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Sample records for hybrid nanostructure heterojunction

  1. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kaikun; Huang Liwei; Zou Lianfeng; Wang, Howard [Institute for Materials Research, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States); Xu Congkang, E-mail: wangh@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  2. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ternary Bulk Heterojunction of Nanostructured Perovskite-Low Bandgap Polymer-PCBM for Improved Efficiency of Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanbin; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-12-30

    A new organic-inorganic ternary bulk heterojunction (TBHJ) hybrid configuration comprised of nanostructured (CH3)3NHPbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite-low bandgap PCPDTBT-PCBM was investigated. Well-organized TBHJ films were readily prepared by sequential spin-casting of sparsely covered MAPbI3 nano dots and PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) composites on ITO/PEDOT:PSS substrates. The TBHJ hybrid device configuration comprising diiooctane (DIO) treated MAPbI3 perovskite nano dots and a PCPDTBT-PCBM BHJ composite processed with DIO additive exhibited excellent performances. The DIO additive played a key role in developing perovskite structures of MAPbI3 nano dots and induced the (110) directional crystallinity growth of longitudinal constructive morphologies such as nano rods. The improved photocurrent and fill factor compared to those of conventional BHJ devices led to an increase in efficiency of ∼28%. This improved photovoltaic performance originated from the higher quantum efficiencies contributed by the charge transfer from nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite to PCBM. These TBHJs composed of nanostructured MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM also facilitated the exciton dissociation in the multi-BHJ system between MAPbI3 perovskite, PCPDTBT, and PCBM.

  3. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  4. Hybrid morphology dependence of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Furui; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Wang, Zhanguo

    2014-01-01

    A nanocrystal thin-film solar cell operating on an exciton splitting pattern requires a highly efficient separation of electron-hole pairs and transportation of separated charges. A hybrid bulk-heterojunction (HBH) nanostructure providing a large contact area and interpenetrated charge channels is favorable to an inorganic nanocrystal solar cell with high performance. For this freshly appeared structure, here in this work, we have firstly explored the influence of hybrid morphology on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe:CdSe bulk-heterojunction solar cells with variation in CdSe nanoparticle morphology. Quantum dot (QD) or nanotetrapod (NT)-shaped CdSe nanocrystals have been employed together with CdTe NTs to construct different hybrid structures. The solar cells with the two different hybrid active layers show obvious difference in photovoltaic performance. The hybrid structure with densely packed and continuously interpenetrated two phases generates superior morphological and electrical properties for more efficient inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells, which could be readily realized in the NTs:QDs hybrid. This proved strategy is applicable and promising in designing other highly efficient inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  5. Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinghong; Schlipf, Johannes; Wussler, Michael; Petrus, Michiel L; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Bein, Thomas; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Docampo, Pablo

    2016-06-28

    Recently developed organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells combine low-cost fabrication and high power conversion efficiency. Advances in perovskite film optimization have led to an outstanding power conversion efficiency of more than 20%. Looking forward, shifting the focus toward new device architectures holds great potential to induce the next leap in device performance. Here, we demonstrate a perovskite/perovskite heterojunction solar cell. We developed a facile solution-based cation infiltration process to deposit layered perovskite (LPK) structures onto methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) films. Grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments were performed to gain insights into the crystallite orientation and the formation process of the perovskite bilayer. Our results show that the self-assembly of the LPK layer on top of an intact MAPI layer is accompanied by a reorganization of the perovskite interface. This leads to an enhancement of the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency due to reduced recombination losses, as well as improved moisture stability in the resulting photovoltaic devices.

  6. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  7. Hybrid tandem solar cells with depleted-heterojunction quantum dot and polymer bulk heterojunction subcells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taesoo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate hybrid tandem solar cells that rely on the combination of solution-processed depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot (CQD) and bulk heterojunction polymer:fullerene subcells. The hybrid tandem solar cell is monolithically integrated and electrically connected in series with a suitable p-n recombination layer that includes metal oxides and a conjugated polyelectrolyte. We discuss the monolithic integration of the subcells, taking into account solvent interactions with underlayers and associated constraints on the tandem architecture, and show that an adequate device configuration consists of a low bandgap CQD bottom cell and a high bandgap polymer:fullerene top cell. Once we optimize the recombination layer and individual subcells, the hybrid tandem device reaches a VOC of 1.3V, approaching the sum of the individual subcell voltages. An impressive fill factor of 70% is achieved, further confirming that the subcells are efficiently connected via an appropriate recombination layer. © 2015.

  8. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B.; Hesse, Holger C.; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas [Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU) Munich, Amalienstr. 54, 80799 Munich (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    This progress report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  10. Characterization of Nanostructured n-ZnO/p-Si Heterojunction Prepared by a Simple Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Xu, Jing; Ning, Huanpo; Xiong, Hao; Xing, Huaizhong; Qin, Yuming

    2016-03-01

    The nanostructured ZnO film was prepared on a texturized Si wafer by a simple sol-gel method to fabricate n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction photoelectric device. The novel sol-gel method is cheap and convenient. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the nanostructured ZnO film were studied by XRD, SEM, XPS, PL, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The current-voltage (I-V) curve of nanostructured ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device shows good rectifying behavior. Good photoelectric behavior is obtained.

  11. Vibron and phonon hybridization in dielectric nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Thomas C; Signorell, Ruth

    2011-04-05

    Plasmon hybridization theory has been an invaluable tool in advancing our understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanostructures. Through the prism of molecular orbital theory, it allows one to interpret complex structures as "plasmonic molecules" and easily predict and engineer their electromagnetic response. However, this formalism is limited to conducting particles. Here, we present a hybridization scheme for the external and internal vibrations of dielectric nanostructures that provides a straightforward understanding of the infrared signatures of these particles through analogy to existing hybridization models of both molecular orbitals and plasmons extending the range of applications far beyond metallic nanostructures. This method not only provides a qualitative understanding, but also allows for the quantitative prediction of vibrational spectra of complex nanoobjects from well-known spectra of their primitive building blocks. The examples of nanoshells illustrate how spectral features can be understood in terms of symmetry, number of nodal planes, and scale parameters.

  12. Photoanodic Hybrid Semiconductor–Molecular Heterojunction for Solar Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2015-06-29

    Inorganic photo-responsive semiconducting materials have been employed in photoelectrochemical(PEC) water oxidation devicesin pursuit of solar to fuel conversion.[1]The reaction kinetics in semiconductors is limited by poor contact at the interfaces, and charge transfer is impeded by surface defects and the grain boundaries.[2]It has shown that successful surface functionalization of the photo-responsive semiconducting materials with co-catalysts can maximize the charge separation, hole delivery and its effective consumption, and enhances the efficiency and performane of the PEC based water oxidation assembly.[3]We present here unique modification of photoanodic hematite (α-Fe2O3) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with molecular co-catalysts for enhanced photoelectrochemical water oxidation (Figure 1). These hybrid inorganic–organometallic heterojunctions manifest impressive cathodic shifts in the onset potentials, and the photocurrent densities have been enhanced by > 90% at all potentials relative to uncatalyzed α-Fe2O3 or BiVO4, and other catalyst-semiconductor based heterojunctions.This is a novel development in the solar to fuel conversion field, and is crucially important for designing a tandem device where light interfere very little with the catalyst layer on top of semiconducting light absorber.

  13. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of hybrid heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells with heterojunction rear point contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Peng Ling

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical analysis of homojunction/heterojunction hybrid silicon wafer solar cells, featuring front-side full-area diffused homojunction contacts and rear-side heterojunction point contacts. Their device performance is compared with conventional full-area heterojunction solar cells as well as conventional diffused solar cells featuring locally diffused rear point contacts, for both front-emitter and rear-emitter configurations. A consistent set of simulation input parameters is obtained by calibrating the simulation program with intensity dependent lifetime measurements of the passivated regions and the contact regions of the various types of solar cells. We show that the best efficiency is obtained when a-Si:H is used for rear-side heterojunction point-contact formation. An optimization of the rear contact area fraction is required to balance between the gains in current and voltage and the loss in fill factor with shrinking rear contact area fraction. However, the corresponding optimal range for the rear-contact area fraction is found to be quite large (e.g. 20-60 % for hybrid front-emitter cells. Hybrid rear-emitter cells show a faster drop in the fill factor with decreasing rear contact area fraction compared to front-emitter cells, stemming from a higher series resistance contribution of the rear-side a-Si:H(p+ emitter compared to the rear-side a-Si:H(n+ back surface field layer. Overall, we show that hybrid silicon solar cells in a front-emitter configuration can outperform conventional heterojunction silicon solar cells as well as diffused solar cells with rear-side locally diffused point contacts.

  14. Hybrid phototransistors based on bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and zinc oxide nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Park, Soohyeong; Lee, Sooyong; Jeong, Jaehoon; Lee, Hyena; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-02-01

    Hybrid phototransistors (HPTRs) were fabricated on glass substrates using organic/inorganic hybrid bulk heterojunction films of p-type poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO(NP)). The content of ZnO(NP) was varied up to 50 wt % in order to understand the composition effect of ZnO(NP) on the performance of HPTRs. The morphology and nanostructure of the P3HT:ZnO(NP) films was examined by employing high resolution electron microscopes and synchrotron radiation grazing angle X-ray diffraction system. The incident light intensity (P(IN)) was varied up to 43.6 μW/cm², whereas three major wavelengths (525 nm, 555 nm, 605 nm) corresponded to the optical absorption of P3HT were applied. Results showed that the present HPTRs showed typical p-type transistor performance even though the n-type ZnO(NP) content increased up to 50 wt %. The highest transistor performance was obtained at 50 wt %, whereas the lowest performance was measured at 23 wt % because of the immature bulk heterojunction morphology. The drain current (I(D)) was proportionally increased with P(IN) due to the photocurrent generation in addition to the field-effect current. The highest apparent and corrected responsivities (R(A) = 4.7 A/W and R(C) = 2.07 A/W) were achieved for the HPTR with the P3HT:ZnO(NP) film (50 wt % ZnO(NP)) at P(IN) = 0.27 μW/cm² (555 nm).

  15. Gold nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in nanostructure-based bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gen; Ching, Levine; Saqodi, Mostafa; Xu, Huizhong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report a first hand study of enhanced photocurrent observed in nanostructure-based bulk heterojunction solar cell due to introduction of Au nanoparticles. The bulk heterojunction solar cell was fabricated using chemically synthesized narrow gap, IV-VI group semiconductor nanoparticles (PbS, ~3 nm), wide gap semiconductor ZnO nanowires (~1 μm length, ~50 nm diameter), and gold nanoparticles (~20 nm), by spin-coating method in N2-filled glove box. We have demonstrated that such a bulk heterojunction solar cell can be incorporated with metal nanoparticles (Au) to enhance solar device performance. Three types of solar cell devices were studied. An enhancement in the photocurrent due to introduction of Au nanoparticles was observed, compared to solar cell device without Au nanoparticles. The power conversion efficiency was also increased, possibly due to the plasmonic effects from Au nanoparticles. The fabrication procedures can be readily extended to other nanomaterial systems. Further optimization in the fabrication would be needed to realize high-efficient, stable solar cell devices.

  16. Role of majority and minority carrier barriers silicon/organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Sushobhan; Lee, Stephanie; Loo, Yueh-Lin; Sturm, James C

    2011-12-22

    A hybrid approach to solar cells is demonstrated in which a silicon p-n junction, used in conventional silicon-based photovoltaics, is replaced by a room-temperature fabricated silicon/organic heterojunction. The unique advantage of silicon/organic heterojunction is that it exploits the cost advantage of organic semiconductors and the performance advantages of silicon to enable potentially low-cost, efficient solar cells.

  17. Nanostructures Exploit Hybrid-Polariton Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured devices that exploit the hybrid-polariton resonances arising from coupling among photons, phonons, and plasmons are subjects of research directed toward the development of infrared-spectroscopic sensors for measuring extremely small quantities of molecules of interest. The spectroscopic techniques in question are surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA). An important intermediate goal of this research is to increase the sensitivity achievable by these techniques. The basic idea of the approach being followed in this research is to engineer nanostructured devices and thereby engineer their hybrid-polariton resonances to concentrate infrared radiation incident upon their surfaces in such a manner as to increase the absorption of the radiation for SEIRA and measure the frequency shifts of surface vibrational modes. The underlying hybrid-polariton-resonance concept is best described by reference to experimental devices that have been built and tested to demonstrate the concept. The nanostructure of each such device includes a matrix of silicon carbide particles of approximately 1 micron in diameter that are supported on a potassium bromide (KBr) or poly(tetrafluoroethylene) [PTFE] window. These grains are sputter-coated with gold grains of 40-nm size (see figure). From the perspective of classical electrodynamics, in this nanostructure, that includes a particulate or otherwise rough surface, the electric-field portion of an incident electromagnetic field becomes concentrated on the particles when optical resonance conditions are met. Going beyond the perspective of classical electrodynamics, it can be seen that when the resonance frequencies of surface phonons and surface plasmons overlap, the coupling of the resonances gives rise to an enhanced radiation-absorption or -scattering mechanism. The sizes, shapes, and aggregation of the particles determine the frequencies of the resonances. Hence, the task of

  18. Enhanced photoluminescence and heterojunction characteristics of pulsed laser deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu; Kumar, E. Senthil; Priyadarshini, D. M.; Bellarmine, F.; DasGupta, Nandita; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of ZnO nanostructures in different gas ambient (Ar and N2) using pulsed laser deposition technique. Despite the similar growth temperature, use of N2 ambient gas resulted in well-aligned nanorods with flat surface at the tip, whereas, nanorods grown with Ar ambient exhibited tapered tips. The Nanorods grown under N2 ambient exhibited additional Raman modes corresponding to N induced zinc interstitials. The nanorods are c-axis oriented and highly epitaxial in nature. Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals that the UV emission can be significantly enhanced by 10 times for the nanorods grown under Ar ambient. The enhanced UV emission is attributed to the reduction in polarization electric field along the c-axis. n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction showed rectifying I-V characteristics with a turn of voltage of 3.4 V.

  19. Metal/Semiconductor hybrid nanostructures for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruibin; Li, Benxia; Fang, Caihong; Wang, Jianfang

    2014-08-20

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of semiconductor and plasmonic metal components are receiving extensive attention. They display extraordinary optical characteristics that are derived from the simultaneous existence and close conjunction of localized surface plasmon resonance and semiconduction, as well as the synergistic interactions between the two components. They have been widely studied for photocatalysis, plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, biotechnology, and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of (plasmonic metal)/semiconductor hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. The preparation of the hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the semiconductor type, as well as the nanostructure morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then elucidated. Lastly, possible future research in this burgeoning field is discussed.

  20. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Enhanced ZnO/Si Heterojunction Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chong

    The objective of this work focuses on ZnO and Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin film deposition and characterization, and developing reliable ZnO/Si heterojunction thin film optoelectronic devices. Producing and integration of plasmonic nanostructures were also studied for improving device performance with plasmonic light trapping effects. Enhanced ZnO/Si heterojunction metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors with plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were realized. Self-assembled Ag NPs with different sizes, densities and distributions were produced on the surface of ZnO/Si MSM photodetector devices. By tuning the characteristic of these NPs, a higher-performance MSM detector has been achieved with photocurrent enhancement up to 680%. The spectral enhancement was broadband from 350 nm to 850 nm. To investigate the nanoplasmonic effects for enhanced solar cell devices, a relatively simple device structure, Si Schottky solar cell with the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, was studied first. By introducing Ag NPs and SiO2 spacer layers on top of Si Schottky solar cells, we demonstrated a positive and tunable light trapping effect introduced by metallic NPs. Enhanced light trapping effects at distinct resonance wavelengths were observed in the optical spectra of the plasmonic-enhanced devices. Electrical measurements confirmed the expected photocurrent improvement at these corresponding wavelengths. It was also revealed that the Ag NPs enhance the carrier generation rate inside of the Si active layer without sacrificing carrier collection efficiency of the device. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the best cell we obtained was improved from13.7 mA/cm2 to 19.7 mA/cm2, with an enhancement factor of 43.7%. Periodic nanostructures formed with nanoimprint technique and annealing process were studies to utilize in the Al-ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cell devices. The size, inter-particle distance and shape of these nanostructures can be easily tuned by changing

  1. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  2. pH-regulated antimony oxychloride nanoparticle formation on titanium oxide nanostructures: a photocatalytically active heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Buchholcz, Balázs

    2017-02-06

    Improving the catalytic activity of heterogeneous photocatalysts has become a hot topic recently. To this end, considerable progress has been made in the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers by e.g. the realization of heterojunction photocatalysts. V-VI-VII compound semiconductors, namely, bismuth oxyhalides, are popular photocatalysts. However, results on antimony oxyhalides [SbOX (X = Br, Cl, I)], the very promising alternatives to the well-known BiOX photomodifiers, are scarce. Here, we report the successful decoration of titanium oxide nanostructures with 8-11 nm diameter SbOX nanoparticles for the first time ever. The product size and stoichiometry could be controlled by the pH of the reactant mixture, while subsequent calcination could transform the structure of the titanate nanotube (TiONT) support and the prepared antimony oxychloride particles. In contrast to the ease of composite formation in the SbOX/TiONT case, anatase TiO could not facilitate the formation of antimony oxychloride nanoparticles on its surface. The titanate nanotube-based composites showed activity in a generally accepted quasi-standard photocatalytic test reaction (methyl orange dye decolorization). We found that the SbOCl/TiONT synthesized at pH = 1 is the most active sample in a broad temperature range.

  3. Hierarchical synthesis of non-centrosymmetric hybrid nanostructures and enabled plasmon-driven photocatalysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weng, Lin; Zhang, Hui; Govorov, Alexander O; Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Non-centrosymmetric nanostructures consisting of multiple functional subunits represents an emerging class of hybrid nanostructures that can possess dramatic difference in property and functionality...

  4. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  5. Nanostructured solid-state hybrid photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniprath, Rolf; McLeskey, James T.; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Kirstein, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaic cells utilizing layer-by-layer deposition of water-soluble polyions and nanocrystals. A bulk heterojunction structure was created consisting of alternating layers of the p-conductive polythiophene derivative poly[2-(3-thienyl)-ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] and n-conductive TiO2 nanoparticles. We fabricated working devices with the heterostructure sandwiched between suitable charge carrier blocking layers and conducting oxide and metal electrodes, respectively. We analyzed the influence of the thickness and nanostructure of the active layer on the cell performance and characterized the devices in terms of static and transient current response with respect to illumination and voltage conditions. We observed reproducible and stable photovoltaic behavior with photovoltages of up to 0.9 V.

  6. Hybrid van der Waals p-n Heterojunctions based on SnO and 2D MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2016-08-30

    A p-type oxide/2D hybrid van der Waals p-n heterojunction is demonstrated for the first time between SnO (tin monoxide) (the p-type oxide) and 2D MoS2 (molybdenum disulfide), showing an ideality factor of 2 and rectification ratio up to 10(4) . The reported heterojunction is gate-tunable with typical anti-ambipolar transfer characteristics. Surface potential mapping is performed and a current model for such a heterojunction is proposed.

  7. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica

    2015-12-01

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  8. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  9. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  10. Investigation of bulk hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yi-Kai; Chang, Shu-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2013-07-19

    This work presents the systematic studies of bulk hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in poly(3-hexylthiophene) matrix. The CIGS NCs of approximately 17 nm in diameter were homogeneously blended with P3HT layer to form an active layer of a photovoltaic device. The blend ratios of CIGS NCs to P3HT, solvent effects on thin film morphologies, interface between P3HT/CIGS NCs and post-production annealing of devices were investigated, and the best performance of photovoltaic devices was measured under AM 1.5 simulated solar illumination (100 mW/cm2).

  11. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Construction of flexible photoelectrochemical solar cells based on ordered nanostructural BiOI/Bi2S3 heterojunction films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mingqing; Jia, Huimin; He, Weiwei; Lei, Yan; Zhang, Lizhi; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-05-28

    Ordered 2D nanostructural BiOI nanoflake arrays decorated with Bi2S3 nanospheres have been designed and in situ fabricated for the first time, to form BiOI/Bi2S3 bulk heterojunctions through a soft chemical route. A modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was developed to fabricate BiOI nanoflake arrays on flexible ITO/PET substrates at room temperature. The degree of transformation of BiOI to Bi2S3 was controlled through the adjustment of exposure time of the BiOI/ITO substrate to thioacetamide (TAA) aqueous solution. The morphologies of BiOI, BiOI/Bi2S3 heterojunctions and Bi2S3 films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The presence of Bi2S3 was further validated through Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Especially, photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that such a Bi2S3 decorated BiOI photoanode based cell exhibits significant augments of short-circuit current density (Jsc) and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE, 3 times higher than the pure BiOI photoanode), attributable to the stronger photo-absorption and better photogenerated charge carrier separation and transport efficiency. The surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements further confirmed the importance of BiOI/Bi2S3 heterojunctions in such PEC cells. This solution-based process directly on flexible ITO offers the promise for low-cost, large-area, roll-to-roll application of the manufacturing of the third generation thin-film photovoltaic devices.

  13. Electrostatic fields in hybrid heterojunctions: Field-effect transistor, topological insulator, & thermoelectronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robert Matthew

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are still surging in popularity for sustainable electronic devices, especially since they can perform as well as amorphous and polycrystalline silicon materials. Although OSCs have processing advantages that give rise to novel opportunities compared to inorganic semiconductors (ISCs), devices usually require inorganic materials for highly conductive connections or other functionality. Significantly, OSCs can be used to tune or modify the behavior of inorganic semiconductors (ISCs) by exploiting the junction between two semiconductors (a heterojunction). The possible creation of stable interfaces between ISCs and OSCs provides a practically limitless range of functionalities. Broadly, my goal is to study interfaces between OSCs and ISCs (hybrid heterojunctions) by testing devices of different configurations and altering the internal fields systematically, as well as with the aid of electron- and force-microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. This thesis contains three major sections based around nascent, relevant applications: field-effect transistors, topological insulators, and thermoelectrics. First I study the effects of combining tellurium thin-films with OSC layers in field-effect transistors, where the organic acts both as a substrate modification layer and electrostatic gate. Secondly, I use electron withdrawing OSCs as gating materials for modifying Bi2Se3 in order to realize fundamental topological insulator behavior. Thirdly, I develop polymer-particle composites, including doping of the polymers and stabilization of inorganic particles with an electronic density of states that supports good thermoelectric behavior. We show that OSCs can undeniably be used to significantly modify properties of ISCs, namely tellurium, bismuth selenide, and organometallic compounds. I will first discuss the interfacial fields intrinsic to each heterojunction or device structure. Then I implement an additional electrostatic gate as part of the

  14. Bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on nanocrystal-polymer hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yunfei; Krueger, Michael [Freiburg Materials Research Centre (FMF), University of Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany); Urban, Gerald [Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Organic solar cells have the promising advantages of low-cost and large-area fabrication on flexible substrates. State-of-the-art organic solar cells based on blends of conjugated polymers and fullerene derivatives achieve efficiencies up to 5-6%. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) e.g. out of CdSe, with tunable bandgaps and high intrinsic carrier mobilities, can be incorporated into conjugated polymers e.g. poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to form bulk-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. In our group, a highly reproducible synthesis method for CdSe NCs has been developed, leading to monodisperse NCs with excellent photophysical properties. Current research is performed to control the shape and the lattice structure of the NCs within the same synthesis approach. Various solar cells based on bulk-heterojunction nanocomposite materials have been fabricated and characterized. We systematically checked how the solar cell device performance is affected by different NC ligands and by different thermal annealing treatments. Devices using spherical NCs capped with aromatic ligands and appropriate thermal annealing treatment exhibit so far power conversion efficiencies over 0.5% under standard measurement condition. Further investigations to improve the materials and device performance are currently in progress.

