a Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polyoxovanadate,[Ni(bpp)2]2(V4O12)(bpp=1,3-bi-4-pyridylpropane)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Li-Juan; HU,Zheng-Jun; ZHANG,Zhuo; GUO,Hong-You

    2007-01-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxovanadate,[Ni(bpp)2]2(V4O12)(bpp=1,3-bi-4-pyridylpropane),was hydrothermally synthesized from a mixture of NiCl2·6H2O,NH4VO3,bpp,EtOH and H2O.The crystal structure consists of2∞[Ni(bpp)2+,two-dimensional networks interpenetrating perpendicularly with each other,and (V4O12)4-,cyclic tetranuclear clusters linking the 2∞[Ni(bpp)2]2+ networks to form a three-dimensional coordination framework.The crystal belongs to tetragonal space group I41/a with unit cell parameters,a=2.14705 nm,c=1.29293 nm.UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy study revealed insulator nature for the crystal with an optical energy gap of 2.70 eV.

  20. Controllable Assembly of Vanadium-Containing Polyoxoniobate-Based Three-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compounds and Their Photocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jufang; Wang, Yin; Zhang, Xinning; Chi, Yingnan; Yang, Song; Li, Jikun; Hu, Changwen

    2016-08-01

    The controllable synthesis of two vanadium-containing polyoxoniobate-based three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, [Co(pn)2]4[HPNb10V(IV)2O40(V(IV)O)4]·17H2O (1) and [Co(pn)2]5[PNb12O40(V(IV)O)6](OH)7·15H2O (2), where pn = 1,2-diaminopropane, is realized by changing the hydrothermal temperature or adding N-(aminoethyl)piperazine as an additive. Both compounds 1 and 2 are structurally characterized by single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction and IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compound 1 features a new divanadium-substituted Keggin polyoxoniobate capped by four vanadyl groups, and the polyanion in 2 exhibits the highest coordination number (10-connected) in polyoxoniobate chemistry. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 for hydrogen evolution are preliminarily assessed.

  1. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of a Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound {[Cu(2,2'-bpy)2]2-Mo8O26}

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Yong-Hui(王永慧); CHEN,Li-Dong(陈立东); HU,Chang-Wen(胡长文); WANG,En-Bo(王恩波); JIA,Heng-Qing(贾恒庆); HU,Ning-Hai(胡宁海)

    2002-01-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound { [ Cu (2, 2'-bpy)2 ]2Mo8O26} has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group,Pna21, with a= 2.4164(5), b = 1.8281(4), c = 1.1877(2)nm, V=5.247(2)nm3, Z=4, andfinal R1=0.0331, wR2 =0.0727. The structure consists of discrete {[Cu(2,2'-bpy)2]2Mo8O26} clusters, constructed from a β-octamolybdate subunit [ Mo8O26]4- covalently bonded to two [ Cu ( 2, 2'-bpy )2]2+ coordination complex rations via bridging oxo groups. In addition, the spectroscopic properties and thermal behavior of this compound have been investigated by spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis, IR, Raman and EPR spectra) and TG analysis.

  2. One novel multidimensional organic-inorganic hybrid based on polyoxometalates and copper chlorine coordination polymers with 4,4′-bipyridine ligands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chun Xuan; Qing Jiang Pan

    2012-01-01

    One novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials with 4,4′-bipy ligands and copper chlorine coordination polymers as linkers,with new topology,{[CuI(4,4′-bipy)]10Cl2(SiW12O40)2}·6H2O (1) (4,4′-bipy =4,4′-bipyridine),has been hydrothermally synthesized.The single crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that the structure of 1 is constructed from classical Keggin anions and [CuI(4,4′-bipy)] cations into a novel,three-dimensional (3D) polyoxometalates (POMs)based network.From the topological view,compound 1 is a novel (3.44.52.63)(32.44.56.69) topology.The electrochemical and photocatalysis properties of 1 have been investigated in details.

  3. Three-dimensional configurations of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural blocks (Ⅰ). A quantum mechanical investigation for ladder-like structure of vinylsilsesquioxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xingwen; HU; Lijiang; HUANG; Yudong; SUN; Dezhi; SU

    2004-01-01

    The organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural vinylsilsesquioxanes (VSSO) were prepared from the hydrolytic condensation of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS). The proposed formulas of VSSO were assigned with standard spectroscopic techniques, FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C and 29Si) and MALDI-TOF MS, and a generic formula of the SSO, Tn(OH)x(OR')y (x, y = 0, 1, 2...; n =1, 2...; T = RSiO1.s-(x+y)/2n). Geometric parameters (Si-O and Si-C bond lengths, Si-O-Si and O-Si-O bond angles) and total energies of the multi-structures of VSSO were calculated by a quantum mechanical investigation and molecular symmetries. According to the results of the calculation, most molecules had stabler ladder structures than the cage isomers, therefore, the most probably reasonable and optimum structure of the VSSO system was the ladder type.

  4. Three-dimensional configurations of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural blocks (Ⅰ).A quantum mechanical investigation for ladder-like structure of vinylsilsesquioxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingwen; HU Lijiang; HUANG Yudong; SUN Dezhi; SUN Yi

    2004-01-01

    The organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural vinylsilsesquioxanes (VSSO) were prepared from the hydrolytic condensation of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS). The proposed formulas of VSSO were assigned with standard spectroscopic techniques, FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C and 29Si) and MALDI-TOF MS, and a generic formula of the SSO, Tn(OH)x(OR')y (x, y = 0, 1, 2...; n =1, 2...; T = RSiO1.s-(x+y)/2n). Geometric parameters (Si-O and Si-C bond lengths, Si-O-Si and O-Si-O bond angles) and total energies of the multi-structures of VSSO were calculated by a quantum mechanical investigation and molecular symmetries. According to the results of the calculation, most molecules had stabler ladder structures than the cage isomers, therefore, the most probably reasonable and optimum structure of the VSSO system was the ladder type.

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms of Organic-inorganic hybrid compound Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellibi, A.; Chaabane, I.; Guidara, K.

    2016-06-01

    A new organic-inorganic bis (4-acetylaniline) tetrachlorocadmate [C8H10NO]2[CdCl4] can be obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. It crystallized in an orthorhombic system (Cmca space group). The material electrical properties were characterized by impedance spectroscopy technique in the frequency range from 209 Hz-5 MHz and temperature 413 to 460 K. Besides, the impedance plots show semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to interpret the impedance results. The circuits consist of the parallel combination of a resistance (R), capacitance (C) and fractal capacitance (CPE). The variation of the exponent s as a function of temperature suggested that the conduction mechanism in Bis (4-acetylanilinium) tetrachlorocadmiate compound is governed by two processes which can be ascribed to a hopping transport mechanism: correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model below 443 K and the small polaron tunneling (SPT) model above 443 K.

  6. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  7. Hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic/strong cation-exchange functional groups as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Ming; Ruan, Ge-Deng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-11-06

    A hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups was prepared and used as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE). The hybrid silica monolith functionalized with octyl and thiol groups was conveniently synthesized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8-TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Due to the favorable chemical reactivity of mercapto pendant moieties, the obtained hybrid monolith was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide (30%, w/w) to yield sulfonic acid groups, which provided strong cation-exchange sites. The obtained hybrid monolith was characterized by diffused infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the resulting monolith contains much higher carbon (31.6%) and sulfur (4.8%) contents than traditionally bonded silica materials. The extraction performance of the hybrid monolith was evaluated using sulfonamides as testing analytes by micro-SPE on-line coupled to HPLC. The results show that the hybrid monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups exhibits high extraction efficiency towards the testing analytes. The column-to-column RSD values were 1.3-9.8% for the extraction of SAs investigated. The extraction performance of the hybrid silica monolith remained practically unchanged after treated with acid (pH 1.0) and basic solutions (pH 10.5). Finally, the application of the hybrid monolith was demonstrated by micro-SPE of sulfonamide residues from milk followed by HPLC-UV analysis. The limits of detection (S/N=3) for eight SAs were found to be 1.0-3.0ng/mL in milk. The recoveries of eight SAs spiked in milk sample ranged from 80.2% to 115.6%, with relative standard deviations less than 11.8%.

  8. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  9. A Mechanistic Explanation of the Peculiar Amphiphobic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings by Combining XPS Characterization and DFT Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Alessandro; Cannelli, Oliviero; Boccia, Alice; Zanoni, Robertino; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Caldarelli, Aurora; Veronesi, Federico

    2015-09-16

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling analysis of hybrid functional coatings constituted by fluorinated alkylsilane monolayers covalently grafted on a nanostructured ceramic oxide (Al2O3) thin film deposited on aluminum alloy substrates. Such engineered surfaces, bearing hybrid coatings obtained via a classic sol-gel route, have been previously shown to possess amphiphobic behavior (superhydrophobicity plus oleophobicity) and excellent durability, even under simulated severe working environments. Starting from XPS, SEM, and contact angle results and analysis, and combining it with DFT results, the present investigation offers a first mechanistic explanation at a molecular level of the peculiar properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic coating in terms of composition and surface structural arrangements. Theoretical modeling shows that the active fluorinated moiety is strongly anchored on the alumina sites with single Si-O-Al bridges and that the residual valence of Si is saturated by Si-O-Si bonds which form a reticulation with two vicinal fluoroalkylsilanes. The resulting hybrid coating consists of stable rows of fluorinated alkyl chains in reciprocal contact, which form well-ordered and packed monolayers.

  10. Poly(ε-caprolactone) reinforced with sol-gel synthesized organic-inorganic hybrid fillers as composite substrates for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Gloria, Antonio; D-Antò, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Ugo; Ametrano, Gianluca; Bollino, Flavia; De Santis, Roberto; Ausanio, Giovanni; Catauro, Michelina; Rengo, Sandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The importance of polymer-based composite materials to make multifunctional substrates for tissue engineering and the strategies to improve their performances have been stressed in the literature. Bioactive features of sol-gel synthesized poly(ε-caprolactone)/TiO₂ or poly(ε-caprolactone)/ZrO₂ organic-inorganic hybrid materials are widely documented. Accordingly, the aim of this preliminary research was to develop advanced composite substrates consisting of a poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix reinforced with sol-gel synthesized PCL/TiO₂ or PCL/ZrO₂ hybrid fillers. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses allowed to study surface topography and roughness. On the other hand, mechanical and biological performances were evaluated by small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay, respectively. Micro-computed tomography and atomic force microscopy analyses highlighted the effect of the preparation technique. Results from small punch tests and Alamar Blue™ assay evidenced that PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers provided better mechanical and biological performances. PCL reinforced with Ti2 (PCL=12, TiO₂=88 wt%) and Zr2 (PCL=12, ZrO₂=88 wt%) hybrid fillers could be considered as advanced composite substrates for hard tissue engineering.

  11. Solution-Processed Hybrid Light-Emitting Devices Comprising TiO2 Nanorods and WO3 Layers as Carrier-Transporting Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Yan; Yan, Po-Ruei; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this research is to prepare inverted light-emitting devices with improved performance by combining titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods and tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer. TiO2 nanorods with different lengths were established directly on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by the hydrothermal method. The prepared TiO2 nanorods with lengths shorter than 200 nm possess transmittance higher than 80% in the visible range. Inverted light-emitting devices with the configuration of FTO/TiO2 nanorods/ionic PF/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/WO3/Au were constructed. The best device based on 100-nm-height TiO2 nanorods achieved a max brightness of 4493 cd/m2 and current efficiency of 0.66 cd/A, revealing much higher performance compared with those using TiO2 compact layer or nanorods with longer lengths as electron-transporting layers.

  12. Design and geometry of hybrid white light-emitted diodes for efficient energy transfer from the quantum well to the nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii; Huck, Alexander; Shirazi, Roza

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate light color conversion in patterned InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which is enhanced via nonradiative exciton resonant energy transfer (RET) from the electrically driven diode to colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Patterning of the diode is essential for the coupling...... between a quantum well (QW) and NCs, because the distance between the QW and NCs is a main and very critical factor of RET. Moreover, a proper design of the pattern can enhance light extraction....

  13. Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Itoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting gel operated at low voltage when an alternating current was passed through it, regardless of its structure, which is quite thick. The luminescence property of the gel is strongly affected by nanoparticle materials. TiO2 nanoparticles were a better gelation filler than silica or ZnO was, with respect to luminescence stability, thus indicating a catalytic effect. It is demonstrated that the light-emitting gel device, with quite a simple fabrication process, flashes with the application of voltage.

  14. A New Method to Study the Sol-gel Transition Process of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; GAO Jian-gang; CHEN Da-zhu; LIU Jian-ping; HE Ping-sheng; ZHANG Qi-jin

    2005-01-01

    The sol-gel transition process of PMMA/SiO2 hybrid materials was first studied by means of the dynamic torsional vibration method. The different stages of the transition can be described by the change of torque. The temperature-dependent measurement of the gel time(tg) gives the possibility to determine the apparent activation energy(Ea) of this transition according to Flory′s gelation theory. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory was used to predict the transition behavior. The isothermal transition experiments on hybrid sols with different TEOS(tetraethyl orthosilicate) contents were carried out. The results show that the Ea of a hybrid sol is higher than that of a non- hybrid sol of a TEOS-water-ethanol system. The increasing of TEOS content in a hybrid sol has no obvious effect on the Ea value, but it can enhance the sol-gel reaction rate.

  15. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO2-PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO2-PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability.

  16. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Mathur, V. K.; Xu, Jingming

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L -1 methanol aqueous solution at 80 °C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO 2 content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content.

  17. Preparation and characteristics of high pH-resistant sol-gel alumina-based hybrid organic-inorganic coating for solid-phase microextraction of polar compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Liu, Ying; Zeng, Zhaorui; Peng, Tianyou

    2006-03-10

    A novel alumina-based hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating was first developed for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) from a highly reactive alkoxide precursor, aluminum sec-butoxide, and a sol-gel-active organic polymer hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (OH-TSO). The underlying mechanism was discussed and confirmed by IR spectra. The porous surface structure of the sol-gel coating was revealed by scanning electron microscopy. A detailed investigation was conducted to evaluate the remarked performance of the newly developed sol-gel alumina-OH-TSO hybrid materials. In stark contrast to the sol-gel silica-based coating, the alumina-based coating demonstrated excellent pH stability. In addition, good thermal resistance and coating preparation reproducibility are also its outstanding performance. As compared to silica-based hybrids material, the ligand exchange ability of alumina makes it structurally superior extraction sorbents for polar compounds, such as fatty acids, phenols, alcohols, aldehydes and amines. Practical applicability of the prepared alumina-OH-TSO fiber was demonstrated through the analysis of volatile alcohols and fatty acids in beer. The recoveries obtained ranged from 85.7 to 104% and the relative standard deviation values for all analytes were below 9%.

  18. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jingming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mathur, V.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, NH 03824 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L{sup -1} methanol aqueous solution at 80 C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO{sub 2} content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content. (author)

  19. Elaboration, structural, spectroscopy, DSC investigations and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a one-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2017-01-01

    The new organic-inorganic hybrid of the formula [H2mela]Cu2Cl6, where mela = 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine, has been synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine and copper(II) chloride dihydrate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. This compound has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and characterized by FT-IR, Raman, NMR characterization, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, dielectric measurements and Hirshfeld surface. 1,3,5-triazinidium-2,4,6-triamine hexachlorodicuprate(II) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The final refinement of the structure of the program led to the reliability factors unweighted R1 = 3.53% and weighted WR2 = 8.87%. The observed internal C3sbnd N31sbnd C1 and C3sbnd N23sbnd C2 angle (121.5 and 121.4°) at protanated N-atom are significantly greater the other ring angle C1sbnd N12sbnd C2 (117.1°). The titled compound crystallizes as an organic-inorganic one-dimensional (1D) structure. The crystal structure was stabilized by two types of hydrogen bonding Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯N. The infrared spectra was recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and the Raman spectra was recorded in the external region of the anionic sublattice vibration 4000-50 cm-1 at room temperature. Solid-state 13C and 63Cu MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) show the presence of a structural phase transition of the title compound at 338 K. Hirshfeld surface analyses for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D fingerprint plots have been used to examine molecular shapes.

  20. Efficient White Light Emission Using a Single Copolymer with Red and Green Chromophores on a Conjugated Polyfluorene Backbone Hybridized with InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; HOU Qiong; NIU Qiao-Li; ZHENG Shu-Wen; LI Shu-Ti; HE Miao; FAN Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    We report an efficient white-light emission based on a single copolymer/InGaN hybrid light-emitting diode.The single copolymer consists of a conjugated polyfluorene backbone by incorporating 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) and 4, 7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DBT) as green and red light-emitting units, respectively. For the single eopolymer/lnGaN hybrid device, the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates,color temperature Tc and color rendering index Ra at 20mA are (0.323,0.329), 5960K and 86, respectively.In comparison with the performance of red copolymer PFO-DBT15 (DOF:DBT=85:15 with DOF being 9'9-dioctylfluorene) and green copolymer PFO-BT35 (DOF:BT=65:35) blend/InGaN hybrid white devices, it is concluded that the chemically doped copolymer hybridized device shows a higher emission intensity and spectral stability at a high driving current than the polymer blend.

  1. Preparation of SnS2 colloidal quantum dots and their application in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Wu, Ju; Liu, Kong; Zhou, Shuyun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2011-12-01

    Dispersive SnS2 colloidal quantum dots have been synthesized via hot-injection method. Hybrid photovoltaic devices based on blends of a conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3",7"dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) as electron donor and crystalline SnS2 quantum dots as electron acceptor have been studied. Photoluminescence measurement has been performed to study the surfactant effect on the excitons splitting process. The photocurrent of solar cells with the hybrid depends greatly on the ligands exchange as well as the device heat treatment. AFM characterization has demonstrated morphology changes happening upon surfactant replacement and annealing, which can explain the performance variation of hybrid solar cells.

  2. Pd(0)-CMC@Ce(OH)(4) organic/inorganic hybrid as highly active catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bijin; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhuan; Chen, Yang; Liao, Xiaojian; Li, Yiqun

    2017-07-01

    A very easy sequential metathesis for the synthesis of Pd(II)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 organic/inorganic hybrid and its application as effective pre-catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction have been reported. It was found that the Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were formed in situ in the course of the Suzuki-Miyaura couplings when Pd(II)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 was used as a pre-catalyst. The activity of the Pd NPs in the reaction was enhanced synergistically by the unique redox properties (Ce(3+)/Ce(4+)) of Ce(OH)4 and coordination with carboxyl groups as well as free hydroxyl groups of the hybrid of CMC@Ce(OH)4. The results exhibit the Pd(0)-CMC@Ce(OH)4 is super over Pd(II)@CMC, Pd(II)@CeO2, and Pd(II)@Ce(OH)4 catalysts in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily separated by simple filtration and reused at least seven runs without losing its activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ternary Bulk Heterojunction of Nanostructured Perovskite-Low Bandgap Polymer-PCBM for Improved Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanbin; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-12-30

    A new organic-inorganic ternary bulk heterojunction (TBHJ) hybrid configuration comprised of nanostructured (CH3)3NHPbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite-low bandgap PCPDTBT-PCBM was investigated. Well-organized TBHJ films were readily prepared by sequential spin-casting of sparsely covered MAPbI3 nano dots and PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites on ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. The TBHJ hybrid device configuration comprising diiooctane (DIO) treated MAPbI3 perovskite nano dots and a PCPDTBT-PCBM BHJ composite processed with DIO additive exhibited excellent performances. The DIO additive played a key role in developing perovskite structures of MAPbI3 nano dots and induced the (110) directional crystallinity growth of longitudinal constructive morphologies such as nano rods. The improved photocurrent and fill factor compared to those of conventional BHJ devices led to an increase in efficiency of ∼28%. This improved photovoltaic performance originated from the higher quantum efficiencies contributed by the charge transfer from nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite to PCBM. These TBHJs composed of nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM also facilitated the exciton dissociation in the multi-BHJ system between MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM.

  4. Syntheses, structures and properties of two 2-D layered hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on different V4O12 building units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wentao; Guo, Jiuyu; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Zuoxiang; Zhang, Deng; Wan, Hongxiang; Song, You; Zhu, Dunru; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-14

    Two new layered hybrid organic-inorganic compounds [Zn(pyim)]2V4O12 () (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)imidazole) and [Cu(bim)2]2V4O12(H2O)·CH3CH2OH () (bim = bis(1-imidazolyl)methane) based on polyoxovanadates (POVs) and organic ligands decorated transition metal units have been synthesized by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods respectively. Single crystal XRD, fluorescence spectrum, magnetic measurement, IR spectra, powder XRD and thermogravimetric (TG) measurements were performed to analyze the structures and properties of and . The structural analysis reveals that compound features a two-dimensional {[Zn(pyim)]2V4O12}n layered structure, constructed by sine wave-like {V4O12}n(4n-) chains, Zn(2+) ions and pyim ligands. In the layered structure of , {V4O12}(4-) circles are connected by Cu(2+) ions to form {Cu(V4O12)}n(2n-) chains, which are further linked by {Cu(bim)4}(2+) subunits to generate a hybrid layer of . The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates strong antiferromagnetic interactions between Cu(2+) ions in .