  15. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  16. Probing Compositional Variation within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhas, Benjamin D.; Habas, Susan E.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Mokari, Taleb

    2010-06-22

    We present a detailed analysis of the structural and magnetic properties of solution-grown PtCo-CdS hybrid structures in comparison to similar free-standing PtCo alloy nanoparticles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is utilized as a sensitive probe for identifying subtle differences in the structure of the hybrid materials. We found that the growth of bimetallic tips on a CdS nanorod substrate leads to a more complex nanoparticle structure composed of a PtCo alloy core and thin CoO shell. The core-shell architecture is an unexpected consequence of the different nanoparticle growth mechanism on the nanorod tip, as compared to free growth in solution. Magnetic measurements indicate that the PtCo-CdS hybrid structures are superparamagnetic despite the presence of a CoO shell. The use of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to detect minute differences in atomic structure and bonding in complex nanosystems makes it possible to better understand and predict catalytic or magnetic properties for nanoscale bimetallic hybrid materials.

  17. Hybridized Nano-Structure Composed of Metal and Polydiacetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Oikawa; A. Masuhara; T. Onodera; H. Kasai; H. Nakanishi

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polydiacetylene (PDA) is one of the promising candidates for organic third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) material, due to fast optical responsibility and easy processability in comparison with semiconductors etc. The magnitude of NLO property, however, is not still sufficient for the devices applications. Neeves, et al[1] theoretically predicted the enhancement of NLO property for core-shell type hybridized nanocrystal (NC) composed of PDA and metal. In the present study, we have prepared the two kinds of core-shell type hybridized nano-structure, and investigated their optical properties.

  18. Electronic properties of hybrid metal-discotic liquid crystal nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, R. W.; Pecchia, A.; Bourlange, A.; Movaghar, B.; Evans, S. D.; Hickey, B. J.; Boden, N.

    2003-04-01

    A new class of hybrid organic/inorganic nanostructures, comprising self-organised discotic liquid crystal layers deposited on ultrathin metal films, has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Calculations show that the periodic self-organised molecular layer gives rise to a new, hybrid electronic bandstructure, resulting in modulation of the metal film conductivity. In situ conductivity measurements during deposition of such self-organised layers confirm that the metal film conductivity is altered. Theoretical modeling also shows that the AC conductivity should show structure related to the carrier trapping and one-dimensional transport features of the self-organised layer.

  19. Femtosecond spectroscopic studies of photoinduced electron transfer in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchetto, E.; De Cola, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Muenster, Mendelstrasse 7, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Slooff, H. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Zhang, H. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 129, 1018 WS Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    The photophysics of charge carriers (polaron) in MDMO-PPV:ZnO hybrid bulk heterojunction is studied at 80 K by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A short-lived positive polaron is observed in the blend phase in MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend films with a weight ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. Further increase of ZnO weight ratio results in a significant quenching of the polaron absorption. The results are discussed in the concept that both pristine polymer and MDMO-PPV:ZnO blend phases coexist in the blend films. It is concluded that a polaron is photogenerated within the excitation laser pulse (<100 fs) and electron transfer efficiency is highest in blend films 1:1 and 1:2. Lack of the interfacial area and faster back electron transfer process are discussed to be responsible for the quenching of the electron transfer efficiency in blend film 1:3.

  20. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructures by liquid plasma for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponraj, Sri Balaji; Dai, Xiujuan Jane; Li, Luhua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Surya Narayanan, Jayanth; Kanwar, Jagat; Du Plessis, Johan

    2013-09-01

    Liquid plasma, generated by a nanosecond pulsed generator at atmospheric pressure, was used to treat bamboo-like boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). It was observed that the length of the BNNTs was reduced and found more cup like structures called boron nitride nanocups (BNNCs). Interestingly, a new peak appeared at 406.86 eV in the N1s X-ray photoelectron spectrum, which seems to be attributable to the oxidation of nitrogen (N-O) in BNNTs. The C1s spectrum showed that oxygen functional groups were introduced onto the BNNT/BNNC surface. The liquid plasma was also used to assemble gold nanoparticles onto the treated BNNTs/BNNCs. This hybrid nanostructure was fabricated efficiently, compared with normal equilibrium conditions. The pH values and conductivity of all samples were measured. After plasma treatment, the pH values were greatly reduced and conductivity was significantly increased. We propose that the plasma acid, hydrogen peroxide, OH-, H ions and radicals formed in liquid plasma as well as the pulsed electric field contribute to the oxidation of nitrogen, reduced length of the BNNTs(forming BNNCs), surface functionalization, and to the fabrication of hybrid nanostructure. The cytotoxic tests for these hybrid nanostructures is underway. The authors acknowledge Rosey van Driel and Prabhukumar Sellamuthu for assisting with TEM and SEM, and the access of the XPS facility at RMIT University.

  1. Hydrogen on hybrid MoS{sub 2}/graphene nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniadaki, Aristea E.; Kopidakis, Georgios [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, Heraklion (Greece)

    2016-06-15

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are rising candidates for the replacement of Pt catalysts in water splitting. In this theoretical study we focus on the hydrogen evolution reaction part of this process and on how hydrogen (H) interacts with MoS{sub 2} nanostructures, free-standing or positioned on a graphene substrate. Density functional theory calculations confirm the stability of such nanostructures and our results for H on several configurations, from 2D infinite monolayers to quasi-1D MoS{sub 2} ribbons and quasi-0D MoS{sub 2} flakes, are presented. We calculate the adsorption energy of H atoms on various sites of the MoS{sub 2} nanostructures, notably at Mo and S active edges. Comparing free-standing and MoS{sub 2}/graphene hybrid systems we find that the effect of the support on the adsorption of H on MoS{sub 2} nanostructures is quite significant when the substrate induces strain. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage for high performance pseudo-capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of novel nanocomposites for pseudo-capacitors with high capacitance and energy density is the spotlight of current energy research. In the present work, hybrid carbon nanostructure assemblage of graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been used as carbon support to nanostructured RuO2 and polyaniline for high energy supercapacitors. Maximum specific capacitances of 110, 235 and 440 F g−1 at the voltage sweep rate of 10 mV s−1 and maximum energy densities of 7, 12.5 and 20.5 Wh kg−1 were observed for carbon assemblage and its RuO2 and polyanilne decorated nanocomposites, respectively, with 1M H2SO4 as electrolyte.

  3. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  4. Structural transformations of TiO{sub 2} films with deposition temperature and electrical properties of nanostructure n-TiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seval; Caglar, Yasemin, E-mail: yasemincaglar@anadolu.edu.tr

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) films have been deposited on p-Si substrates by sol gel spin coating technique. • The effect of deposition temperatures on structural and morphological properties of TiO{sub 2} films. • The electrical parameters of nanostructure n-TiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction diode such as n, R{sub s} and ϕ{sub b} were investigated. - Abstract: Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) films have been deposited on p-Si substrates by sol–gel method using spin coating technique. Structural and morphological properties were studied as a function of deposition temperatures by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The deposition temperatures were chosen from 700 °C to 1100 °C. Crystallization of the anatase phase and its transformation to the rutile phase were observed at 700 °C and 800 °C, respectively. The fabrication of nanostructure n-TiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction diode was formed by using T7 film deposited at 700 °C. The electrical parameters such as barrier height (ϕ{sub b}) and ideality factor (n) of nanostructure n-TiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction diode were investigated by using I–V measurements and observed to be 0.58 eV and 5.39, respectively. Also, the values of ϕ{sub b} and series resistance (R{sub s}) were determined by using Cheung’s and Norde methods. From the I–V measurements taken at room temperature, the space charge limited (SCLC) mechanism was determined at the low voltage region. The obtained results showed that n-TiO{sub 2}/p-Si heterojunction diode is a good candidate for the applications of semiconductor electronic devices.

  5. Nanostructured Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction photoelectrode for efficient hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Dipika; Upadhyay, Sumant; Verma, Anuradha [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Satsangi, Vibha R. [Department of Physics Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Shrivastav, Rohit [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India); Dass, Sahab, E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 India (India)

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured thin films of pristine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}O, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O, and Ti-doped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction were deposited on tin-doped indium oxide (Sn:In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) glass substrate using spray pyrolysis method. Ti doping is done to improve photoelectric conversion efficiency and electrical conductivity of hematite thin films. Further enhanced photocurrent is achieved for Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction electrodes. All samples were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectrometry. Photoelectrochemical properties were also investigated in a three-electrode cell system. UV-Vis absorption spectrum for pristine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O, and Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction thin films exhibited absorption in visible region. Nanostructured thin films as prepared were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 2.60 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.95 V/SCE was exhibited by 454 nm thick Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction photoelectrode. Increased photocurrent density and enhanced incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency, offered by the heterojunction thin films may be attributed to improved conductivity and efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at the Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O interface. - Highlights: • Heterojunction thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis techniques. • Titanium doping in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} played a significant role in PEC response. • Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O heterojunction shows the absorption in visible range. • Improved charge separation and enhanced PEC response were achieved in Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}O.

  6. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanostructures for Chemical Plasmonic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sehoon

    2011-12-01

    The work presented in this dissertation suggests novel design of chemical plasmonic sensors which have been developed based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR), and Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomena. The goal of the study is to understand the SERS phenomena for 3D hybrid (organic/inorganic) templates and to design of the templates for trace-level detection of selected chemical analytes relevant to liquid explosives and hazardous chemicals. The key design criteria for the development of the SERS templates are utilizing selective polymeric nanocoatings within cylindrical nanopores for promoting selective adsorption of chemical analyte molecules, maximizing specific surface area, and optimizing concentration of hot spots with efficient light interaction inside nanochannels. The organic/inorganic hybrid templates are optimized through a comprehensive understanding of the LSPR properties of the gold nanoparticles, gold nanorods, interaction of light with highly porous alumina template, and the choice of physical and chemical attributes of the selective coating. Furthermore, novel method to assemble silver nanoparticles in 3D as the active SERS-active substrate has been demonstrated by uniform, in situ growth of silver nanoparticles from electroless deposited silver seeds excluding any adhesive polymer layer on template. This approach can be the optimal for SERS sensing applications because it is not necessary to separate the Raman bands of the polyelectrolyte binding layer from those of the desired analyte. The fabrication method is an efficient, simple and fast way to assemble nanoparticles into 3D nanostructures. Addressable Raman markers from silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles are also introduced and studied. Assembly of silver nanowire crossbar structure is achieved by simple, double-step capillary transfer lithography. The on/off SERS properties can be observed on silver nanowire crossbars with silver nanoparticles

  7. Photosensitive n-In2O3 / p-InSe Heterojunctions with Nanostructured Surface of the Frontal Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.D. Kovalyuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on photosensitive n-In2O3 / p-InSe heterojunctions with nanostructured In2O3 frontal layer. It was established that photoresponse spectra of the heterojunctions significantly depend on the surface topology of the oxide. this means that the oxide with semiconductor substrate is not only an active component of the structure, but also serves as a cell diffraction material. Surface topology of the oxide was studied by means of the atomic force microscope. At various conditions of oxidation of InSe the surface of the samples contained nanoformations preferably in the form of nanoneedles. Their location has both a disordered and ordered character. A dimensional optical effect in the oxide was revealed due to the anisotropic light absorption in InSe. The higher deviation of incident light from its normal direction due to a nano-structured surface is, the higher variation in the generation of carriers in the semiconductor is. These changes consist in the energy broadening of the heterojunction photoresponse spectrum as well as in the peculiarities of the excitonic line. The higher density and ordering of the nanoneedles on the oxide surface is, the higher long-wave shift and more intensive excitonic peak in the spectrum takes place.

  8. Towards waste free organic synthesis using nanostructured hybrid silicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Ilharco, Laura M.; Pandarus, Valerica; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Béland, François; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-05-01

    As catalysis and organic synthesis come together again, the need for stable, selective and truly heterogeneous solid catalysts for clean and efficient synthetic organic chemistry has increased. Hybrid silica glasses obtained by the sol-gel nanochemistry approach can be successfully used for the waste-free synthesis of valued chemicals in various applications. This success derives from the deliberate chemical design of hybrid nanostructures capable of immobilizing and stabilizing organocatalytic species and unstable metal nanoparticles. The highly selective activity along with a broad scope and ease of application of these mesoporous materials to high-throughput reactions opens the route to faster, cleaner and more convenient processes for both small and large scale manufacturing of useful molecules.

  9. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R.D.K., E-mail: dmisra@louisiana.edu

    2012-08-01

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic-organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  10. p-MoO3 nanostructures/n-TiO2 nanofiber heterojunctions: controlled fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingxing; Shao, Changlu; Wang, Kexin; Lu, Na; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Mingyi; Li, Xinghua; Liu, Yichun

    2014-06-25

    In this work, p-MoO3 nanostructures/n-TiO2 nanofiber heterojunctions (p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs) were obtained by a two-step fabrication route. First, MoO2 nanostructures were hydrothermally grown on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers. Second, by thermal treatment of the obtained MoO2 nanostructures/TiO2 nanofibers, p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs were obtained due to the phase transition of MoO2 to MoO3. With increasing the concentration of molybdenum precursor in hydrothermal process, the morphologies of MoO2 changed from nanoparticles to nanosheets, and then fully covered shells with an increased loading on TiO2 nanofibers. After calcination, the obtained p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs possessed similar morphology to that without thermal treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed that both Ti 2p and OTi-O 1s peaks of p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs shifted to higher binding energies than that of TiO2 nanofibers, suggesting electron transfer from TiO2 to MoO3 in the formation of p-n nanoheterojunctions. The p-n nanoheterojunctions decreased photoluminescence intensity, suppressed photogenerated electrons and holes recombinations, and enhanced charge separation and photocatalytic efficiencies. The apparent first-order rate constant for the degradation of RB by p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs with nanosheets surface morphology was two times that of TiO2 nanofibers. For the core/shell structure of p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs, the internal electric field of p-n junction forced the photogenerated electrons transferring to TiO2 cores, then decreased the surface photocatalytic reactions and led to the lowest photocatalytic activity among the p-MoO3/n-TiO2-NF-HJs.

  11. Hybrid Nanostructured Textile Bioelectrode for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush

    Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular diseases and strokes are the leading causes of mortality in United States of America. Timely point-of-care health diagnostics and therapeutics for person suffering from these diseases can save thousands of lives. However, lack of accessible minimally intrusive health monitoring systems makes timely diagnosis difficult and sometimes impossible. To remedy this problem, a textile based nano-bio-sensor was developed and evaluated in this research. The sensor was made of novel array of vertically standing nanostructures that are conductive nano-fibers projecting from a conductive fabric. These sensor electrodes were tested for the quality of electrical contact that they made with the skin based on the fundamental skin impedance model and electromagnetic theory. The hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes provided large surface area and better contact with skin that improved electrode sensitivity and reduced the effect of changing skin properties, which are the problems usually faced by conventional dry textile electrodes. The dry electrodes can only register strong physiological signals because of high background noise levels, thus limiting the use of existing dry electrodes to heart rate measurement and respiration. Therefore, dry electrode systems cannot be used for recording complete ECG waveform, EEG or measurement of bioimpedance. Because of their improved sensitivity these hybrid nanostructured dry electrodes can be applied to measurement of ECG and bioimpedance with very low baseline noise. These textile based electrodes can be seamlessly integrated into garments of daily use such as vests and bra. In combination with embedded wireless network device that can communicate with smart phone, laptop or GPRS, they can function as wearable wireless health diagnostic systems.

  12. Biophysical and electrochemical properties of Self-assembled noncovalent SWNT/DNA hybrid and electroactive nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapoor, Aboulfazl; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2017-09-01

    DNA self-assembled hybrid nanostructures are widely used in recent research in nanobiotechnology. Combination of DNA with carbon based nanoparticles such as single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) and carbon quantum dot were applied in important biological applications. Many examples of biosensors, nanowires and nanoelectronic devices, nanomachine and drug delivery systems are fabricated by these hybrid nanostructures. In this study, a new hybrid nanostructure has been fabricated by noncovalent interactions between single or double stranded DNA and SWNT nanoparticles and biophysical properties of these structures were studied comparatively. Biophysical properties of hybrid nanostructures studied by circular dichroism, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Also, electrochemical properties studied by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, choronoamperometry and impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that the biophysical and electrochemical properties of SWNT/DNA hybrid nanostructures were different compare to ss-DNA, ds-DNA and SWNT singly. Circular dichroism results showed that ss-DNA wrapped around the nanotubes through π-π stacking interactions. The results indicated that after adding SWNT to ss-DNA and ds-DNA intensity of CD and UV-vis spectrum peaks were decreased. Electrochemical experiments indicated that the modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes by ss-DNA improves the electron transfer rate of hybrid nanostructures. It was demonstrated SWNT/DNA hybrid nanostructures should be a good electroactive nanostructure that can be used for electrochemical detection or sensing.

  13. Optoelectronic Evaluation and Loss Analysis of PEDOT:PSS/Si Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Fang, Zebo; Sheng, Jiang; Ling, Zhaoheng; Liu, Zhaolang; Zhu, Juye; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-12-01

    The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC. The calculated spectra of reflection and external quantum efficiency (EQE) match well with the experimental results in a full-wavelength range. The losses in current density, which are contributed by both optical losses (i.e., reflection, electrode shield, and parasitic absorption) and electrical recombination (i.e., the bulk and surface recombination), are predicted via carefully addressing the electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes. In addition, the effects of Si doping concentrations and rear surface recombination velocities on the device performance are fully investigated. The results drawn in this study are beneficial to the guidance of designing high-performance PEDOT:PSS/Si HHSCs.

  14. Optoelectronic Evaluation and Loss Analysis of PEDOT:PSS/Si Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Fang, Zebo; Sheng, Jiang; Ling, Zhaoheng; Liu, Zhaolang; Zhu, Juye; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    The organic/silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cells (HHSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential advantages in high efficiency and low cost. However, as a newly arisen photovoltaic device, its current efficiency is still much worse than commercially available Si solar cells. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematical optoelectronic evaluation and loss analysis on this HHSC is therefore highly necessary to fully explore its efficiency potential. Here, a thoroughly optoelectronic simulation is provided on a typical planar polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/Si HHSC. The calculated spectra of reflection and external quantum efficiency (EQE) match well with the experimental results in a full-wavelength range. The losses in current density, which are contributed by both optical losses (i.e., reflection, electrode shield, and parasitic absorption) and electrical recombination (i.e., the bulk and surface recombination), are predicted via carefully addressing the electromagnetic and carrier-transport processes. In addition, the effects of Si doping concentrations and rear surface recombination velocities on the device performance are fully investigated. The results drawn in this study are beneficial to the guidance of designing high-performance PEDOT:PSS/Si HHSCs.

  15. Biperiodic nanostructured waveguides for wavelength-selectivity of hybrid photonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talneau, A; Pommarède, X; Itawi, A; Pantzas, K; Lupu, A; Benisty, H

    2015-11-15

    A biperiodic nanostructuration consisting of a super-periodicity added to a nanohole lattice of subwavelength pitch is demonstrated to provide both modal confinement and wavelength selectivity within a hybrid III-V on a silicon waveguide. The wavelength-selective behavior stems from finely tuned larger holes. Such biperiodic hybrid waveguides have been fabricated by oxide-free bonding III-V material on silicon and display well-defined stop bands. Such nanostructured waveguides offer the versatility for designing advanced optical functions within hybrid devices. Moreover, keeping the silicon waveguide surface planar, such nanostructured waveguides are compatible with electrical operation across the oxide-free hybrid interface.

  16. Harnessing light energy with a planar transparent hybrid of graphene/single wall carbon nanotube/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated by a simple electrophoretic method with a planar transparent hybrid of graphenes (GPs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SCNTs)/n-type silicon heterojunction was significantly increased compared to GPs/n-Si and SCNTs/n-Si solar cells...... by doping the hybrid film with Au nanoparticles, and the power conversion efficiency can be increased to 8.8%. The fabrication processes are simple, low cost and fit for scaling. The results demonstrate that planar transparent hybrid of GPs/SCNTs/n-Si heterojunction is efficient for solar energy conversion...

  17. Effect of film nanostructure on in-plane charge transport in organic bulk heterojunction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2013-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells are a promising alternative energy technology, but a thorough understanding of charge transport behavior in BHJ materials is necessary in order to design devices with high power conversion efficiencies. Parameters such as carrier mobilities, carrier concentrations, and the recombination coefficient have traditionally been successfully measured using vertical structures similar to organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. We have developed a lateral BHJ device which complements these vertical techniques by allowing spatially resolved measurement along the transport direction of charge carriers. This is essential for evaluating the effect of nanoscale structure and morphology on these important charge transport parameters. Nanomorphology in organic BHJ films has been controlled using a variety of methods, but the effect of these procedures has been infrequently correlated with the charge transport parameter of the BHJ material. Electron beam lithography has been used to create lateral device structures with many voltage probes at a sub-micron resolution throughout the device channel. By performing in-situ potentiometry, we can calculate both carrier mobilities and determine the effect of solvent choice and annealing procedure on the charge transport in BHJ system. Spin coated P3HT:PCBM films prepared from solutions in chloroform and o-xylene are characterized using this technique.