  5. Optimization of hybrid organic/inorganic poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Martin; Sanders, Simon; Stümmler, Dominik; Pfeiffer, Pascal; Vescan, Andrei; Kalisch, Holger

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, hybrid organic/silicon solar cells have attracted great interest in photovoltaic research due to their potential to become a low-cost alternative for the conventionally used silicon pn-junction solar cells. This work is focused on hybrid solar cells based on the polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which was deposited on n-doped crystalline silicon via spin-coating under ambient conditions. By employing an anisotropic etching step with potassium hydroxide (KOH), the reflection losses at the silicon surface were reduced. Hereby, the short-circuit current density of the hybrid devices was increased by 31%, leading to a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.1% compared to a PCE of 10.7% for the devices without KOH etching. In addition, the contacts were improved by replacing gold with the more conductive silver as top grid material to reduce the contact resistance and by introducing a thin (˜0.5 nm) lithium fluoride layer between the silicon and the aluminum backside contact to improve electron collection and hole blocking. Hereby, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor of the hybrid solar cells were further improved and devices with very high PCE up to 14.2% have been realized.

  6. Maya chemistry of organic inorganic hybrid materials: isomerization, cyclicization and redox tuning of organic dyes attached to porous silicates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO DOMÉNECH CARBÓ; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M.; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Osete Cortina, Laura; Domine ., Marcelo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Association of indigo and lapachol dyes to aluminosilicate clays yields polyfunctional organic – inorganic hybrid materials forming Maya Blue-like systems. Upon partial removing of clay's zeolitic water by moderate thermal treatment, abundant isomerization, cyclicization and oxidation reactions occur defining a‘ Maya chemistry whose complexity could explain the versatile use of such materials in the pre-Columbian cultures and permits the...

  7. Atomically thin quantum light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Berraquero, Carmen; Barbone, Matteo; Kara, Dhiren M.; Chen, Xiaolong; Goykhman, Ilya; Yoon, Duhee; Ott, Anna K.; Beitner, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Atatüre, Mete

    2016-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are optically active, layered materials promising for fast optoelectronics and on-chip photonics. We demonstrate electrically driven single-photon emission from localized sites in tungsten diselenide and tungsten disulphide. To achieve this, we fabricate a light-emitting diode structure comprising single-layer graphene, thin hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenide mono- and bi-layers. Photon correlation measurements are used to confirm the single-photon nature of the spectrally sharp emission. These results present the transition metal dichalcogenide family as a platform for hybrid, broadband, atomically precise quantum photonics devices.

  8. Barrier characteristics of biopolymer-based organic/inorganic Au/CTS/n-InP hybrid junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, Bahattin

    2015-11-01

    Thin film of biopolymeric compound chitosan (CTS) has been surfaced on moderately doped n-InP substrate as an interfacial layer by means of spin coating for the electronic modification of Au/n-InP structure. Electrical characterization of Au/CTS/n-InP hybrid junction has been performed by I-V and C-V measurements at room temperature. An effective barrier height (BH) value of 0.678 eV and an ideality factor of n = 1.665 have been obtained for the hybrid junction. The CTS interfacial layer has been found to reduce the reverse bias leakage current of the junction by about three orders of magnitude and enhance the BH by about 0.213 eV. Furthermore, the BH value of the hybrid junction has been obtained as 0.693 eV by C-V measurement. Good performance of the device could be ascribed to the passivation effect of the CTS interfacial layer between Au and n-InP. The BH values of 0.678 and 0.693 eV for the hybrid junction have been significantly higher than that of the conventional Au/n-InP junction (~0.465 eV). The results indicated that biopolymeric thin interfacial CTS layer might lead to the modification of the potential barrier for metal/n-InP junctions. Moreover, band gap of the CTS layer has been determined as 4.60 eV via UV-vis spectroscopy.

  9. Photoinduced energy transfer processes in hybrid organic-inorganic multichromophoric arrays arranged on a truxene-based platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diring, Stéphane; Ventura, Barbara; Barbieri, Andrea; Ziessel, Raymond

    2012-11-14

    The synthesis, photophysical characterization and energy-transfer features of a series of hybrid truxene derivatives peripherally decorated with inorganic Os-containing polypyridine units and organic Bodipy dyes are reported. The photoactive terminal units are coupled to the central truxene scaffold by rigid ethynyl linkers in a star-shaped arrangement. The absorption range widely covers the UV-Vis spectrum and the Os (3)MLCT or the Bodipy triplet act as final collectors of the absorbed energy.

  10. Modification of Blue LED using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer Doped with Nile Red for Artificial Lighting of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakir, Norman; Syarifudin, Fahmi; Hidayat, Sahrul; Fitrilawati

    2017-07-01

    The photosynthesis process of chlorophyll absorbs only the light with wavelength in the blue and red ranges. The absorption peak of the chlorophyll-A is at 428 nm and 660 nm, while absorption peak of chlorophyll-B is at 453 nm and 643 nm. We report the modification of blue LED using hybrid polymer doped with Nile Red. In order to match the total absorption spectra of chlorophyll-A and chlorophyll-B, the emission spectrum of the modified blue LED was taken out by using the wavelength conversion material. We modified the blue LED by covering the blue LED of 450 nm as excitation source with precursor of red wavelength conversion material. The red wavelength conversion material was prepared by doped precursor of TMSPMA hybrid polymer with organic phosphor of Nile Red. The precursor of hybrid polymer was synthesized using sol-gel process and then it was doped with 0.1% Nile Red. In order to freeze the precursor of these conversion material, we employed UV photopolymerization process. The modified blue LED has two emission peaks, which are at 448 nm (blue emission) and at 651 nm (red emission). The optimum spectrum profile of the modified blue LED has similar range as the total absorption spectra of chlorophyll-A and chlorophyll-B that obtain using Nile Red with the mass of 2.9 μg and the driven current of 60 mA. This result has a potential application for the artificial lighting in the photosynthesis process of horticultures at indoor plantation.

  11. Developments of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Molecularly Imprinted Polymer%有机-无机分子印迹杂化材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 孙娜; 刘孝芳; 吴波; 陈怀侠

    2012-01-01

    分子印迹技术是制备选择性识别特定分子的聚合物的方法,因其制备简单、稳定性好且具有特异分子识别功能使其在色谱分离、固相萃取、化学传感和模拟酶催化等方面都有广泛的应用.有机-无机杂化分子印迹聚合物集有机和无机聚合物的优点,不仅机械强度高,而且耐溶剂性好,是分子印迹技术的一个崭新领域.在介绍有机-无机杂化分子印迹聚合物基本概况的基础上,综述了有机-无机杂化分子印迹聚合物制备的原理、方法和特点,并对未来的发展提出了展望.%Molecular Imprinting technique (MIT) involves the preparation of a polymer with selective recognition site for specific molecule. Owing to the advantages of easy preparation, good stability and molecular recognition capacity, molecularly imprinted polymers (MTPs) have been applied widely in chroma-tography separation, solid-phase extraction, mimicenzyme catalysis, electrochemical sensor and other fields. As a new direction of development, organic-inorganic hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer presents two important advantages, excellent mechanical strength and good solvent resistance, over conventional imprinted polymers. In this paper, the conception, principles, characterizations of molecularly printed polymer hybrid materials and some new methods for preparing the polymers were summarized. And, the prospects for the development of molecularly printed hybrid materials were outlooked.

  12. ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aririguzo Marvis Ijeaku

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED is a device composed of an organic layer that emits lights in response to an electrical current. Organic light emitting diodes have advanced tremendously over the past decades. The different manufacturing processes of the OLED itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology which includes its light weight and flexible plastic substrates, wider viewing angles, improved brightness, better power efficiency and quicker response time. However, its drawbacks include shorter life span, poor color balance, poor outdoor performance, susceptibility to water damage etc.The application of OLEDs in electronics is on the increase on daily basics from cameras to cell phones to OLED televisions, etc. Although OLEDs provides prospects for thinner, smarter, lighter and ultraflexible electronics displays, however, due to high cost of manufacturing, it is not yet widely used.

  13. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  14. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  15. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  16. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs and their application as a sensing material for target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Huang, Cong; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-15

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized quantum dots (QDs) allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, surface exposed binding sites and excellent optical properties. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs for specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in aqueous solutions using amino modified Mn-doped ZnS QDs as supports, acrylamide and methacrylic acid as functional monomers, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and bovine hemoglobin as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the QDs surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. Using MIP-QDs composites as a fluorescence sensing material, trace amounts of bovine hemoglobin are signaled with high selectivity by emission intensity changes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which is embedded into the imprinted polymers.

  17. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine.

  18. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid layered perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Aboud, A. I.; Gamal, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on some electrical properties and solid-solid phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid layered halide perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4 which is one member of the long-chain compounds of the series (n-CnH2n+1NH3)2,(n = 8-18). The complex dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω,T) and the ac conductivity σ (ω,T) were measured as functions of temperature 100 K phase transition at T ≈ (362 ± 2) K, where the compound changes its state from intercalation to non-intercalation with a drastic increase in the c-axis by about 16.4%. The behavior of the frequency-dependent conductivity follows the Jonscher universal power law: σ (ω, T) αῳs(ῳ,T). The mechanism of electrical conduction in the low-temperature phase (phase II) can be described as quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  19. FeS2@C nanowires derived from organic-inorganic hybrid nanowires for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Chunli; Huang, Gang; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) porous FeS2@C nanowires as a high cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are synthesized on a large-scale from an organic-inorganic hybrid nanowire precursor. The FeS2@C nanowires not only provide a continuous and fast electron transport pathway, favorable diffusion kinetics, but also provide the protection buffer the volume expansion and effectively prevent the polysulfides from dissolving in the electrolyte during cycling. Attributing to the synergistic advantages of both 1D porous nanostructure and the encapsulation of thin amorphous carbon layers, the FeS2@C nanowires exhibit remarkable lithium storage performance with a high specific capacity of 889 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and 521 mA h g-1 at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a discharge energy density of 1225 Wh kg-1 is obtained at 2 A g-1 and remains as high as 637 Wh kg-1 after 1000 cycles, which is even higher than the LiCoO2 cathode. The results demonstrate that the potential for applications in LIBs with high power density and long cycling life.

  20. Eu(III) local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids; Coordenacao local do Eu(III) em hibridos organicos-inorganicos emissores de luz branca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. Sa [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: lcarlos@ideiafix.fis.ua.pt; Bermudez, Veronica Zea de [Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica; Bueno, Luciano A.; Molina, Celso; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: sidney@iq.unesp.br

    2001-08-01

    Eu{sup 3+} luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxy ethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu {sup 3+} ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu {sup 3+} concentration while the Eu {sup 3=}-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 angstrom in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic N H groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosized siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f{sup 6}, {sup 5} D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7} F{sub 0-4} Eu {sup 3+} transitions and from the energy position of the {sup 7} F{sub 0-4} levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu {sup 3+}-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis. (author)

  1. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  2. New Quasi-One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material: 1,3-Bis(4-piperidiniumpropane Pentachlorobismuthate(III Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Spectroscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ferjani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic-inorganic hybrid compound (C13H28N2 BiCl5 was synthesized by solvothermal method. The crystal structure was solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system space group Cmc21 with a=15.826(4 Å, b=18.746(6 Å, c=7.470(3 Å, and Z=4. The crystal structure was refined down to R=0.019. It consists of corrugated layers of [BiCl5]2− chains, separated by organic [H2TMDP]2+ cations (TMDP=1,3-Bis(4-piperidylpropane = C13H26N2. The crystal cohesion is achieved by hydrogen bonds N–H⋯Cl joining the organic and inorganic layers. The influence of the organic cations' flexibility is discussed. Raman and infrared spectra of the title compound were recorded in the range of 50–400 and 400–4000 cm−1, respectively. Semiempirical parameter model three (PM3 method has been performed to derive the calculated IR spectrum. The crystal shape morphology was simulated using the Bravais-Friedel and Donnay-Harker model.

  3. Crystal structure, thermochromic and magnetic properties of organic-inorganic hybrid compound: (C7H7N2S)2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Ashok K.; Kumari, Reema; Ghalsasi, Prasanna S.; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2017-08-01

    The synthesis, thermal analysis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4, organic-inorganic hybrid compound, have been described. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two formula units in a unit cell of dimensions a = 6.9522(4) Å, b = 9.6979(4) Å, c = 13.9633(6) Å, β = 97.849(3)° and volume 930.83(8) Å3 at 150(2) K. The structure consists of isolated nearly square planer [CuC14]2- units, with somewhat longer than normal Cusbnd Cl bond lengths [Cusbnd Cl (average) = 2.2711 Å]. The magnetic measurements of (2-aminobenzothiazolium)2CuCl4 using SQUID magnetometer show paramagnetic nature of the compound. Thermal measurements (TG-DTA and DSC) on this compound showed reversible phase transition at 83 °C. This transition is accompanied by the reversible change in colour of the prismatic crystal from green to dark brown, thermochromic behaviour. Temperature dependent EPR measurements on powdered sample ascertain change in coordination sphere around Cu(II) with shift in g|| = 2.150 and g⊥ = 2.071 at room temperature, typical of square planar, to g|| = 2.201 and g⊥ = 2.182 at 170 °C, typical of distorted tetrahedral geometry.

  4. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  5. Using flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite and novel organic-inorganic hybrid material to construct an amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Fu, Ping; Min, Ligen

    2010-02-01

    A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the organic-inorganic hybrid material composed of zirconia-chitosan sol-gel and Au nanoparticles (ZrO2-CS-AuNPs). The sensitivity of the biosensor was enhanced by a flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite (pPA-FCu) which was prepared from co-electrodeposition of CuSO4 solution and 2,6-pyridinediamine solution. Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the assembly process and performance of the biosensor. The results showed that this pPA-FCu nanostructure not only had excellent redox electrochemical activity, but also had good catalytic efficiency for hydrogen peroxide. Also the ZrO2-CS-AuNPs had good film forming ability, high stability and good retention of bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensors showed a linear range from 7.80 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 3.2 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3) under optimized experimental conditions. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was determined to be 0.32 mM, showing good affinity. In addition, the biosensor which exhibits good analytical performance, acceptable stability and good selectivity, has potential for practical applications.

  6. Dual effective organic/inorganic hybrid star-shaped polymer coatings on ultrafiltration membrane for bio- and oil-fouling resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kang, Hyo; Han, Sungsoo; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2012-11-01

    Amphiphilic organic/inorganic hybrid star-shaped polymers (SPP) were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and 3-(3,5,7,9,11,13,15-heptacyclohexyl-pentacyclo[9.5.1.1³,⁹.1⁵,¹⁵.1⁷,¹³]-octasiloxane-1-yl)propyl methacrylate (MA-POSS) as monomers and octakis(2-bromo-2-methylpropionoxypropyldimethylsiloxy)-octasilsesquioxane (OBPS) as an initiator. Star-shaped polymers (SPM) having PEGMA and methyl methacrylate (MMA) moieties were also prepared for comparative purposes. Polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration membranes coated with the SPP showed higher bio- and oil-fouling resistance and flux-recovery ability than the bare PSf membrane. Moreover, the SPP-coated membranes exhibited better antifouling properties than the SPM-coated membrane when they were used for oil/water emulsion filtration. The dual effective antifouling properties of the SPP were ascribed to the simultaneous enrichment of hydrophilic PEG and hydrophobic POSS moieties on the membrane surfaces resulting in the decrease in interactions with proteins and the increase in repellence to oils.

  7. Optical properties and ab initio study on the hybrid organic-inorganic material [(CH 3) 2NH 2] 3[BiI 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, A.; Ahmed, A. Ben; Mlayah, A.; Boughzala, H.; Hlil, E. K.; Abid, Y.

    2010-08-01

    The tri (dimetylammonium) hexa-iodobismuthate of general formula [(CH 3) 2NH 2] 3[BiI 6] is an organic-inorganic hybrid material. The crystal lattice is composed of discrete [BiI 6] anions surrounded by dimethylamine cations. The X-ray diffraction pattern was obtained and indexed on the basis of rhombohedra unit cell with the R3¯ space group. Room temperature IR and Raman spectra of the title compound were recorded and analyzed. Semi-empirical Parameter Model three (PM3) method as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to derive the equilibrium geometry, vibrational wave numbers and a prediction of IR and Raman spectral activities. In this compound the bands corresponding to the cation vibrational modes show that the symmetry of these cations is distorted and they are strongly hydrogen bonded to the respective anions. The frontier molecular orbital and the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest un-occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated with time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, and spectroscopic studies of organic-inorganic hybrid material: [C7H10NO]2BiBr5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Ben Nasr, C.

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, 2-methoxyanilinium pentabromobismuthate(III), [C7H10NO]2BiBr5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies at room temperature. The molecule crystallizes in the orthorhombic C2221 space group with cell parameters a = 11.8870(4), b = 23.4775(8), c = 8.1232(3) Å, V = 2267.0(1) Å3 and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound is built up from one-dimensional [BiBr5]2n-n polyanionic zig-zag chains composed of deformed BiBr6 octahedra share Br(2) apex and 2-methoxyanilinium cations. The assignment of the vibrational bands was based on comparison with vibrational mode frequencies of homologous compounds. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the vibrational spectrum of the investigated molecule in its ground state. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure.

  9. Synthesis and Structure of A Novel Quasi-Two Dimensional Organic-inorganic Hybrid Coordination Polymer:{[Cu(en)2][Ag2I4]}n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ling-Guo; LI Hao-Hong; CHEN Zhi-Rong; HUANG Chang-Cang; ZHAO Bin; LI Jun-Qian

    2006-01-01

    A novel coordination polymer {[Cu(en)2][Ag2I4]}n (en = ethylenediamine) was synthesized by the reaction of NaAgI2 and Cu(en)2(NO3)2·2H2O at room temperature with pH = 6.0, and the structure was characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. It crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/m, with a=10.646(2), b = 13.304(3), c = 6.8445(14)(A), β = 118.95(3)°, C4H16N4CuAg2I4, Mr = 907.10, V = 848.3(4)(A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 3.551 g/cm3, F(000) = 806, μ(MoKα) = 10.787 mm(1, the final R1 = 0.0256 and wR2 = 0.0654 for 900 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). According to structural analysis, the title compound consists of template cation [Cu(en)2]2+ and inorganic chain [Ag2I4]n2-. The polymeric negative chain [Ag2I4]n2- is built up from pairs of AgI4 tetrahedron by sharing one edge. Through N-H…I hydrogen-bonding interactions, the whole structure represents a quasi-two dimensional arrangement. Electrostatic attraction exists between organic cations and inorganic chains, leading to a so-called organic-inorganic hybrid structure.

  10. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of L-Valine Zinc Sulphate: An organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhal Raj, A.; Ramachandra Raja, C.

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid L-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36 °C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01 °C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a = 9.969(3) Å, b = 7.238(3) Å, c = 24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00 Å3. Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with L-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal. A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to L-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure L-valine.

  11. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  12. Preparation of hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas applied to mercury removal from aqueous media: Influence of the synthesis route on adsorption capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sánchez, Alfredo; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-06-15

    New hybrid organic-inorganic mesoporous silicas were prepared by employing three different synthesis routes and mercury adsorption studies were done in aqueous media using the batch technique. The organic ligands employed for the functionalization were derivatives of 2-mercaptopyrimidine or 2-mercaptothiazoline, and the synthesis pathways used were post-synthesis, post-synthesis with surface ion-imprinting and co-condensation with ion-imprinting. The incorporation of functional groups and the presence of ordered mesopores in the organosilicas was confirmed by XRD, TEM and SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, (13)C MAS-NMR, (29)Si MAS-NMR, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. The highest adsorption capacity and selectivity observed was for the material functionalized with 2-mercaptothiazoline ligand by means the co-condensation with ion-imprinting route (1.03 mmol g(-1) at pH 6). The prepared material could be potential sorbent for the extraction of this heavy metal from environmental and drinking waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A versatile nanobuilding precursor for the effective architecture of well-defined organic/inorganic hybrid via click chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Kun Zhu; Shan Yi Guang; Hong Yao Xu

    2012-01-01

    A novel octazido substituted nanobuilding precursor,octakis[dimethy(p-azidomethylene)siloxyl]octasilsesquioxane (ODA),was prepared by the conventional diazo-transfer reaction of octakis[dimethy(p-chloromethylene)silyl]octasilsesquioxane (ODC)with NaN3,and its structure was characterized by FT-IR,1H,13C,29Si NMR and MALDI-TOF MS,respectively.The structural rearrangement of POSS core in the synthesis strategy of ODA developed in this work was effectively prohibited in comparison with traditionary azidization process.The resultant ODA was not only soluble in common solvents such as CHCl3,THF,toluene,DMF and DMSO,but also could effectively serve as a versatile nanobuilding precursor for the architecture of well-defined organicinorganic hybrids via click chemistry.

  14. Preparation and application of a magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid nanocatalyst for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ALI MALEKI; RAZIEH FIROUZI HAJI; MINA GHASSEMI; HOSSEIN GHAFURI

    2017-04-01

    This article is the first report of the catalytic application of copper ferrite-coated chitosan in organic reactions as a bio-nanocomposite. CuFe2O4/chitosan was used as a hybrid nanocatalyst for the multicomponent Strecker synthesis of α-aminonitriles by using aryl aldehydes, trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN) and aromatic amines at room temperature in ethanol as a green solvent. The catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The nanocatalyst was recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. The organic products were obtained easily without need for column chromatography in good-to-excellent yields.

  15. Enhanced luminescence properties of hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO (organic/inorganic) composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Pristine tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO hybrid) composites containing different weight percentages (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The optimum concentration of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} films to get the best luminescence yield has been identified. XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} film. The Alq{sub 3} films containing different weight percentages of ZnO show the presence of crystalline ZnO in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600−800 cm{sup −1}. The hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films indicate the presence of Zn−O vibration band along with the corresponding Alq{sub 3} band. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} film was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.87 eV for pristine films while it is 3.26 eV, 3.21 eV, 3.14 eV, 3.10 eV, 3.13 eV and 3.20 eV for the composite films containing 5–50 wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq{sub 3} films show a maximum PL intensity at 514 nm when excited at 390 nm. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) exhibit an emission in 485 nm and 514 nm. The composite films containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibit maximum luminescence yield. - Highlights: • The pure Alq{sub 3} and Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using dip coating method. • Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite film containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits two fold increases in luminescence intensity. • The shielding effect of ZnO on the Alq{sub 3} material suppresses the interactions among the host molecules in the excited state. • This leads to enhance the luminescence intensity in composite films.

  16. Co-functionalized organic/inorganic hybrid ZnO nanorods as electron transporting layers for inverted organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Ambade, Rohan B.; Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Bagde, Sushil S.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2016-02-01

    In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM-ZnO NRs) leads to higher aggregation owing to the weaker solubility of SMs in solutions of ZnO NRs dispersed in chlorobenzene (CB). A prior addition of organic 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEA) over ZnO NRs not only inhibits aggregation of SMs over ZnO NRs, but also provides enough sites for the SM to strongly couple with the ZnO NRs to yield transparent SM-MEA-ZnO NRs hybrids that exhibited excellent capability as electron transporting layers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells (iOSCs) of P3HT:PC60BM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) photoactive layers. A strongly coupled SM-MEA-ZnO NR hybrid reduces the series resistance by enhancing the interfacial area and tunes the energy level alignment at the interface between the (indium-doped tin oxide, ITO) cathode and BHJ photoactive layers. A significant enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for iOSCs comprising ETLs of SM-MEA-ZnO NRs (3.64%) advancing from 0.9% for pristine ZnO NRs, while the iOSCs of aggregated SM-ZnO NRs ETL exhibited a much lower PCE of 2.6%, thus demonstrating the potential of the co-functionalization approach. The superiority of the co-functionalized SM-MEA-ZnO NRs ETL is also evident from the highest PCE of 7.38% obtained for the iOSCs comprising BHJ of PTB7-Th:PC60BM compared with extremely poor 0.05% for non-functionalized ZnO NRs.In an unprecedented attempt, we present an interesting approach of coupling solution processed ZnO planar nanorods (NRs) by an organic small molecule (SM) with a strong electron withdrawing cyano moiety and the carboxylic group as binding sites by a facile co-functionalization approach. Direct functionalization by SMs (SM

  17. Diagnosis of dengue infection using a modified gold electrode with hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposite and Bauhinia monandra lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cesar A S; Oliveira, Maria D L; de Melo, Celso P; Coelho, Luana C B B; Correia, Maria T S; Nogueira, Maurício L; Singh, Pankaj R; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2011-10-15

    A sensitive and selective biosensor for dengue serotyping was successfully developed. The biosensor uses a novel gold nanoparticles-polyaniline hybrid composite (AuNpPANI) for the immobilization of Bauhinia monandra lectin (BmoLL). The nanocomposite was applied to a bare gold electrode surface by chemical adsorption, and BmoLL was subsequently electrostatically adsorbed to the nanocomposite-modified surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance (EI) techniques were applied to evaluate the immobilization of BmoLL on AuNpPANI. The AFM images for AuNpPANI-BmoLL-DEN systems indicate a homogenous, compact and dense film of the conjugate. In the EI analyses, an obvious difference of the electron transfer resistance between the AuNpPANI-modified electrode and the bare gold electrode was observed. Among three dengue serotypes studied, dengue serotype 2 (DEN2) has higher values for R(CT), and lower values for both n and Q. These are indications of a larger blocking effect and smaller capacitive dispersion, resulting from the higher agglutination of glycoproteins from the DEN2 sera. The selective BmoLL recognition for various dengue serotypes may be attributed to different patterns of glycoproteins in the sera produced by the glycoprotein immunoresponse from patients infected by the dengue virus.

  18. Preparation and characterization of an organic/inorganic hybrid sorbent (PLE) to enhance selectivity for As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Kim, Hakchan; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2015-05-30

    For the selective removal of arsenate (As(V)) a hybrid sorbent was prepared using a non-toxic natural organic material, chitosan, by loading a transition metal, nickel. The immobilization of nickel was achieved by coordination with a deprotonated amino group (NH2) in the chitosan polymer chain. The amount of nickel was directly correlated to the presence of the amino group and was calculated to be 62 mg/g. FTIR spectra showed a peak shift from 1656 to 1637 cm(-1) after Ni(2+) loading, indicating the complexation between the amino group and nickel, and a peak of As(V) was observed at 834 cm(-1). An increase of sulfate concentration from 100 mg/L to 200 mg/L did not significantly affect As(V) sorption, and an increase in the concentration of bicarbonate reduced the As(V) uptake by 33%. The optimal pH of the solution was determined at pH 10, which is in accordance with the fraction of HAsO4(2-) and AsO4(-3). According to a fixed column test, a break through behavior of As(V) revealed that selectivity for As(V) was over sulfate. Regeneration using 5% NaCl extended the use of sorbent to up to uses without big loss of sorption capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-02

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs.

  20. Hexamethylenetetramine directed synthesis and properties of a new family of alpha-nickel hydroxide organic-inorganic hybrid materials with high chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian-Hua; Yu, Shu-Hong; Chen, Shao-Feng; Wu, Chun-Yan

    2006-03-09

    A new family of organic-inorganic hybrid material of alpha-nickel hydroxide formulated as Ni(OH)2-x(An-)x/n-(C6H12N4)y.zH2O (A=Cl-, CH3COO-, SO4(2-), NO3-; x=0.05-0.18, y=0.09-0.11, z=0.36-0.43) with high stability and adjustable interlayer spacing ranging from 7.21 to 15.12 A has been successfully prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of various anions and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) on the d values of alpha-nickel hydroxide have been systematically investigated. This family of hybrid materials is of such high stability that they can stand more than 40 days in 6 M KOH. The product with a formula Ni(OH)1.95(C6H12N4)0.11(Cl-)0.05(H2O)0.36 has a high surface area of about 299.26 m2/g and an average pore diameter of about 45.1 A. The coercivity (Hc) value is ca. 2000 Oe for the sample with a d spacing of 13.14 A. Moreover, the prepared alpha-Ni(OH)2 in our experiment is of high stability in strong alkali solution. Such high stability could be derived from strong chelating interactions between the Ni ions and HMT molecules with the interlayers. This high chemical stability could make this material more suitable for the applications.

  1. Enhanced charge transport and photovoltaic performance induced by incorporating rare-earth phosphor into organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihan; Li, Qinghua; Chen, Chuyang; Du, Jiaxing; Tong, Jifeng; Jin, Xiao; Li, Yue; Yuan, Yongbiao; Qin, Yuancheng; Wei, Taihuei; Sun, Weifu

    2014-11-28

    In this work, dysprosium ion decorated yttrium oxide (Dy(3+):Y2O3) nanocrystal phosphors were incorporated into TiO2 acceptor thin film in a bid to enhance the light harvest, charge separation and transfer in the hybrid solar cells. The results show that the energy level offset between the donor (P3HT) and the acceptor (Dy(3+):Y2O3-TiO2) has been narrowed down, thus leading to the enhanced electron and hole transports, and also photovoltaic performances as compared to pure TiO2 without incorporating Dy(3+):Y2O3. By applying femtosecond transient optical spectroscopy, after the incorporation of dopant Dy(3+):Y2O3 into TiO2 at 6 wt%, both the hot electron and hole transfer lifetimes have been shortened, that is, from 30.2 ps and 6.94 ns to 25.1 ps and 1.26 ns, respectively, and an enhanced efficiency approaching 3% was achieved as compared to 2.0% without doping, indicating that the energetic charges are captured more efficiently benefitting a higher power conversion efficiency. Moreover, these results reveal that both the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) edges of the acceptor were elevated by 0.57 and 0.32 eV, respectively, after incorporating 6 wt% Dy(3+):Y2O3. This work demonstrates that distinct energy level alignment engineered by Dy(3+):Y2O3 phosphor has an important role in pursuing efficient future solar cells and underscores the promising potential of rare-earth phosphor in solar applications.

  2. Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shin-ichiro, E-mail: s-inoue@nict.go.jp [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Naoki, Tamari [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Tokuyama Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toru; Obata, Toshiyuki; Yanagi, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Tokuyama Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2015-03-30

    Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) aluminum gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on transparent aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates with high light extraction efficiency and high power are proposed and demonstrated. The AlN bottom side surface configuration, which is composed of a hybrid structure of photonic crystals and subwavelength nanostructures, has been designed using finite-difference time-domain calculations to enhance light extraction. We have experimentally demonstrated an output power improvement of up to 196% as a result of the use of the embedded high-light-extraction hybrid nanophotonic structure. The DUV-LEDs produced have demonstrated output power as high as 90 mW in DC operation at a peak emission wavelength of 265 nm.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials starting from the novel nanoscaled bismuth oxido methacrylate cluster [Bi38O45(OMc)24(DMSO)9]·2DMSO·7H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miersch, Linda; Rüffer, Tobias; Mehring, Michael

    2011-06-14

    The reaction of the basic bismuth nitrate [Bi(6)O(4)(OH)(4)](NO(3))(6)·H(2)O with sodium methacrylate in DMSO gave [Bi(38)O(45)(OMc)(24)(DMSO)(9)]·2DMSO·7H(2)O (OMc = O(2)CC(3)H(5)), which is highly soluble in organic solvents. By copolymerization of the bismuth oxido cluster with methyl methacrylate transparent, radiopaque organic-inorganic hybrid materials were obtained.

  4. Triethylphosphite as a network forming agent enhances in-vitro biocompatibility and corrosion protection of hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coatings for Ti6Al4V alloys

    OpenAIRE

    El Hadad, AAG; Barranco, V.; Jiménez-Morales, A; Hickman, G; Galván, J.; Perry, CC

    2014-01-01

    In Press, Accepted Manuscript The biocompatibility and life of metallic implants can be enhanced through improving the biocompatibility and corrosion protection characteristics of the coatings used with these materials. In this study, triethylphosphite (TEP) was used to introduce phosphorus into organic-inorganic hybrid silica based sol-gel coatings prepared using gamma-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethylorthosilicate. Addition of TEP dramatically increased the rate of inter...

  5. Comprehensive analysis of photonic effects on up-conversion of β-NaYF4:Er3+ nanoparticles in an organic-inorganic hybrid 1D photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, C. L. M.; Fischer, S.; Reitz, C.; Richards, B. S.; Goldschmidt, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Upconversion (UC) presents a possibility to exploit sub-bandgap photons for current generation in solar cells by creating one high-energy photon out of at least two lower-energy photons. Photonic structures can enhance UC by two effects: a locally increased irradiance and a modified local density of photon states (LDOS). Bragg stacks are promising photonic structures for this application, because they are straightforward to optimize and overall absorption can be increased by adding more layers. In this work, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the photonic effects of a Bragg stack on UC luminescence. The investigated organic-inorganic hybrid Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), containing purpose-built β-NaYF4:25% Er3+ core-shell nanoparticles and titanium dioxide (TiO2). From optical characterization of single thin layers, input parameters for simulations of the photonic effects are generated. The local irradiance enhancement and modulated LDOS are first simulated separately. Subsequently they are coupled in a rate equation model of the upconversion dynamics. Using the integrated model, UC luminescence is maximized by adapting the Bragg stack design. For a Bragg stack of only 5 bilayers, UC luminescence is enhanced by a factor of 3.8 at an incident irradiance of 2000 W/m2. Our results identify the Bragg stack as promising for enhancing UC, especially in the low-irradiance regime, relevant for the application in photovoltaics. Therefore, we experimentally realized optimized Bragg stack designs. The PMMA layers, containing UC nanoparticles, are produced via spin-coating from a toluene based solution. The TiO2 layers are produced by atomic layer deposition from molecular precursors. The reflectance measurements show that the realized Bragg stacks are in good agreement with predictions from simulation.

  6. Enhanced Optoelectronic Properties of PFO/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes via Additions of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of TiO2 nanoparticle (NP content on the improvement of poly(9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl (PFO/Fluorol 7GA organic light emitting diode (OLED performance is demonstrated here. The PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend with specific ratios of TiO2 NPs was prepared via a solution blending method before being spin-coated onto an indium tin oxide (ITO substrate to act as an emissive layer in OLEDs. A thin aluminum layer as top electrode was deposited onto the emissive layer using the electron beam chamber. Improvement electron injection from the cathode was achieved upon incorporation of TiO2 NPs into the PFO/Fluorol 7GA blend, thus producing devices with intense luminance and lower turn-on voltage. The ITO/(PFO/Fluorol 7GA/TiO2/Al OLED device exhibited maximum electroluminescence intensity and luminance at 25 wt % of TiO2 NPs, while maximum luminance efficiency was achieved with 15 wt % TiO2 NP content. In addition, this work proved that the performance of the devices was strongly affected by the surface morphology, which in turn depended on the TiO2 NP content.

  7. Micro-hardness evaluation of a micro-hybrid composite resin light cured with halogen light, light-emitting diode and argon ion laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Katia M; de Freitas, Patricia M; Lloret, Patricia R; Powell, Lynn G; Turbino, Miriam L

    2009-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine whether the micro-hardness of a composite resin is modified by the light units or by the thickness of the increment. Composite resin disks were divided into 15 groups (n = 5), according to the factors under study: composite resin thickness (0 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm , 3 mm and 4 mm) and light units. The light activation was performed with halogen light (HL) (40 s, 500 mW/cm(2)), argon ion laser (AL) (30 s, 600 mW/cm(2)) or light-emitting diode (LED) (30 s, 400 mW/cm(2)). Vickers micro-hardness tests were performed after 1 week and were carried out on the top surface (0 mm-control) and at different depths of the samples. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests (P hardness values than the LED. In groups with 3 mm and 4 mm thickness, the HL also showed higher micro-hardness values than the groups activated by the AL and the LED. Only the HL presented satisfactory polymerization with 3 mm of thickness. With a 4 mm increment no light unit was able to promote satisfactory polymerization.

  8. UV-Irradiation Cured Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Initiated by Ethoxysilane-modified Multifunctional Polymeric Photoinitiator through Sol-gel Process%UV-Irradiation Cured Organic-inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Initiated by Ethoxysilane-modified Multifunctional Polymeric Photoinitiator through Sol-gel Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu, Lihua; Shi, Wenfang

    2011-01-01

    The UV-cured organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite (nano-Si-m-PI) was prepared through the photopolymeri- zation of acrylic resin initiated by ethoxysilane-modified multifunctional oligomeric photoinitiator (Si-m-PI). The es- terification reaction of 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (Irgacure 2959) with thioglycolic acid, and the following addition reactions with dipentaerythritol hexaacrylate and then 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane were carried out for preparing the Si-m-PI. The Si-m-PI exhibits the similar UV absorption and molar extinction coefficient with Irgacure 2959. The photoinitiating activity study by photo-DSC analysis showed that the Si-m-PI possesses high photopolymerization rate at the peak maximum (Rpax) and final unsaturation conversion (Pf) in the cured hybrid films. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, the SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed uniformly in the formed nano-Si-m-PI, whereas the aggregation of nanoparticals occurred in nano-Irg, which was prepared through the photopolymerization of acrylic resin initiated by Irgacure 2959. Moreover, compared with the UV-cured pure polymer and nano-Irg, the nano-Si-m-PI showed remarkably enhanced thermal stability and mechanical properties.

  9. High performance organic-inorganic perovskite-optocoupler based on low-voltage and fast response perovskite compound photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Dong, Guifang; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid photodetectors attract considerable attention because they can combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic systems. Here, a perovskite compound with a broad absorption spectrum and high power conversion efficiency is used as a photosensitive layer in an organic/inorganic hybrid heterojunction photodetector with a high and fast response. The high sensitivity exceeding 104 is obtained at bias of 0–4 V. Using a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as the light source, we fabricated an optocoupler device. The optocoupler achieved a maximum photoresponsivity of 1.0 A W−1 at 341.3 μWcm−2 at an input voltage of 6 V. The device also exhibits rapid response times of τrise ~ 20 μs and τfall ~ 17 μs; as well as a high current transfer ratio (CTR) of 28.2%. After applying an amplification circuit, the CTR of the optocoupler increases to 263.3%, which is comparable with that of commercial inorganic optocouplers. The developed hybrid optocoupler thus shows great promise for use in photonics. PMID:25600830

  10. Light-Emitting Devices with Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yu Deng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a previous study and tremendous progress in basic theoretical modeling, material developments and device engineering for polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs.

  11. Sol-gel approach to in situ creation of high pH-resistant surface-bonded organic-inorganic hybrid zirconia coating for capillary microextraction (in-tube SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Kim, Tae-Young; Kabir, Abuzar; Malik, Abdul

    2005-01-07

    A novel zirconia-based hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating was developed for capillary microextraction (CME) (in-tube SPME). High degree of chemical inertness inherent in zirconia makes it very difficult to covalently bind a suitable organic ligand to its surface. In the present work, this problem was addressed from a sol-gel chemistry point of view. Principles of sol-gel chemistry were employed to chemically bind a hydroxy-terminated silicone polymer (polydimethyldiphenylsiloxane, PDMDPS) to a sol-gel zirconia network in the course of its evolution from a highly reactive alkoxide precursor undergoing controlled hydrolytic polycondensation reactions. A fused silica capillary was filled with a properly designed sol solution to allow for the sol-gel reactions to take place within the capillary for a predetermined period of time (typically 15-30 min). In the course of this process, a layer of the evolving hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel polymer got chemically anchored to the silanol groups on the capillary inner walls via condensation reaction. At the end of this in-capillary residence time, the unbonded part of the sol solution was expelled from the capillary under helium pressure, leaving behind a chemically bonded sol-gel zirconia-PDMDPS coating on the inner walls. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and aldehydes were efficiently extracted and preconcentrated from dilute aqueous samples using sol-gel zirconia-PDMDPS coated capillaries followed by thermal desorption and GC analysis of the extracted solutes. The newly developed sol-gel hybrid zirconia coatings demonstrated excellent pH stability, and retained the extraction characteristics intact even after continuous rinsing with a 0.1 M NaOH solution for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a sol-gel zirconia-based hybrid organic-inorganic coating as an extraction medium in solid phase microextraction (SPME).

  12. Properties of Organic-Inorganic Nano-SiO2/Dicyclopentandiene Cyanate Ester Resin Hybrid Materials%有机-无机Nano-SiO2/DCPDCE杂化材料的性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾园; 颜红侠; 唐玉生; 马雷

    2012-01-01

    To resolve the problem of ordinary nano-SiO2 easy-agglomeration in the dicyclopentandiene cyanate es-ter(DCPDCE) resin system, DCPDCE, was modified utilizing organic-inorganic nano-SiO2 prepared by sol-gel process. This article discussed the properties of organic-inorganic nano-SiO2/DCPDCE,such as dielectric properties and mechanical properties. The result showed that, compared with ordinary SiO2, organic-inorganic SiO2 can be well-dispersed in DCPDCE. When the content of organic-inorganic nano-SiO2 is 3. 0wt% , the total properties of hybrid materials is the best.%为解决传统商用nano-SiO2粒子在双环戊二烯型氰酸酯(DCPDCE)树脂基体中容易团聚的问题,利用Sol-Gel法制备的有机-无机nano-SiO2为填料对DCPDCED进行改性.研究了有机-无机nano-SiO2含量对nano-SiO2/DCPDCE杂化材料力学性能、介电常数、介电损耗因子的影响.结果表明:有机-无机nano-SiO2较商用nano-SiO2在DCPDCE中分散更优;当有机-无机纳米SiO2含量为3.0wt%时,杂化材料的综合性能最优.

  13. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhengguo; Kerner, Ross A.; Zhao, Lianfeng; Tran, Nhu L.; Lee, Kyung Min; Koh, Tae-Wook; Scholes, Gregory D.; Rand, Barry P.

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are emerging as highly attractive semiconductors for use in optoelectronics. In addition to their use in photovoltaics, perovskites are promising for realizing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) due to their high colour purity, low non-radiative recombination rates and tunable bandgap. Here, we report highly efficient perovskite LEDs enabled through the formation of self-assembled, nanometre-sized crystallites. Large-group ammonium halides added to the perovskite precursor solution act as a surfactant that dramatically constrains the growth of 3D perovskite grains during film forming, producing crystallites with dimensions as small as 10 nm and film roughness of less than 1 nm. Coating these nanometre-sized perovskite grains with longer-chain organic cations yields highly efficient emitters, resulting in LEDs that operate with external quantum efficiencies of 10.4% for the methylammonium lead iodide system and 9.3% for the methylammonium lead bromide system, with significantly improved shelf and operational stability.

  14. Sky-Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode with 37% External Quantum Efficiency Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Spiroacridine-Triazine Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-An; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lee, Wei-Kai; Wu, Meng-Jung; Jiao, Min; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Yi, Chih-Lung; Chung, Chin-Lung; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2016-08-01

    Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%).

  15. White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, S.; Ozel, T.; Sari, E.; Demir, H. V.

    2007-02-01

    We introduce white light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of single, dual, triple and quadruple combinations hybridized with InGaN/GaN LEDs. Such hybridization of different nanocrystal combinations provides the ability to conveniently adjust white light parameters including the tristimulus coordinates (x,y), correlated colour temperature (Tc) and colour rending index (Ra). We present the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of our white hybrid nanocrystal-LEDs that incorporate combinations of (1) yellow nanocrystals (λPL = 580 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.25), Tc = 2692 K and Ra = 14.69; (2) cyan and red nanocrystals (λPL = 500 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.28), Tc = 3246 K and Ra = 19.65; (3) green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λPL = 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.30,0.28), Tc = 7521 K and Ra = 40.95; and (4) cyan, green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λPL = 500, 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λEL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.24,0.33), Tc = 11 171 K and Ra = 71.07. These hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications with their highly adjustable properties.