  18. Graphene and its Hybrid Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, as well as their applications in nanoelectronics and energy conversion/storage. The substantial understanding of interaction of graphene layers between the bio-molecules and gas molecules will enable the improvement in the applications of graphene in bio-sensor and chemical sensor. To achieve these objectives, graphene field effect transistors are fabricated to study the interactions of graphene between single stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acids (ssDNA) and gas molecules. ssDNA is found to act as negative potential gating agent that increases the hole density in single layer graphene (SLG). The molecular photodesorption and absorption from pristine and functionalized graphene are studied. The photodesorption induced current decrease in functionalized graphene by concentrated HNO3 becomes less significant than pristine graphene layers. We suggest this is due to the passivation of oxygen-bearing functionalities to CVD grown graphene structure defects via HNO3 functionalization, which prevents the further absorption of gas molecules. The advance of synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by CVD promotes their applications in the industrial level. We synthesize the graphene both on nickel thin film and copper foils by CVD, and investigate the grow kinetics, such as the effect of growth pressure on the uniformity and quality of Cu-grown graphene. By controlling the growth pressure we achieve uniform single layer graphene sheets and suggest the feasible methods of synthesizing uniform few-layer graphene. To decrease the sheet resistance, we stack the single layer graphene using layer-layer transfer technique. Highly concentrated HNO3 is employed to improve the conductivity and surface wettability of graphene layers. Four-layer graphene films with optical transmittance of 90% after HNO3 treatment are applied in organic

  19. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Saurabh [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Dutta, Raj Kumar, E-mail: duttafcy@iitr.ernet.i [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2011-04-15

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca{sup 2+} ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. M{sub s} decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs. - Research highlights: > In the present investigation we have developed a facile route to synthesize a novel, low cost calcium pectinate nanostructure functionalized with SPIONs (magnetite nanoparticles). > Though there are sufficient scientific illustrations on polymer as well as biopolymers coated on SPIONs for various biomedical applications, the one presented here, is novel of its kind as it is considered to offer a new dimension to the magnetic responsive properties of calcium pectinate nanomaterials towards biomedical applications, especially as a potential carrier for magnetically targeted drug delivery to colon specific sites. > The synthesis of these nanostructured

  20. Hybrid nanostructures of metal/two-dimensional nanomaterials for plasmon-enhanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanhua; Zhu, Jinmeng; Wei, Bingqing

    2016-06-07

    Hybrid nanostructures composed of graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and plasmonic metal components have been extensively studied. The unusual properties of 2D materials are associated with their atomically thin thickness and 2D morphology, and many impressive structures enable the metal nanomaterials to establish various interesting hybrid nanostructures with outstanding plasmonic properties. In addition, the hybrid nanostructures display unique optical characteristics that are derived from the close conjunction of plasmonic optical effects and the unique physicochemical properties of 2D materials. More importantly, the hybrid nanostructures show several plasmonic electrical effects including an improved photogeneration rate, efficient carrier transfer, and a plasmon-induced "hot carrier", playing a significant role in enhancing device performance. They have been widely studied for plasmon-enhanced optical signals, photocatalysis, photodetectors (PDs), and solar cells. In this review, the developments in the field of metal/2D hybrid nanostructures are comprehensively described. Preparation of hybrid nanostructures is first presented according to the 2D material type, as well as the metal nanomaterial morphology. The plasmonic properties and the enabled applications of the hybrid nanostructures are then described. Lastly, possible future research in this promising field is discussed.

  1. Excited state and charge dynamics of hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunctions. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Anurag; Renshaw, C. Kyle; Oskooi, Ardavan; Lee, Kyusang; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2014-07-01

    In our companion paper (Paper I) [C. K. Renshaw and S. R. Forrest, Phys. Rev. B 90, 045302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.045302], we developed a model for charge transport and photogeneration at hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor heterojunctions (OI-HJs). Here we apply the model to two planar bilayer hybrid photovoltaic devices: the first using the wide-band gap n-TiO2 in combination with the hole transporting tetraphenyl-dibenzoperiflanthene (DBP), and the second based on the moderate-band gap n-InP and the hole transporting pentacene (PEN). We measure the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density vs voltage (J-V) characteristics of both devices as functions of temperature. The EQE spectra for both TiO2/DBP and InP/PEN provide convincing evidence that Frenkel states generated in the organic form hybrid charge transfer excitons (HCTEs) at the OI-HJ that are subsequently dissociated into free charges, and then collected at the opposing electrodes. The dissociation efficiency is found to be strongly influenced by the presence of surface states, particularly in the InP/PEN device. We further develop the J-V model from Paper I to include an analytical expression for space-charge effects in the organic at high currents. Model fits to the J-V data suggest that the temperature-dependent hole mobilities in both DBP and PEN result in increasing space-charge effects at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the J-V characteristics of the TiO2/DBP device both in the dark and under illumination are governed by interface recombination. In contrast, the dark current in the InP/PEN device is governed by injection over the OI-HJ barrier, whereas the photocurrent is dominated by interface recombination. This work elucidates the role of the HCTE state in photogeneration, and the applicability of our model to a range of important optoelectronic devices.

  2. Hybrid Nanostructures Containing Sulfadiazine Modified Chitosan as Antimicrobial Drug Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanel Silvestru Munteanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CH nanofibrous structures containing sulfadiazine (SDZ or sulfadiazine modified chitosan (SCH in the form of functional nanoparticles attached to nanofibers (hybrid nanostructures were obtained by mono-axial and coaxial electrospinning. The mono-axial design consisted of a SDZ/CH mixture solution fed through a single nozzle while the coaxial design consisted of SCH and CH solutions separately supplied to the inner and outer nozzle (or in reverse order. The CH ability to form nanofibers assured the formation of a nanofiber mesh, while SDZ and SCH, both in form of suspensions in the electrospun solution, assured the formation of active nanoparticles which remained attached to the CH nanofiber mesh after the electrospinning process. The obtained nanostructures were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The SDZ release profiles and kinetics were analyzed. The SDZ or SCH nanoparticles loosely attached at the surface of the nanofibers, provide a burst release in the first 20 min, which is important to stop the possible initial infection in a wound, while the SDZ and SCH from the nanoparticles which are better confined (or even encapsulated into the CH nanofibers would be slowly released with the erosion/disruption of the CH nanofiber mesh.

  3. Novel hybrid nanostructured materials of magnetite nanoparticles and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Saurabh; Dutta, Raj Kumar

    2011-04-01

    A novel hybrid nanostructured material comprising superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and pectin was synthesized by crosslinking with Ca2+ ions to form spherical calcium pectinate nanostructures, referred as MCPs, which were typically found to be 100-150 nm in size in dried condition, confirmed from transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The uniform size distribution was revealed from dynamic light scattering measurement. In aqueous medium the MCPs showed swelling behavior with an average size of 400 nm. A mechanism of formation of spherical MCPs is outlined constituting a MNP-pectin interface encapsulated by calcium pectinate at the periphery, by using an array of characterization techniques like zeta potential, thermogravimetry, Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MCPs were stable in simulated gastrointestinal fluid and ensured minimal loss of magnetic material. They exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, confirmed from zero field cooled and field cooled profiles and showed high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 46.21 emu/g at 2.5 T and 300 K. Ms decreased with increasing precursor pectin concentrations, attributed to quenching of magnetic moments by formation of a magnetic dead layer on the MNPs.

  4. Quantum materials. Lateral semiconductor nanostructures, hybrid systems and nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Detlef (ed.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    2010-07-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures are ideal systems to tailor the physical properties via quantum effects, utilizing special growth techniques, self-assembling, wet chemical processes or lithographic tools in combination with tuneable external electric and magnetic fields. Such systems are called ''Quantum Materials''.The electronic, photonic, and phononic properties of these systems are governed by size quantization and discrete energy levels. The charging is controlled by the Coulomb blockade. The spin can be manipulated by the geometrical structure, external gates and by integrating hybrid ferromagnetic emitters.This book reviews sophisticated preparation methods for quantum materials based on III-V and II-VI semiconductors and a wide variety of experimental techniques for the investigation of these interesting systems. It highlights selected experiments and theoretical concepts and gives such a state-of-the-art overview about the wide field of physics and chemistry that can be studied in these systems. (orig.)

  5. Theory of Quantum Transport in Metallic and Hybrid Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Glatz, Andreas; Vinokur, Valerii M

    2006-01-01

    There is a major development emerging at the intersection of modern physics, computer science, and materials science, which struggles to squeeze more devices into a restricted volume and constitutes a central focus of modern nanotechnology. Utilizing the metal-based hybrid nanostructures may offer significant advantages over those exploiting purely semiconductor materials. First, the chemistry of metals is typically simpler than that of semiconductors. Second, the electric properties of metals are much less sensitive to the structural defects and impurities than those of semiconductors. Next, metallic devices allow better electric and thermal contacts. And, last but by no means least, the high electron velocity in metals promises to accelerate enormously operation rates with respect to those in semiconductor-based devices. The book reflects scientific developments in the physics of metallic compounds based nanodevices presented at the NATO-sponsored Workshop on nanophysics held in St. Petersburg, Russia in th...

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Cheng; Abbas Amini; Chao Zhu; Zuli Xu; Haisheng Song; Ning Wang

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photocatalytic properties of rational designed TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures, which were fabricated by the site-specific deposition of amorphous TiO2 on the tips of ZnO nanorods. Compared with the pure components of ZnO nanorods and amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles, these TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures demonstrated a higher catalytic activity. The strong green emission quenching observed from photoluminescence of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures implied an enhanced charge transfer/s...

  7. Hybrid nano-structure for enhanced energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque

    The goal of this research is to develop electrode materials using various nano-structure hybrids for improved energy storage devices. Enhancing the performance of energy storage device has been gaining tremendous attention since it holds the key solution to advance renewable energy usage thus reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The application of energy storage devices such as super-capacitor and Li-ion-battery has seen significant growth; however, it is still limited mainly by charge/discharge rate and energy density. One of the solutions is to use nano-structure materials, which offer higher power at high energy density and improved stability during the charge discharge cycling of ions in and out of the storage electrode material. In this research, carbon-based materials (e.g. porous carbon, graphene) in conjunction with metal oxides such as CeO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanowires are synthesized utilizing low temperature hydrothermal method for the fabrication of advanced electrode materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for materials characterization. Poentio-galvanostat, battery analyzer, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used for evaluating the electrochemical performance. The testing results have shown that a maximum 500% higher specific capacitance could be obtained using porous carbon/CeO2 instead of porous carbon for super-capacitor application and microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to porous carbon anode for Li-ion-battery application.

  8. Conjugated polymer P3HT-Au hybrid nanostructures for enhancing photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Bikash; Bhattacharyya, Santanu; Patra, Amitava

    2015-06-21

    Metal-semiconductor nanostructures have been the subject of great interest, mainly due to their interesting optical properties and their potential applications in light harvesting, photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices. Here, we have designed raspberry type organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures of the poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT)-Au nanoparticle (NP) composite by a simple solution based synthetic method. The electronic interaction of semiconducting P3HT polymer nanoparticles with Au nanoparticles exhibits a bathochromic shift of absorption bands and significant photoluminescence quenching of P3HT nanoparticles in this organic-inorganic hybrid system. The photocatalytic activity of this raspberry type hybrid nanostructure is demonstrated under the visible light irradiation and the degradation efficiency is found to be 90.6%. Such organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures made of a semiconducting polymer and plasmonic nanoparticles could pave the way for designing new optical based materials for applications in photocatalytic and light harvesting systems.

  9. Direct laser planting of hybrid Au-Ag/C nanostructures - nanoparticles, flakes and flowers

    CERN Document Server

    Manshina, Alina; Bashouti, Muhammad; Povolotskiy, Alexey; Petrov, Yuriy; Koshevoy, Igor; Christiansen, Silke; Tunik, Sergey; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a new approach for forming hybrid metal/carbonaceous nanostructures in a controlled direct laser planting process. Au-Ag nanoclusters in amorphous or crystalline carbonaceous matrices are formed with different morphology: nanoparticles, nanoflakes, and nanoflowers. In contrast to other generation techniques our approach is simple, involving only a single laser-induced process transforming supramolecular complexes dissolved in solvent such as acetone, acetophenone, or dichloroethane into hybrid nanostructures in the laser-affected area of the substrate. The morphology of the hybrid nanostructures can be steered by controlling the deposition parameters, the composition of the liquid phase and the type of substrate, amorphous or crystalline. The carbonaceous phase of the hybrid nanostructures consists of hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the case of nanoparticles and of crystalline orthorhombic graphite of nanoscale thickness in the case of flakes and flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is t...

  10. Nanostructured Silica–Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: A Supersaturating Carrier for Water- and Lipid-resistant Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silica–lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles, which are fabricated based on Pickering emulsion templates, are reported to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of a weak base anthelmintic, albendazole (ABZ...

  11. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.

  12. Semiconductor heterojunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, B L

    1974-01-01

    Semiconductor Heterojunctions investigates various aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions. Topics covered include the theory of heterojunctions and their energy band profiles, electrical and optoelectronic properties, and methods of preparation. A number of heterojunction devices are also considered, from photovoltaic converters to photodiodes, transistors, and injection lasers.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theory of heterojunctions and a discussion on abrupt isotype and anisotype heterojunctions, along with graded heterojunctions. The reader is then

  13. Hybrid metal-dielectric nanostructures for advanced light-field manipulation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staude, Isabelle; Guo, Rui; Rusak, Evgenia; Dominguez, Jason; Decker, Manuel; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Brener, Igal; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Pertsch, Thomas; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2017-02-01

    All-dielectric and plasmonic nanostructures have complementary advantages regarding their capabilities for controlling light fields at the nanoscale [1]. While all-dielectric nanostructures can provide near-unity efficiency, plasmonic nanostructures are more compact and offer strong near-field enhancement. Combination of photonic nanostructures of both types offers a promising route towards compact optical elements that unify low absorption losses with small footprints, while at the same time providing a high versatility in engineering the optical response of the hybrid system towards specific functionalities. This talk aims to review our recent progress in coupling designed plasmonic nanoantennas to high-index dielectric nanostructures. Following a general analysis of coupling of plasmonic and high-refractive-index dielectric nanoresonators, various specific hybrid nanostructure designs will be discussed. For the fabrication of designed hybrid metal-dielectric nanostructures we use a two-step electron-beam lithography (EBL) procedure [2]. The first step of EBL is used in combination with reactive-ion etching to define the dielectric nanostructures. The second step of EBL is followed by evaporation of gold and a lift-off process, and serves to define the plasmonic elements. Between the two steps, a precision alignment procedure is performed in order to allow for the precise positioning of the gold nanostructures with respect to the silicon nanostructures. Using this approach, we realize and optically characterize various hybrid metal-dielectric nanostructures designed to support a range of novel functionalities, including directional emission enhancement [2] and on-chip light routing. [1] E. Rusak et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 221109 (2014). [2] R. Guo et al., ACS Photonics 3, 349-353 (2016).

  14. External pumping of hybrid nanostructures in microcavity with Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The exciton-exciton interaction in hybrid nanostructures with resonating Frenkel and Wannier-Mott excitons was investigated in many publications. In microcavity the hybrid nanostructures can be exposed to different types of optical pumping, the most common one being pumping through one of the microcavity side. However, not investigated and thus never been discussed the hybrid excitons generation by pumping of confined quantum wells from the side of empty microcavity without nanostructures in a wave guided configuration. Here, we consider the hybrid excitations in cavity with organic and inorganic quantum wells and with different types of pumping from external source. The frequency dependence for intensity of excitations in hybrid structure is also investigated. The results may be used for search of most effective fluorescence and relaxation processes. The same approach may be used when both quantum wells are organic or inorganic.

  15. Hybrid simulation research on formation mechanism of tungsten nanostructure induced by helium plasma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Atsushi M., E-mail: ito.atsushi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Takayama, Arimichi; Oda, Yasuhiro [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hattori, Tatsunori; Ogata, Shuji [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yajima, Miyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Noiri, Yasuyuki [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Yoshihide [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Saito, Seiki [Kushiro National College of Technology, Kushiro, Hokkaido 084-0916 (Japan); Takamura, Shuichi [Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Murashima, Takahiro [Tohoku University, 6-3, Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-Ward, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Miyamoto, Mitsutaka [Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The generation of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure by exposure to helium plasma is one of the important problems for the use of tungsten material as divertor plates in nuclear fusion reactors. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of the helium bubble and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure were investigated by using several simulation methods. We proposed the four-step process which is composed of penetration step, diffusion and agglomeration step, helium bubble growth step, and fuzzy nanostructure formation step. As the fourth step, the formation of the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure was successfully reproduced by newly developed hybrid simulation combining between molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo method. The formation mechanism of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure observed by the hybrid simulation is that concavity and convexity of the surface are enhanced by the bursting of helium bubbles in the region around the concavity.

  16. Hybrid simulation research on formation mechanism of tungsten nanostructure induced by helium plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsushi M.; Takayama, Arimichi; Oda, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Hattori, Tatsunori; Ogata, Shuji; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin; Yajima, Miyuki; Noiri, Yasuyuki; Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Saito, Seiki; Takamura, Shuichi; Murashima, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Mitsutaka; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure by exposure to helium plasma is one of the important problems for the use of tungsten material as divertor plates in nuclear fusion reactors. In the present paper, the formation mechanisms of the helium bubble and the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure were investigated by using several simulation methods. We proposed the four-step process which is composed of penetration step, diffusion and agglomeration step, helium bubble growth step, and fuzzy nanostructure formation step. As the fourth step, the formation of the tungsten fuzzy nanostructure was successfully reproduced by newly developed hybrid simulation combining between molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo method. The formation mechanism of tungsten fuzzy nanostructure observed by the hybrid simulation is that concavity and convexity of the surface are enhanced by the bursting of helium bubbles in the region around the concavity.

  17. DNA–melamine hybrid molecules: from self-assembly to nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA–melamine hybrid molecular building blocks were synthesized using a phosphoramidation cross-coupling reaction with a zero linker approach. The self-assembly of the DNA–organic hybrid molecules was achieved by DNA hybridization. Following self-assembly, two distinct types of nanostructures in the form of linear chains and network arrays were observed. The morphology of the self-assembled nanostructures was found to depend on the number of DNA strands that were attached to a single melamine molecule.

  18. Wire-shaped ultraviolet photodetectors based on a nanostructured NiO/ZnO coaxial p-n heterojunction via thermal oxidation and hydrothermal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-01-01

    We report the facile fabrication of wire-shaped ultraviolet photodetectors (WUPDs) by employing a nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)/nickel oxide (NiO) coaxial p-n heterojunction. The WUPD consists of a ZnO/NiO coaxial Ni wire and a twisted gold (Au) wire where the Ni and Au are used as the anode and cathode, respectively. For the coaxial p-n heterojunction, the NiO nanostructures (NSs) and the ZnO nanorods (NRs) are subsequently formed on the surface of Ni wire via thermal oxidation and hydrothermal growth processes. With an applied bias of -3.5 V, the WUPD exhibits good photoresponsivity of 7.37 A W-1 and an external quantum efficiency of 28.1% at an incident light wavelength of 325 nm. Under the UV illumination at a wavelength of 365 nm, the dark current and photocurrent are -3.97 × 10-7 and -8.47 × 10-6 A, respectively. For enhancing the photocurrent, the WUPD is threaded through a silver (Ag) coated glass tube which acts as a waveguide to concentrate the UV light of 365 nm on the WUPD. As a result, the photocurrent is significantly improved up to -1.56 × 10-5 A (i.e., 1.84 times) at the reverse bias of -3.5 V.We report the facile fabrication of wire-shaped ultraviolet photodetectors (WUPDs) by employing a nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)/nickel oxide (NiO) coaxial p-n heterojunction. The WUPD consists of a ZnO/NiO coaxial Ni wire and a twisted gold (Au) wire where the Ni and Au are used as the anode and cathode, respectively. For the coaxial p-n heterojunction, the NiO nanostructures (NSs) and the ZnO nanorods (NRs) are subsequently formed on the surface of Ni wire via thermal oxidation and hydrothermal growth processes. With an applied bias of -3.5 V, the WUPD exhibits good photoresponsivity of 7.37 A W-1 and an external quantum efficiency of 28.1% at an incident light wavelength of 325 nm. Under the UV illumination at a wavelength of 365 nm, the dark current and photocurrent are -3.97 × 10-7 and -8.47 × 10-6 A, respectively. For enhancing the photocurrent

  19. Directed assembly of hybrid nanostructures using optically resonant nanotweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This represents the final report for this project. Over the course of the project we have made significant progress in photonically driven nano-assembly including: (1) demonstrating the first direct optical tweezer based manipulation of proteins, (2) the ability to apply optical angular torques to microtubuals and other rod-shaped microparticles, (3) direct assembly of hybrid nanostructures comprising of polymeric nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes and, (4) the ability to drive biological reactions (specifically protein aggregation) that are thermodynamically unfavorable by applying localized optical work. These advancements are described in the list of papers provided in section 2.0 of the below. Summary details are provided in prior year annual reports. We have two additional papers which will be submitted shortly based on the work done under this award. An updated publication list will be provided to the program manager when those are accepted. In this report, we report on a new advancement made in the final project year, which uses the nanotweezer technology to perform direct measurements of particle-surface interactions. Briefly, these measurements are important for characterizing the stability and behavior of colloidal and nanoparticle suspensions and current techniques are limited in their ability to measure piconewton scale interaction forces on sub-micrometer particles due to signal detection limits and thermal noise. In this project year we developed a new technique called “Nanophotonic Force Microscopy” which uses the localized region of exponentially decaying, near-field, light to confine small particles close to a surface. From the statistical distribution of the light intensity scattered by the particle the technique maps out the potential well of the trap and directly quantify the repulsive force between the nanoparticle and the surface. The major advantage of the technique is that it can measure forces and energy wells below the thermal noise

  20. One-dimensional hybrid nanostructures for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Miao, Jianwei; Tao, Hua Bing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Hong Bin; Chen, Jiazang; Chen, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-13

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis have received considerable attention as alternative approaches for solar energy harvesting and storage. The photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic performance of a semiconductor is closely related to the design of the semiconductor at the nanoscale. Among various nanostructures, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured photocatalysts and photoelectrodes have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique optical, structural, and electronic advantages. In this article, a comprehensive review of the current research efforts towards the development of 1D semiconductor nanomaterials for heterogeneous photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis is provided and, in particular, a discussion of how to overcome the challenges for achieving full potential of 1D nanostructures is presented. It is anticipated that this review will afford enriched information on the rational exploration of the structural and electronic properties of 1D semiconductor nanostructures for achieving more efficient 1D nanostructure-based photocatalysts and photoelectrodes for high-efficiency solar energy conversion.

  1. Nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems as efficient sound-emitting devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Namura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the photo-acoustic emission from nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems was studied. Copper nanoparticles were grown by photo-assisted electroless deposition on crystalline silicon and nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS). Both the optical and photo-acoustic responses from these systems were determined. The experimental results show a remarkable increase in the photo-acoustic intensity when copper nanoparticles are incorporated to the porous structure. The ...

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of CdTe/SWNT hybrid nanostructures and their tunable electrical and optoelectrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chong Hyun; Jung, Hyunsung; Rheem, Youngwoo; Lee, Kyu-Hwan; Lim, Dong-Chan; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lim, Jae-Hong; Myung, Nosang V

    2013-02-21

    A facile electrodeposition technique was utilized to deposit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with cadmium telluride (CdTe) with well-controlled size, density, surface morphology, and composition. By controlling the applied charge, the morphology of these hybrid nanostructures was altered from CdTe nanoparticles on SWNTs to SWNT/CdTe core/shell nanostructures and the composition of the CdTe nanoparticles was altered from Te-rich (29 at% Cd) to Cd-rich (79 at% Cd) CdTe by adjusting the deposition potential. The electrical and optoelectrical properties of these hybrid nanostructures showed that photo-induced current can be tuned by tailoring the conductivity type (n-type or p-type), morphology, and size of the CdTe nanostructures, with a maximum photosensitivity (ΔI/I(0)) of about 30% for SWNT/Cd-rich CdTe (n-type) core/shell nanostructures. This work demonstrates a novel approach for synthesizing metal chalcogenide/SWNT hybrid nanostructures for various electrical and optoelectrical applications.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun; Amini, Abbas; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Zuli; Song, Haisheng; Wang, Ning

    2014-02-01

    We studied the photocatalytic properties of rational designed TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures, which were fabricated by the site-specific deposition of amorphous TiO2 on the tips of ZnO nanorods. Compared with the pure components of ZnO nanorods and amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles, these TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures demonstrated a higher catalytic activity. The strong green emission quenching observed from photoluminescence of TiO2-ZnO hybrid nanostructures implied an enhanced charge transfer/separation process resulting from the novel type II heterostructures with fine interfaces. The catalytic performance of annealing products with different TiO2 phase varied with the annealing temperatures. This is attributed to the combinational changes in Eg of the TiO2 phase, the specific surface area and the quantity of surface hydroxyl groups.

  4. Ultrafast laser functionalized rare phased gold-silicon/silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, P; Tan, B; Venkatakrishnan, K

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a hybrid nanostructured biomaterial that is a combination of rare phases of immiscible gold and silicon oxide, functionalized via ultrafast laser synthesis. For the first time, we show cancer controlling properties of rare phases of gold silicides, which include Au7Si, Au5Si, Au0.7Si2.3 and Au8Si2. Conventionally, pure forms of gold and silicon/silicon oxide are extensively employed in targeted therapy and drug delivery systems due to their unique properties. While silicon and silicon oxide nanoparticles have shown biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles show conflicting results based on their size and material properties. Several studies have shown that gold and silicon combinations produce cell controlling properties, however, these studies were not able to produce a homogenous combination of gold and silicon, owing to its immiscibility. A homogenous combination of gold and silicon may potentially enable properties that have not previously been reported. We describe rare phased gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid biomaterials and its unique cancer controlling properties, owing to material properties, concentration, size and density. The gold-silicon oxide nanostructured hybrid is composed of individual gold-silicon oxide nanoparticles in various concentrations of gold and silicon, some nanoparticles possess a gold-core and silicon-shell like structure. The individual nanoparticles are bonded together forming a three dimensional nanostructured hybrid. The interaction of the nanostructured hybrids with cervical cancer cells showed a 96% reduction in 24h. This engineered nanostructured hybrid biomaterial presents significant potential due to the combination of immiscible gold and silicon oxide in varying phases and can potentially satiate the current vacuum in cancer therapy.

  5. High-performance photoelectrochemical-type self-powered UV photodetector using epitaxial TiO₂/SnO₂ branched heterojunction nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Gao, Caitian; Duan, Huigao; Lu, Bingan; Wang, Youqing; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Xie, Erqing

    2013-06-10

    TiO₂/SnO₂ branched heterojunction nanostructure with TiO₂ branches on electrospun SnO2 nanofiber (B-SnO₂ NF) networks serves as a model architecture for efficient self-powered UV photodetector based on a photoelectrochemical cell (PECC). The nanostructure simultaneously offers a low degree of charge recombination and a direct pathway for electron transport. Without correcting 64.5% loss of incident photons through light absorption and scattering by the F-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass, the incident power conversion efficiency reaches 14.7% at 330 nm, more than twice as large as the nanocrystalline TiO₂ (TiO₂ NC, 6.4%)-film based PECC. By connecting a PECC to an ammeter, the intensity of UV light is quantified using the output short-circuit photocurrent density (J(sc)) without a power source. Under UV irradiation, the self-powered UV photodetector exhibits a high responsivity of 0.6 A/W, a high on/off ratio of 4550, a rise time of 0.03 s and a decay time of 0.01 s for J(sc) signal. The excellent performance of the B-SnO₂ NF-based PECC type self-powered photodetector will enable significant advancements for next-generation photodetection and photosensing applications.

  6. Binary-metal perovskites toward high-performance planar-heterojunction hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Fan; Williams, Spencer T; Liang, Po-Wei; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Liao, Chien-Yi; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2014-10-08

    A simple, low temperature solution process for Pb/Sn binary-metal perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells is demonstrated. Sn inclusion substantially influences the band-gap, crystallization kinetics, and thin-film formation leading to a broadened light absorption and enhanced film coverage on ITO/PEDOT:PSS. As a result, the optimized device shows a PCE exceeding 10%, which is the best result for binary-metal perovskite solar cells so far. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems as efficient sound-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Namura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Martín-Palma, Raúl J

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the photo-acoustic emission from nanostructured copper/porous silicon hybrid systems was studied. Copper nanoparticles were grown by photo-assisted electroless deposition on crystalline silicon and nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS). Both the optical and photo-acoustic responses from these systems were determined. The experimental results show a remarkable increase in the photo-acoustic intensity when copper nanoparticles are incorporated to the porous structure. The results thus suggest that the Cu/nanoPS hybrid systems are suitable candidates for several applications in the field of thermoplasmonics, including the development of sound-emitting devices of great efficiency.

  8. Improving the organic/Si heterojunction hybrid solar cell property by optimizing PEDOT:PSS film and with amorphous silicon as back surface field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hongbin; Cai, Hongkun; Du, Yangyang; Dai, Xiaowan; Sun, Yun; Ni, Jian; Li, Juan; Zhang, Dexian; Zhang, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Organic/Si hybrid heterojunction hybrid solar cells have got a great progress. The hybrid device may be promising in terms of reducing cost due to its simple technological process. It is crucial for high efficiency solar cells to form better coating films on the Si substrate. Here, the performance of organic/Si heterojunction hybrid solar cells is obviously enhanced by adding surfactant (FS300) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) film and the device with amorphous silicon as back surface field is successfully fabricated. The proper amount of surfactant addition improves the uniformity and homogeneous of the polymer film that can be reflected by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope, which allows good contact on the texture-Si substrate resulting in excellent device property. Also, the power conversion efficiency of cells is boosted to 9.37 from 7.31% displayed a 28% enhancement by embedding amorphous silicon thin film layer at rear interface as holes blocking layer. The insertion layer of amorphous silicon enhances the extraction of photon-generated carrier and suppresses the recombination of hole-electron at the rear cathode. Which results all improvement in the short-circuit current density, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor. By optimizing the polymer film property and inserting the hole blocking layer, the performance of hybrid Si/organic hybrid solar cells is greatly improved.

  9. A Review on the Low-Dimensional and Hybridized Nanostructured Diamond Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, besides the breakthrough of high-rate growth of chemical vapor deposited single-crystal diamonds, numerous nanostructured diamond films have been rapidly developed in the research fields of the diamond-based sciences and industrial applications. The low-dimensional diamonds of two-dimensional atomic-thick nanofilms and nanostructural diamond on the surface of bulk diamond films have been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In addition, the diamond-related hybrid nanostructures of n-type oxide/p-type diamond and n-type nitride/p-type diamond, having high performance physical and chemical properties, are proposed for further applications. In this review, we first briefly introduce the three categories of diamond nanostructures and then outline the current advances in these topics, including their design, fabrication, characterization, and properties. Finally, we address the remaining challenges in the research field and the future activities.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structures and carrier transport of hybrid graphene and boron nitride nanostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Tao Sun

    2012-09-01

    graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (C-BN nanostructures receive much research interest due to the complementary electronic properties. Graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN is a wide gap semiconductor. Here we studied the electronic structures and carrier transport of hybrid C-BN nanostructures by using first principles calculations and deformation potential theory. We have found that the physical quantities in these systems under study, band gap, effective mass, deformation potential, and carrier mobility, can be categorised into three different families depending on the width of graphene nanoribbon. This family behavior is similar to pristine armchair graphene nanoribbon, but with slight difference from the individual component. New opportunities of designing nanoelectric devices are discussed by utilizing the quantum confinement effect based on such kind of hybrid nanostructures.

  11. Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Films June 2013/Vol. 537 Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3- hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures David E. Motaung a, *, Gerald F. Malgas a, **, Suprakas S. Ray a, Christopher J. Arendse b a DST...

  12. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Kostiučenko, Oksana; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly...

  13. Interfacial scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Mahmoud M.; Abdallah, Tamer [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Easawi, Khalid; Negm, Sohair [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Talaat, Hassan, E-mail: hassantalaat@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparing band gaps values obtained optically with STS. • Comparing direct imaging with calculated dimensions. • STS determination of the interfacial band bending of metal/chalcogenide. - Abstract: The electronic structure at the interface of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure (CdSe–Au tipped) had been studied by UHV scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. This nanostructure was synthesized by a phase transfer chemical method. The optical absorption of this hybrid nanostructure was recorded, and the application of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model gave dimensions that were confirmed by the direct measurements using the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The energy band gap obtained by STS agrees with the values obtained from the optical absorption. Moreover, the STS at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure between CdSe of size about 4.1 ± 0.19 nm and Au tip of size about 3.5 ± 0.29 nm shows a band bending about 0.18 ± 0.03 eV in CdSe down in the direction of the interface. Such a result gives a direct observation of the electron accumulation at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure, consistent with its energy band diagram. The presence of the electron accumulation at the interface of chalcogenides with metals has an important implication for hybrid nanoelectronic devices and the newly developed plasmon/chalcogenide photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  14. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of

  15. Multi-functionality of macroporous TiO2 spheres in dye-sensitized and hybrid heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, Ganapathy; Jung, Dae-Woong; Kwon, Jeong; Choi, Jeong Mo; Heo, Nansra; Yi, Gi-Ra; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-03-25

    Micron-sized macroporous TiO2 spheres (MAC-TiO2) were synthesized using a colloidal templating process inside emulsions, which were then coated on a nanocrystalline TiO2 light absorption film to prepare a bilayered photoanode for liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and hybrid heterojunction solid-state solar cells. MAC-TiO2 layers can enhance light scattering as well as absorption, because their pore size and periodicity are comparable to light wavelength for unique multiple scattering and a porous surface can load dye more. Moreover, due to the bicontinuous nature of macropores and TiO2 walls, electrolyte could be transported much faster in between the TiO2 spheres rather than within the small TiO2 nonporous architectures. Electron transport was also facilitated along the interconnected TiO2 walls. In DSSCs with these MAC-TiO2 scattering layers, efficiency was higher than conventional DSSCs incorporating a commercial scattering layer. The unique geometry of MAC-TiO2 results in strong improvements in light scattering and infiltration of hole-transporting materials, thereby the MAC-TiO2-based solid-state device showed comparatively higher efficiency than the device with conventional nanocrystalline TiO2.

  16. Photophysical properties of Au-CdTe hybrid nanostructures of varying sizes and shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Sen, Tapasi; Mandal, Sadananda; Patra, Amitava

    2012-12-07

    We design well-defined metal-semiconductor nanostructures using thiol-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/quantum rods (QRs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein-conjugated Au nanoparticles (NPs)/nanorods (NRs) in aqueous solution. The main focus of this article is to address the impacts of size and shape on the photophysical properties, including radiative and nonradiative decay processes and energy transfers, of Au-CdTe hybrid nanostructures. The red shifting of the plasmonic band and the strong photoluminescence (PL) quenching reveal a strong interaction between plasmons and excitons in these Au-CdTe hybrid nanostructures. The PL quenching of CdTe QDs varies from 40 to 86 % by changing the size and shape of the Au NPs. The radiative as well as the nonradiative decay rates of the CdTe QDs/QRs are found to be affected in the presence of both Au NPs and NRs. A significant change in the nonradiative decay rate from 4.72×10(6) to 3.92×10(10) s(-1) is obtained for Au NR-conjugated CdTe QDs. It is seen that the sizes and shapes of the Au NPs have a pronounced effect on the distance-dependent energy transfer. Such metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures should have great potentials for nonlinear optical properties, photovoltaic devices, and chemical sensors.

  17. Broadband All-Polymer Phototransistors with Nanostructured Bulk Heterojunction Layers of NIR-Sensing n-Type and Visible Light-Sensing p-Type Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemi; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Kim, Hwajeong; Bradley, Donal D C; Ha, Chang-Sik; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2015-11-13

    We report 'broadband light-sensing' all-polymer phototransistors with the nanostructured bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers of visible (VIS) light-sensing electron-donating (p-type) polymer and near infrared (NIR) light-sensing electron-accepting (n-type) polymer. Poly[{2,5-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,6-bis-(thien-2-yl)-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-diyl}-co-{2,2'-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)]-5,5'-diyl}] (PEHTPPD-BT), which is synthesized via Suzuki coupling and employed as the n-type polymer, shows strong optical absorption in the NIR region (up to 1100 nm) in the presence of weak absorption in the VIS range (400~600 nm). To strengthen the VIS absorption, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is introduced as the p-type polymer. All-polymer phototransistors with the BHJ (P3HT:PEHTPPD-BT) layers, featuring a peculiar nano-domain morphology, exhibit typical p-type transistor characteristics and efficiently detect broadband (VIS~NIR) lights. The maximum corrected responsivity (without contribution of dark current) reaches up to 85~88% (VIS) and 26~40% (NIR) of theoretical responsivity. The charge separation process between P3HT and PEHTPPD-BT components in the highest occupied molecular orbital is proposed as a major working mechanism for the effective NIR sensing.

  18. Hybrid Aluminum Composite Materials Based on Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Koltsova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated formation of carbon nanofibers grown by chemical deposition (CVD method using an acetylene-hydrogen mixture on the surface of micron-sized aluminum powder particles. To obtain uniform distribution of the carbon nanostructures on the particles we deposited nickel catalyst on the surface by spraying from the aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. It was found that increasing the time of the synthesis lowers the rate of growth of carbon nanostructures due to the deactivation of the catalyst. The Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the presence of disordered carbon corresponding to CNFs in the specimen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the presence of aluminum carbide in the hot pressed samples. An aluminum composite material prepared using 1 wt.% CNFs obtained by uniaxial cold pressing and sintering showed 30% increase in the hardness compared to pure aluminum, whereas the composites prepared by hot pressing showed 80% increase in the hardness. Composite materials have satisfactory ductility. Thus, the aluminum based material reinforced with carbon nanostructures should be appropriate for creating high-strength and light compacts for aerospace and automotive applications and power engineering.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7355

  19. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo hybrid simulation for fuzzy tungsten nanostructure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A. M.; Takayama, A.; Oda, Y.; Tamura, T.; Kobayashi, R.; Hattori, T.; Ogata, S.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Yajima, M.; Noiri, Y.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Saito, S.; Takamura, S.; Murashima, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Nakamura, H.

    2015-07-01

    For the purposes of long-term use of tungsten divertor walls, the formation process of the fuzzy tungsten nanostructure induced by exposure to the helium plasma was studied. In the present paper, the fuzzy nanostructure's formation has been successfully reproduced by the new hybrid simulation method in which the deformation of the tungsten material due to pressure of the helium bubbles was simulated by the molecular dynamics and the diffusion of the helium atoms was simulated by the random walk based on the Monte Carlo method. By the simulation results, the surface height of the fuzzy nanostructure increased only when helium retention was under the steady state. It was proven that the growth of the fuzzy nanostructure was brought about by bursting of the helium bubbles. Moreover, we suggest the following key formation mechanisms of the fuzzy nanostructure: (1) lifting in which the surface lifted up by the helium bubble changes into a convexity, (2) bursting by which the region of the helium bubble changes into a concavity, and (3) the difference of the probability of helium retention by which the helium bubbles tend to appear under the concavity. Consequently, the convex-concave surface structure was enhanced and grew to create the fuzzy nanostructure.

  20. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J F; Katiyar, R S

    2014-01-21

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.

  1. Spin injection across a hybrid heterojunction: Theoretical understanding and experimental approach (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.M.; Nitta, J.; Jensen, Ane

    2002-01-01

    Spin injection across a hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor junction has proven to be difficult, unlike in an all-metal junction used in giant magnetoresistance devices. The difference responsible is highlighted in a simple model. We perform spin-injection-detection experiments on devices with two...... ferromagnetic contacts on a two-dimensional electron gas confined in an InAs quantum well. We demonstrate that spin injection allows the hybrid device to combine both the advantage of the ferromagnet as well as that of the semiconductor....

  2. Fabrication of MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures for lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Fan, Zhaoyang; Ding, Shujiang; Yu, Demei; Du, Yaping

    2014-04-01

    MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures were successfully prepared by a facile two-step method: prefabrication of porous TiO2 nanotubes based on a sol-gel method template against polymeric nanotubes, and then assembly of MoS2 nanoclusters that consist of ultrathin nanosheets through a solvothermal process. These hybrid nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. When evaluated as an electrode material for lithium ion batteries, the results of the electrochemical test show that the unique MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures exhibit outstanding lithium storage performances with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The smart architecture of the MoS2 nanosheet@TiO2 nanotube hybrid nanostructures makes a prominent contribution to the excellent electrochemical performance.

  3. Self-filtering oscillations in carbon nanotube hetero-junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, F; Narojczyk, J W; Wojciechowski, K W; Inman, D J

    2011-11-18

    We evaluate the vibrational properties of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) hetero-junction (HJ) oscillators using a hybrid atomistic-continuum approach validated by molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics simulations. The SWCNT-HJs show a broken symmetry topology of their mode shapes, with striction effects caused on the bending and radial modes by the combined effect of the HJ and the tube with the thinner radius. The single-wall nanotube HJs also show selective mass sensing properties based solely on the geometry and type of the boundary conditions of the specific nanostructure. This unusual behaviour has not been observed so far in classical SWCNT systems.

  4. Nanostructured SnO2-ZnO heterojunction photocatalysts showing enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Tamez; Nicolas, Yohann; Olivier, Céline; Toupance, Thierry; Servant, Laurent; Müller, Mathis M; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Ziegler, Jürgen; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2012-07-16

    Nanoporous SnO(2)-ZnO heterojunction nanocatalyst was prepared by a straightforward two-step procedure involving, first, the synthesis of nanosized SnO(2) particles by homogeneous precipitation combined with a hydrothermal treatment and, second, the reaction of the as-prepared SnO(2) particles with zinc acetate followed by calcination at 500 °C. The resulting nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst was made of a mesoporous network of aggregated wurtzite ZnO and cassiterite SnO(2) nanocrystallites, the size of which was estimated to be 27 and 4.5 nm, respectively, after calcination. According to UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the evident energy band gap value of the SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst was estimated to be 3.23 eV to be compared with those of pure SnO(2), that is, 3.7 eV, and ZnO, that is, 3.2 eV, analogues. The energy band diagram of the SnO(2)-ZnO heterostructure was directly determined by combining XPS and the energy band gap values. The valence band and conduction band offsets were calculated to be 0.70 ± 0.05 eV and 0.20 ± 0.05 eV, respectively, which revealed a type-II band alignment. Moreover, the heterostructure SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst showed much higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue than those of individual SnO(2) and ZnO nanomaterials. This behavior was rationalized in terms of better charge separation and the suppression of charge recombination in the SnO(2)-ZnO photocatalyst because of the energy difference between the conduction band edges of SnO(2) and ZnO as evidenced by the band alignment determination. Finally, this mesoporous SnO(2)-ZnO heterojunction nanocatalyst was stable and could be easily recycled several times opening new avenues for potential industrial

  5. Organic nanowire/crystalline silicon p-n heterojunctions for high-sensitivity, broadband photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Jie, Jiansheng; Shang, Qixun; Wang, Jincheng; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shenwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-28

    Organic/inorganic hybrid devices are promising candidates for high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, by virtue of their unique properties. Polycrystalline/amorphous organic films are widely used in hybrid devices, because defects in the films hamper the improvement of device performance. Here, we report the construction of 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]squaraine (SQ) nanowire (NW)/crystalline Si (c-Si) p-n heterojunctions. Thanks to the high crystal quality of the SQ NWs, the heterojunctions exhibit excellent diode characteristics in darkness. It is significant that the heterojunctions have been found to be capable of detecting broadband light with wavelengths spanning from ultraviolet (UV) light, to visible (Vis) light, to near-infrared (NIR) light, because of the complementary spectrum absorption of SQ NWs with Si. The junction is demonstrated to play a core role in enhancing the device performance, in terms of ultrahigh sensitivity, excellent stability, and fast response. The photovoltaic characteristics of the heterojunctions are further investigated, revealing a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 1.17%. This result also proves the potential of the device as self-powered photodetectors operating at zero external bias voltage. This work presents an important advance in constructing single-crystal organic nanostructure/inorganic heterojunctions and will enable future exploration of their applications in broadband photodetectors and solar cells.

  6. Sensitive electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acids coupling DNA nanostructures with hybridization chain reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Junyang; Fu, Libing; Xu, Mingdi; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.cn

    2013-06-14

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new signal-on metallobioassay was developed for detection of nucleic acids. •Target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures are used for amplification of electronic signal. •Hybridization chain reaction is utilized for construction of long-range DNA nanostructures. -- Abstract: Methods based on metal nanotags have been developed for metallobioassay of nucleic acids, but most involve complicated labeling or stripping procedures and are unsuitable for routine use. Herein, we report the proof-of-concept of a novel and label-free metallobioassay for ultrasensitive electronic determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related gene fragments at an ultralow concentration based on target-triggered long-range self-assembled DNA nanostructures and DNA-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The signal is amplified by silver nanotags on the DNA duplex. The assay mainly consists of capture probe, detection probe, and two different DNA hairpins. In the presence of target DNA, the capture probe immobilized on the sensor sandwiches target DNA with the 3′ end of detection probe. Another exposed part of detection probe at the 5′ end opens two alternating DNA hairpins in turn, and propagates a chain reaction of hybridization events to form a nicked double-helix. Finally, numerous silver nanotags are immobilized onto the long-range DNA nanostructures, each of which produces a strong electronic signal within the applied potentials. Under optimal conditions, the target-triggered long-range DNA nanostructures present good electrochemical behaviors for the detection of HIV DNA at a concentration as low as 0.5 fM. Importantly, the outstanding sensitivity can make this approach a promising scheme for development of next-generation DNA sensors without the need of enzyme labeling or fluorophore labeling.