  16. GW quasiparticle band gap of the hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$: Effect of spin-orbit interaction, semicore electrons, and self-consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-01-01

    We study the quasiparticle band gap of the hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite CH$_3$NH$_3$PbI$_3$, using many-body perturbation theory based on the $GW$ approximation. We perform a systematic analysis of the band gap sensitivity to relativistic spin-orbit effects, to the description of semicore Pb-5$d$ and I-4$d$ electrons, and to the starting Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. We find that the inclusion of semicore states increases the calculated band gap by 0.2 eV, and self-consistency on ...

  17. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials obtained by the sol-gel method with potential use as sunscreens; Materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos (ormosil) obtidos por sol-gel com potencial uso como filtro solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Jane K. de F.B.; Marcal, Alex L.; Lima, Omar J. de; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Nassar, Eduardo J.; Calefi, Paulo S. [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed at the synthesis and characterization of particles of modified silica containing the organic filter dibenzoylmethane (DBM) by the hydrolytic sol-gel method, with modifications to the Stoeber route. The structures of the resulting Xerogels were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-VIS spectroscopy in the solid state, infrared absorption spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 29}Si NRM). The results showed favorable formation of hybrid organic-inorganic nanoparticles with efficient absorption/reflectance of radiation in the UV / VIS range, which enables their potential use as sunscreen. (author)

  18. Photonic hybrid crystals constructed from in situ host-guest nanoconfinement of a light-emitting complex in metal-organic framework pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Abhijeet K.; Ryder, Matthew R.; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2016-03-01

    We report the concept underpinning the facile nanoconfinement of a bulky luminous guest molecule in the pores of a metal-organic framework (MOF) host, which yields a hybrid host ⊃ guest nanomaterial with tunable opto-electronic characteristics and enhanced photostability. Utilizing an in situ host-guest confinement strategy enabled by molecular self-assembly, we show that the highly emitting ZnQ [Zn-(bis-8-hydroxyquinoline)] guest complexes could be rapidly encapsulated within the sodalite nanocages of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) host crystals. The nature of optical and electronic transitions phenomena of the guest-encapsulated ZIF-8 ⊃ ZnQ has been elucidated by means of fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy measurements, and substantiated further via theoretical molecular orbital calculations revealing the plausible host-guest charge transfer mechanism involved. Evidence suggests that its photophysical properties are not only strongly determined by the host-guest co-operative bonding interactions within the environment of the confined MOF nanocage, but also can be engineered to manipulate its emission color chromaticity or to shield light-sensitive emitting guests against rapid photochemical degradation.We report the concept underpinning the facile nanoconfinement of a bulky luminous guest molecule in the pores of a metal-organic framework (MOF) host, which yields a hybrid host ⊃ guest nanomaterial with tunable opto-electronic characteristics and enhanced photostability. Utilizing an in situ host-guest confinement strategy enabled by molecular self-assembly, we show that the highly emitting ZnQ [Zn-(bis-8-hydroxyquinoline)] guest complexes could be rapidly encapsulated within the sodalite nanocages of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) host crystals. The nature of optical and electronic transitions phenomena of the guest-encapsulated ZIF-8 ⊃ ZnQ has been elucidated by means of fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy measurements, and

  19. 有机-无机杂化介孔二氧化硅在环境保护中的应用%Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Silicas and Their Applications in Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风; 朱桂茹; 高从堦

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been obtained through the coupling of inorganic and organic components by template synthesis. The incorporation of functionalities onto material pore surfaces or into the frameworks can be achieved by post-synthesis grafting or co-condensation method. The classification and synthesis methods of hybrid mesoporous silica materials are reviewed. Besides, the applications of hybrid materials in environmental protection are highlighted, including removal and recovery of metal cations,oxyanions, organic pollutants and gases. The outlook of the organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas is provided.%将有机基团通过后嫁接或共缩聚法引入到介孔二氧化硅的孔道表面或骨架中,根据有机基团在材料中的位置可得到表面结合型和桥键型两类功能化介孔材料.本文总结了有机-无机杂化介孔二氧化硅的分类及合成方法,重点介绍了该类材料作为吸附剂在环境保护中的应用,包括金属阳离子、含氧阴离子、有机污染物和气体的去除与回收.并展望了有机-无机杂化介孔二氧化硅的发展前景.

  20. Phase transitions and dielectric properties of a hexagonal ABX3 perovskite-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound: [C3H4NS][CdBr3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Ye, Heng-Yun; Zhang, Yi; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2015-06-21

    A new organic-inorganic hexagonal perovskite-type compound with the formula ABX3, thiazolium tribromocadmate(ii) (1), in which thiazolium cations are situated in the space between the one-dimensional chains of face-sharing CdBr(6) octahedra, has been successfully synthesized. Systematic characterizations including differential scanning calorimetry measurements, variable-temperature structural analyses, and dielectric measurements reveal that it undergoes two structural phase transitions, at 180 and 146 K. These phase transitions are accompanied by remarkable dielectric relaxation and anisotropy. The thiazolium cations remain orientationally disordered during the two phase transition processes. The origins of the phase transitions at 180 and 146 K are ascribed to the slowing down and reorientation of the molecular motions of the cations, respectively. Moreover, the dielectric relaxation process well described by the Cole-Cole equation and the prominent dielectric anisotropy are also connected with the dynamics of the dipolar thiazolium cations.

  1. Enhancing UV-emissions through optical and electronic dual-function tuning of Ag nanoparticles hybridized with n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Yang, Zu-Po; Hwang, Jung-Min; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chia-Ching; Haung, Jing-Yu; Chou, Chun-Yang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are known to enhance the luminescence of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through the high directionality of waveguide mode transmission and efficient energy transfer of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances, respectively. In this work, we have demonstrated Ag NP-incorporated n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunctions by facilely hydrothermally growing ZnO NRs on Ag NP-covered GaN, in which the Ag NPs were introduced and randomly distributed on the p-GaN surface to excite the LSP resonances. Compared with the reference LED, the light-output power of the near-band-edge (NBE) emission (ZnO, λ = 380 nm) of our hybridized structure is increased almost 1.5-2 times and can be further modified in a controlled manner by varying the surface morphology of the surrounding medium of the Ag NPs. The improved light-output power is mainly attributed to the LSP resonance between the NBE emission of ZnO NRs and LSPs in Ag NPs. We also observed different behaviors in the electroluminescence (EL) spectra as the injection current increases for the treatment and reference LEDs. This observation might be attributed to the modification of the energy band diagram for introducing Ag NPs at the interface between n-ZnO NRs and p-GaN. Our results pave the way for developing advanced nanostructured LED devices with high luminescence efficiency in the UV emission regime.ZnO nanorods (NRs) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are known to enhance the luminescence of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through the high directionality of waveguide mode transmission and efficient energy transfer of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances, respectively. In this work, we have demonstrated Ag NP-incorporated n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunctions by facilely hydrothermally growing ZnO NRs on Ag NP-covered GaN, in which the Ag NPs were introduced and randomly distributed on the p-GaN surface to excite the LSP resonances. Compared with the reference LED, the light-output power of the

  2. Effect of the solvent used for fabrication of perovskite films by solvent dropping on performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Choul; Kim, Dae Woo; Kim, Da Bin; Jung, Eui Dae; Lee, Ki-Suk; Lee, Sukbin; Nuzzo, Daniele Di; Kim, Ji-Seon; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2017-02-02

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as a next-generation candidate for light-emitting device applications due to their excellent optical and electrical properties with narrow band emission compared to organic emitters. The morphological control of perovskite films with full surface coverage and few defect sites is essential for achieving highly efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we obtain a highly uniform perovskite film with a remarkably reduced number of defect sites in a perovskite crystal using chlorobenzene dropping. This effort leads to the enhanced performance of PeLEDs with a CH3NH3PbBr3 film using chlorobenzene dropping with a maximum luminance of 14 460 cd m(-2) (at 3.8 V) and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.71% (at 2.8 V). This research confirms that the role of the solvent in the solvent dropping method is to fabricate a dense and uniform perovskite film and to passivate the defect sites of the perovskite crystal films.

  3. The role of Jahn-Teller distortion in insulator to semiconductor phase transition in organic-inorganic hybrid compound (p-chloroanilinium)2CuCl4 at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalsasi, Pallavi; Garg, Nandini; Deo, M N; Garg, Alka; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna; Sharma, Surinder M

    2015-12-28

    (p-Chloroanilinium)2CuCl4(C2H14Cl6CuN2) is from an important family of organic-inorganic layered hybrid compounds which can be a possible candidate for multiferroicity. In situ high pressure FTIR, Raman and resistivity measurements on this compound indicate the weakening of Jahn-Teller distortion and the consequent removal of puckering of the CuCl6(4-) octahedra within the layer. These effects trigger insulator to semiconductor phase transition along with a change in the sample colour from yellow to dark red. This article explains the crucial role of the anisotropic volume reduction of the CuCl6(4-) octahedron (caused due to the quenching of Jahn-Teller distortion) in the observed insulator to semiconductor phase transition.

  4. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  5. Chemical and structural changes in polyamide based organic-inorganic hybrid materials upon incorporation of SeS2O62- precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, V.; Dukstienė, N.; Žalenkienė, S.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2017-01-01

    Composite organic-inorganic functional materials are of significant importance in various applications of science and technology. In this work, physicochemical characterization of such composite materials obtained after the exposure of polyamide PA 6 to K2SeS2O6 precursor solution was performed. Chalcogenized polymer surface was characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and UV-vis spectroscopies while their bulk chemical analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Crystallite size was not found to change with the exposure to K2SeS2O6 precursor but PA 6 chain-chain separation decreased. Importantly, infrared and X-ray analyses showed chemical bonding taking place between the PA 6 and SeS2O62- ions via -NH- functional group. A distinct change in bandgap, Eg, value was observed in UV-vis spectra due to the presence of SeS2O62-, SeSO32- and Se2S2O62- ions formed via decomposition of the precursor material in acidic medium. After extended 4 h chalcogenation a distinct absorption due to the elemental selenium was also observed as obtained from Tauc plots.

  6. High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wu, Di; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide emitters have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties of high color purity, tunable emission wavelength and a low-temperature processing technique. As is well-known, organic light-emitting diodes have shown powerful capabilities in this field; however, the fabrication of these devices typically relies on high-temperature and high-vacuum processes, which increases the final cost of the product and renders them uneconomical for use in large-area displays. Organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites match with these material requirements, as it is possible to prepare such materials with high crystallinity through solution processing at low temperature. Herein, we demonstrated a high-brightness green light-emitting diode based on PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structures by a spin-coating method combined with a sputtering system. Under forward bias, a dominant emission peak at ~530 nm with a low full width of half-maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm can be achieved at room temperature. Owing to the high surface coverage of the CH3NH3PbBr3 layer and a device design based on carrier injection and a confinement configuration, the proposed diode exhibits good electroluminescence performance, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.0645%. More importantly, we investigated the working stability of the studied diode under continuous operation to verify the sensitivity of the electroluminescence performance to ambient atmosphere and to assess the suitability of the diode for practical applications. Moreover, the underlying reasons for the undesirable emission decay are tentatively discussed. This demonstration of an effective green electroluminescence based on CH3NH3PbBr3 provides valuable information for the design and development of perovskites as efficient emitters, thus facilitating their use in existing applications and suggesting new potential applications.

  7. Light-Emitting Diodes: Learning New Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the third paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide the readers with the description of experiments and pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper, published…

  8. Light-Emitting Diodes: Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide readers with the description of experiments and the pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper provided…

  9. Light-Emitting Diodes: A Hidden Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are cheap, easy to purchase, and thus commonly used in physics instruction as indicators of electric current or as sources of light (Fig. 1). In our opinion LEDs represent a unique piece of equipment that can be used to collect experimental evidence, and construct and test new ideas in almost every unit of a general…

  10. Light-Emitting Diodes: A Hidden Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are cheap, easy to purchase, and thus commonly used in physics instruction as indicators of electric current or as sources of light (Fig. 1). In our opinion LEDs represent a unique piece of equipment that can be used to collect experimental evidence, and construct and test new ideas in almost every unit of a general…

  11. Phosphorescent Nanocluster Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Zhao, Yimu; Traverse, Christopher J; Staples, Richard J; Levine, Benjamin G; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-01-13

    Devices utilizing an entirely new class of earth abundant, inexpensive phosphorescent emitters based on metal-halide nanoclusters are reported. Light-emitting diodes with tunable performance are demonstrated by varying cation substitution to these nanoclusters. Theoretical calculations provide insight about the nature of the phosphorescent emitting states, which involves a strong pseudo-Jahn-Teller distortion.

  12. Light-Emitting Diodes: Learning New Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the third paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide the readers with the description of experiments and pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper, published…

  13. A multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid structure based on Mn(III)-porphyrin and polyoxometalate as a highly effective dye scavenger and heterogenous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Zhang, Zhijuan; Xu, Xuan; Gong, Qihan; Li, Jing; Wu, Chuan-De

    2012-01-11

    A two-step synthesis strategy has led to a unique layered polyoxometalate-Mn(III)-metalloporphyrin-based hybrid material. The hybrid solid demonstrates remarkable capability for scavenging of dyes and for heterogeneous selective oxidation of alkylbenzenes with excellent product yields and 100% selectivity.

  14. Fabrication of a Homogeneous, Integrated, and Compact Film of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ni(en)3Ag2I4 with Near-Infrared Absorbance and Semiconducting Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Yu; Shi, Lei; Yang, Hao; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Chen; Jin, Wanqin

    2016-02-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid crystal Ni(en)3Ag2I4 (where en represents 1,2-ethylenediamine) crystallizes in hexagonal space group P63, in which the AgI4(3-) tetrahedra connect into a diamondlike inorganic framework via sharing of the vertex and the Ni(en)3(2+) octahedra fill in the pores of the framework. UV-vis-near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy disclosed that this hybrid shows intense NIR absorbance centered at ca. 870 nm, and the variable-temperature conductivity measurement revealed that the hybrid is a semiconductor with Ea = 0.46 eV. The electronic band structure of Ni(en)3Ag2I4 was calculated using the density functional theory method, indicating that the NIR absorbance arises from d-d transition within the Ni(2+) cation of Ni(en)3(2+). The homogeneous, compact, and transparent crystalline film of Ni(en)3Ag2I4 was fabricated via a secondary seed growth strategy, which has promising application in NIR devices.

  15. Three new three-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on PMo12O40(n-) (n = 3 or 4) polyanions and Cu(I)-pyrazine/Cu(I)-pyrazine-Cl porous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ming-Li; Yu, Kai; Su, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Zhou, Bai-Bin; Zhu, Chun-Cheng

    2013-06-07

    Three new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on PMo12O40(n-) (n = 3 or 4) polyanions and Cu(I)-pz/Cu(I)-pz-Cl porous coordination polymers: [Cu(I)(pz)]3[PMo(VI)12O40] (1), [Cu(I)(pz)1.5]4[PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40]·pz·2H2O (2), [Cu(I)3(pz)3Cl][Cu(I)2(pz)3(H2O)][PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40] (3) (pz = pyrazine) have been hydrothermally prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG, XRD, XPS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 presents a three-dimensional Cu(I)-pz framework with cube-like chambers, into which PMo(VI)12O40(3-) Keggin ions are incorporated. Compound 2 shows a three-dimensional sandwich-like framework, and PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40(4-) polyanions are located in the octagonal voids of every two-dimensional Cu(I)-pz 4(1)8(2) network structure. Compound 3 exhibits a two-dimensional Cl-bridged Cu(I)-pz-Cl double-layer structure, and two kinds of PMo(V)Mo(VI)11O40(4-) polyanions as bridging linkers connect two adjacent double-layers to form a three-dimensional organic-inorganic framework through Cu(I)-O bonds. Additionally, their electrochemical characters, electrocatalytic behaviors and solid state fluorescent properties at room temperature have been investigated in detail.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Perovskite-type Organic-inorganic Hybrids (R-NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Liling; SUN Zhang; ZHAO Guanghui; LI Xing; LIU Hanxing

    2012-01-01

    Layered organic-inorgamc hybrids containing bilayer perovsikte (R-NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7(where R=C12H25,C6H5C2H4) were synthesized by reactions in solution.The influences of the solvents and the reactant ratio on the structures of the products were investigated.The structures and the properties of the hybrids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet and visible (UV) adsorption spectra.For comparing with the bilayer perovskite hybrids in structure and band gap magnitude,the hybrids containing monolayer perovskite (R-NH3)2PbI4 were also synthesized and characterized.The results demonstrate that the thickness of inorganic layer has obvious effect on the tunneling magnitude of the band gap but the organic part can be micro actuator of band gap.

  17. Photophysical properties of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material: Eu(III)-β-diketone complex covalently bonded to SiO(2) /ZnO composite matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Juan; Yan, Bing

    2010-01-01

    In this article, dibenzoylmethane (DBM) was first grafted with the coupling reagent 3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl isocyanate (TESPIC) to form precursor DBM-Si, and ZnO quantum dot was modified with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) to form SiO(2) /ZnO nanocomposite particle. Then the precursor DBM-Si and the terminal ligand 1,10-phenthroline (phen) were coordinated to Eu(3+) ion to obtain ternary hybrid material phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO after hydrolysis and copolycondensation between the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), water molecules and the SiO(2) /ZnO network via the sol-gel process. In addition, for comparison, the binary hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network and ternary hybrid material with pure Si-O network were also synthesized, denoted as Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO and phen-Eu-DBM-Si, respectively. The results reveal that hybrid material with SiO(2) /ZnO network phen-Eu-DBM-SiO(2) /ZnO exhibits the stronger red light, the longer lifetimes and higher quantum efficiency than hybrid material with pure Si-O network phen-Eu-DBM-Si, suggesting that SiO(2) /ZnO is a favorable host matrix for the luminescence of rare earth complexes.

  18. Successful entrapment of carbon dots within flexible free-standing transparent mesoporous organic-inorganic silica hybrid films for photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakopoulou, Anastasia; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Vainos, Nikolaos; Koutselas, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    The effective entrapment of Carbon dots (CDs) into a polymer-silica hybrid matrix, formed as free standing transparent flexible films, is presented. The composite's synthesis, characterization, device application and properties -mechanical, thermal and optical- are being provided and discussed. CDs of 3 nm mean size with strong photoluminescence are embedded into a silica matrix during the sol-gel procedure, using tetraethyl orthosilicate as the precursor and F127 triblock copolymer as the structure directing agent under acidic conditions. The final hybrid nanostructure forms free standing transparent films that show high flexibility and long term stable CDs luminescence indicating the protective character of the hybrid matrix. It is crucial that the photoluminescence of the hybrid's CDs is not seriously affected after thermal treatment at 550 °C for 30 min. Moreover, the herein reported hybrid is demonstrated to be suitable for the fabrication of advanced photonic structures using soft lithography processes due to its low shrinkage and distortion upon drying, both attributable to its porosity. Finally, it is reported that addition of F127 ethanolic solution in aqueous solution of CDs induces a blue-shift of their photoluminescence.

  19. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using organic-inorganic hybrid films deposited by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for all dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jui; Chang, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Kuei-Ming; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the deposition of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid dielectric films by low-temperature (close to room temperature) inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)/O2 precursor gas. The hybrid films exhibited low leakage currents and high breakdown fields, suitable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. They were successfully integrated into the gate insulator, the etch-stop layer, and the passivation layer for bottom-gate staggered amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs having the etch-stop configuration. With the double-active-layer configuration having a buffer a-IGZO back-channel layer grown in oxygen-rich atmosphere for better immunity against plasma damage, the etch-stop-type bottom-gate staggered a-IGZO TFTs with good TFT characteristics were successfully demonstrated. The TFTs showed good field-effect mobility (μFE), threshold voltage (V th), subthreshold swing (SS), and on/off ratio (I on/off) of 7.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, 2.38 V, 0.38 V/decade, and 2.2 × 108, respectively, manifesting their usefulness for a-IGZO TFTs.

  20. A new paratungstate-A-based organic-inorganic hybrid compound: Synthesis, structure and photocatalytic property of [Co(en)3]2[H2W7O24]·8H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Wang, Xin; Ma, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Yonghui; Li, Yangguang

    2013-03-01

    A new paratungstate-A-based organic-inorganic hybrid compound with the chemical formula of [Co(en)3]2[H2W7O24]·8H2O (en = ethylenediamine) (1) has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, IR, TG, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 17.216(3) Å, b = 14.986(3) Å, c = 23.088(8) Å, β = 128.151(2)°, V = 4684.2 Å3, Z = 1, R1 = 0.0484, and wR2 = 0.1087. The structure of 1 consists of the [H2W7O24]4- building blocks and [Co(en)3]2+ metal-organic cationic moieties, which are packed together via the electrostatic forces and extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. Interestingly, compound 1 represents the first structurally-defined hybrid compound based on the metastable paratungstate-A polyoxoanions and metal-organic units. The degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under UV irradiation with 1 as the heterogeneous photocatalyst has been investigated, showing a good photocatalytic property of 1 for RhB degradation.

  1. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  2. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved.