  7. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  8. Image dipoles approach to the local field enhancement in nanostructured Ag-Au hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Christin; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Weidinger, Inez M; Hildebrandt, Peter

    2010-01-14

    We have investigated the plasmonic enhancement in the radiation field at various nanostructured multilayer devices that may be applied in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. We apply an image dipole method to describe the effect of surface morphology on the field enhancement in a quasistatic limit. In particular, we compare the performance of a nanostructured silver surface and a layered silver-gold hybrid device. It is found that localized surface plasmon states provide a high field enhancement in silver-gold hybrid devices, where symmetry breaking due to surface defects is a supporting factor. These results are compared to those obtained for multishell nanoparticles of spherical symmetry. Calculated enhancement factors are discussed on the background of recent experimental data.

  9. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Core-shell hybrid nanostructured delivery platforms for advanced RNAi therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Choe, Jeong Yong; Lee, Dong Ki

    2017-09-04

    Study was aimed at combining the advantages of nonclassical RNAi-triggering oligonucleotides with nanoparticle-based advanced delivery platforms for developing efficient therapeutic systems. We utilized a core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform for effectively delivering nonclassical RNAi triggers, namely long double stranded interfering RNA and tripodal interfering RNA. Core-shell structure was prepared by stably anchoring thiol-modified cationic polymer on the surface of growing crystal gold (Au) seeds, and the resulting particles were further complexed with nonclassical RNAi candidates via electrostatic interactions. Our studies clearly demonstrated that the unique combination of nonclassical RNAi structures with an advanced core-shell hybrid nanostructured platform is an effective module for advanced RNAi-based therapeutic development.

  11. Electrical Investigation of Nanostructured Fe2O3/p-Si Heterojunction Diode Fabricated Using the Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Shehab A.; Ibrahim, Mervat M.

    2017-07-01

    Iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanocrystals have been synthesized via the sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological features of these nanocrystals were studied using x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Colloidal solution of synthesized α-Fe2O3 (hematite) was spin-coated onto a single-crystal p-type silicon (p-Si) wafer to fabricate a heterojunction diode with Mansourconfiguration Ag/Fe2O3/p-Si/Al. This diode was electrically characterized at room temperature using current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in the voltage range from -9 V to +9 V. The fabricated diode showed a good rectification behavior with a rectification factor 1.115 × 102 at 6 V. The junction parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance and shunt resistance are determined using conventional I-V characteristics. For low forward voltage, the conduction mechanism is dominated by the defect-assisted tunneling process with conventional electron-hole recombination. However, at higher voltage, I-V ohmic and space charge-limited current conduction was became less effective with the contribution of the trapped-charge-limited current at the highest voltage range.

  12. Si nanowires organic semiconductor hybrid heterojunction solar cells toward 10% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lining; Jiang, Changyun; Wang, Hao; Lai, Donny; Rusli

    2012-03-01

    High-efficiency hybrid solar cells are fabricated using a simple approach of spin coating a transparent hole transporting organic small molecule, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) arrays prepared by electroless chemical etching. The characteristics of the hybrid cells are investigated as a function of SiNWs length from 0.15 to 5 μm. A maximum average power conversion efficiency of 9.92% has been achieved from 0.35 μm length SiNWs cells, despite a 12% shadowing loss and the absence of antireflective coating and back surface field enhancement. It is found that enhanced aggregations in longer SiNWs limit the cell performance due to increased series resistance and higher carrier recombination in the shorter wavelength region. The effects of the Si substrate doping concentrations on the performance of the cells are also investigated. Cells with higher substrate doping concentration exhibit a significant drop in the incident photons-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) in the near infrared region. Nevertheless, a promising short circuit current density of 19 mA/cm(2) and IPCE peak of 57% have been achieved for a 0.9 μm length SiNWs cell fabricated on a highly doped substrate with a minority-carrier diffusion length of only 15 μm. The results suggest that such hybrid cells can potentially be realized using Si thin films instead of bulk substrates. This is promising towards realizing low-cost and high-efficiency SiNWs/organic hybrid solar cells.

  13. Roles of interfacial modifiers in hybrid solar cells: inorganic/polymer bilayer vs inorganic/polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seung Hun; Baek, Myung-Jin; Park, Hanok; Yan, Liang; Liu, Shubin; You, Wei; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2014-01-22

    Hybrid solar cells (HSCs) incorporating both organic and inorganic materials typically have significant interfacial issues which can significantly limit the device efficiency by allowing charge recombination, macroscopic phase separation, and nonideal contact. All these issues can be mitigated by applying carefully designed interfacial modifiers (IMs). In an attempt to further understand the function of these IMs, we investigated two IMs in two different HSCs structures: an inverted bilayer HSC of ZnO:poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and an inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell of ZnO/P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). In the former device configuration, ZnO serves as the n-type semiconductor, while in the latter device configuration, it functions as an electron transport layer (ETL)/hole blocking layer (HBL). In the ZnO:P3HT bilayer device, after the interfacial modification, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.42% with improved Voc and FF and a significantly increased Jsc was obtained. In the ZnO/P3HT:PCBM based BHJ device, including IMs also improved the PCE to 4.69% with an increase in Voc and FF. Our work clearly demonstrates that IMs help to reduce both the charge recombination and leakage current by minimizing the number of defect sites and traps and to increase the compatibility of hydrophilic ZnO with the organic layers. Furthermore, the major role of IMs depends on the function of ZnO in different device configurations, either as n-type semiconductor in bilayer devices or as ETL/HBL in BHJ devices. We conclude by offering insights for designing ideal IMs in future efforts, in order to achieve high-efficiency in both ZnO:polymer bilayer structure and ZnO/polymer:PCBM BHJ devices.

  14. Constructing 2D layered hybrid CdS nanosheets/MoS2 heterojunctions for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2 generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Song; Xie, Jun; Wen, Jiuqing; He, Kelin; Li, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiangchao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a 2D hybrid CdS nanosheets(NSs)/MoS2 layered heterojunctions were successfully synthesized by a two-step hydrothermal method and subsequent ultrasonic treatment. The results showed that the loading ultrathin MoS2 NSs as co-catalysts could significantly boost the photocatalytic H2-evolution activity of CdS NSs. It is demonstrated that the optimized 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 (1.0 wt%) layered heterojunctions could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2-evolution activity of 1.75 mmol g-1 h-1 from an aqueous solution containing sulfide and sulfite under visible light, which is 2.03 times as high as that of the pristine CdS NSs. It is believed that the deposition of ultrathin MoS2 NSs and intimate 2D-2D coupling interfaces are mainly responsible for the excellent H2-evolution performance of 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 layered heterojunctions, owing to the effectively promoted separation and transportation of charge carriers and the enhanced following surface H2-evolution kinetics. Interestingly, the lactic acid and formic acid have also been demonstrated to be better sacrificial reagents than the Na2S/Na2SO3, for the photocatalytic H2 evolution over the 2D CdS NSs/MoS2 layered heterojunctions. It is hoped that the strategy of 2D-2D interfacical coupling based on CdS NSs can become a general strategy to improve the H2-evolution activity over various kinds of conventional semiconductor NSs.

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of Ag–ZnO hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity by a facile wet-chemical method. The structural, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy. The effects of citrate concentration and Ag nanoparticle loading on the photocatalytic activity of Ag–ZnO hybrid nanostructures towards sun-light driven degradation of methylene blue (MB have been investigated. Increase in citrate concentration has been found to result in the formation of nanodisk-like structures, due to citrate-assisted oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. The decoration of ZnO nanostructures with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic degradation efficiency, which has been found to increase with the extent of Ag nanoparticle loading.

  16. As-grown graphene/copper nanoparticles hybrid nanostructures for enhanced intensity and stability of surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Fei; Dong, Feng-Xi; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Wang, Lei; Bi, Yan-Gang; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Yue-Feng; Feng, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-11-01

    The transfer-free fabrication of the high quality graphene on the metallic nanostructures, which is highly desirable for device applications, remains a challenge. Here, we develop the transfer-free method by direct chemical vapor deposition of the graphene layers on copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) to realize the hybrid nanostructures. The graphene as-grown on the Cu NPs permits full electric contact and strong interactions, which results in a strong localization of the field at the graphene/copper interface. An enhanced intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) supported by the hybrid nanostructures can be obtained, which induces a much enhanced fluorescent intensity from the dye coated hybrid nanostructures. Moreover, the graphene sheets covering completely and uniformly on the Cu NPs act as a passivation layer to protect the underlying metal surface from air oxidation. As a result, the stability of the LSPRs for the hybrid nanostructures is much enhanced compared to that of the bare Cu NPs. The transfer-free hybrid nanostructures with enhanced intensity and stability of the LSPRs will enable their much broader applications in photonics and optoelectronics.

  17. Electrically engineered polymer-carbon hybrid heterojunction for high-performance printed transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hwan; Kang, Gyu Won; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2014-10-01

    Molecularly hybridized materials composed of polymer semiconductors (PSCs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) may provide a new platform to exploit an advantageous combination of semiconductors, which yields electrical properties that are not available in a single component system. In this talk, we demonstrate high-performance ink-jet printed hybrid transistors with an electrically engineered heterostructure by using specially designed PSCs and semiconducting SWNTs (sc-SWNTs) whose system achieved a high mobility of 0.23 cm2V-1s-1, no Von shift, a low off-current, and good bias-stability. We also revealed that binding energy between PSCs and sc-SWNT was strongly affected by side-chain length of PSCs, leading to the formation of homogeneous nanohybrid film. Eventually, understanding of electrostatic interactions in the heterostructure and experimental results suggest criteria for the design of nanohybrid heterostructures. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by a grant (Code No. 2011-0031628) from the Center for Advanced Soft Electronics under the Global Frontier Research Program of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea. The authors acknowledge Prof. Kilwon Cho for collaboration on the analysis of x-ray diffraction.

  18. Charge extraction from nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chiatzun

    Conjugated polymers are attractive for use in photovoltaic (PV) cells because they are highly absorptive, their absorption spectrum can be tuned to match various regions of the solar spectrum and their solubility in common solvents enables the use of low-cost printing technique to mass produce PV panels. Photoexcitation of conjugated polymers forms excitons, which are bound electron-hole pairs. In order to convert these excitons into free carriers, the polymers have to be blended with an electron acceptor in close promixity of ˜10 nm. The charge transfer process at the donor-acceptor interface provides the necessary driving force to split excitons, while the close proximity guarantees excitons reaching an interface before decaying. Once the carriers are split, they have to be transported to their respective electrodes before recombining. Ordered nanostructured titania (TiO2) matrix infiltrated with conjugated polymers is a promising acceptor-donor system, which can potentially meet these requirements. In this work, several optimizations are shown to be essential for increasing the performance of TiO2/polymer cells. First, we measure the hole mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in a thin film diode in the space-charge limited regime. We show that the mobility increases with the polymer molecular weight and can be correlated to the film morphology. The anisotropy in P3HT chain packing suggests that its diode mobility of 10-4 cm 2/Vs can be further enhanced upon chain alignment in straight nanopores. Second, we investigate the use of molecular surface modification to control the interfacial energetics and charge transfer dynamics. By introducing dipoles at the TiO2/P3HT interface, the interfacial energy offset can be changed resulting in a concomitant change in the open circuit voltage. In addition, certain modifiers improve exciton harvesting by mediating charge transfer from the polymer to TiO2. We further show that the use of an amphiphilic molecule

  19. Construction of hierarchical nanostructured TiO2/Bi2MoO6 heterojunction for improved visible light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-De; Zhu, Li

    2012-08-01

    In this study, Bi2MoO6 hollow microspheres were modified by depositing TiO2 nanoparticles through a simple hydrothermal method. The prepared TiO2/Bi2MoO6 photocatalysts were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performance of the heterostructured catalysts was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation (lambda>420 nm). The photocatalysts based on nanostructured Bi2MoO6 and TiO2 exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the single-phase Bi2MoO6 or TiO2 and the mechanical mixture of Bi2MoO6 and TiO2 for degradation of MB under the same conditions. The results reported in this study provide insight into constructing other heterostructured photocatalysts.

  20. A hybrid classical-quantum approach for ultra-scaled confined nanostructures : modeling and simulation*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietra Paola

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid classical-quantum model to study the motion of electrons in ultra-scaled confined nanostructures. The transport of charged particles, considered as one dimensional, is described by a quantum effective mass model in the active zone coupled directly to a drift-diffusion problem in the rest of the device. We explain how this hybrid model takes into account the peculiarities due to the strong confinement and we present numerical simulations for a simplified carbon nanotube. Nous proposons un modèle hybride classique-quantique pour décrire le mouvement des électrons dans des nanostructures très fortement confinées. Le transport des particules, consideré unidimensionel, est décrit par un modèle quantique avec masse effective dans la zone active couplé à un problème de dérive-diffusion dans le reste du domaine. Nous expliquons comment ce modèle hybride prend en compte les spécificités de ce très fort confinement et nous présentons des résultats numériques pour un nanotube de carbone simplifié.

  1. Nanostructured cobalt sulfide-on-fiber with tunable morphology as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Porous cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanostructures with tunable morphology, but identical crystal phase and composition, have been directly nucleated over carbon fiber and evaluated as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. As the morphology is changed from two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes to 3D octahedra, dramatic changes in supercapacitor performance are observed. In three-electrode configuration, the binder-free Co9S82D nanoflake electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 1056 F g-1at 5 mV s-1vs. 88 F g-1for the 3D electrodes. As sulfides are known to have low operating potential, for the first time, asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors are constructed from Co9S8nanostructures and activated carbon (AC), providing an operation potential from 0 to 1.6 V. At a constant current density of 1 A g-1, the 2D Co9S8, nanoflake//AC asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a gravimetric cell capacitance of 82.9 F g-1, which is much higher than that of an AC//AC symmetric capacitor (44.8 F g-1). Moreover, the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor shows an excellent energy density of 31.4 W h kg-1at a power density of 200 W Kg-1and an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of ∼90% after 5000 cycles. This journal is

  2. IF-WS2/Nanostructured Carbon Hybrids Generation and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C. Luhrs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to develop a new generation of materials that combine either the known energy absorbing properties of carbon nanofibers (CNF, or the carbon-carbon bond strength of graphene sheets (G, with the shock resistance properties reported for Inorganic Fullerene type WS2 structures (IF-WS2, hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 were generated, characterized and tested. Experimentation revealed that in situ growth of carbon nanostructures with inorganic fullerene tungsten disulfide particulates had to be performed from particular precursors and fabrication conditions to avoid undesirable byproducts that hinder fiber growth or deter graphene generation. The novel protocols that allowed us to integrate the IF-WS2 with the carbon nanostructures, producing dispersions at the nanoscale, are reported. Resulting hybrid CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 products were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy. The thermal stability of samples in air was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. CNF/IF-WS2 and G/IF-WS2 hybrids were introduced into epoxy matrices, and the mechanical properties of the resulting composites were analyzed using nanoindentation. Epoxy composite samples showed drastic improvements in the Young’s modulus and hardness values by the use of only 1% hybrid weight loadings. The carbon nanofiber inclusions seem to have a much greater impact on the mechanical properties of the composite than the graphene based counterparts.

  3. Chemical modification of hybrid nanostructures (POSS for application as lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Luvison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS are hybrid structures type RSiO15n, with n organic groups R. These molecules can be easily functionalized by simply changing the chemical constitution of the organic groups. In this work, chemical modification of POSS-NH2 was performed by amidation reaction with butyric acid at elevated temperature, 160°C. The formation of the amide group is evinced by the appearance of NH angular deformation band at 1540 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. Approximately 40% of the amino groups reacted, according to titration results. The formation of the amide groups resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature (Tg from -36.9°C to -25.6°C for the modified-POSS sample. Both POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS samples exhibited similar thermal degradation pattern. Analysis of the pairs distribution function (PDF has determined that the hybrid nanoparticles are separated by a periodic distance of approximately 1.32 nm. POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS exhibit newtonian behavior, which will range from 10-1 s-1 and 1000 s-1. The viscosity decreased with increasing temperature, a typical behavior of liquid lubricants.

  4. Development of nanostructured and surface modified semiconductors for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Julia, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Solar energy conversion is increasingly being recognized as one of the principal ways to meet future energy needs without causing detrimental environmental impact. Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells (SCs) are attracting particular interest due to the potential for low cost manufacturing and for use in new applications, such as consumer electronics, architectural integration and light-weight sensors. Key materials advantages of these next generation SCs over conventional semiconductor SCs are in design opportunities--since the different functions of the SCs are carried out by different materials, there are greater materials choices for producing optimized structures. In this project, we explore the hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell system that consists of oxide, primarily ZnO, nanostructures as the electron transporter and poly-(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as the light-absorber and hole transporter. It builds on our capabilities in the solution synthesis of nanostructured semiconducting oxide arrays to this photovoltaic (PV) technology. The three challenges in this hybrid material system for solar applications are (1) achieving inorganic nanostructures with critical spacing that matches the exciton diffusion in the polymer, {approx} 10 nm, (2) infiltrating the polymer completely into the dense nanostructure arrays, and (3) optimizing the interfacial properties to facilitate efficient charge transfer. We have gained an understanding and control over growing oriented ZnO nanorods with sub-50 nm diameters and the required rod-to-rod spacing on various substrates. We have developed novel approaches to infiltrate commercially available P3HT in the narrow spacing between ZnO nanorods. Also, we have begun to explore ways to modify the interfacial properties. In addition, we have established device fabrication and testing capabilities at Sandia for prototype devices. Moreover, the control synthesis of ZnO nanorod arrays lead to the development of an efficient anti

  5. Hybrid Silicon Nanostructures with Conductive Ligands and Their Microscopic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tiezheng; Peck, Jamie N.; Cottrell, Stephen P.; Jayasooriya, Upali A.; Chao, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) functionalized with conjugated molecules are a promising potential pathway for generating an alternative category of thermoelectric materials. While the thermoelectric performance of materials based on phenylacetylene-capped SiNPs has been proven, their low conductivity is still a problem for their general application. A muon study of phenylacetylene-capped SiNPs was recently carried out using the HIFI spectrometer at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, measuring the avoided level-crossing spectra as a function of temperature. The results show a reduction in the measured line width of the resonance above room temperature, suggesting an activated behaviour for this system. This study shows that the muon study could be a powerful method for investigating microscopic conductivity of hybrid thermoelectric materials.

  6. Nanostructured Wood Hybrids for Fire-Retardancy Prepared by Clay Impregnation into the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Medina, Lilian; Li, Yuanyuan; Carosio, Federico; Hajian, Alireza; Berglund, Lars A

    2017-09-14

    Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire-retardancy treatments, which offer opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid with high flame-retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Flame-retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry, whereas thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities were assessed by thermogravimetry. The location of well-distributed clay nanoplatelets inside the cell walls was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. This unique nanostructure dramatically increased the thermal stability because of thermal insulation, oxygen depletion, and catalytic charring effects. A coherent organic/inorganic charred residue was formed during combustion, leading to a strongly reduced heat release rate peak and reduced smoke generation.

  7. Largely Enhanced Single-molecule Fluorescence in Plasmonic Nanogaps formed by Hybrid Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that narrow gaps between metallic nanostructures can be practical for producing large field enhancement. We design a hybrid silver nanostructure geometry in which fluorescent emitters are sandwiched between silver nanoparticles and silver island film (SIF). A desired number of polyelectrolyte layers are deposited on the SIF surface before the self-assembly of a second silver nanoparticle layer. Layer-by-layer configuration provides a well-defined dye position. It allows us to study the photophyical behaviors of fluorophores in the resulting gap at the single molecule level. The enhancement factor of a fluorophore located in the gap is much higher than those on silver surfaces alone and on glass. These effects may be used for increased detectability of single molecules bound to surfaces which contain metallic structures for either biophysical studies or high sensitivity assays. PMID:23373787

  8. A hybrid approach to the surface biofunctionalization of nanostructured porous alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvan, Miguel Manso; Ruiz, Josefa Predestinacion Garcia [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red, Bioingenieria Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBERbbn) (Spain); Gonzalez, Ruy Sanz [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Manuel Hernandez [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Unidad Asociada GMNF (ICMM-CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The application of nanostructured porous alumina templates as a solid support in biomedical assays requires a surface biofunctionalization process that has been addressed in this work by an hybrid aminopropyl-triethoxysilane/tetraisopropyl-orthotitanate (APTS/ TIPT) self assembled film. The nanostructured porous alumina templates are activated in a peroxide solution before immersion in the biofunctionalizing APTS/TIPT solution. The biofunctionalization process was followed up by UV-vis spectroscopy, which confirmed the modification of the dielectric structure of the alumina surface. The influence of the biofunctionalization step in an immunological assay was carried out by fluorescence microscopy. Results confirm the gain in activity after the immobilization of an FITC labelled mouse Igg. Specific biological recognition in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)-antiBSA assay is proved afterwards by shifts observed in the reflectance interferograms thus providing a fast biosensing transducer platform. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Si/C hybrid nanostructures for Li-ion anodes: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Maria Letizia; Orlanducci, Silvia; Tamburri, Emanuela; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Rossi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent and increasing efforts in the development of novel Li ion cell anode nanomaterials based on the coupling of C with Si. The rationale behind such efforts is based on the fact that the Si-C coupling realizes a favourable combination of the two materials properties, such as the high lithiation capacity of Si and the mechanical and conductive properties of C, making Si/C hybrid nanomaterials the ideal candidates for innovative and improved Li-ion anodes. Together with an overview of the methodologies proposed in the last decade for material preparation, a discussion on relationship between organization at the nanoscale of the hybrid Si/C systems and battery performances is given. An emerging indication is that the enhancement of the batteries efficiency in terms of mass capacity, energy density and cycling stability, resides in the ability to arrange Si/C bi-component nanostructures in pre-defined architectures. Starting from the results obtained so far, this paper aims to indicate some emerging directions and to inspire promising routes to optimize fabrication of Si/C nanomaterials and engineering of Li-ion anodes structures. The use of Si/C hybrid nanostructures could represents a viable and effective solution to the foreseen limits of present lithium ion technology.

  10. Nanostructure of PDMS–TEOS–PrZr hybrids prepared by direct deposition of gamma radiation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancastre, Joana J.H., E-mail: jlancastre@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Falcão, António N. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A., E-mail: fmargaca@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Luís M. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M. [CICECO & Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais e Cerâmica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Almásy, László [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Casimiro, Maria H. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Meiszterics, Anikó [Gedeon Richter Ltd., PO Box 27, H-1475 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid materials were prepared by direct energy deposition. • The influence of the catalyst content (PrZr) was investigated. • The developed oxide network was found to be strongly dependent on the PrZr content. • A model is proposed for the development of the oxide network in these materials. - Abstract: Organic–inorganic materials have been the object of intense research due to their wide range of properties and therefore innumerous applications. We prepared organic–inorganic hybrid materials by direct energy deposition on a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane silanol terminated (33 wt% fixed content), tetraethylorthosilicate and a minor content of zirconium propoxide that varied from 1 to 5 wt% using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The samples, dried in air at room temperature, are bulk, flexible and transparent. Their nanostructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. It was found that the inorganic oxide network has fractal structure, which becomes denser as the zirconium propoxide content decreases. The results suggest that oxide nanosized regions grow from the OH terminal group of PDMS which are the condensation seeds. Their number and position remains unaltered with the variation of zirconium propoxide content that only affects their microstructure. A model is proposed for the nanostructure of the oxide network that develops in the irradiation processed hybrid materials.

  11. Efficient dual mode multicolor luminescence in a lanthanide doped hybrid nanostructure: a multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Singh, A K; Rai, S B

    2011-07-08

    The present work deals with inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructures capable of producing intense visible emission via upconversion (UC), downconversion (DC), and energy transfer (ET) processes which show the potential of the material as a luminescent solar collector (LSC), particularly to improve the efficiency of silicon solar cells. To achieve this, Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+ phosphor (average particle size∼35 nm) and a Eu(DBM)3Phen organic complex have been synthesized separately and then the hybrid structure has been developed using a simple mixing procedure. Intense UC emission (in the red, green, and blue regions) due to Er3+ is observed on near infrared (976 nm) excitation which shows color tunability with input pump power. In contrast, intense red emission of Eu3+ is observed on ultaviolet (UV) (355 nm) excitation. The feasibility of energy transfer from Er3+ ions to Eu3+ ions has also been noted. These excellent optical properties are retained even if the particles of the hybrid nanostructure are dispersed in liquid medium, which also makes it suitable for security ink purposes.

  12. Non-covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures for synthesizing carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Song, Sing I; Song, Ga Young; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and nanodiamonds provide an important type of substrate for constructing a variety of hybrid nanomaterials. However, their intrinsic chemistry-inert surfaces make it indispensable to pre-functionalize them prior to immobilizing additional components onto their surfaces. Currently developed strategies for functionalizing CNSs include covalent and non-covalent approaches. Conventional covalent treatments often damage the structure integrity of carbon surfaces and adversely affect their physical properties. In contrast, the non-covalent approach offers a non-destructive way to modify CNSs with desired functional surfaces, while reserving their intrinsic properties. Thus far, a number of surface modifiers including aromatic compounds, small-molecular surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and biomacromolecules have been developed to non-covalently functionalize CNS surfaces. Mediated by these surface modifiers, various functional components such as organic species and inorganic nanoparticles were further decorated onto their surfaces, resulting in versatile carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials with broad applications in chemical engineering and biomedical areas. In this review, the recent advances in the generation of such hybrid nanostructures based on non-covalently functionalized CNSs will be reviewed.

  13. A rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery fabricated with nickel hexacyanoferrate and nanostructured zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2016-07-01

    Rechargeable aqueous batteries are very attractive as a promising alternative energy storage system, although their reversible capacity is typically limited. A new rechargeable Na-Zn hybrid aqueous battery with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode and the nanostructured zinc anode is fabricated. The rational combination of two materials with mild aqueous electrolyte renders the devices with an average operating voltage close to 1.5 V, higher specific capacity of 76.2 mAh g-1, and a good cycling stability with 81% capacity retention for 1000 cycles. These remarkable features can provide guidance for the development of rechargeable batteries from the naturally abundant electrode materials with neutral aqueous electrolytes.

  14. Nanostructured biointerfacing of metals with carbon nanotube/chitosan hybrids by electrodeposition for cell stimulation and therapeutics delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kapil D; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Han, Cheol-Min; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Singh, Rajendra K; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-11-26

    Exploring the biological interfaces of metallic implants has been an important issue in achieving biofunctional success. Here we develop a biointerface with nanotopological features and bioactive composition, comprising a carbon nanotube (CNT) and chitosan (Chi) hybrid, via an electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The physicochemical properties, in vitro biocompatibility, and protein delivering capacity of the decorated nanohybrid layer were investigated, to address its potential usefulness as bone regenerating implants. Over a wide compositional range, the nanostructured hybrid interfaces were successfully formed with varying thicknesses, depending on the electrodeposition parameters. CNT-Chi hybrid interfaces showed a time-sequenced degradation in saline water, and a rapid induction of hydroxyapatite mineral in a simulated body fluid. The nanostructured hybrid substrates stimulated the initial adhesion events of the osteoblastic cells, including cell adhesion rate, spreading behaviors, and expression of adhesive proteins. The nanostructured hybrid interfaces significantly improved the adsorption of protein molecules, which was enabled by the surface charge interaction, and increased surface area of the nanotopology. Furthermore, the incorporated protein was released at a highly sustained rate, profiling a diffusion-controlled pattern over a couple of weeks, suggesting the possible usefulness as a protein delivery device. Collectively, the nanostructured hybrid CNT-Chi layer, implemented by an electrodeposition, is considered a biocompatible, cell-stimulating, and protein-delivering biointerface of metallic implants.

  15. Hybrid systems based on gold nanostructures and porphyrins as promising photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daniele C; Monteiro, Camila S; Chaves, Claudilene R; Sáfar, Gustavo A M; Moreira, Roberto L; Pinheiro, Maurício V B; Martins, Dayse C S; Ladeira, Luiz Orlando; Krambrock, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanostructures of two different shapes (spheres and rods) were synthesized to form a colloidal hybrid system with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tosylate salt (H2TM4PyP(OTs)4) (POR) for applications in photodynamic therapy (PDT) using light in the visible spectral range. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments in combination with spin trapping were used for the detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and evaluation of the efficiency of these novel hybrid systems as photosensitizers. It is shown that the hybrid system consisting of gold nanorods (AuNR) and porphyrin (POR) is by far more efficient than its isolated components. This enhanced efficiency is explained by a synergetic effect between the AuNR and the porphyrin, wherein a rapid energy transfer from the former to the latter produces a large amount of singlet oxygen followed by its conversion into hydroxyl radicals. The mechanism was investigated using different spin traps and different ROS inhibitors. On the other hand, spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNP) do not show this synergetic effect. The synergetic effect for gold nanorods/POR hybrid is attributed to a larger field enhancement close to the gold nanorod surface in addition to the electrostatic attraction between the components of the hybrid system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of hybrid nanostructured arrays using a PDMS/PDMS replication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, H; Mohammadkhani, A; Jiang, K

    2012-10-21

    In the study, a novel and low cost nanofabrication process is proposed for producing hybrid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanostructured arrays. The proposed process involves monolayer self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) spheres, PDMS nanoreplication, thin film coating, and PDMS to PDMS (PDMS/PDMS) replication. A self-assembled monolayer of PS spheres is used as the first template. Second, a PDMS template is achieved by replica moulding. Third, the PDMS template is coated with a platinum or gold layer. Finally, a PDMS nanostructured array is developed by casting PDMS slurry on top of the coated PDMS. The cured PDMS is peeled off and used as a replica surface. In this study, the influences of the coating on the PDMS topography, contact angle of the PDMS slurry and the peeling off ability are discussed in detail. From experimental evaluation, a thickness of at least 20 nm gold layer or 40 nm platinum layer on the surface of the PDMS template improves the contact angle and eases peeling off. The coated PDMS surface is successfully used as a template to achieve the replica with a uniform array via PDMS/PDMS replication process. Both the PDMS template and the replica are free of defects and also undistorted after demoulding with a highly ordered hexagonal arrangement. In addition, the geometry of the nanostructured PDMS can be controlled by changing the thickness of the deposited layer. The simplicity and the controllability of the process show great promise as a robust nanoreplication method for functional applications.

  17. Schottky diodes between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J., E-mail: sspajp@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-07

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells.

  18. Enhancing UV-emissions through optical and electronic dual-function tuning of Ag nanoparticles hybridized with n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chi; Yang, Zu-Po; Hwang, Jung-Min; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chia-Ching; Haung, Jing-Yu; Chou, Chun-Yang; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2016-02-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are known to enhance the luminescence of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through the high directionality of waveguide mode transmission and efficient energy transfer of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances, respectively. In this work, we have demonstrated Ag NP-incorporated n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunctions by facilely hydrothermally growing ZnO NRs on Ag NP-covered GaN, in which the Ag NPs were introduced and randomly distributed on the p-GaN surface to excite the LSP resonances. Compared with the reference LED, the light-output power of the near-band-edge (NBE) emission (ZnO, λ = 380 nm) of our hybridized structure is increased almost 1.5-2 times and can be further modified in a controlled manner by varying the surface morphology of the surrounding medium of the Ag NPs. The improved light-output power is mainly attributed to the LSP resonance between the NBE emission of ZnO NRs and LSPs in Ag NPs. We also observed different behaviors in the electroluminescence (EL) spectra as the injection current increases for the treatment and reference LEDs. This observation might be attributed to the modification of the energy band diagram for introducing Ag NPs at the interface between n-ZnO NRs and p-GaN. Our results pave the way for developing advanced nanostructured LED devices with high luminescence efficiency in the UV emission regime.ZnO nanorods (NRs) and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are known to enhance the luminescence of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through the high directionality of waveguide mode transmission and efficient energy transfer of localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonances, respectively. In this work, we have demonstrated Ag NP-incorporated n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunctions by facilely hydrothermally growing ZnO NRs on Ag NP-covered GaN, in which the Ag NPs were introduced and randomly distributed on the p-GaN surface to excite the LSP resonances. Compared with the reference LED, the light-output power of the

  19. Core-shell nanostructured hybrid composites for volatile organic compound detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung TT

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tran Thanh Tung,1,2 Dusan Losic,1 Seung Jun Park,3 Jean-Francois Feller,2 TaeYoung Kim3 1School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Smart Plastics Group, European University of Brittany (UEB, LIMATB-UBS, Lorient, France; 3Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do South Korea Abstract: We report a high-performance chemiresistive sensor for detection of volatile organic compound (VOC vapors based on core-shell hybridized nanostructures of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT-conducting polymers. The MNPs were prepared using microwave-assisted synthesis in the presence of polymerized ionic liquids (PILs, which were used as a linker to couple the MNP and PEDOT. The resulting PEDOT–PIL-modified Fe3O4 hybrids were then explored as a sensing channel material for a chemiresistive sensor to detect VOC vapors. The PEDOT–PIL-modified Fe3O4 sensor exhibited a tunable response, with high sensitivity (down to a concentration of 1 ppm and low noise level, to VOCs; these VOCs include acetone vapor, which is present in the exhaled breath of potential lung cancer patients. The present sensor, based on the hybrid nanostructured sensing materials, exhibited a 38.8% higher sensitivity and an 11% lower noise level than its PEDOT–PIL-only counterpart. This approach of embedding MNPs in conducting polymers could lead to the development of new electronic noses, which have significant potential for the use in the early diagnosis of lung cancer via the detection of VOC biomarkers. Keywords: hybrid nanomaterials, nanoparticle, conducting polymer, electronic nose, lung cancer detection

  20. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Herr

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+, since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The

  1. Anisotropic Thermal Properties of Nanostructured Magnetic, Carbon and Hybrid Magnetic - Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvester

    In this dissertation research we investigated thermal properties of three groups of nanostructured materials: (i) magnetic; (ii) reduced graphene oxide films; and (iii) hybrid magnetic -- graphite -- graphene composites. The thermal measurements were conducted using the transient "hot disk" and "laser flash" techniques. The rare-earth free nanostructured SrFe12O19 permanent magnets were produced by the current activated pressure assisted densification technique. The thermal conductivity of the nanostructured bulk magnets was found to range from 3.8 to 5.6 W/mK for the in-plane and 2.36 W/mk to 2.65 W/mK for the cross-plane directions, respectively. The heat conduction was dominated by phonons near the room temperature. The anisotropy of heat conduction was explained by the brick-like alignment of crystalline grains with the longer grain size in-plane direction. The thermal conductivity scales up with the average grain size and mass density of the material revealing weak temperature dependence. Using the nanostructured ferromagnetic Fe3O4 composites as an example system, we incorporated graphene and graphite fillers into magnetic material without changing their morphology. It was demonstrated that addition of 5 wt. % of equal mixture of graphene and graphite flakes to the composite results in a factor of x2.6 enhancement of the thermal conductivity without significant degradation of the saturation magnetization. We investigated thermal conductivity of free-standing reduced graphene oxide films subjected to a high-temperature treatment of up to 1000°C. It was found that the high-temperature annealing dramatically increased the in-plane thermal conductivity, K, of the films from ˜3 W/mK to ˜61 W/mK at room temperature. The cross-plane thermal conductivity, K⊥, revealed an interesting opposite trend of decreasing to a very small value of ˜0.09 W/mK in the reduced graphene oxide films annealed at 1000°C. The obtained films demonstrated an exceptionally strong

  2. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Ulrich; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu(3+), since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments are

  3. Structure and properties of nano-confined poly(3-hexylthiophene) in nano-array/polymer hybrid ordered-bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Thelese Ru Bao; Chan, Khai Leok; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-21

    The ordered-bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic device comprising a semiconducting donor polymer incorporated into pristine/unmodified vertically aligned arrays of metal oxide acceptor nanotubes/nanorods is widely perceived as being structurally ideal for energy conversion but the power conversion efficiencies of such devices remain relatively low (in the order of η = 0.6%) when compared with bilayer or non-ordered bulk heterojunction systems. We explain the incongruity by investigating the morphology and microstructure of regio-regular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) infiltrated and confined within the cavities of TiO(2) nanotube arrays. A series of TiO(2) nanotube arrays with different nanotube diameters and inter-nanotube spacings are fabricated by the liquid-phase atomic layer deposition (LALD) technique, and P3HT is infiltrated into the array cavities via a vacuum-annealing technique. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the P3HT chains in both nano-confined and non-confined (i.e. planar film) environments are well-aligned and oriented edge-on with respect to the underlying substrate. Up to 2.5-fold improvement in the incident-photon-to-converted-electron efficiency (IPCE) is observed in ordered-BHJ structures over benchmark planar devices which we attribute to the increase in interfacial area resulting from the use of the nanostructures. However, the large effective surface area conferred by the nano-arrays (up to 9.5 times that of the planar system) suggests that much higher efficiencies could be harnessed. Our study shows that the morphology and orientation of the infiltrated polymer play a critical role in the charge transport of the device, and suggests that better understanding and control of polymer morphology under nano-confinement in the nano-array will be the key to fully reaping the promised benefit of ordered-BHJ devices.

  4. Structural and morphological peculiarities of hybrid Au/nanodiamond engineered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassa, Roberto; Orlanducci, Silvia; Reina, Giacomo; Cassani, Maria Cristina; Passeri, Daniele; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured Au nano-platelets have been synthesized from an Au(III) complex by growth process triggered by nanodiamond (ND). An electroless synthetic route has been used to obtain 2D Au/ND architectures, where individual nanodiamond particles are intimately embedded into face-centered cubic Au platelets. The combined use of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), was able to reveal the unusual organization of these hybrid nanoparticles, ascertaining the existence of preferential crystallographic orientations for both nanocrystalline species and highlighting their mutual locations. Detailed information on the sample microstructure have been gathered by fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of HR-TEM images, allowing us to figure out the role of Au defects, able to anchor ND crystallites and to provide specific sites for heteroepitaxial Au growth. Aggregates constituted by coupled ND and Au, represent interesting systems conjugating the best optoelectronics and plasmonics properties of the two different materials. In order to promote realistically the applications of such outstanding Au/ND materials, the cooperative mechanisms at the basis of material synthesis and their influence on the details of the hybrid nanostructures have to be deeply understood.

  5. Structural and morphological peculiarities of hybrid Au/nanodiamond engineered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matassa, Roberto; Orlanducci, Silvia; Reina, Giacomo; Cassani, Maria Cristina; Passeri, Daniele; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured Au nano-platelets have been synthesized from an Au(III) complex by growth process triggered by nanodiamond (ND). An electroless synthetic route has been used to obtain 2D Au/ND architectures, where individual nanodiamond particles are intimately embedded into face-centered cubic Au platelets. The combined use of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), was able to reveal the unusual organization of these hybrid nanoparticles, ascertaining the existence of preferential crystallographic orientations for both nanocrystalline species and highlighting their mutual locations. Detailed information on the sample microstructure have been gathered by fast Fourier transform (FFT) and inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of HR-TEM images, allowing us to figure out the role of Au defects, able to anchor ND crystallites and to provide specific sites for heteroepitaxial Au growth. Aggregates constituted by coupled ND and Au, represent interesting systems conjugating the best optoelectronics and plasmonics properties of the two different materials. In order to promote realistically the applications of such outstanding Au/ND materials, the cooperative mechanisms at the basis of material synthesis and their influence on the details of the hybrid nanostructures have to be deeply understood. PMID:27514638

  6. Plasmonic pumping of excitonic photoluminescence in hybrid MoS2-Au nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Sina; Mlayah, Adnen; Arbouet, Arnaud; Girard, Christian; Léotin, Jean; Lou, Jun

    2014-12-23

    We report on the fabrication of monolayer MoS2-coated gold nanoantennas combining chemical vapor deposition, e-beam lithography surface patterning, and a soft lift-off/transfer technique. The optical properties of these hybrid plasmonic-excitonic nanostructures are investigated using spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Off- and in-resonance plasmonic pumping of the MoS2 excitonic luminescence showed distinct behaviors. For plasmonically mediated pumping, we found a significant enhancement (∼65%) of the photoluminescence intensity, clear evidence that the optical properties of the MoS2 monolayer are strongly influenced by the nanoantenna surface plasmons. In addition, a systematic photoluminescence broadening and red-shift in nanoantenna locations is observed which is interpreted in terms of plasmonic enhanced optical absorption and subsequent heating of the MoS2 monolayers. Using a temperature calibration procedure based on photoluminescence spectral characteristics, we were able to estimate the local temperature changes. We found that the plasmonically induced MoS2 temperature increase is nearly four times larger than in the MoS2 reference temperatures. This study shines light on the plasmonic-excitonic interaction in these hybrid metal/semiconductor nanostructures and provides a unique approach for the engineering of optoelectronic devices based on the light-to-current conversion.

  7. Nanostructure of PDMS-TEOS-PrZr hybrids prepared by direct deposition of gamma radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancastre, Joana J. H.; Falcão, António N.; Margaça, Fernanda M. A.; Ferreira, Luís M.; Miranda Salvado, Isabel M.; Almásy, László; Casimiro, Maria H.; Meiszterics, Anikó

    2015-10-01

    Organic-inorganic materials have been the object of intense research due to their wide range of properties and therefore innumerous applications. We prepared organic-inorganic hybrid materials by direct energy deposition on a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane silanol terminated (33 wt% fixed content), tetraethylorthosilicate and a minor content of zirconium propoxide that varied from 1 to 5 wt% using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The samples, dried in air at room temperature, are bulk, flexible and transparent. Their nanostructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. It was found that the inorganic oxide network has fractal structure, which becomes denser as the zirconium propoxide content decreases. The results suggest that oxide nanosized regions grow from the OH terminal group of PDMS which are the condensation seeds. Their number and position remains unaltered with the variation of zirconium propoxide content that only affects their microstructure. A model is proposed for the nanostructure of the oxide network that develops in the irradiation processed hybrid materials.

  8. Fano effect and Andreev bound states in a hybrid superconductor–ferromagnetic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, E.C., E-mail: ezcostta@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR, 84016210, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Orellana, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 3939, Santiago (Chile); Cestari, R.C. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista – UNESP, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Figueira, M.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas 13083-859, SP (Brazil)

    2015-10-16

    In this work, it is considered a hybrid nanostructure composed by a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads and a superconductor lead. It is shown that the zero-bias transmittance for the co-tunneling between the ferromagnetic leads presents Fano anti-resonances due to the destructive interference between the two spin channels mixing by the relative orientation of the magnetizations in the leads. When the superconductor is coupled to the system, electron–hole correlations between different spin states lead to a resonance in the place of the dip appearing in the transmittance. Such an effect is accompanied by two Fano anti-resonances explained by a “leakage” of conduction channels from the co-tunneling to the Andreev transport. In the non-equilibrium regime, correlations within the quantum dot introduce a dependence of the resonance condition on the finite bias applied to the ferromagnetic leads. However, it is still possible to observe signatures of the same interference effect in the electrical current. - Highlights: • We have studied an hybrid nanostructure composed by quantum dot coupled to a superconductor and two ferromagnets. • The interplay between spin polarization and Andreev bound states leads to a Fano-like effect. • The Fano-like effect manifests as a resonance in the transmittance for the transport between the ferromagnets.

  9. Controlled Photocatalytic Synthesis of Core–Shell SiC/Polyaniline Hybrid Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kormányos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials of electrically conducting polymers and inorganic semiconductors form an exciting class of functional materials. To fully exploit the potential synergies of the hybrid formation, however, sophisticated synthetic methods are required that allow for the fine-tuning of the nanoscale structure of the organic/inorganic interface. Here we present the photocatalytic deposition of a conducting polymer (polyaniline on the surface of silicon carbide (SiC nanoparticles. The polymerization is facilitated on the SiC surface, via the oxidation of the monomer molecules by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis light irradiation through the photogenerated holes. The synthesized core–shell nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis, Raman, and Fourier Transformed Infrared (FT-IR Spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical methods. It was found that the composition of the hybrids can be varied by simply changing the irradiation time. In addition, we proved the crucial importance of the irradiation wavelength in forming conductive polyaniline, instead of its overoxidized, insulating counterpart. Overall, we conclude that photocatalytic deposition is a promising and versatile approach for the synthesis of conducting polymers with controlled properties on semiconductor surfaces. The presented findings may trigger further studies using photocatalysis as a synthetic strategy to obtain nanoscale hybrid architectures of different semiconductors.