  3. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanocapsules by Interfacial Miniemulsion Polymerization%界面细乳液聚合制备有机-无机杂化纳米胶囊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仙波; 尚玥; 单国荣

    2015-01-01

    3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) was introduced into the styrene miniemulsion polymerization templated by low molecular weight hydrocarbon to prepare organic-inorganic hybrid nanocapsules. The hydrophilicity of the MPS hydrolysates and the hydrolysis-condensation reactions of MPS led to the interfacial polymerization and radicals anchored at the interface of latex and water. The organic-inorganic hybrid nanocapsules were only obtained with MPS, but the capsulation fraction was low. In order to increase the induction and anchorage functions of MPS to increase the capsulate fractions, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were introduced into the polymerization system. The effects of NIPAM and DVB amounts on the morphology of nanocapsules were discussed. The nanocapsule morphology was also determined by emulsifier concentration and the amount of small molecular weight hydrocarbon.%将甲基丙烯酸3-三甲氧基硅丙酯(MPS)引入以小分子烃为模板的苯乙烯细乳液聚合中,制备有机-无机杂化纳米胶囊。MPS由于其水解产物的亲水性及能够水解-缩合反应的特性使得MPS能够同时起界面聚合诱导剂和自由基锚定剂的作用,制备有机-无机杂化纳米胶囊,但囊化率不高。为了强化 MPS 的诱导和锚定作用,向体系中进一步加入N-异丙基丙烯酰胺(NIPAM)、二乙烯基苯(DVB),可以得到囊化率更高的产品。详细讨论了NIPAM、DVB用量对有机-无机杂化纳米胶囊形态的影响。乳化剂用量以及小分子烃模板含量也是影响胶囊形态的重要因素。

  4. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  5. Optical properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite C H3N H3Pb I3 : Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, D. O.; Izyumskaya, N.; Feneberg, M.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Goldhahn, R.; Morkoç, H.

    2016-08-01

    We perform a theoretical and experimental study of the optical properties of a C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite prepared by a vapor-assisted solution process, motivated in part by very high photovoltaic cell efficiencies. Several widespread theoretical approaches are used in an attempt to determine the most appropriate approach which would reproduce the experimental electronic structure and optical properties of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. We compare a semilocal approximation to the density functional theory with hybrid functionals and time-dependent hybrid functional calculations, evaluating the effects of exchange tuning and spin-orbit coupling. Using these methods we calculate the electronic structure, optical absorption spectrum, and frequency-dependent dielectric function of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. The results are compared to the experimentally obtained dielectric functions acquired from ellipsometry measurements. We demonstrate that inclusion of spin-orbit coupling in theoretical calculations is critical in describing the electronic and optical properties of the C H3N H3Pb I3 perovskite. Good agreement with experimental data is achieved when the optical spectra are computed using time-dependent hybrid density functional theory with spin-orbit coupling.

  6. The AlGaAs light emitting particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pozela, J; Silenas, A; Juciene, V; Dapkus, L; Jasutis, V; Tamulaitis, G; Zukauskas, A; Bendorius, R A

    1999-01-01

    An AlGaAs light emitting particle detector was fabricated and investigated experimentally. Light emitting semiconductor Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with graded-gap energy band structure were grown, and luminescence spectra were investigated. A light emitting X-ray detector was also fabricated. (author)

  7. Some aspects of dimensionality and phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite ( n-C14H29NH3)2ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, M. M.; Gamal, W. M.

    2017-03-01

    The differential scanning calorimetery and the differential thermal analysis thermograms were performed over a suitable wide range of temperatures on polycrystalline samples of the titled hybrid. Furthermore, the ac conductivity σ ac(ῳ, T) and the complex dielectric permittivity ɛ *(ῳ, T) as function of temperature 120 K < T < 400 K and some selected frequencies in the range 1 kHz ≤ f ≤ 100 kHz were measured and presented. The combination of the measured parameters confirms, without any doubt, the existence of a first-order reversible solid-solid structural phase transition from intercalation to non-intercalation, at T ≈ 368 K accompanied by a sudden increase of the interlayer spacing by ≈17.5%. The analysis of our data is based on the coordination complex and the dimensionality of the central metal halide arrangements, which, in our case, is isolated square [ZnCl4]-2 tetrahedral coordination and, hence, of zero-dimensionality (0D), but stabilized in a two-dimensional structure through charge-assisted hydrogen-bonding system. The zero-dimensionality results in a large charge density and, hence, of high efficiently packed compared with other hybrids of this series which are usually crystallized in two-dimensional (2D) corner-sharing [MCl6]-2. The rule of hydrogen bonding has been considered. The odd-even effects were given.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activity of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III): [C6H16N2]BiCl5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Manel; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Marouani, Houda

    2016-08-01

    A novel organic-inorganic hybrid compound, trans-2,5-dimethylpiperazine-1,4-diium pentachlorobismuthate(III), [C6H16N2]BiCl5, was synthesized and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with the following parameters: a = 15.365(5), b = 12.634(3), c = 8.313(3) Å, β = 120.59(3)°, Z = 4 and V = 1389.1(7) Å3. Its crystal structure consists of [BiCl5]2- anions surrounded by [C6H16N2]2+ cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between [BiCl5]2- and organic cations through N(C)-H … Cl hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. The crystal packing is stabilized by Cl … Cl interactions. The structure reveals that the piperazine ring is in a chair conformation. The vibrational spectrum has been measured at room temperature by FT-infrared spectroscopy (4000-400 cm-1) on polycrystalline samples. The number of the NMR components in the 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum proves the presence of three crystallographically independent carbons as revealed by X-ray structure determination. Investigation of antioxidant activity of compound was carried out by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, Ferric Reducing Power (FRP) and Ferrous ion chelating (FIC) methods. The synthesized compound exhibited significant antioxidant activities.

  9. Coordenação local do Eu(III em híbridos orgânicos/inorgânicos emissores de luz branca Eu(III local coordination in white light emitters organic-inorganic hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís D. Carlos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Eu3+ luminescence and EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure results are presented for organic-inorganic hybrid gel hosts composed of a siliceous network to which small chains of oxyethylene units are covalently grafted by means of urea bridges. Coordination numbers for Eu3+ ions range from 12.8 to 9.7 with increasing Eu3+ concentration while the Eu3+-first neighbours mean distance is found to be constant at 2.48-2.49 Å in the same concentration range. Emission spectra display a broad band in the green/blue spectral region superposed to narrow lines appearing in the yellow/red region in such a way that for the eyes emission appears white. The broad band is assigned to intrinsic NH groups emission and also to electron-hole recombination in the nanosised siliceous domains. The narrow lines are assigned to intra-4f6, 5D0->7F0-4 Eu3+ transitions and from the energy position of the 7F0-4 levels a mean distance could be calculated for the Eu3+-first neighbours. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained from EXAFS analysis.

  10. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hao; Hu, Gonghao; Guo, Jiuyu; Wan, Hongxiang; Mei, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-14

    Two novel organic-inorganic hybrids, Na[PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O38(OH)2Zn4][pyim]2·1.5H2O [ε(pyim)2] (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)-imidazole) and [PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O37(OH)3Zn4]2[pyim]6·4H2O [ε2(pyim)6], based on ε-Zn Keggin units {ε-PMo(V)8Mo(VI)4O(40-x)(OH)(x)Zn4}, have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by controlling the pH values. Structural analysis indicates that the framework of ε(pyim)2 is a 1D chain constructed by monomeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands, while ε2(pyim)6 is an isolated structural compound with dimeric ε-Zn units modified by pyim ligands. This is the first isolated structure of the ε-Keggin POMs system. The luminescent and electrochemical properties of ε(pyim)2 and ε2(pyim)6 were investigated. ε2(pyim)6 also shows high catalytic activity for the esterification of phosphoric acid with equimolar lauryl alcohol to monoalkyl phosphate ester (MAP).

  11. Synthesis, property and crystal structure of a novel two-dimensional network organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on the neodymium III center and Keggin-type heteropolyanion of [α-BW 12O 40] 5-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingyang; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Jingping; Ma, Pengtao

    2004-08-01

    A novel two-dimensional infinite network organic-inorganic hybrid neodymium(III)-centered compound of formula (dmaH) 2[Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)][α-BW 12O 40]·H 2O ( 1) [dma=dimethylamine and dmf= N, N-dimethylformamide] is obtained by the conventional self-assembly reaction of neodymium oxide, N, N-dimethylformamide and borotungstic acid (α-H 5BW 12O 40·30H 2O) in the mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water, and characterized by IR, UV-visible spectra and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that every [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanion interconnects with three adjacent [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ subunits by means of W-O-Nd bridges, meanwhile, every [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ building block is surrounded by three neighboring [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanions by making use of which an unprecedented two-dimensional extended network structure can be constructed. Interestingly, this structure pattern may act as useful model for the design and assembly of functional molecule-based compounds, especially in the field of molecular sieve materials.

  12. Evidence and detailed study of a second-order phase transition in the (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] organic-inorganic hybrid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yangui, A. [Groupe d' Etudes de la Matière Condensée, CNRS-Université de Versailles Saint Quentin En Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Pillet, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations, UMR-CNRS 7036, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Garrot, D.; Boukheddaden, K., E-mail: kbo@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etudes de la Matière Condensée, CNRS-Université de Versailles Saint Quentin En Yvelines, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Triki, S. [UMR CNRS 6521, Chimie, Electrochimie Moléculaires, Chimie Analytique, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, BP 809, 29285 Brest (France); Abid, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-03-21

    The thermal properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid material (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] are investigated using diffuse reflectivity, spectroscopic ellipsometry, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectivity, performed in heating mode, clearly evidences the presence of a singularity at 336 K. This is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra, which points out a second-order phase transition at 336 K with a critical exponent ∼0.5. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements on a polycrystalline powder of (C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}[PbI{sub 4}] show a reversible phase transition detected at T{sub C} = 336 K without hysteresis. Raman spectroscopy data suggest that this transition arises from a change in the interactions between inorganic sheets (([PbI{sub 4}]{sup 2−}){sub ∞}) and organic protonated molecules ([C{sub 6}H{sub 11}NH{sub 3}]{sup +}). The structural analysis from power X-ray diffraction reveals an incomplete order-disorder transition of the cyclohexylammonium cation, causing a subtle contraction of the inter-plane distance. The transition results from repulsive close contacts between the organic molecules in the interlayer spacing.

  13. Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a fiber coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Vahid; Parastari, Sheyda; Gorji, Mohsen; Foroutani, Reza; Mahdavi, Mehri; Hazizadeh, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    We describe the synthesis of a layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a new solid-phase microextraction fiber. The fiber coating can be prepared easily in a short time and the reaction is at room temperature; it is mechanically stable and exhibits relatively high thermal stability. The synthesized layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate nanocomposite was successfully prepared and immobilized on a stainless steel wire and evaluated for the extraction of aromatic compounds from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The method yields good results for some validation parameters. Under optimum conditions (extraction time: 15 min, extraction temperature: 50°C, desorption time: 1 min, desorption temperature: 250°C, salt concentration: 0.5 g/mL), the limit of detection and dynamic linear range were 0.69-3.2 ng/L and 10-500 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to the analyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylenes in two real water samples collected from the Aji river and Mehran river, Tabriz, Iran. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 3.2-7.3% and 4.2-11.2% respectively. The fibers are thermally stable and yield better recoveries than conventional methods of analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of a new organic-inorganic hybrid with Dawson type polyanions as building blocks: Na3(C7NH8O2)3[P2W18O62]·16H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmida, Fatma; Ayed, Brahim; Haddad, Amor

    2016-07-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on dawson polyoxotungstate, Na3(C7NH8O2)3 [P2W18O62].16H2O have been isolated under autogenous pressure method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This compound crystallized in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a = 14.063 (1) Å; b = 17.009 (1) Å; c = 17.868 (1) Å; α = 79.88 (1)°; β = 77.14 (1)°; γ = 79.25 (1)° and Z = 2. The crystal structures of the compounds exhibit three-dimensional supramolecular assembly based on the extensive hydrogen bonding interactions between organic cations, sodium cations, water molecules and Dawson polyoxoanions. The infrared spectrum fully confirms the X-ray crystal structure and the UV spectrum of the title compound exhibits an absorption peak at 295 nm.

  15. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a New Organic-inorganic Hybrid One-dimensional Polymer: [Zn(C8H23N5)]2(Pb3I10)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ruo-Bai; HUANG Chang-Cang; ZHANG Han-Hui; LI Hao-Hong; YANG Qi-Yu; SUN Rui-Qing

    2005-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid coordinated polymer [Zn(C8H23N5)]2(Pb3I10) (C8H23N5 = tetraethylene pentamine) was synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P with a = 9.781(2), b = 11.442(3), c = 11.565(3) (A), α = 99.075(8), β = 90.540(9), γ = 109.967(5)°, Zn2C16H46N10Pb3I10, Mr = 2399.94, V = 1198.4(5) (A)3, Z = 1, Dc = 3.325 g/cm3, F(000) = 1048.0, μ(MoKα) = 17.951 mm-1, the final R = 0.0412 and wR = 0.0993 for 3375 observed reflections with I > 2(σI). The title compound consists of [Zn(C8H23N5)]2+ cations and anionic chains [Pb3I10]n4n-, which are combined with each other via electrostatic attractive forces and N-H…I hydrogen bonds.

  16. A Three-dimensional Organic-inorganic Hybrid Material Supported by Decavanadate Clusters and Na-O Chains:Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Na6(H2O)16(dod)4V10O28

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张献明; 武海顺; 陈小明

    2004-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material [Na6(H2O)16(dod)2V10O28](dod=1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2,2,2]octane-1,4-diacetate)has been synthesized and X-ray single-crystal structural analysis reveals it crystallizes in triclinic,space group Pī with a=11.533(7),b=12.031(7),c=12.187(4)A,α=72.47(1),β=73.16(1),γ=68.21(1)°,C20H64N4Na6O52V10,V=1467(1)A3,Z=1,Mr=1840.1,Dc=2.083 g/cm3,MoKα,λ=0.71073A,μ=1.686,F(000)=924,S=1.027,the final R=0.0538 and wR=0.1272 for 4398 observed reflections.The compound has a three-dimensional frame- work constructed from decavanadate clusters,Na-O chains and dod ligands.A variety of O-H…O and C-H…O hydrogen bonds play an important role in stabilizing the framework.

  17. Fluorinated and Thermo-Cross-Linked Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes: New Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials for High-Performance Dielectric Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Junfeng; Jin, Kaikai; Fang, Qiang

    2017-04-12

    A fluorinated and thermo-cross-linked polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) has been successfully synthesized by thermal polymerization of a fluorinated POSS monomer having an inorganic silsesquioxane core and organic side chains bearing thermo-cross-linkable trifluorovinyl ether groups. This new inorganic-organic hybrid polymer shows high thermostability with a 5 wt % loss temperature of 436 °C, as well as good transparency (a sheet with an average thickness of 1.5 mm shows high transmittance of 92% varying from 400 to 1100 nm). Moreover, the polymer exhibits both low dielectric constant (polymer also shows low water uptake (polymer is very suitable to be utilized as a high-performance dielectric material for fabrication of high-frequency printed circuit boards or encapsulation resins for integrated circuit dies in the microelectronic industry. Furthermore, this work also provides a route for the preparation of fluorinated POSS-based polymers.

  18. Crystal structure, phase transition and conductivity study of two new organic - inorganic hybrids: [(CH2)7(NH3)2]X2, X = Cl/Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohga Farid; El-khiyami, Shimaa Said; Abd-Elal, Seham Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Two hybrids 1,7-heptanediammonium di-halide, [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br crystallize in monoclinic P21/c, Z = 4. [(C7H20N2]Cl2: a = 4.7838 (2) Å, b = 16.9879 (8) Å, c = 13.9476 (8) Å, β = 97.773 (2)°, V = 1203.58(10) Å3, D = 1.137 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.052 for 1055 reflections with I > 2σ(I), T = 298(2) K. [(C7H20N2]Br2: a = 4.7952 (10) Å, b = 16.9740 (5) Å, c = 13.9281 (5) Å, β = 97.793 (2)°, V = 1203.83(6) Å3, D = 1.612 g/cm3, λ = 0.71073 Å, R = 0.03 for 1959 reflections with I > 2σ(I) T = 298(2) K. Asymmetric unit cell of [(C7H20N2]X2,X = Cl/Br, each consist of one heptane-1,7-diammonium cation and two halide anions. The organic hydrocarbon layers pack in a stacked herring-bone manner, hydrogen bonded to the halide ions. Lattice potential energy is 1568.59 kJ/mol and 1560.78 kJ/mol, and cation molar volumes are 0.295 nm3 and 0.300 nm3 for chloride and bromide respectively. DTA confirmed chain melting transitions for both hybrids below T ∼ 340 K. Dielectric and ac conductivity measurements (290 340 K. Cross over from Jonscher's universal dielectric response at low temperatures T 340 K is observed. At high temperatures halide ion hopping in accordance with the jump relaxation model prevails.

  19. Light Emitting Transistors of Organic Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2009-03-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (OLETs) are attracting considerable interest as a novel function of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Besides a smallest integration of light source and current switching devices, OLETs offer a new opportunity in the fundamental research on organic light emitting devices. The OLET device structure allows us to use organic single crystals, in contrast to the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), the research of which have been conducted predominantly on polycrystalline or amorphous thin films. In the case of OFETs, use of single crystals have produced a significant amount of benefits in the studies of pursuit for the highest performance limit of FETs, intrinsic transport mechanism in organic semiconductors, and application of the single crystal transistors. The study on OLETs have been made predominantly on polycrystalline films or multicomponent heterojunctions, and single crystal study is still limited to tetracene [1] and rubrene [2], which are materials with relatively high mobility, but with low photoluminescence efficiency. In this paper, we report fabrication of single crystal OLETs of several kinds of highly luminescent molecules, emitting colorful light, ranging from blue to red. Our strategy is single crystallization of monomeric or oligomeric molecules, which are known to have a very high photoluminescence efficiency. Here we report the result on single crystal LETs of rubrene (red), 4,4'-bis(diphenylvinylenyl)-anthracene (green), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene (AC5) (green), and 1,3,6,8-tetraphenylpyrene (TPPy) (blue), all of which displayed ambipolar transport as well as peculiar movement of voltage controlled movement of recombination zone, not only from the surface of the crystal but also from the edges of the crystals, indicting light confinement inside the crystal. Realization of ambipolar OLET with variety of single crystals indicates that the fabrication method is quite versatile to various light

  20. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  1. Silicon Light Emitting Devices in CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Da; LIU Hai-Jun; LIU Jin-Bin; GU Ming; HUANG Bei-Ju

    2007-01-01

    @@ Two silicon light emitting devices with different structures are realized in standard 0.35 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. They operate in reverse breakdown mode and can be turned on at 8.3 V. Output optical powers of 13.6nW and 12.1 nW are measured at 10 V and 100 mA, respectively, and both the calculated light emission intensities are more than 1 mW/cm2. The optical spectra of the two devices are between 600-790 nm with a clear peak near 760 nm.

  2. A zero dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite ZnCl4 based: Synthesis, crystal structure, UV-vis, and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mrabet, Rajae; Kassou, Said; Tahiri, Obaida; Belaaraj, Abdesselam; El Ammari, Lahcen; Saadi, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    A low dimensional hybrid perovskite-like system [H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3]ZnCl4 was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structure. The compound crystallizes into triclinic system P-1 space group with mutually surrounded inorganic (ZnCl4)-2 organic (H3Nsbnd (CH2)8sbnd NH3) entities, and the following unit cell parameters: a = 6.9998(1) Å, b = 10.7846(2) Å, c = 11.0332(2) Å, α = 83.1730(10)°, β = 82.0490(10)°, γ = 73.2820(10)°, V = 787.27(2) Å3 and Z = 2. The optical band gap deduced from UV-visible spectroscopy was found to be 4.9 eV. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions to ensure the cohesion of the studied crystal. The band structures and electronic properties, such as total and partial densities of state, were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) using a local LDA and semi local GGA approaches. The obtained results reveal the insulating behavior of the material.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and antioxidant activity of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(nitrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfaoui, Sofian; Mezni, Ali; Roisnel, Thierry; Marouani, Houda

    2017-07-01

    The new inorganic-organic hybrid material 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(nitrate) (MPN) have been synthesized and crystallized to the orthorhombic system with space group Pnma and the lattice parameters obtained are a = 10.9385(9) Å, b = 6.5698 Å (4), c = 13.7021(10) Å, V = 984.68(12) Å3 and Z = 4. The trigonal (NO3-) anions are connected to the 1-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium cations via a large number of bifurcated and non-bifurcated Nsbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The diprotonated piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, with the methyl group occupying an equatorial position. Intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure were quantified by Hirshfeld surface analysis. Infrared spectrum confirms the existence of the functional groups in the elaborated material. Optical absorption reveals an important band gap energy indicating stability of the title compound. The DTA/TGA and DSC curves indicate that the crystal is thermally stable up to 180 °C. The antioxidant properties were determined via the DPPH radical scavenging, the ABTS radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRP).