  10. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  11. Facile synthesis of hybrid nanorods with the Sb2Se3/AgSbSe2 heterojunction structure for high performance photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Qiao, Xvsheng; Wang, Fengxia; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Xianghua; Wan, Xia; Xu, Yang; Fan, Xianping

    2016-01-28

    An effective colloidal process involving the hot-injection method is developed to synthesize uniform single-crystalline Sb2Se3 nanorods in high yields. The photoconductive characteristics of the as-synthesized Sb2Se3 nanorods are investigated by developing a film-based photodetector and this device displays a remarkable response to visible light with an "ON/OFF" ratio as high as 50 (with an incident light density of 12.05 mW cm(-2)), short response/recovery times and long-term durability. To overcome the challenge of the intrinsic low electrical conductivity of Sb2Se3, hybrid nanorods with the Sb2Se3/AgSbSe2 heterojunction structure having a type-II band alignment are firstly prepared. The electric current of the photodetector based on the Sb2Se3/AgSbSe2 hybrid nanorod film has been significantly increased both in the dark and under light illumination. The responsivity of the photodetector based on the Sb2Se3/AgSbSe2 hybrid nanorod film is about 4.2 times as much as that of the photodetector based on the Sb2Se3 nanorod film. This improvement can be considered as an important step to promote Sb2Se3 based semiconductors for applications in high performance photodetectors.

  12. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure.

  13. Effect of ligand exchange of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of nanostructured depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuo-Xi; Zhou, Zheng-Ji, E-mail: zzj@henu.edu.cn; Bai, Bing; Liu, Ming-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Wu, Si-Xin, E-mail: wusixin@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-12-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanocrystals combining the advantage of feasible solution-phase synthesis and processing are perceived as promising materials for application in efficient, low-cost photovoltaic technology. Herein, we have got surfactant-free CZTS nanocrystals by a novel ligand exchange method, and the obtained CZTS nanocrystals were deposited onto ZnO nanorod arrays to construct depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell. The all-inorganic CZTS nanocrystal solar cells demonstrated a remarkable improvement in J{sub sc} (from 8.14 to 13.97 mA/cm{sup 2}) and power conversion efficiency (from 1.83 to 3.34 %) compared with surfactant-capped CZTS nanocrystals. Using surface photovoltage spectrum, the influence of ligand exchange of CZTS nanocrystals on the charge transport and photovoltaic performance of the nanostructured CZTS solar cells was discussed.

  14. Nanostructured hybrid of immiscible gold and silicon and its effect on proliferation and adhesion of fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid biomaterials are a combination of two or more different materials that work synergistically to produce superior properties. Nano structuring of such hybrid materials has also posed complications. In this study, we present, for the first time a nanofibrous hybrid of gold and silicon fabricated by femtosecond laser synthesis for tissue engineering applications. The formation of a completely new phase, Au3Si (212) is reported. The formation mechanism is explained by vapor condensation. Particle sizes of 2-10 nm and 37-49 nm for gold and gold concentrations of 35-78% are achieved. The effect of this hybrid on cell growth was assessed using fibroblasts and osteoblasts. There was a significant decrease in both osteoblast and fibroblast proliferation with the increase of gold in the hybrid nanostructure. This novel hybrid nanofibrous matrix provides a method to effectively control the proliferation and adhesion of cells. Femtosecond laser synthesis presents a new standard by which not only a single element biomaterial but also multiple immiscible element hybrid biomaterials can be fabricated. This technique provides a paradigm shift in the fabrication of novel nanostructured immiscible hybrid biomaterials.

  15. In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Zhu, Peizhi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  16. Active control of surface plasmon resonance in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Shuai; Gong, Yongji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers have attracted much attention for their novel optical properties and efficient light-matter interactions. When excited by incident laser, the optical response of MoS2 monolayers was effectively modified by elementary photo-excited excitons owing to their large exciton binding energy, which can be facilitated for the optical-controllable exciton-plasmon interactions. Inspired by this concept, we experimentally investigated active light control of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in MoS2-Ag hybrid nanostructures. The white light spectra of SPR were gradually red-shifted by increasing laser power, which was distinctly different from the one of bare Ag nanostructure. This spectroscopic tunability can be further controlled by near-field coupling strength and polarization state of light, and selectively applied to the control of plasmonic dark mode. An analytical Lorentz model for photo-excited excitons induced modulation of MoS2 dielectric function was developed to explain the...

  17. Facile In Situ Fabrication of Nanostructured Graphene-CuO Hybrid with Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil P Lonkar; Vishnu V Pillai; Samuel Stephen; Ahmed Abdala; Vikas Mittal

    2016-01-01

    A simple and scalable synthetic approach for one-step synthesis of graphene–CuO (TRGC) nanocomposite by an in situ thermo-annealing method has been developed. Using graphene oxide (GO) and copper hydroxide as a precursors reagent, the reduction of GO and the uniform deposition of in situ formed CuO nanoparticles on graphene was simulta-neously achieved. The method employed no solvents, toxic-reducing agents, or organic modifiers. The resulting nanos-tructured hybrid exhibited improved H2S sorption capacity of 1.5 mmol H2S/g-sorbent (3 g S/100 g-sorbent). Due to its highly dispersed sub-20 nm CuO nanoparticles and large specific surface area, TRGC nanocomposite exhibits tremendous potential for energy and environment applications.

  18. Nanostructure induced changes in lifetime and enhanced second-harmonic response of organic-plasmonic hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leißner, Till [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark); Kostiučenko, Oksana; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Fiutowski, Jacek, E-mail: fiutowski@mci.sdu.dk [NanoSYD, Mads Clausen Institute, University of Southern Denmark, Alsion 2, 6400 Sønderborg (Denmark); Brewer, Jonathan R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-21

    In this letter we show that the optical response of organic nanofibers, grown from functionalized para-quaterphenylene molecules, can be controlled by forming organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. The interaction between nanofibers and supporting regular arrays of nanostructures leads to a strongly enhanced second harmonic response. At the same time, the fluorescence lifetime of the nanofibers is reduced from 0.32 ns for unstructured gold films to 0.22 ns for gold nanosquare arrays, demonstrating efficient organic–plasmonic interaction. To study the origin of these effects, we applied two-photon laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. These findings provide an effective approach for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation at the nanoscale, which is attractive for nanophotonic circuitry.

  19. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  20. Bulk- and layer-heterojunction phototransistors based on poly [2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] and PbS quantum dot hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating, E-mail: yating@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Ran; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Wang, Haiyan; Jin, Lufan; Ding, Xin; Zhang, Guizhong; Yao, Jianquan [Institute of Laser and Opto-Electronics, College of Precision Instruments and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Opto-Electronics Information Technology (Tianjin University), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dai, Haitao [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-06-22

    The responsivity (R) of a thin film photodetector is proportional to the product of its photo-induced carrier density (n) and mobility (μ). However, when choosing between layer heterojunction (LH) and bulk heterojunction (BH) field-effect phototransistors (FEpTs), it is still unclear which of the two device structures is more conducive to photodetection. A comparison study is performed on the two structures based on polymer and PbS quantum dot hybrids. Both devices exhibit ambipolar behavior, with μ{sub E} ≈ μ{sub H} = 3.7 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for BH-FEpTs and μ{sub H} = 36 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and μ{sub E} = 52 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for LH-FEpTs. Because of the improvements in μ and the channel order degree (α), the responsivity of LH-FEpTs is as high as 10{sup 1 }A/W, which is as much as two orders of magnitude higher than that of BH-FEpTs (10{sup −1}A/W) under the same conditions. Although the large area of the BH improves both the exciton separation degree (β) and n in the BH-FEpT, the lack of an effective transport mechanism becomes the main constraint on high device responsivity. Therefore, LH-FEpTs are better candidates for use as photo detectors, and a “three-high” principle of high α, β, and μ is found to be required for high responsivity.

  1. A novel Z-scheme BiPO4-Bi2O2(OH)(NO3) heterojunction structured hybrid for synergistic photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoshuai; You, Shijie; Huang, Hong; Ma, Ming; Ren, Nanqi

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalysis has been gaining a growing popularity in water treatment, and their engineered applications inspire the development of effective photocatalyst materials. To develop photocatalyst that is effective for degradation of organic pollutants, we fabricate a novel direct solid Z-scheme BiPO4-Bi2O2(OH)(NO3) (BPO-BHN) heterojunction structured hybrid. The results demonstrate an enhanced photocatalytic activity of BPO-BHN to produce OH radicals, according to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), electron spin-resonance resonance (ESR), photoelectrochemical measurements, and theoretical calculation results. The BPO-BHN is shown to greatly promote the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under ultraviolet light. On the basis of pseudo-first-order kinetics, the apparent degradation rate constant (kapp) of 0.050 min(-1) obtained for BPO-BHN is approximately 3.33 and 12.5 times of that for individual BPO (kapp = 0.015 min(-1)) and BHN (kapp = 0.004 min(-1)), respectively. This suggests a virtually synergistic photocatalysis of BPO and BHN when they form a direct solid Z-scheme heterojunction structure, which is favorable for improving UV-light harvesting, hole/electron separation and oxidizing capability. In particular, as a novel non-linear optical (NLO) material, the BHN plays a significant role in the formation of Z-scheme structure for its unique ability of capturing photo-electrons from BPO by high-potential C(+) face in valence band. This study provides a proof-of-concept strategy to develop more effective photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants in water.

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Hybrids Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol/Bioactive Glass Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The functionalization of CNT was performed by introducing carboxylic groups in multiwall nanotubes. This process aimed at enhancing the affinity of CNTs with the water-soluble PVA polymer derived by the hydrogen bonds formed among alcohol (PVA and carboxylic groups (CNT–COOH. In the sequence, the CNT–COOH (0.25 wt% were used as the nanostructure modifier for the hybrid system based on PVA associated with the bioactive glass (BaG. The mechanical properties of the nanostructured hybrids reinforced with CNT–COOH were evaluated by axial compression tests, and they were compared to reference hybrid. The averaged yield stresses of macroporous hybrids were (2.3 ± 0.9 and (4.4 ± 1.0 MPa for the reference and the CNT reinforced materials, respectively. Moreover, yield strain and Young's modulus were significantly enhanced by about 30% for the CNT–COOH hybrids. Hence, as far as the mechanical properties are concerned, the results have clearly showed the feasibility of utilizing these new hybrids reinforced with functionalized CNT in repairing cancellous bone tissues.

  3. Nanophotonic hybridization of narrow atomic cesium resonances and photonic stop gaps of opaline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Philip J; Mosk, Allard P; Vos, Willem L

    2014-01-01

    We study a hybrid system consisting of a narrowband atomic optical resonance and the long-range periodic order of an opaline photonic nanostructure. To this end, we have infiltrated atomic cesium vapor in a thin silica opal photonic crystal. With increasing temperature, the frequencies of the opal's reflectivity peaks shift down by >20% due to chemical reduction of the silica. Simultaneously, the photonic bands and gaps shift relative to the fixed near-infrared cesium D1 transitions. As a result the narrow atomic resonances with high finesse (f/df=8E5) dramatically change shape from a usual dispersive shape at the blue edge of a stop gap, to an inverted dispersion lineshape at the red edge of a stop gap. The lineshape, amplitude, and off-resonance reflectivity are well modeled with a transfer-matrix model that includes the dispersion and absorption of Cs hyperfine transitions and the chemically-reduced opal. An ensemble of atoms in a photonic crystal is an intriguing hybrid system that features narrow defect-...

  4. Siloxane based Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers and their Applications for Nanostructured Optical/Photonic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Hidayat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer precursors by sol-gel technique and their utilization for nanostructured optical components for photonic applications. The gel polymer precursors were prepared from siloxane modified by polymerizable acrylate groups, which can be processed further by photopolymerization process. Molecular structure characterizations by means of the FTIR measurements indicate the conversion of C=C bonds into C-C bonds after photopolymerization. This bond conversion produces high cross-linking between the organic and inorganic moieties, resulting in thermally stable and chemically resistant thin polymer layer which provide unique advantages of this material for particular optical/photonic applications. By employing laser interference technique, gratings with periodicity between 400-1000 nm have been successfully fabricated. Application of those sub-micron periodicity of grating structure as active elements in optically pumped polymer laser system and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR based measurement system have been also explored. The experimental results therefore also show the potential applications of this hybrid polymer as a building material for micro/nano-photonics components.

  5. Star-shaped ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures for enhanced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, George R. S.; Nascimento, Cristiane C.; Lima, Zenon M.; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Costa, Luiz P.; Gimenez, Iara F.

    2017-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with a star-shaped morphology have been synthesized by a novel and simple room-temperature method and decorated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) for enhanced photocatalysis and bactericide applications. The presence of thiourea during the precipitation of ZnO in alkaline conditions allowed the control of morphological features (e.g. average size and shape) and the surface functionalization with thiocyanate ions (SCN-). SNPs were deposited into the ZnO surface by a photoreduction method and their sizes could be easily controlled by changing the ZnO/AgNO3 ratio. The presence of SCN- on the semiconductor surface prevents uncontrollable growth of Ag nanoparticles into different morphologies and high degrees of polydispersity. XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR and PL were employed for characterizing the structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-obtained pure and hybrid nanostructures. Finally, the hybrid ZnO/Ag particles have shown plasmon-enhanced performance for applications in photocatalysis and antibacterial activity compared to the pure ZnO counterpart. In this work, evaluation of the photodegradation of an aqueous methylene blue solution under UV-A irradiation and the antibacterial activity toward 4 bacterial strains, including Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300, ATCC 25923 and ATCC 33591) and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853).

  6. 2D Hybrid Nanostructure of Reduced Graphene Oxide-CdS Nanosheet for Enhanced Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Rajesh; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2015-06-24

    Graphene-based hybrid nanostructures have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials for light-energy conversion and storage. Here, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-semiconductor composites to improve the efficiency of photocatalysis. Zero-dimensional CdS nanoparticles (0D), one-dimensional CdS nanorods (1D), and two-dimensional CdS nanosheets (2D) are grafted on the RGO sheet (2D) by a surface modification method using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). Structural analysis confirms the attachment of CdS nanocrystals with RGO, and the strong electronic interaction is found in the case of a CdS nanosheet and RGO, which has an influence on photocatalytic properties. The degradation of dye under visible light varies with changing the dimension of nanocrystals, and the catalytic activity of the CdS NS/RGO composite is ∼4 times higher than that of CdS nanoparticle/RGO and 3.4 times higher than that of CdS nanorod/RGO composite samples. The catalytic activity of the CdS nanosheet/RGO composite is also found to be ∼2.5 times than that of pure CdS nanosheet samples. The unique 2D-2D nanoarchitecture would be effective to harvest photons from solar light and transport electrons to reaction sites with respect to other 0D-2D and 1D-2D hybrid systems. This observation can be extended to other graphene-based inorganic semiconductor composites, which can provide a valuable opportunity to explore novel hybrid materials with superior visible-light-induced catalytic activity.

  7. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of substrate

  8. Synthesis of Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures: an optical approach to reveal the growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encina, Ezequiel R.; Perez, Manuel A.; Coronado, Eduardo A., E-mail: coronado@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, INFIQC (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures (HNs) have been prepared by means of a very simple chemical methodology. In addition, their morphology and extinction properties have been characterized. It was found that the HNs consist in almost spherical Ag nanoparticle cores (mean diameter 56 nm) surrounded by a thin shell formed by small ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 6 nm). The changes in the extinction spectra during the formation of the hybrid nanostructures have been rationalized using electrodynamics simulations applying Mie theory for coated spheres along with the effective medium theory to describe the dielectric constant of the shell. By assuming a formation and growth mechanism of the shell, it was found that these simulations describe not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the changes in the extinction spectra.

  9. An Optical Sensor with Polyaniline-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Monitoring pH in Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongdai Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Saliva contains important personal physiological information that is related to some diseases, and it is a valuable source of biochemical information that can be collected rapidly, frequently, and without stress. In this article, we reported a new and simple localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR substrate composed of polyaniline (PANI-gold hybrid nanostructures as an optical sensor for monitoring the pH of saliva samples. The overall appearance and topography of the substrates, the composition, and the wettability of the LSPR surfaces were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM images, infrared spectra, and contact angles measurement, respectively. The PANI-gold hybrid substrate readily responded to the pH. The response time was very short, which was 3.5 s when the pH switched from 2 to 7, and 4.5 s from 7 to 2. The changes of visible-near-infrared (NIR spectra of this sensor upon varying pH in solution showed that—for the absorption at given wavelengths of 665 nm and 785 nm—the sensitivities were 0.0299 a.u./pH (a.u. = arbitrary unit with a linear range of pH = 5–8 and 0.0234 a.u./pH with linear range of pH = 2–8, respectively. By using this new sensor, the pH of a real saliva sample was monitored and was consistent with the parallel measurements with a standard laboratory method. The results suggest that this novel LSPR sensor shows great potential in the field of mobile healthcare and home medical devices, and could also be modified by different sensitive materials to detect various molecules or ions in the future.

  10. Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jun Hong; Im, Sang Hyuk; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Mandal, Tarak N; Seok, Sang Il

    2013-04-10

    Chemically tuned inorganic-organic hybrid materials, based on CH3NH3(═MA)Pb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites, have been studied using UV-vis absorption and X-ray diffraction patterns and applied to nanostructured solar cells. The band gap engineering brought about by the chemical management of MAPb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites can be controllably tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, enabling the realization of colorful solar cells. We demonstrate highly efficient solar cells exhibiting 12.3% in a power conversion efficiency of under standard AM 1.5, for the most efficient device, as a result of tunable composition for the light harvester in conjunction with a mesoporous TiO2 film and a hole conducting polymer. We believe that the works highlighted in this paper represent one step toward the realization of low-cost, high-efficiency, and long-term stability with colorful solar cells.

  11. Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction solar cells with 12% efficiency by utilizing flexible film-silicon with a hierarchical surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagu, Subramani; Hsueh, Chen-Chih; Liu, Chien-Ting; Syu, Hong-Jhang; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2014-03-21

    This paper reports an organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell with a hierarchical surface composed of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. High-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell Si/PEDOT-PSS with a hierarchical surface, showing a power conversion efficiency of 12%. The structure provides excellent light absorption over 97% for the spectral range of 300 to 1100 nm with a thickness of 60 μm due to internal multiple reflections caused by subwavelength features of high density silicon nanoholes and micro-desert textures. In addition, from the angle of incidence (AOI) observed, even at the large angle of 75°, the reflectance value still exhibits less than 1%. With the advantage of very thin silicon material and inexpensive processing, hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells are promising for various applications and thus could be an economically feasible alternative energy solution in the future.

  12. Anticrossing double Fano resonances generated in metallic/dielectric hybrid nanostructures using nonradiative anapole modes for enhanced nonlinear optical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wu-Chao; Qiao, Tie-Zhu; Cai, Dong-Jin; Wang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Jing-Dong; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Shao-Ding

    2016-11-28

    Third-harmonic generation with metallic or dielectric nanoparticles often suffer from, respectively, small modal volumes and weak near-field enhancements. This study propose and demonstrate that a metallic/dielectric hybrid nanostructure composed of a silver double rectangular nanoring and a silicon square nanoplate can be used to overcome these obstacles for enhanced third-harmonic generation. It is shown that the nonradiative anapole mode of the Si plate can be used as a localized source to excite the dark subradiant octupole mode of the Ag ring, and the mode hybridization leads to the formation of an antibonding and a bonding subradiant collective mode, thereby forming anticrossing double Fano resonances. With the strong coupling between individual particles and the effectively suppressed radiative losses of the Fano resonances, several strong hot spots are generated around the Ag ring due to the excitation of the octupole mode, and electromagnetic fields within the Si plate are also strongly amplified, making it possible to confine more incident energy inside the dielectric nanoparticle. Calculation results reveal that the confined energy inside the Si plate and the Ag ring for the hybrid structures can be about, respectively, more than three times and four orders stronger than that of the corresponding isolated nanoparticles, which makes the designed hybrid nanostructure a promising platform for enhanced third-harmonic generation.

  13. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  14. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic monitoring of sol-gel process in synthesis of PbS-TiO{sub 2} hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza, E-mail: mrkhanmohammadi@gmail.co [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fard, Hassan Ghafoori [Electrical Engineering Department, Amir-Kabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Khoddami, Nafiseh [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, IKIU, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-30

    A typical hybrid nanostructure was prepared consisting of lead sulfide (PbS) nano-crystals, embedded in titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) using sol-gel method. The synthesis procedure was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic investigations indicated that PbS nano-crystals are embedded in the TiO{sub 2} matrix with no strong Ti-O-Pb-S bonding. The size of PbS hybrid nanostructures decreased with diminishing lead and sulfur mole concentrations. The smallest size of NCs has been obtained in 10% of mole concentration (30-45 nm particle size for the hybrid nanostructure). The morphology and microstructure of the nano hybrid was investigated by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  15. Photogenerated charge carriers and reactive oxygen species in ZnO/Au hybrid nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiwei; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Wamer, Wayne G; Melka, David; Callahan, John H; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2014-01-15

    Semiconductor nanostructures with photocatalytic activity have the potential for many applications including remediation of environmental pollutants and use in antibacterial products. An effective way for promoting photocatalytic activity is depositing noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a semiconductor. In this paper, we demonstrated the successful deposition of Au NPs, having sizes smaller than 3 nm, onto ZnO NPs. ZnO/Au hybrid nanostructures having different molar ratios of Au to ZnO were synthesized. It was found that Au nanocomponents even at a very low Au/ZnO molar ratio of 0.2% can greatly enhance the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy with spin trapping and spin labeling was used to investigate the enhancing effect of Au NPs on the generation of reactive oxygen species and photoinduced charge carriers. Deposition of Au NPs onto ZnO resulted in a dramatic increase in light-induced generation of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen, and production of holes and electrons. The enhancing effect of Au was dependent on the molar ratio of Au present in the ZnO/Au nanostructures. Consistent with these results from ESR measurements, ZnO/Au nanostructures also exhibited enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. These results unveiled the enhanced mechanism of Au on ZnO and these materials have great potential for use in water purification and antibacterial products.

  16. Nanostructured hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cell active layers formed by controllable in situ growth of semiconducting sulfide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Henry C; King, Simon P; Sudlow, Anna; Hill, Michael S; Molloy, Kieran C; Haque, Saif A

    2010-04-14

    Nanostructured composites of inorganic and organic materials are attracting extensive interest for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we introduce a general method for the fabrication of metal sulfide nanoparticle/polymer films employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based upon the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a solution processable metal xanthate precursor complex in a semiconducting polymer film. To demonstrate the versatility of our method, we fabricate a CdS/P3HT nanocomposite film and show that the metal sulfide network inside the polymer film assists in the absorption of visible light and enables the achievement of high yields of charge photogeneration at the CdS/P3HT heterojunction. Photovoltaic devices based upon such nanocomposite films show solar light to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 0.7% under full AM1.5 illumination and 1.2% under 10% incident power, demonstrating the potential of such nanocomposite films for low-cost photovoltaic devices.