  4. In Situ Characterization of the Initial Effect of Water on Molecular Interactions at the Interface of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletincx, Sven; Trotochaud, Lena; Fockaert, Laura-Lynn; Mol, Johannes M. C.; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Terryn, Herman; Hauffman, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Probing initial interactions at the interface of hybrid systems under humid conditions has the potential to reveal the local chemical environment at solid/solid interfaces under real-world, technologically relevant conditions. Here, we show that ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) with a conventional X-ray source can be used to study the effects of water exposure on the interaction of a nanometer-thin polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer with a native aluminum oxide surface. The formation of a carboxylate ionic bond at the interface is characterized both with APXPS and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry (ATR-FTIR Kretschmann). When water is dosed in the APXPS chamber up to 5 Torr (~28% relative humidity), an increase in the amount of ionic bonds at the interface is observed. To confirm our APXPS interpretation, complementary ATR-FTIR Kretschmann experiments on a similar model system, which is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte, are conducted. These spectra demonstrate that water leads to an increased wet adhesion through increased ionic bond formation. PMID:28327587

  5. In Situ Characterization of the Initial Effect of Water on Molecular Interactions at the Interface of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletincx, Sven; Trotochaud, Lena; Fockaert, Laura-Lynn; Mol, Johannes M. C.; Head, Ashley R.; Karslıoğlu, Osman; Bluhm, Hendrik; Terryn, Herman; Hauffman, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Probing initial interactions at the interface of hybrid systems under humid conditions has the potential to reveal the local chemical environment at solid/solid interfaces under real-world, technologically relevant conditions. Here, we show that ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) with a conventional X-ray source can be used to study the effects of water exposure on the interaction of a nanometer-thin polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer with a native aluminum oxide surface. The formation of a carboxylate ionic bond at the interface is characterized both with APXPS and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry (ATR-FTIR Kretschmann). When water is dosed in the APXPS chamber up to 5 Torr (~28% relative humidity), an increase in the amount of ionic bonds at the interface is observed. To confirm our APXPS interpretation, complementary ATR-FTIR Kretschmann experiments on a similar model system, which is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte, are conducted. These spectra demonstrate that water leads to an increased wet adhesion through increased ionic bond formation.

  6. pH-resistant titania hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating for solid-phase microextraction of polar compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiujuan; Gao, Jie; Zeng, Zhaorui

    2007-05-02

    A novel titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) sol-gel coating was developed for solid-phase microextraction of polar compounds. In general, titania-based sol-gel reaction is very fast and need to be decelerated by the use of suitable chelating agents. But in the present work, a judiciously designed sol solution ingredients was used to create the titania-OH-TSO coating without the addition of any chelating agent, which simplified the sol-gel procedure. Thanks to the variety of titania's adsorption sites and their acid-base characteristics, aromatic amines, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted and preconcentrated from aqueous samples followed by thermal desorption and GC analysis. The newly developed sol-gel hybrid titania coating demonstrated excellent pH stability, and retained its extraction characteristics intact even after continuous rinsing with a 3 M HCl or NaOH solution for 12 h. Furthermore, it could withstand temperatures as high as 320 degrees C. Practical application was demonstrated through the analysis of six aromatic amines in dye process wastewater. A linearity of four orders of magnitude was obtained with correlation coefficient better than 0.9982. The detection limits ranged from 0.22 to 0.84 microg L(-1) and the repeatability of the measurements was <7.0%. The recoveries of these compounds studied in the wastewater were in the ranges 83.6-101.4%, indicating the method accuracy.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)] hybrid organic-inorganic complexes as solid metal organic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooydell, Reza; Wang, Ruey-Chi; Brahma, Sanjaya; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzaneh; Liu, Chuan-Pu

    2015-05-07

    We have synthesized novel metal organic hybrid mixed compounds of bis (acetylacetonato κ-O, O') [zinc(ii)/copper(ii)]. Taking C10H14O4Zn0.7Cu0.3 (Z0.7C0.3AA) as an example, the crystals are composed of Z0.7C0.3AA units and uncoordinated water molecules. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction results show that the complex Z0.7C0.3AA crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n. The unit cell dimensions are a = 10.329(4) Å, b = 4.6947(18) Å, and c = 11.369(4) Å; the angles are α = 90°, β = 91.881(6)°, and γ = 90°, the volume is 551.0(4) Å(3), and Z = 2. In this process, the M(ii) ions of Zn and Cu mix and occupy the centers of symmetrical structural units, which are coordinated to two ligands. The measured bond lengths and angles of O-M-O vary with the ratio of metal species over the entire series of the complexes synthesized. The chemistry of the as-synthesized compounds has been characterized using infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, and the morphology of the products has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of the Z0.7C0.3AA composites measured by thermogravimetric analysis suggests that these complexes are volatile. The thermal characteristics of these complexes make them attractive precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition.

  8. Tailoring bifunctional hybrid organic-inorganic nanoadsorbents by the choice of functional layer composition probed by adsorption of Cu(2+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomina, Veronika V; Melnyk, Inna V; Zub, Yuriy L; Kareiva, Aivaras; Vaclavikova, Miroslava; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim A; Kessler, Vadim G

    2017-01-01

    Spherical silica particles with bifunctional (≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡SiCH3, ≡Si(CH2)3NH2/≡Si(CH2)2(CF2)5CF3) surface layers were produced by a one-step approach using a modified Stöber method in three-component alkoxysilane systems, resulting in greatly increased contents of functional components. The content of functional groups and thermal stability of the surface layers were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealing their composition and organization. The fine chemical structure of the surface in the produced hybrid adsorbent particles and the ligand distribution were further investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spectroscopy of diffuse reflectance (ESDR) spectroscopy using Cu(2+) ion coordination as a probe. The composition and structure of the emerging surface complexes were determined and used to provide an insight into the molecular structure of the surfaces. It was demonstrated that the introduction of short hydrophobic (methyl) groups improves the kinetic characteristics of the samples during the sorption of copper(II) ions and promotes fixation of aminopropyl groups on the surface of silica microspheres. The introduction of long hydrophobic (perfluoroctyl) groups changes the nature of the surface, where they are arranged in alternately hydrophobic/hydrophilic patches. This makes the aminopropyl groups huddled and less active in the sorption of metal cations. The size and aggregation/morphology of obtained particles was optimized controlling the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations of reactants, basicity of the medium, and the process temperature.

  9. Near-infrared sensitive organic-inorganic photorefractive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Vera; Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structure, assembled by Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystal and liquid crystal (LC) layer, operating at near-infrared range is proposed and demonstrated. Due to the photorefractive properties of inorganic substrate, light illumination caused a space charge field which acts as a driving force for LC molecules re-alignment and subsequent refractive index modulation. All optically controlled phase retardation ability has been demonstrated supporting possibilities for further infrared applications.

  10. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  11. Electrically and Optically Readable Light Emitting Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Tan, Wei-Chun; Lu, Meng-Lin; Pan, Tai-Chun; Yang, Ying-Jay; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2014-06-01

    Electrochemical metallization memories based on redox-induced resistance switching have been considered as the next-generation electronic storage devices. However, the electronic signals suffer from the interconnect delay and the limited reading speed, which are the major obstacles for memory performance. To solve this problem, here we demonstrate the first attempt of light-emitting memory (LEM) that uses SiO2 as the resistive switching material in tandem with graphene-insulator-semiconductor (GIS) light-emitting diode (LED). By utilizing the excellent properties of graphene, such as high conductivity, high robustness and high transparency, our proposed LEM enables data communication via electronic and optical signals simultaneously. Both the bistable light-emission state and the resistance switching properties can be attributed to the conducting filament mechanism. Moreover, on the analysis of current-voltage characteristics, we further confirm that the electroluminescence signal originates from the carrier tunneling, which is quite different from the standard p-n junction model. We stress here that the newly developed LEM device possesses a simple structure with mature fabrication processes, which integrates advantages of all composed materials and can be extended to many other material systems. It should be able to attract academic interest as well as stimulate industrial application.

  12. Polyoxometalate-based organic-inorganic hybrid compounds containing transition metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes of N-containing and pyridinecarboxylate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Chuan; Hu, Yang-Yang; Ding, Hong; Guo, Hai-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-05-21

    Five new organic–inorganic hybrid compounds based on the Keggin-type polyoxoanion [SiW12O40]4−, namely [Cu3(2,2′-bpy)3(inic)(μ2-OH)(H2O)][SiW12O40]·2H2O (1), [Cu6(phen)6(μ3-Cl)2(μ2-Cl)2Cl2(inic)2][SiW12O40]·6H2O (2), [Cu2(hnic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[H2SiW12O40] (3), [Cu2(nic)(phen)2Cl2]2[SiW12O40] (4) and [Cu2(pic)(2,2′-bpy)2Cl]2[SiW12O40] (5) (inic = isonicotinic acid, hnic = 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid, nic = nicotinic acid, pic = picolinic acid, 2,2′-bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XPS, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements, photoluminescence analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystal analysis reveals that compound 1 exhibits a 2-D double layered framework structure constructed from [SiW12O40]4− and copper-aqua-2,2′-bipy-hydroxyl-isonicotinate complexes. Compound 2 is a 0-D discrete structure formed by [SiW12O40]4− and copper-chloro-isonicotinate-phenanthroline complexes. Compound 3 shows a 1-D single chain structure based on the linkage of copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-2-hydroxy-nicotinate complexes and [SiW12O40]4−. Compounds 4 and 5 both contain polyoxometalate supported transition metal complexes, one is a polyoxometalate supported copper-chloro-nicotinate-phenanthroline complex in 4, and the other is a polyoxometalate supported copper-2,2-bpy-chloro-nicotinate complex in 5. It should be noted that nicotinic, isonicotinic and picolinic acids are structural isomers and 2-hydroxy-nicotinic acid is an in situ hydroxylated product of nicotinic acid. In addition, photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) by compounds 1–5 has been investigated in aqueous solutions.

  13. Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, S Y; Kim, S H; Kim, S S

    2001-06-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membranes composed of aromatic polyamide thin films underneath titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanosized particles have been fabricated by a self-assembly process, aiming at breakthrough of biofouling problems. First, positively charged particles of the colloidal TiO2 were synthesized by a sol-gel process, and the diameter of the resulting particles in acidic aqueous solution was estimated to be approximately 2 nm by analyzing the UV-visible absorption characteristics with a quantum mechanical model developed by Brus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further confirmed the formation of the quantum-sized TiO2 particles (approximately 10 nm or less). The TiO2 particles appeared to exist in the crystallographic form of anatase as observed with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern in comparison with those of commercial 100% rutile and commercial 70:30% anatase-to-rutile mixture. The hybrid thin-film-composite (TFC) aromatic polyamide membranes were prepared by self-assembly of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the polymer chains with COOH groups along the surface. They showed improved RO performance in which the water flux even increased, though slightly. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) exhibited the TiO2 nanoparticles well adsorbed onto the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrated quantitatively that a considerable amount of the adsorbed particles were tightly self-assembled at the expense of the initial loss of those that were loosely bound, and became stabilized even after exposure to the various washing and harsh RO operating conditions. The antibacterial fouling potential of the TiO2 hybrid membrane was examined and verified by measuring the viable numbers and determining the survival ratios of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) as a model bacterium, both with and without UV light illumination. The photocatalytic bactericidal efficiency was remarkably higher for the TiO2 hybrid membrane under UV

  14. 溶胶-凝胶法制备有机/无机纳米杂化涂料的现状及展望%Current Status and Prospect of Sol-Gel Method in Preparing Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Nano- Paints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 王笛

    2013-01-01

    溶胶-凝胶法制备的有机/无机纳米杂化涂料具有许多优点.介绍了溶胶-凝胶法制备有机/无机纳米杂化涂料的研究现状,并对此作出了展望.%A review was provided of the current status of research on fabricating organic - inorganic hybrid nano - paints by sol - gel method. It was pointed out that sol-gel method as a new method for preparing organic - inorganic hybrid materials had a variety of advantages. Furthermore, suggestions were also given about the development trend of sol-gel method.

  15. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu

    2017-07-10

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices. Herein, this issue is addressed by passivating PNCs with a class of chemically addressable ligands. The robust ligands effectively protect the PNC surfaces, enhance PNC solution processability, and can be chemically addressed by thermally induced crosslinking or radical-induced polymerization. This thin polymer shield further enhances the photoluminescence quantum yields by removing surface trap states. Crosslinked methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr3) PNCs are applied as active materials to build light-emitting diodes that have low turn-on voltages and achieve a record luminance of over 7000 cd m−2, around threefold better than previous reported MA-based PNC devices. These results indicate the great potential of this ligand passivation approach for long lifespan, highly efficient PNC light emitters.

  16. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings; Synthese et stabilisation de suspensions colloidales d'oxydes en milieu organique: application a la preparation de materiaux hybrides organiques-inorganiques pour des revetements a tres haute tenue au flux laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-15

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  17. The organic/inorganic hybrid microspheres with supracolloidal structure prepared by Pickering emulsion droplet template%Pickering乳滴模板法制备超粒子结构有机/无机杂化微球

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝阳; 刘浩; 刘红霞; 高权星; 陈云华; 李煜; 童真

    2011-01-01

    Pickering乳滴模板法制备有机/无机杂化的核壳微球越来越引起人们的关注,主要因为该方法制备出的微球具有以无机粒子为壳层的超粒子结构(supracolloidal structure),能够赋予微球独特的功能.胶体粒子在乳滴表面自组装形成有序的球面胶体壳,得到稳定Pickering乳液,固定乳滴表面的胶体粒子来制备核壳结构的微球或者以胶体粒子为壳层的微胶囊(colloidosome).本文综述了我们课题组以Pickering乳滴模板法制备超粒子结构有机/无机杂化微胶囊包括实心微球方面的工作.我们选择具有不同性能、种类的胶体粒子以及具有不同性质和功能的核材料,采用Pickering乳滴模板法,对吸附在乳滴表面的胶体粒子用不同的固定方法制备具有不同结构和性能的微球和微胶囊,利用基于多重Pickering乳液的聚合技术制备双纳米复合的超粒子结构多核聚合物微球.%The organic/inorganic hybrid core-shell microspheres fabricated by Pickering emulsion droplet template are attracting more attentions. The microspheres obtained by this method have a supracolloidal structure, which endows the microspheres with some special functions. In a Pickering emulsion, colloid particles adsorb on the surface of the emulsion droplets and self-assemble into an ordered spherical solid shell. Then, the colloid particles are fixed to prepare the core-shell microparticles or microcapsules. The microcapsules with the shell of colloid particles are also called the colloidosomes. In this paper, we summarize the research about using the Pickering emulsion droplet template to fabricate the organic/inorganic hybrid core-shell colloidosomes, including the supracolloidal-structured microsphere. The different organic core matrices, inorganic colloid particles and the fixing methods of colloid particles on the surface of the emulsion droplets have been chosen to obtain the colloidosomes or the supracolloidal

  18. Preparation of organic/inorganic hybrid and hollow particles by catalytic deposition of silica onto core/shell heterocoagulates modified with poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Obi, Shun; Kamata, Yoshitada; Kashiwakura, Takuya; Kasuya, Masakatsu; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Kohri, Michinari; Nakahira, Takayuki

    2012-02-15

    The organic/inorganic hybrid particles PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ)-g-PDMAEMA/SiO(2) were prepared by catalytic hydrolysis and subsequent polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane in the poly[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) layers grafted on the PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ) core/shell heterocoagulates. The micron-sized PSt core and the submicron-sized P(St-CPEM) shell particles bearing ATRP initiating groups were synthesized by dispersion polymerization of styrene (St) and emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of St with 2-chloropropionyloxyethyl methacrylate (CPEM), respectively. The raspberry-shaped PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ) heterocoagulates with a controlled surface coverage (θ=0.51, 0.81) were prepared by hydrophobic coagulation between the core and the shell particles in an aqueous NaCl solution near the T(g) of P(St-CPEM). Surface modification of heterocoagulates was carried out by ATRP of DMAEMA from the shell particles adsorbed on the core particles. Silica deposition was performed by simply adding tetraethoxysilane to a water/methanol dispersion of PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ)-g-PDMAEMA. The SEM and TGA revealed that the resulting PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ)-g-PDMAEMA/SiO(2) composites maintain a raspberry-like morphology after deposition of silica onto the PDMAEMA layer grafted on heterocoagulates. The micron-sized, raspberry-shaped or the submicron-sized, hole-structured silica hollow particles were obtained selectively by thermal decomposition of the PSt/P(St-CPEM)(θ)-g-PDMAEMA/SiO(2). The oriented particle array was fabricated by dropping anisotropically perforated silica particles onto a glass substrate settled at the bottom of a bottle filled with chloroform.

  19. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, optical properties and theoretical studies of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material: [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y

    2014-12-10

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid material, [((CH3)2NH2)(+)]6·[(BiBr6)(3-)]2, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible absorption. The studied compound crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P1¯ with the following parameters: a=8.4749(6)(Å), b=17.1392(12)(Å), c=17.1392(12)(Å), α=117.339(0)°, β=99.487(0)°, γ=99.487(0)° and Z=2. The crystal lattice is composed of a two discrete (BiBr6)(3-) anions surrounded by six ((CH3)2NH2)(+) cations. Complex hydrogen bonding interactions between (BiBr6)(3-) and organic cations from a three-dimensional network. Theoretical calculations were performed using density functional theory (DFT) for studying the molecular structure, vibrational spectra and optical properties of the investigated molecule in the ground state. The full geometry optimization of designed system is performed using DFT method at B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory using the Gaussian03. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from FT-IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The simulated spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental UV-Visible spectrum. The results show good consistent with the experiment and confirm the contribution of metal orbital to the HOMO-LUMO boundary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. pH-resistant titania hybrid organic-inorganic coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of drugs of abuse in urine samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet visible detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lidan; Hu, Bin; Yu, Chunhe

    2010-11-05

    An organic-inorganic hybrid titania-hydroxy-terminated silicone oil (titania-OH-TSO) stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel method. The extraction performance of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar was evaluated and compared with poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS), poly(dimethysiloxane)-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), poly(dimethysiloxane)-β-cyclodextrin (PDMS-β-CD) and C(18) coated stir bar with five polar drugs of abuse including amphetamine (PA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine (Ke) as the model analytes. The experimental results revealed that the titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar exhibited highly pH-resistant ability, good preparation reproducibility, superior selectivity and high extraction efficiency for the target compounds. Based on this fact, a new method of titania-OH-TSO coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet visible (UV) detection was developed for the analysis of five drugs of abuse in urine samples. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE such as sample pH, desorption solvent, sample volume, extraction time, desorption time, stirring rate and ionic strength were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for titania-OH-TSO coated SBSE-HPLC-UV determination of five polar drugs of abuse were in the range of 2.3-9.1 μg/L with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% (c=300 μg/L, n=6), and all of the target compounds exhibited good linearity over a concentration range of 30-3000 μg/L. The developed method was applied to the determination of amphetamines and Ke in urine samples of drug abusers with satisfactory results.

  1. Crystal structure, thermal studies, Hirshfeld surface analysis, vibrational and DFT investigation of organic-inorganic hybrid compound [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of a hybrid organic/inorganic material with the formula [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O were studied by X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.8201 (12) Ǻ, b = 18.203 (3) Ǻ, c = 19.486 (3) Ǻ, β = 98.330 (5)°, Z = 4, V = 2744.6 (7) Ǻ3. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 5.66% for 3483 independent reflections. The atomic arrangement shows an alternation of organic and inorganic layers. Between layers, the cohesion is performed via Osbnd H⋯Br, Csbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯Br, Nsbnd H⋯O and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bending. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have been carried out on [C9H6NOBr2]2CuBr4·2H2O crystal in the temperature range between 50 and 500 °C. The assignment of the observed bands in the solid state FTIR and Raman spectra of the compound was assisted by the theoretically predicted frequencies and compared with data previously reported for similar compounds. The theoretical geometrical parameters in the ground state have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory. The optical properties were investigated by optical absorption and show two bands at 279, 300 nm. The percentages of hydrogen bonding interactions are analyzed by Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface.

  2. Ionic liquid polyoxometalates as light emitting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Del Sesto, Rico E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Purdy, Geraldine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kigney, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilbertson, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The low melting point, negligible vapor pressure, good solubility, and thermal and chemical stability make ionic liquids useful materials for a wide variety of applications. Polyoxometalates are early transition metal oxygen clusters that can be synthesized in many different sizes and with a variety of heterometals. The most attractive feature of POMs is that their physical properties, in particular electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, can be easily modified following known procedures. It has been shown that POMs can exhibit cooperative properties, as superconductivity and energy transfer. POM ionic liquids can be obtained by selecting the appropliate cation. Different alkyl ammonium and alkyl phosphonium salts are being used to produce new POM ionic liquids together with organic or inorganic luminescent centers to design light emitting materials. Ammonium and phosphonium cations with activated, polymerizable groups are being used to further polymerize the ionic liquid into transparent, solid materials with high metal density.

  3. Logarithmic current electrometer using light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Y. B.; Aggarwal, A. K.

    1996-02-01

    The limit of low current measurement using logarithmic current to voltage converter is improved by 6 - 7 orders of magnitude with the use of diodes of large band gap as compared with silicon diodes. Low cost commercially available light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been used for this purpose. A theoretical study and experimental measurement of device constant and reverse saturation currents of the whole class of commercially available LEDs has been carried out. A circuit has been developed which makes use of a new technique for temperature compensation and its performance is compared with the technique in common use. The performance of the amplifier is found to be stable in the temperature range 5 - 600957-0233/7/2/005/img5 for both polarity of signals from 0957-0233/7/2/005/img6 to 0957-0233/7/2/005/img7 A.

  4. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  5. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  6. Near infrared polymer light-emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; YANG Jian; HOU Qiong; MO Yueqi; PENG Junbiao; CAO Yong

    2005-01-01

    High efficiency of near infrared polymer light-emitting diodes with bilayer structure was obtained. The diode structure is ITO/PEDOT/L1/L2/Ba/Al, where L1 is phenyl-substituted poly [p-phenylphenylene vinylene] derivative (P-PPV), L2 is 9,9-dioctylfluorene (DOF) and 4,7- bis(3-hexylthiophen)-2-yl-2,1,3-naphthothiadiazole (HDNT) copolymer (PFHDNT10). The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of diodes from PFHDNT10 is at 750 nm located in the range of near infrared. The maximum external quantum efficiency is up to 2.1% at the current density of 35 mA/cm2. The improvement of the diode's performances was considered to be the irradiative excitons confined in the interface between L1 and L2 layers.

  7. Light-emitting diodes for analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macka, Mirek; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are playing increasingly important roles in analytical chemistry, from the final analysis stage to photoreactors for analyte conversion to actual fabrication of and incorporation in microdevices for analytical use. The extremely fast turn-on/off rates of LEDs have made possible simple approaches to fluorescence lifetime measurement. Although they are increasingly being used as detectors, their wavelength selectivity as detectors has rarely been exploited. From their first proposed use for absorbance measurement in 1970, LEDs have been used in analytical chemistry in too many ways to make a comprehensive review possible. Hence, we critically review here the more recent literature on their use in optical detection and measurement systems. Cloudy as our crystal ball may be, we express our views on the future applications of LEDs in analytical chemistry: The horizon will certainly become wider as LEDs in the deep UV with sufficient intensity become available.

  8. Light-emitting nanolattices with enhanced brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ryan C.; Mandal, Rajib; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Greer, Julia R.

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals have potential in solid state lighting applications due to their advantages over conventional planar thin film devices. Periodicity in a photonic crystal structure enables engineering of the density of states to improve spontaneous light emission according to Fermi's golden rule. Unlike planar thin films, which suffer significantly from total internal reflection, a 3D architectured structure is distributed in space with many non-flat interfaces, which facilitates a substantial enhancement in light extraction. We demonstrate the fabrication of 3D nano-architectures with octahedron geometry that utilize luminescing silicon nanocrystals as active media with an aluminum cathode and indium tin oxide anode towards the realization of a 3D light emitting device. The developed fabrication procedure allows charge to pass through the nanolattice between two contacts for electroluminescence. These initial fabrication efforts suggest that 3D nano-architected devices are realizable and can reach greater efficiencies than planar devices.

  9. Optical, electrical, and magnetic field studies of organic materials for light emitting diodes and photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Tek Prasad

    We studied optical, electrical, and magnetic field responses of films and devices based on organic semiconductors that are used for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic (OPV) solar cell applications. Our studies show that the hyperfine interaction (HFI)-mediated spin mixing is the key process underlying various magnetic field effects (MFE) and spin transport in aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)[Alq3]-based OLEDs and organic spin-valve (OSV). Conductivity-detected magnetic resonance in OLEDs and magneto-resistance (MR) in OSVs show substantial isotope dependence. In contrast, isotope-insensitive behavior in the magneto-conductance (MC) of same devices is explained by the collision of spin ½ carriers with triplet polaron pairs. We used steady state optical spectroscopy for studying the energy transfer dynamics in films and OLEDs based on host-guest blends of the fluorescent polymer and phosphorescent molecule. We have also studied the magnetic-field controlled color manipulation in these devices, which provide a strong proof for the `polaron-pair' mechanism underlying the MFE in organic devices. The critical issue that hampers organic spintronics device applications is significant magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) at room temperature (RT). Whereas inorganic spin valves (ISVs) show RT magneto-resistance, MR>80%, however, the devices do not exhibit electroluminescence (EL). In contrast, OLEDs show substantive EL emission, and are particularly attractive because of their flexibility, low cost, and potential for multicolor display. We report a conceptual novel hybrid organic/inorganic spintronics device (h-OLED), where we employ both ISV with large MR at RT, and OLED that has efficient EL emission. We investigated the charge transfer process in an OPV solar cell through optical, electrical, and magnetic field measurements of thin films and devices based on a low bandgap polymer, PTB7 (fluorinated poly-thienothiophene-benzodithiophene). We found that

  10. Theory of hydrogen migration in organic-inorganic halide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, David A; Kronik, Leeor; Rappe, Andrew M

    2015-10-12

    Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently been proven to be remarkably efficient. However, they exhibit hysteresis in their current-voltage curves, and their stability in the presence of water is problematic. Both issues are possibly related to a diffusion of defects in the perovskite material. By using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of an important defect in hybrid perovskites-interstitial hydrogen. We show that differently charged defects occupy different crystal sites, which may allow for ionization-enhanced defect migration following the Bourgoin-Corbett mechanism. Our analysis highlights the structural flexibility of organic-inorganic perovskites: successive iodide displacements, combined with hydrogen bonding, enable proton diffusion with low migration barriers. These findings indicate that hydrogen defects can be mobile and thus highly relevant for the performance of perovskite solar cells.

  11. Light-Emitting Diodes: Phosphorescent Nanocluster Light-Emitting Diodes (Adv. Mater. 2/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Zhao, Yimu; Traverse, Christopher J; Staples, Richard J; Levine, Benjamin G; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-01-13

    On page 320, R. R. Lunt and co-workers demonstrate electroluminescence from earth-abundant phosphorescent metal halide nanoclusters. These inorganic emitters, which exhibit rich photophysics combined with a high phosphorescence quantum yield, are employed in red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes, providing a new platform of phosphorescent emitters for low-cost and high-performance light-emission applications.

  12. 有机无机杂化物作乳化剂的苯丙乳液制备及其性能表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(St-co-BA) Latex with an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound as Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 周树学; 廖建和; 武利民

    2003-01-01

    A poly (St-co-BA) latex was successfully synthesized by using an organic-inorganic hybrid compound(OIHC), an aliphatic carboxylate sodium/nano-silica composite, as the emulsifier, and investigated by particlesize analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical contact angle measurement (OCA) and dynamicmechanical analyzer (DMA). It was found that the protective agent, sodium polyacrylate (PA),could obviouslyimprove the polymerization stability and the functional monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), could enhancethe store stability of the latex. The particle size of poly(St-co-BA) latex decreased and then leveled off as OIHCcontent increased. TEM shows that the prepared polymers were actually organic-inorganic nanocomposites, andthese films have better waterproof property than those prepared by traditional poly(St-co-BA) latex or organicsilicone modified poly(St-co-BA) latex. The nanocomposite polymer has much higher glass transition temperaturethan organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) polymer containing the same organic silicone content.

  13. New insights into organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 nanoparticles. An experimental and theoretical study of doping in Pb2+ sites with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Gallardo, Juan Jesús; Cruz Hernández, Norge; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; de Los Santos, Desireé M.; Aguilar, Teresa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb2+ > Ca2+ for the cubic phase. The electron localization function (ELF) analysis showed similar electron localizations for undoped and Sn2+-doped tetragonal structures, which were different from those doped with Sr2+ and Cd2+. Furthermore, when Cd2+ was incorporated, the Cd-I interaction was strengthened. For Ca2+ doping, the Ca-I interaction had a greater ionic nature than Cd-I. Finally, an analysis based on the non-covalent interaction (NCI) index is presented to determine the weak-type interactions of the CH3NH3 groups with the dopant and I atoms. To our knowledge, this kind of analysis with these hybrid systems has not been performed previously.This paper presents the synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, doped in the Pb2+ position with Sn2+, Sr2+, Cd2+ and Ca2+. The incorporation of the dopants into the crystalline structure was analysed, observing how the characteristics of the dopant affected properties such as the crystalline phase, emission and optical properties. XRD showed how doping with Sn2+, Sr2+ and Cd2+ did not modify the normal tetragonal phase. When doping with Ca2+, the cubic phase was obtained. Moreover, DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy showed how the band gap decreased with the dopants, the values following the trend Sr2+ Cd2+ > Sr2+ for the tetragonal structure and Pb

  14. Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dot light-emitting devices (QD-LEDs have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color saturation and white lighting with a high color rendering index (CRI. We review the key advantages of using quantum dots (QDs in display and lighting applications, including their color purity, solution processability, and stability. After highlighting the main developments in QD-LED technology in the past 15 years, we describe the three mechanisms for exciting QDs – optical excitation, Förster energy transfer, and direct charge injection – that have been leveraged to create QD-LEDs. We outline the challenges facing QD-LED development, such as QD charging and QD luminescence quenching in QD thin films. We describe how optical downconversion schemes have enabled researchers to overcome these challenges and develop commercial lighting products that incorporate QDs to achieve desirable color temperature and a high CRI while maintaining efficiencies comparable to inorganic white LEDs (>65 lumens per Watt. We conclude by discussing some current directions in QD research that focus on achieving higher efficiency and air-stable QD-LEDs using electrical excitation of the luminescent QDs.

  15. Silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combining superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. The role of inorganic substrate in sol-gel capillary microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyal, Emre; Malik, Abdul

    2017-04-29

    Principles of sol-gel chemistry were utilized to create silica- and germania-based dual-ligand surface-bonded sol-gel coatings providing enhanced performance in capillary microextraction (CME) through a combination of ligand superhydrophobicity and π-π interaction. These organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using sol-gel precursors with bonded perfluorododecyl (PF-C12) and phenethyl (PhE) ligands. Here, the ability of the PF-C12 ligand to provide enhanced hydrophobic interaction was advantageously combined with π-π interaction capability of the PhE moiety to attain the desired sorbent performance in CME. The effect of the inorganic sorbent component on microextraction performance of was explored by comparing microextraction characteristics of silica- and germania-based sol-gel sorbents. The germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbent demonstrated superior CME performance compared to its silica-based counterpart. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the created silica- and germania-based dual-ligand sol-gel sorbents suggested higher carbon loading on the germania-based sorbent. This might be indicative of more effective condensation of the organic ligand-bearing sol-gel-active chemical species to the germania-based sol-gel network (than to its silica-based counterpart) evolving in the sol solution. The type and concentration of the organic ligands were varied in the sol-gel sorbents to fine-tune extraction selectivity toward different classes of analytes. Specific extraction (SE) values were used for an objective comparison of the prepared sol-gel CME sorbents. The sorbents with higher content of PF-C12 showed remarkable affinity for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Compared to their single-ligand sol-gel counterparts, the dual-ligand sol-gel coatings demonstrated significantly superior CME performance in the extraction of alkylbenzenes, providing up to ∼65.0% higher SE values. The prepared sol-gel CME coatings provided low ng L(-1) limit of detections (LOD

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Photoresponsive Organic-inorganic Hybrid Molecularly Imprinted Polymers%光响应性有机-无机杂化分子印迹聚合物的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超; 杨瑜珠; 张广播; 彭敬东; 唐倩; 龚成斌

    2012-01-01

    A photoresponsive functional azobenzene monomer containing silica was prepared by covalent imprinting for 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D) via oxidation-coupling reaction, acetylation and esterifica-tion reaction using commercially available p-nitrophenol, 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid and 3-chloropropyl-triethoxysilane as the starting materials. Photoresponsive organic-inorganic hybrid molecular imprinted polymer (OIHMIP) for2,4-D was prepared by sol-gel method. The photoresponsive properties, absorption abilities, selective recognition and photoregulated control the release and uptake of target molecule of OIHMIP were also studied. As characterized by atomic force microscope, the morphology of OIHMIP is sphere and the diameter of the spheres ranges in 150—200 nm. The experimental results show that OIHMIP has a high adsorption capacity and good selective recognition for2,4-D, and reversible uptake and release of 2,4-D upon alternate irradiation at 365 and 440 nm, respectively.%以4-硝基苯酚、2,4-氯苯氧乙酸和3-氯丙基三乙氧基硅烷为原料,经氧化偶合、酰化、酯化反应合成了共价结合模板分子2,4-二氯苯氧乙酸(2,4-D)的光响应性含有机硅的偶氮苯功能单体,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备了光响应性的有机-无机杂化分子印迹聚合物(OIHMIP).研究了该分子印迹聚合物光响应性能、对2,4-D的吸附性能和选择识别及光控释放与吸收能力,用原子力显微镜对其形貌进行了表征.结果表明,制得的OIHMIP具有规则的球形,粒径介于150 ~ 200 nm之间.OIHMIP对2,4-D具有良好的吸附和选择识别能力,在365和440 nm的紫外-可见光交替照射下,可控制2,4-D的释放与吸收.

  17. (EDT-TTF-CONH2)6[Re6Se8(CN)6], a metallic Kagome-type organic-inorganic hybrid compound: electronic instability, molecular motion, and charge localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Stéphane A; Batail, Patrick; Coulon, Claude; Clérac, Rodolphe; Canadell, Enric; Laukhin, Vladimir; Melzi, Roberto; Wzietek, Pawel; Jérome, Denis; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Ravy, Sylvain

    2005-08-24

    (EDT-TTF-CONH2)6[Re6Se8(CN)6], space group R, was prepared by electrocrystallization from the primary amide-functionalized ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene, EDT-TTF-CONH2 (E(1/2)1 = 0.49 V vs SCE in CH3CN), and the molecular cluster tetraanion, [Re6Se8(CN)6]4- (E(1/2) = 0.33 V vs SCE in CH3CN), equipped with hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor functionalities, respectively. Its Kagome topology is unprecedented for any TTF-based materials. The metallic state observed at room temperature has a strong two-dimensional character, in coherence with the Kagome lattice symmetry, and the presence of minute amounts of [Re6Se8(CN)6](3-)* identified by electron spin spectroscopy. A structural instability toward a distorted form of the Kagome topology of lesser symmetry is observed at ca. 180 K. The low-temperature structure is associated with a localized, electrically insulating electronic ground state and its magnetic susceptibility accounted for by a model of uniform chains of localized S = 1/2 spins in agreement with the 100 K triclinic crystal structure and band structure calculations. A sliding motion, within one out of the three (EDT-TTF-CONH2)2 dimers coupled to the [Re6Se8(CN6)(3-)*]/[Re6Se8(CN6)4-] proportion at any temperature, and the electronic ground state of the organic-inorganic hybrid material are analyzed on the basis of ESR, dc conductivity, 1H spin-lattice relaxation, and static susceptibility data which qualify a Mott localization in [EDT-TTF-CONH2]6[Re6Se8(CN)6]. The coupling between the metal-insulator transition and a structural transition allows for the lifting of a degeneracy due to the ternary axis in the high temperature, strongly correlated metallic phase which, in turn, leads to Heisenberg chains at low temperature.

  18. Unprecedented {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains and four novel organic-inorganic hybrids based on Mo-POMs and azaheterocycles templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Haijuan; Zunzhe Shu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Niu Yunyin, E-mail: niuyy@zzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Song Lisha; Zhu Yu [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Abstrct: Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on Mo-POMs and organic templates, namely [DEB] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}] [NH{sub 4}]{sub 2} (1), [BMIM] [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (2), [BMIM] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5} (3) and {l_brace}3D-[Cu(DIE){sub 2}] [1D-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sub 0.5}{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (4) [DEB= 1,1 Prime -diethyl-4,4 Prime -bipyridinium, BMIM=1,1 Prime -bis(1-methylimidazolium)methylene, DIE=1,2-diimidazoloethane] have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds 1 and 2 are POMs-based supramolecular compounds consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and [DEB]{sup 2+} or [BMIM]{sup 2+} organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template example of Mo-POMs-based supramolecular network incorporated with novel {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains. Compound 4 is a rare supramolecular structure that contains octamolybdate {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} polymeric chains interconnected via DIE ligands to form a 3D net. Moreover, it was indicated that these polyacid compounds had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Four novel organic templated polyoxometalates comprising of 0D, 1D and 3D supramolecular frameworks together with the catalytic activities on the acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid were reported. Highlights: Using cation templated self-assembly four novel polyoxometalates were prepared. Compounds 1 and 2 consisted of independent [{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} anions and organic cations. Compound 3 is the first external template-assisted POMs with {sup 1}/{sub {infinity}}[{beta}-Mo{sub 8}O{sub 26}]{sup 4-} chain. Compound 4 is a rare 3D net

  19. Hybrid organic-inorganic chlorozincate and a molecular zinc complex involving the in situ formed imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation: serendipitous oxidative cyclization, structures and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Kokozay, Vladimir N; Linnik, Rostyslav P; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W

    2015-08-14

    Two novel compounds, the organic-inorganic hybrid [L](2)[ZnCl(4)] (1) and the coordination complex LZnCl(3) (2), where L is the 2-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium cation, were prepared using the oxidative condensation-cyclization of 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde and CH(3)NH(2)·HCl in methanol in the presence of Zn(2+) cations. The metal-free interaction of the organic components afforded the salt [L][Cl]·1.5H(2)O (3). The use of methylamine hydrochloride instead of its aqueous solution is believed to be responsible for the cyclocondensation with the formation of L instead of the expected Schiff base ligand. Compounds 1-3 have been obtained as single crystals and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The structure of 1 is described as layers of cations and anions stacked along the c-axis, with the minimum ZnZn distance being 8.435 Å inside a layer. In the crystal lattice of 3, the cations are arranged in stacks propagating along the a-axis; the 1D H-bonding polymer built of chloride ions and water molecules runs parallel to a column of stacked cations. The organic cations in salts 1 and 3 show various patterns of π-π stacking. The discrete molecular structure of 2 shows coordination of a Zn atom to the N(pyridyl) atom, which enables one of the chloride atoms attached to the metal centre to interact with a π-system of the positively charged imidazolium ring. Numerous C-HCl contacts in a 1-3 are seen as space-filling van der Waals interactions of minor importance in determining crystal packing. The (1)H NMR studies suggest that the Zn-N coordination found in the solid-state structure of 2 is not retained in dmso, and 1, 2 and 3 are completely dissociated in solution. The emission spectra of 1 and 2 (λ(max) = 455 and 445 nm, respectively) exhibit red-shifts of fluorescence wavelength when compared to 3 and differ in the shapes and maxima of the emission as well as in relative

  20. Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Raja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review.

  1. Recent advances in conjugated polymers for light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Alam, Javed; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy; Raja, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review.

  2. White and Red Organic Light Emitting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOW Tahsin J.; CHIU Ching-Wen; TSAI Mu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Derivatives of 2,3-(1,4-dialkoxyaceno)norbornadiene underwent ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) upon the catalysis of a ruthenium complex to afford the corresponding polymers. The polymeric materials containing anthracene chromophores emit white electro-luminescence, which can be fabricated into light-emitting diodes (LED). The broad emission band is composed of a blue emission from anthracene and a red emission from aggregates. A single layer device, ITO/polymer/Ca/Al, can be turned on at 7V and exhibits maximum intensity 427 cd/m2 at 15 V. A double layer device, ITO/polymer/TPBI/Mg:Ag (TPBI = (2,2′,2"-(1,3,5-benzenetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole)) displayed blue light with turn-on voltage 6 V and maximal intensity 930 cd/m2 at 15 V.Derivatives of bisindolylmaleimide were found to form amorphous solid films which exhibit intensive red luminescence. The property of forming glasses can be ascribed to the nonplanar geometry of these molecules. LED devices were fabricated by a layer of pure dye sandwiched between two charge transporting films. The yellow emission spectrum of the devices utilizing Alq (tris(8-hydoxyquinolinato)aluminum) contains a green component from Alq. Pure red emissions can be achieved by replacing Alq with TPBI. Typical devices can be turned on at ~3 V with maximal intensity 2000 cd/m2. White color devices are under current investigation, in which the green Alq layer is replaced by its blue derivative (bis(2-methyl-8-hydoxyquinolinato)(phenolato)aluminum).

  3. Organic-Inorganic Composites Toward Biomaterial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sugawara-Narutaki, Ayae; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics are known to exhibit specific biological affinities and are able to show direct integration with surrounding bone when implanted in bony defects. However, their inadequate mechanical properties, such as low fracture toughness and high Young's modulus in comparison to natural bone, limit their clinical application. Bone is a kind of organic-inorganic composite where apatite nanocrystals are precipitated onto collagen fibre networks. Thus, one way to address these problems is to mimic the natural composition of bone by using bioactive ceramics via material designs based on organic-inorganic composites. In this chapter, the current research on the development of the various organic-inorganic composites designed for biomaterial applications has been reviewed. Various compounds such as calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate can be used for the inorganic phases to design composites with the desired mechanical and biological properties of bone. Not only classical mechanical mixing but also coating of the inorganic phase in aqueous conditions is available for the fabrication of such composites. Organic modifications using various polymers enable the control of the crystalline structure of the calcium carbonate in the composites. These approaches on the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites provide important options for biomedical materials with novel functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Bipolar Host Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-02-01

    It is important to balance holes and electrons in the emitting layer of organic light-emitting diodes to maximize recombination efficiency and the accompanying external quantum efficiency. Therefore, the host materials of the emitting layer should transport both holes and electrons for the charge balance. From this perspective, bipolar hosts have been popular as the host materials of thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. In this review, we have summarized recent developments of bipolar hosts and suggested perspectives of host materials for organic light-emitting diodes.

  5. WATER SOLUBLE PHENOLIC RESIN/SiO2 HYBRID MATERIALS PREPARED BY ORGANIC-INORGANIC COPOLYMERIZATION PROCESS AND THEIR APPLICATION%有机-无机同步聚合法制备水溶性酚醛树脂/SiO2杂化材料及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫军连; 齐暑华; 张冬娜; 李春华; 史艳梅

    2009-01-01

    The water soluble phenolic resin/SiO_2 hybrid materials are prepared by organic-inorganic copolymerization technique that the polymerization of phenolic resin monomers and the hydrolysis polycondensation reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate process at the same time. FTIR and SEM analyses indicate that SiO_2 particles and phenolic resin matrix form organic-inorganic interpenetrating network, and there are strong combinations between organic-inorganic phases. DSC is applied to study the curing behavior of hybrid materials. TGA analysis indicates that the thermal stability of hybrid materials is improved after adding SiO_2 particles into phenolic resin matrix.%采用有机-无机同步聚合法使酚醛树脂(PF)的单体聚合和正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)的水解缩合反应同步进行制备了水溶性PF/SiO_2杂化材料.红外光谱分析和扫描电镜分析表明,在有机-无机同步聚合过程中,SiO_2粒子与PF基体间形成有机、无机互穿网络结构,并且实现了有机、无机两相间的强界面结合.采用差示扫描量热仪对杂化材料的固化行为进行了研究.热失重分析表明,杂化材料的耐热性能明显提高,大大拓宽了其应用范围.

  6. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  7. Curing efficacy of light emitting diodes of dental curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyd Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of quartz tungsten halogen (QTH and light emitting diode (LED curing lights on polymerization of resin composite. Materials and Methods. A hybrid resin composite was used to prepare samples which were cured using two QTH and ten LED light curing sources. Twelve groups, each containing ten samples, were prepared using each light source. The cured depth of the resin was determined using ISO 4049 method and Vickers hardness values were determined at 1.0 mm intervals. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results. Data analysis demonstrated a significant difference between light sources for depth of cure. At 1.0 mm below the surface all the tested light sources and at 2.0-mm intervals all light sources except two (Optilux 501 and LEDemetron I and at 3.0-mm intervals only two light sources (PenCure and LEDemetron II could produce hardness values higher than 80% of superficial layer values. Conclusion. This study showed that a variety of LED light sources used in the present study are as effective as the high-intensity QTH lights in polymerization of resin composite.

  8. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Lear, Kevin L.; Schneider, Jr., Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

  9. Organic light-emitting diodes: High-throughput virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shuzo; Shizu, Katsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Computer networks, trained with data from delayed-fluorescence materials that have been successfully used in organic light-emitting diodes, facilitate the high-speed prediction of good emitters for display and lighting applications.

  10. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  11. Towards fully spray coated organic light emitting devices

    OpenAIRE

    GILISSEN, Koen; STRYCKERS, Jeroen; Manca, Jean; DEFERME, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Pi-conjugated polymer light emitting devices have the potential to be the next generation of solid state lighting. In order to achieve this goal, a low cost, efficient and large area production process is essential. Polymer based light emitting devices are generally deposited using techniques based on solution processing e.g.: spin coating, ink jet printing. These techniques are not well suited for cost-effective, high throughput, large area mass production of these organic devices. Ultrasoni...

  12. Organic light emitting diode with light extracting electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry

    2017-04-18

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (20), a first electrode (12), an emissive active stack (14), and a second electrode (18). At least one of the first and second electrodes (12, 18) is a light extracting electrode (26) having a metallic layer (28). The metallic layer (28) includes light scattering features (29) on and/or in the metallic layer (28). The light extracting features (29) increase light extraction from the organic light emitting diode (10).

  13. White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Gu; Kee, In Seo; Shim, Hong Shik; Ko, Ick Hwan; Lee, Soonil; Koh, Ken Ha

    2007-06-01

    White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between emitting layers (MI-EML WOLEDs) showed luminance and efficiency as large as 26213cd/m2 and 9.85cd/A. Efficiencies of MI-EML WOLEDs were about 1.5 times better than those of conventional three-EML WOLEDs for luminance of 1000-5000cd/m2, and their half-decay lifetime showed 3.1 times improvement. Note that if the authors operate typical active-matrix mobile-phone displays based on combination of WOLED and color filters to produce standard white emission for high definition televisions and illumination sources, MI-EML WOLEDs will have advantages of 25% less power consumption and 2.8 times longer lifetime over conventional three-EML WOLEDs.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic materials of polyamide-imide (PAI) and copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES); Sintese e caracterizacao de materiais hibridos organico-inorganicos de poliamida-imida e copolisilsesquioxanos de 3-aminopropiltrietoxissilano e feniltrietoxissilano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarchi, A.A., E-mail: aa_demarchi@terra.com.b [WEG Equipamentos Eletricos S.A., Jaragua do Sul, SC (Brazil). Dept. de P e D do Produto; Pezzin, S.H. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas

    2010-07-01

    In this work, organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained by adding copolysilsesquioxanes of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES) and phenyltriethoxysilane (PTES), prepared by sol-gel, to the polyamide-imide (PAI). The synthesis of PAI oligomer from trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and 4,4-diphenyl-methane diisocyanate (MDI), was monitored by FTIR, noting that two steps of 80 deg C and 120 deg C for 2 h each are sufficient to obtain it. PAI-copolysilsesquioxanes hybrids were characterized by FTIR, viscometry, thermogravimetry, NMR and microscopy. The spectrum of the PAI and PAI-hybrid copolysilsesquioxanes show the formation of amide and imide. Copolysilsesquioxanes with high levels of APES increased the viscosity and generated the PAI oligomer gelatinization, hindering the formation of uniform films. Gelatinization did not occur with copolysilsesquioxanes rich PTES, allowing the formation of homogeneous films improvements in thermal resistance. (author)

  15. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J;

    2013-01-01

    we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile......In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here...... are shown to agree well with experiment. The experimental emission profile was obtained with nanometre resolution from the measured angle- and polarization-dependent emission spectra. The simulations elucidate the crucial role of exciton transfer from green to red and the efficiency loss due to excitons...

  16. Tailor-made directional emission in nanoimprinted plasmonic-based light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, G.; Grzela, G.; Verschuuren, M. A.; Ramezani, M.; Rivas, J. Gómez

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate an enhanced and tailor-made directional emission of light-emitting devices using nanoimprinted hexagonal arrays of aluminum nanoparticles. Fourier microscopy reveals that the luminescence of the device is not only determined by the material properties of the organic dye molecules but is also strongly influenced by the coherent scattering resulting from periodically arranged metal nanoparticles. Emitters can couple to lattice-induced hybrid plasmonic-photonic modes sustained by plasmonic arrays. Such modes enhance the spatial coherence of an emitting layer, allowing the efficient beaming of the emission along narrow angular and spectral ranges. We show that tailoring the separation of the nanoparticles in the array yields an accurate angular distribution of the emission. This combination of large-area metal nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and light-emitting devices is beneficial for the design and optimization of solid-state lighting systems.

  17. Highly luminescent colloidal CdS quantum dots with efficient near-infrared electroluminescence in light-emitting diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Ashu Kumar; Antolini, F.; Zhang, Shuyue; Stroea, L.; Orlotani, L; Lanzi, M; Serra, E; Allard, S; Scherf, U.; Samuel, Ifor David William

    2016-01-01

    We acknowledge financial support from FP7 project “Laser Induced Synthesis of Polymeric Nanocomposite Materials and Development of Micro-Patterned Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Transistors (LET)”-LAMP (Project G.A.247928). A.K.B. and I.D.W.S. also acknowledge financial support from EPSRC Programme “Challenging the Limits of Photonics: Structured Light” Grant EP/J01771X/1. Quantum dots are of growing interest as emissive materials in light emitting devices. Here first we report the fo...

  18. 有机无机杂化固态太阳能电池的研究进展∗%Recent progress in research on solid organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁怀亮; 李俊鹏; 王鸣魁

    2015-01-01

    Recently solid-state organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells based on perovskite structured materials have evidenced a great breakthrough due to their perfect light absorption and charge transfer optoelectronic properties. The power conversion efficiencies have exceeded 20.1% during the last 5 years, since the first report on perovskite solar cells with an efficiency of 3.8% in 2009. Remarkably, perovskite solar cells with a planar-heterojunction structure have achieved an efficiency of 19.3%, and the perovskite solar cells with conventional mesoporous structure have achieved a certified efficiency above 16.7%. This review article first introduces the development of the third generation of solar cells from dye-sensitized solar cells to the perovskite solar cells, and then focuses on the optical and physical properties of the perovskite materials and their application in solid-state solar cells. We discuss the performance characteristics and advantages of the perovskite solar cells having mesoporous, planar heterojunction, flexibility, and hole-conductor-free structure respectively, and the charge collection layer which is applied in perovskite solar cells, such as semiconductor oxide (TiO2, Al2O3, ZnO and NiO) and PEDOT:PSS, etc. More over this review article introduces the charge transport materials, including P3HT, spiro-OMeTAD, PTAA, and PCBM, as well as different photoabsorption material, such as CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3−xClx, etc. aiming to analyze their performance characteristic in the perovskite solar cells with different configurations; and the main factor related to the performance. Finally, this review elaborates the perspective and understanding of the perovskite solar cells and points out the critical point and expectation for improving the performance of perovskite solar cells further.%近年来,由于钙钛矿材料优良的光学吸收和电荷传导特性,有机无机杂化固态太阳能电池取得了突破性的进展.自2009

  19. Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals hybrid phosphors for enhancing color rendering index of white light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the yellow emitting cubic structure of Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ phosphors were prepared by high temperature solid state reaction. The Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ phosphors exhibited strong excitation intensity under 400-460 nm region, and broad band emission appeared at around 545-600 nm due to the d-f transition of Eu2+. To enhance the red emission, HDA/TOP/TOPO capped CdSe/ZnS NCs were synthesized via fast nucleation and slow growth method. The narrow emission peak was located at 615 nm with 69% of high quantum yield. Bright white emission was generated by combining a 460 nm InGaN LED chip with CdSe/ZnS NCs and Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ hybrid phosphors. The fabricated white LEDs showed warm white light with acceptable CIE chromaticity coordinate variation from (0.343, 0.255) at 20 mA to (0.335, 0.250) at 50 mA. The addition of CdSe/ZnS NCs contributed to the extension of white light spectrum by supplement of the red region. The color rendering index was largely enhanced from 41.7 to 79.7 compared to the Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ based phosphors white LED.

  20. Nanoscale investigation of organic - inorganic halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacovich, S.; Divitini, G.; Vrućinić, M.; Sadhanala, A.; Friend, R. H.; Sirringhaus, H.; Deschler, F.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years organic - inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells have exhibited a rapid evolution, reaching certified power conversion efficiencies now surpassing 20%. Nevertheless the understanding of the optical and electronic properties of such systems on the nanoscale is still an open problem. In this work we investigate two model perovskite systems (based on iodine - CH3NH3PbI3 and bromine - CH3NH3PbBr3), analysing the local elemental composition and crystallinity and identifying chemical inhomogeneities.

  1. Experimental investigations into the physics of light emitting conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelegg, S A

    2001-01-01

    chloroprecursor MEH-PPV in-situ of ITO results in a reaction of the polymer with ITO, which significantly shift the emission to high energies. Electroabsorption spectroscopy is used to probe the internal electric fields within operating polymer light emitting devices. When a PPV based LED in an oxygen/water atmosphere, degradation of the device occurs whereby an electric field develops, which opposes the applied electric field. This opposing electric field subsequently decays when the device is turned to its off state. Operating lifetimes and emission efficiencies of polymer light emitting devices are now approaching values suitable for the manufacture and sale of polymer light emitting based products. However, degradation and device performance still continues to be of chief concern and in order for these to be improved the underlying physical processes have to be identified. This thesis aims to identify some of these processes. An investigation in to the optical absorption and emission properties of insolub...

  2. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Novel 1D Chain-like Organic Inorganic Hybrid Rare Earth Derivative of Polyoxometalate: H0.5[Sm(H2O)6]0.25[Sm(H2O)5]0.25{[Sm(H2O)7][Sm(H2O)2- (DMSO)] [SiW11O39]}·4.5H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wei ZHAO; Jing Ping WANG; Jing Yang NIU

    2005-01-01

    A 1D chain-like organic-inorganic hybrid rare earth derivative of polyoxometalate (DMSO) and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and single crystal X-ray diffraction.The neighboring polyanionic units {[Sm(H2O)7][Sm(H2O)2(DMSO)][SiW11O39]}2- are bridged together to a 1D chain structure by means of [Sm(H2O)2(DMSO)]3+ ion.

  3. Design of vertically-stacked polychromatic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, K N; Wang, X H; Li, Z L; Lai, P T; Choi, H W

    2009-06-01

    A new design for a polychromatic light-emitting diode (LED) is proposed and demonstrated. LED chips of the primary colors are physically stacked on top of each other. Light emitted from each layer of the stack passes through each other, and thus is mixed naturally without additional optics. As a color-tunable device, a wide range of colors can be generated, making it suitable for display purposes. As a phosphor-free white light LED, luminous efficacy of 30 lm/watt was achieved.

  4. Electrically driven surface plasmon light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadil, Ahmed; Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke

    We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement.......We investigate device performance of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a 30-nm p-GaN layer. The metallization used to separate the p-contact from plasmonic metals, reveals limitations on current spreading which reduces surface plasmonic enhancement....

  5. Degradation of light emitting diodes: a proposed methodology*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sau Koh; Willem Van Driel; G.Q.Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their long lifetime and high efficacy, light emitting diodes have the potential to revolutionize the illumination industry. However, self heat and high environmental temperature which will lead to increased junction temperature and degradation due to electrical overstress can shorten the life of the light emitting diode. In this research, a methodology to investigate the degradation of the LED emitter has been proposed. The epoxy lens of the emitter can be modelled using simplified Eyring methods whereas an equation has been proposed for describing the degradation of the LED emitters.

  6. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  7. Theory of piezo-phototronics for light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-09-04

    Devices fabricated by using the inner-crystal piezopotential as a "gate" voltage to tune/control the carrier generation, transport, and recombination processes at the vicinity of a p-n junction are named piezo-phototronics. Here, the theory of the photon emission and carrier transport behavior in piezo-phototronic devices is investigated as a p-n junction light-emitting diode. Numerical calculations are given for predicting the photon emission and current-voltage characteristics of a general piezo-phototronic light-emitting diode.

  8. Giant photostriction in organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; You, Lu; Wang, Shiwei; Ku, Zhiliang; Fan, Hongjin; Schmidt, Daniel; Rusydi, Andrivo; Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; Ren, Peng; Chen, Liufang; Yuan, Guoliang; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-04-01

    Among the many materials investigated for next-generation photovoltaic cells, organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites have demonstrated great potential thanks to their high power conversion efficiency and solution processability. Within a short period of about 5 years, the efficiency of solar cells based on these materials has increased dramatically from 3.8 to over 20%. Despite the tremendous progress in device performance, much less is known about the underlying photophysics involving charge-orbital-lattice interactions and the role of the organic molecules in this hybrid material remains poorly understood. Here, we report a giant photostrictive response, that is, light-induced lattice change, of >1,200 p.p.m. in methylammonium lead iodide, which could be the key to understand its superior optical properties. The strong photon-lattice coupling also opens up the possibility of employing these materials in wireless opto-mechanical devices.

  9. 纳米TiO2/有机-无机杂化丙烯酸复合涂层机械及耐腐蚀性能的研究%Study on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance properties of nano-TiO2/organic-inorganic hybrid acrylic composite coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婕; 孙小英; 杭建忠; 施利毅; 程银银

    2012-01-01

    The organic-inorganic hybridization acrylic resin was synthesized with sol-gel method,and the effects of the addition of nano-TiO2 on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance properties of organic-inorganic hybridization acrylic composite coatings have been investigated in detail.The result showed that,when adding 15wt% nano-TiO2,the hardness of coating was improved from 3 to 6H,the salt spray resistance time increased from 100 to 500h,and the resistance got to 106Ω·cm2.Moreover,it can be observed clearly that nano particles dispersed uniformly and densely in the coatings by SEM.The coordination of organic-inorganic hybridization acrylic resin and nano-TiO2 was a good potential method for improving the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance properties of coatings.%在采用溶胶-凝胶法合成有机-无机杂化丙烯酸树脂的基础上,研究了纳米TiO2添加量对有机-无机杂化丙烯酸复合涂层机械和耐腐蚀等性能的影响。研究表明,当纳米TiO2添加量为15%时,涂层的性能有了较大的提高,其硬度由3H提高至6H,涂层的耐盐雾时间由100h提高到500h,涂层的阻抗值也由104Ω.cm2提高至106Ω.cm2。另外,通过扫描电镜观察了复合涂层的断面,发现涂层中纳米粒子分散均匀,并且粘接紧密,形成了较为致密的复合涂层。

  10. One-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Synthesized with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT as templates for the preparation of 1D porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites. The in situ deposited SWCNT were sputter coated with Sn metal and thermally oxidized in air to form a SnO2/SWCNT nanowire framework on SiO2/Si substrate. Poly(acrylic acid (PAA was coated onto this scaffold through UV light-induced radical polymerization, which resulted in the final formation of hybrid composites. The structures of hybrid composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that PAA was successfully coated and the structural advantage of nanowire was fairly maintained, which indicates that this framework is very stable for organic functionalization in solution. The simplicity of this method for the formation of porous organic-inorganic hybrid composites provides a potential application for nanoelectronic devices.

  11. In-Situ Formed Type I Nanocrystalline Perovskite Film for Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Yung Ji; Yang, June-Mo; Ham, Sujin; Jeon, Sang Kyu; Lee, Jun Yeob; Song, Young-Hyun; Ji, Eun Kyung; Yoon, Dae-Ho; Seo, Seongrok; Shin, Hyunjung; Han, Gil Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dongho; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2017-03-28

    Excellent color purity with a tunable band gap renders organic-inorganic halide perovskite highly capable of performing as light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Perovskite nanocrystals show a photoluminescence quantum yield exceeding 90%, which, however, decreases to lower than 20% upon formation of a thin film. The limited photoluminescence quantum yield of a perovskite thin film has been a formidable obstacle for development of highly efficient perovskite LEDs. Here, we report a method for highly luminescent MAPbBr3 (MA = CH3NH3) nanocrystals formed in situ in a thin film based on nonstoichiometric adduct and solvent-vacuum drying approaches. Excess MABr with respect to PbBr2 in precursor solution plays a critical role in inhibiting crystal growth of MAPbBr3, thereby forming nanocrystals and creating type I band alignment with core MAPbBr3 by embedding MAPbBr3 nanocrystals in the unreacted wider band gap MABr. A solvent-vacuum drying process was developed to preserve nanocrystals in the film, which realizes a fast photoluminescence lifetime of 3.9 ns along with negligible trapping processes. Based on a highly luminescent nanocrystalline MAPbBr3 thin film, a highly efficient green LED with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 8.21% and a current efficiency of 34.46 cd/A was demonstrated.

  12. Perovskite nanocrystals for light-emitting and energy harvesting applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Alexander S.; Sichert, Jasmina A.; Tong, Yu; Hintermayr, Verena; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Stolarczyk, Jacek K.; Feldmann, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    We focus on fabricating organic/inorganic halide perovskites with controlled dimensionality, size and composition and studying the optical and electrical properties of the resulting nanocrystals. By partially exchanging the most commonly used organic cation methylammonium for a cation with a larger chain we are able to fabricate two-dimensional nanoplatelets down to a single unit cell thickness.1 Through absorption and photoluminescence measurements we find that this leads to a strong-quantum size effect in the perovskites while additionally increasing the exciton bind energy to several hundreds of meV. We employ several fabrication techniques to increase the fluorescence quantum yield to be able to investigate single particles, and to study energy transport between individual nanocrystals by time-resolved spectroscopic methods. Our findings can lead to improvements in not only photovoltaic devices, but also for light-harvesting and light-emitting devices, such as LEDs and lasers. (1) Sichert, J. A.; Tong, Y.; Mutz, N.; Vollmer, M.; Fischer, S.; Milowska, K. Z.; García Cortadella, R.; Nickel, B.; Cardenas-Daw, C.; Stolarczyk, J. K.; Urban, A. S.; Feldmann, J. Nano Letters 2015, 15, 6521.

  13. Growth and properties of wide spectral white light emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Zi-Li; Shi Yi; Zheng You-Dou; Zhang Rong; Fu De-Yi; Liu Bin; Xiu Xiang-Qian; Hua Xue-Mei; Zhao Hong; Chen Peng; Han Ping

    2011-01-01

    Wide spectral white light emitting diodes have been designed and grown on a sapphire substrate by using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system.Three quantum wells with blue-light-emitting,green-light-emitting and red-light-emitting structures were grown according to the design.The surface morphology of the film was observed by using atomic force microscopy. The films were characterized by their photoluminescence measurements. X-ray diffraction θ/2θ scan spectroscopy was carried out on the multi-quantum wells.The secondary fringes of the symmetric ω/2θ X-ray diffraction scan peaks indicate that the thicknesses and the alloy compositions of the individual quantum wells are repeatable throughout the active region.The room temperature photolumineecence spectra of the structures indicate that the white light emission of the multi-quantum wells is obtained.The light spectrum covers 400-700 nm,which is almost the whole visible light spectrum.

  14. Toward inkjet printing of small molecule organic light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, H.; Coenen, M.J.J.; Slaats, M.W.L.; Ren, M.; Lu, W.; Kuijpers, C.J.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal evaporation is the current standard for the manufacture of small molecule organic light emitting diodes (smOLEDs), but it requires vacuum process, complicated shadow masks and is inefficient in material utilization, resulting in high cost of ownership. As an alternative, wet solution deposit

  15. Device Physics of White Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, Herman T.; Hof, Andre; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2012-01-01

    The charge transport and recombination in white-emitting polymer light- emitting diodes (PLEDs) are studied. The PLED investigated has a single emissive layer consisting of a copolymer in which a green and red dye are incorporated in a blue backbone. From single-carrier devices the effect of the gre

  16. Silicon light-emitting diode antifuse: properties and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our research on the silicon light-emitting diode antifuse, a tiny source featuring a full white-light spectrum. Optical and electrical properties of the device are discussed together with the modelling of the spectral emission, explaining the emitting mechanism of the device. An e

  17. Atom probe tomography of a commercial light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. J.; Prosa, T. J.; Olson, D.; Lefebvre, W.; Lawrence, D.; Clifton, P. H.; Kelly, T. F.

    2013-11-01

    The atomic-scale analysis of a commercial light emitting diode device purchased at retail is demonstrated using a local electrode atom probe. Some of the features are correlated with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Subtle details of the structure that are revealed have potential significance for the design and performance of this device.

  18. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  19. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schowalter, Leo J; Chen, Jianfeng; Grandusky, James R

    2015-02-24

    In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.

  20. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of e