  17. Engineering of high performance supercapacitor electrode based on Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO core/shell hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashutosh K., E-mail: ashuvishen@gmail.com, E-mail: aksingh@bose.res.in; Mandal, Kalyan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-03-14

    The present work reports on fabrication and supercapacitor applications of a core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures (HNs) electrode. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures have been fabricated through a two step method (nanowire fabrication and their controlled oxidation). The 1D hybrid nanostructure consists of highly porous shell layer (redox active materials NiO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and the conductive core (FeNi nanowire). Thus, the highly porous shell layer allows facile electrolyte diffusion as well as faster redox reaction kinetics; whereas the conductive FeNi nanowire core provides the proficient express way for electrons to travel to the current collector, which helps in the superior electrochemical performance. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures electrode based supercapacitor shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of high specific capacitance nearly 1415 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2.5 A g{sup −1}, excellent cycling stability and rate capability. The high quality electrochemical performance of core/shell hybrid nanostructures electrode shows its potential as an alternative electrode for forthcoming supercapacitor devices.

  18. Functional p-Type, Polymerized Organic Electrode Interlayer in CH₃NH₃PbI₃ Perovskite/Fullerene Planar Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tsung-Yu; Fan, Gang-Lun; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Chen, Kuo-Cheng; Chen, Peter; Wen, Ten-Chin; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2015-11-11

    Thermal curing of the styrene-functionalized 9,9-diarylfluorene-based triaryldiamine monomer (VB-DAAF) forms an ideal p-type organic electrode interlayer capable of resisting solvation of the polar precursor solution in fabricating methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite/fullerene (C60) planar heterojunction hybrid solar cells. The polymerized VB-DAAF film exhibits a good energy level alignment with the valence-band-edge level of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite to facilitate the transport of holes. The large energy barrier to the conduction-band-edge level of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite effectively blocks electrons from reaching the positive electrode and reduces the photon energy loss due to recombination. The best-performing cell with the configuration of glass/indium-tin oxide/polymerized VB-DAAF/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/C60/bathocuproine/aluminum is free of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) layer to achieve an open-circuit voltage (VOC) = 1.02 V, a short-circuit current (JSC) = 18.92 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) = 0.78, corresponding to a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.17% under standard 1 sun AM 1.5G simulated solar irradiation. The performance is much superior to the device applying the PSS interlayer with photovoltaic parameters of VOC = 0.85 V, JSC = 16.37 mA/cm(2), and FF = 0.74, corresponding to a PCE of 10.27%. Additionally, we had applied a UV-assisted process to polymerize the VB-DAAF film at relatively lower temperature and fabricate decent perovskite-based solar cells on the flexible substrate for real applications.

  19. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R., E-mail: joaopaulofsbrasil@hotmail.com, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235, PO Box 676, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofibers´ surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X–100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fibers´ surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  20. Using the carbon nanotube (CNT)/CNT interaction to obtain hybrid conductive nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J.; Silva, A.; Bretas, R.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) combine unique physical, electrical, chemical, thermal and mechanical properties with a huge surface area that qualify them to a broad range of applications. These potential applications, however, are often limited due to the strong inter-tubes van der Waals interactions, which results in poor dispersion in polymeric matrixes or solvents in general. Thus, the goal of this work was to use this limitation as an advantage, to produce novel conductive hybrid nanostructures, which consist of nonwoven Nylon 6 (PA6) mats of electrospun nanofibers with a large amount of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) strongly attached and adsorbed on the nanofiberś surfaces. To produce such structures, the MWCNT were previously functionalized with carboxylic groups and subsequently incorporated in the nanofibers by two subsequent steps: i) preparation of nonwoven mats of PA6/MWCNT by electrospinning and ii) treatment of the mats in an aqueous dispersion of MWCNT/Triton X-100. Analyses of UV-visible light showed that carboxylic groups were actually inserted in the MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analyzes (TGA) showed that the amount of adsorbed MWCNT on the fiberś surfaces at the end of the procedure was approximately 12 times higher than after the first step. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed this result and electrical conductivities measurements of the MWCNT/PA6, after the treatment in the aqueous solution, showed that these structures had conductivity of 10-2 S/m. It was concluded that the adhesion of CNTs at the surface of the nanofibers occurred due a combination of two types of bonding: hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic groups of the functionalized CNT and the PA6 and van der Waals interactions between the CNTs.

  1. Hybrid nanostructured coatings for corrosion protection of base metals: a sustainability perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Robert V.; Patil, Vikas; Andrews, Justin L.; Aldinger, Jeffrey P.; Yadav, Ganapati D.; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2015-03-01

    In this topical review article, we attempt to capture recent advances in the development of sustainable hybrid nanocomposite coatings for the corrosion inhibition of structural metals. Spurred primarily by the urgent imperative of replacing hexavalent chromium but also driven by concerns regarding the environmental impact of organic solvents, materials criticality considerations, the need to maintain structural integrity and function under extreme environments, and a renewed impetus towards lightweighting, the design of new coating concepts has seen an explosion of activity. We discuss varying modes of corrosion inhibition and the drive towards multicomponent nanostructured coatings that synergistically unite multiple modes of corrosion inhibition within a single coating system. Nanocomposite coatings in which nanoparticles of one phase are dispersed within a continuous phase, usually a polymeric matrix, provide a modular design approach to multifunctional coatings provided fundamental challenges such as dispersion and compatibility can be resolved. By dint of their high surface-to-volume ratios, the incorporation of nanoparticles profoundly modifies the adjacent polymeric matrix, giving rise to an ‘interphase’ region with modified properties, at relatively low filler loadings. The implications of incorporating metallic, porous metal oxide, and carbon nanomaterials (graphene and carbon nanotubes) within polymeric matrices are explored with an emphasis on active corrosion inhibition. The availability of high-quality nanoparticles that are either electroactive (e.g., metals, graphene, carbon nanotubes, etc.) or are capable of serving as reservoirs for active corrosion inhibitors (e.g., porous silicon oxide, layered double hydroxides, halloysite) provides unprecedented functionality and opportunities for multifunctional coatings. The review emphasizes mechanistic considerations where these have been elucidated with a view towards developing systematic design

  2. Graphene oxide-SiO2 hybrid nanostructure as coating material for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qishu; Xuan, Han; Zhang, Kehua; Ding, Yi; Xu, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered as a promising stationary phase for chromatographic separation. However, the very strong adsorption of the analytes on the GO surface lead to the severe peak tailing, which in turn resulting in decreased separation performance. In this work, GO and silica nanoparticles hybrid nanostructures (GO/SiO2 NPs@column) were coated onto the capillary inner wall by passing the mixture of GO and silica sol through the capillary column. The successful of coating of GO/SiO2 NPs onto the capillary wall was confirmed by SEM and electroosmotic flow mobilities test. By partially covering the GO surface with silica nanoparticles, the peak tailing was decreased greatly while the unique high shape selectivity arises from the surface of remained GO was kept. Consequently, compared with the column modified with GO (GO@column), the column modified with GO and silica nanoparticles through layer-by-layer method (GO-SiO2 NPs@column), or the column modified with silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs@column), GO/SiO2 NPs@column possessed highest resolutions. The GO/SiO2 NPs@column was applied to separate egg white and both acidic and basic proteins as well as three glycoisoforms of ovalbumin were separated in a single run within 36 min. The intra-day, inter-day, and column-to-column reproducibilities were evaluated by calculating the RSDs of the retention of naphthalene and biphenyl in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography. The RSD values were found to be less than 7.1%.

  3. Orientation and morphology of self-assembled oligothiophene semiconductors and development of hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevis, Ian David

    This dissertation examines the self-assembly of electronically active small molecules for heterojunction photovoltaic devices and the synthesis of nanoscale hybrid materials with a focus on orientation and morphology. A hairpin-shaped self-assembling molecule featuring two semiconducting sexithiophene arms connected through a diamidocyclohexane linker was found to form p-type semiconducting nanowires through H-aggregation as well as J-aggregated bundles. This molecule was incorporated into heterojunction photovoltaics with phenyl-(C61/C71)-butyric acid methyl ester through spin-coating. The sexithiophene assembled during drying to form a percolating network of nanowires and fullerenes. Thermal annealing enhanced efficiencies by increasing domain sizes and organizing the fullerenes into the groves of the nanofibers to produce 0.48% efficient devices. A p-type quarterthiophene derivative was designed and synthesized to assemble through pi-pi stacking and hydrogen bonding and its assembly was explored. Solutions of the quarterthiophene drop-cast on poly(tetrafluoroethylene) dried quickly to form bundled fibers parallel to the substrate. Slower drying and higher concentrations led to the formation of rhombohedra and randomly oriented hexagonal prisms, respectively. Liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation was used with a porous aluminum oxide membrane between a solution of quarterthiophene and toluene to orient the hexagonal prisms perpendicular to the membrane. Depositing the molecule from solution onto a UV/Ozone treated transparent conducting oxide subtrated affored prisms and sheets with perpendicular pi-pi stacking was anisotropy observed by 2D-GISAXS. This perpendicular pi-pi stacking orientation and sheet formation on a planar electrode shortens charge transport distances and minimizes film defects, which could lead to improved photovoltaic devices. Interpenetrating donor and acceptor hybrid materials with perpendicular orientation for enhanced morphological

  4. ZnSe·0.5N2H4 hybrid nanostructures: a promising alternative photocatalyst for solar conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Liu, Tao-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2015-01-28

    As the molecular precursor of ZnSe, ZnSe·0.5N2H4 inorganic-organic hybrids have received relatively less attention due to the feasibility of their further processing and decomposition into pure-phase ZnSe. Here we demonstrated that ZnSe·0.5N2H4 hybrid nanostructures, which were prepared using a facile hydrazine-assisted hydrothermal method, may practically harvest solar energy for photoconversion applications. By modulating the volume ratio of hydrazine hydrate to deionized water employed in the synthesis, the morphology of the grown ZnSe·0.5N2H4 can be varied, which included nanowires, nanobelts and nanoflakes. With the relatively long exciton lifetime and highly anisotropic structure, ZnSe·0.5N2H4 nanowires performed much better in the photodegradation of rhodamine B than the other two counterpart products. As compared to pure ZnSe nanoparticles and single-phase ZnSe nanowires obtained from further processing ZnSe·0.5N2H4, the ZnSe·0.5N2H4 hybrid nanowires exhibited superior photocatalytic performance under visible light illumination. The hybrid nanowires were further decorated with Au particles to endow them with structural and compositional diversities. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggested that almost 40% of the photoexcited electrons in ZnSe·0.5N2H4 nanowires can be transported to the decorated Au, which enabled a fuller extent of participation of charge carriers in the photocatalytic process and thus conduced to a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity. The demonstrations from this work illustrate that ZnSe·0.5N2H4 hybrid nanostructures can serve as a versatile photocatalyst platform for advanced photocatalytic applications.

  5. Improvement of antimony sulfide photo absorber performance by interface modification in Sb2S3-ZnO hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asad; Hasanain, Syed Khurshid; Ali, Tahir; Sultan, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    Metal-oxide chalcogenide nanostructures as part of hybrid systems are very important for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. It is however known that the various interfaces within the hybrid structures play a crucial role in limiting the efficiency of these devices. Here we report on the improvement of Sb2S3 structure through modification of interface between Zn-oxide nanostructures and chalcogenides. ZnO nanorods were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analysis confirmed the single phase wurtzite structure and c-axis orientation of the ZnO nanorod arrays. Antimony tri-sulfide (Sb2S3) was deposited on ZnO nanords by CBD and subsequently annealed at 300 °C in argon environment for 30 min. XRD and the XPS analysis of ZnO-Sb2S3 system showed the dominant presence of Sb2O3 rather than Sb2S3. Since oxidation of Sb2S3 is understood to proceed mainly from the ZnO-Sb2S3 interface, a ZnS interlayer was introduced between ZnO nanorods and Sb2S3 by chemical route. The subsequent structural and optical properties of the ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 system are analyzed in detail. The introduction of sulfide interlayer prevents the oxidation of Sb2S3 which is evident from reduced oxide phase in Sb2S3. Significant improvement in the structural and optical properties of Sb2S3 are reported as compared to the parent ZnO-Sb2S3 system. This gain in the optical properties of hybrid ZnO-ZnS-Sb2S3 nanostructures is explained as being related to successful prevention of Sb2O3 formation at the Sb-ZnO interface and stabilization of the desired Sb2S3.

  6. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Double heterojunction nanowire photocatalysts for hydrogen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongying, P.; Vietmeyer, F.; Aleksiuk, D.; Ferraudi, G. J.; Krylova, G.; Kuno, M.

    2014-03-01

    Charge separation and charge transfer across interfaces are key aspects in the design of efficient photocatalysts for solar energy conversion. In this study, we investigate the hydrogen generating capabilities and underlying photophysics of nanostructured photocatalysts based on CdSe nanowires (NWs). Systems studied include CdSe, CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires and their Pt nanoparticle-decorated counterparts. Femtosecond transient differential absorption measurements reveal how semiconductor/semiconductor and metal/semiconductor heterojunctions affect the charge separation and hydrogen generation efficiencies of these hybrid photocatalysts. In turn, we unravel the role of surface passivation, charge separation at semiconductor interfaces and charge transfer to metal co-catalysts in determining photocatalytic H2 generation efficiencies. This allows us to rationalize why Pt nanoparticle decorated CdSe/CdS NWs, a double heterojunction system, performs best with H2 generation rates of ~434.29 +/- 27.40 μmol h-1 g-1 under UV/Visible irradiation. In particular, we conclude that the CdS shell of this double heterojunction system serves two purposes. The first is to passivate CdSe NW surface defects, leading to long-lived charges at the CdSe/CdS interface capable of carrying out reduction chemistries. Upon photoexcitation, we also find that CdS selectively injects charges into Pt NPs, enabling simultaneous reduction chemistries at the Pt NP/solvent interface. Pt nanoparticle decorated CdSe/CdS NWs thus enable reduction chemistries at not one, but rather two interfaces, taking advantage of each junction's optimal catalytic activities.Charge separation and charge transfer across interfaces are key aspects in the design of efficient photocatalysts for solar energy conversion. In this study, we investigate the hydrogen generating capabilities and underlying photophysics of nanostructured photocatalysts based on CdSe nanowires (NWs). Systems studied include CdSe, CdSe/CdS core

  8. Preparation and Photocatalytic Application of High Temperature Stabilized ZrSiO4@TiO2 Hybrid Nanostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Cheng; FANG Peiyu; ZENG Zhichao; Lü Ming; WU Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    A new ZrSiO4@TiO2 hybrid nanostructure was prepared by a heterogeneous flocculation method. Phytic acid was introduced to modify the surface charging of the components for hybrid assembly. The obtained powder was coated on ceramic tiles and fired at 900 ℃ to fabricate photocatalytic ceramic. Experimental results show that anatase TiO2 in the composite powder has high thermal stability until 1 200℃. ZrSiO4 matrix prevents the mass transfer of anatase TiO2 at high temperature and greatly retards the phase transition of anatase to rutile. Besides, the photocatalytic ceramic shows apparent activities for the degradation of methyl orange under ultra-violet irradiation.

  9. Hybrid nanostructured thin-films by PLD for enhanced field emission performance for radiation micro-nano dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, E., E-mail: maniphysics@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Bharath University, Chrompet, Chennai 600044 (India); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Kavitha, G. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); PG& Research Dept of Physics, AM Jain College Affiliated to University of Madras, Chennai 600114 (India); and others

    2015-10-25

    We report the observation of hybrid nanostructured thin-films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) signature on the ZnO epitaxial thin-films grown onto the device silicon/quartz substrate by reactive pulsed laser deposition (r-PLD) under the argon–oxygen (Ar|O{sub 2}) ambient at 573 K. Undoped and Carbon (C) doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by the accelerator based ion-beam analysis (IBA) technique of resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RRBS), glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) pattern, micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and field-emission (F-E) studies. The RRBS and GIXRD results show the deposition of epitaxial thin-films containing C into ZnO. The μ-RS technique is a standard nondestructive tool (NDT) for the characterization of crystalline, nano-crystalline, and amorphous carbons (a-C). As grown ZnO and C-doped ZnO thin-films μ-RS result reveal the doping effect of C-impurities that appear in the form of DLC evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak at 438 cm{sup −1} with E{sub 2}(h) phonon of ZnO. The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-films has high conductivity than the un-doped film. Fabricated hybrid nanostructured thin-films materials could be very useful for the emerging applications of micro-nano dosimetry. - Highlights: • Observation of hybrid nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) on ZnO epitaxial thin-films at 573 K. • Carbon doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by RRBS, Micro-Raman. • Field-emission (F-E) study. • DLC formation evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak of ZnO. • The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-film has high conductivity than the undoped thin-film.

  10. Metal-conductive polymer hybrid nanostructures: preparation and electrical properties of palladium-polyimidazole nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinai, Mariam; Hassanien, Reda; Watson, Scott M D; Wright, Nicholas G; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2016-03-04

    A simple, convenient method for the formation of hybrid metal/conductive polymer nanostructures is described. Polyimidazole (PIm) has been templated on λ-DNA via oxidative polymerisation of imidazole using FeCl3 to produce conductive PIm/DNA nanowires. The PIm/DNA nanowires were decorated with Pd (Pd/PIm/DNA) by electroless reduction of PdCl4(-2) with NaBH4 in the presence of PIm/DNA; the choice of imidazole was motivated by the potential Pd(II) binding site at the pyridinic N atom. The formation of PIm/DNA and the presence of metallic Pd on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires were verified by FTIR, UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy techniques. AFM studies show that the nanowires have diameters in the range 5-45 nm with a slightly greater mean diameter (17.1 ± 0.75 nm) for the Pd-decorated nanowires than the PIm/DNA nanowires (14.5 ± 0.89 nm). After incubation for 24 h in the polymerisation solution, the PIm/DNA nanowires show a smooth, uniform morphology, which is retained after decoration with Pd. Using a combination of scanned conductance microscopy, conductive AFM and two-terminal measurements we show that both types of nanowire are conductive and that it is possible to discriminate different possible mechanisms of transport. The conductivity of the Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires, (0.1-1.4 S cm(-1)), is comparable to the PIm/DNA nanowires (0.37 ± 0.029 S cm(-1)). In addition, the conductance of Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires exhibits Arrhenius behaviour (E(a )= 0.43 ± 0.02 eV) as a function of temperature in contrast to simple Pd/DNA nanowires. These results indicate that although the Pd crystallites on Pd/PIm/DNA nanowires decorate the PIm polymer, the major current pathway is through the polymer rather than the Pd.

  11. Synthesis and Overall Photophysical Characterization of SiO2:(Ag/SiO2) Nanostructured Sonogel Hybrid Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Saavedra, Omar G.; Zanella, Rodolfo

    2014-08-01

    Bulk SiO2-based inorganic-inorganic sonogel (SG) hybrid glasses were fabricated with Ag/SiO2 supported metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The catalyst-free SG route was implemented to produce these optically active nanostructured composites by doping the liquid sol-phase with Ag/SiO2 synthesized according to the deposition-precipitation method. As prepared Ag/SiO2-MNPs exhibited particle diameters below 10 nm and homogeneous size distribution. The easy and homogeneous Ag/SiO2 loading within the micro/mesoporous SiO2-SG network has evidenced the guest-host chemical affinity of these systems. This fact allowed us to fabricate outstanding chemically, photo-physically and mechanically stable bulk hybrid monoliths with controllable geometry and doping rates, suitable for linear and nonlinear optical (NLO)-spectroscopic characterizations. Indeed, the hosting SG matrix provided an elevated thermal and mechanical stability protecting the reactive Ag nanoparticles from environment conditions, diminishing their tendency to from aggregates and, above all, preserving their pristine photophysical properties. Comprehensive morphological, structural, spectroscopic and NLO characterizations were performed on the obtained SiO2:(Ag/SiO2) hybrid composites. Results have shown that the nanocrystalline (NC) properties, multipolar nature and small sizes of the implemented Ag/SiO2-nanoparticles, together with the bulk guest-host mechanical interactions, play a crucial role for the observation of outstanding spectroscopic and quadratic NLO properties of the developed hybrid systems.

  12. An overview on cellulose-based material in tailoring bio-hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for water treatment and renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan; M Zain, M F; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Jeffery Minggu, Lorna; Awang, Nor Asikin; W Salleh, W N

    2017-10-01

    A combination between the nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials promotes a new functionality of cellulose towards the development of new bio-hybrid materials for various applications especially in water treatment and renewable energy. The excellent compatibility and association between nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials was induced by bio-combability and high hydrophilicity of the cellulose components. The electron rich hydroxyl group of celluloses helps to promote superior interaction with photocatalyst. The formation of bio-hybrid nanostructured are attaining huge interest nowadays due to the synergistic properties of individual cellulose-based material and photocatalyst nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review we introduce some cellulose-based material and discusses its compatibility with nanostructured photocatalyst in terms of physical and chemical properties. In addition, we gather information and evidence on the fabrication techniques of cellulose-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalyst and its recent application in the field of water treatment and renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Wen; Li, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve conduit. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding conduit. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve conduit and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve conduit was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our conduit cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured conduit demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is feasible for use in clinical applications. PMID:28138239

  14. A cross-functional nanostructured platform based on carbon nanotube-Si hybrid junctions: where photon harvesting meets gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, F.; Pintossi, C.; Drera, G.; Pagliara, S.; Lanti, G.; Castrucci, P.; de Crescenzi, M.; Sangaletti, L.

    2017-03-01

    A combination of the functionalities of carbon nanotube (CNT)-Si hybrid heterojunctions is presented as a novel method to steer the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) cell based on these junctions, and to increase the selectivity and sensitivity of the chemiresistor gas sensor operated with the p-doped CNT layer. The electrical characteristics of the junctions have been tracked by exposing the devices to oxidizing (NO2) and reducing (NH3) molecules. It is shown that when used as PV cells, the cell efficiency can be reversibly steered by gas adsorption, providing a tool to selectively dope the p-type layer through molecular adsorption. Tracking of the current-voltage curve upon gas exposure also allowed to use these cells as gas sensors with an enhanced sensitivity as compared to that provided by a readout of the electrical signal from the CNT layer alone. In turn, the chemiresistive response was improved, both in terms of selectivity and sensitivity, by operating the system under illumination, as the photo-induced charges at the junction increase the p-doping of CNTs making them more sensitive to NH3 and less to NO2.

  15. Nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure of a PLGA microfibrous bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng SW

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Wen Peng,1 Ching-Wen Li,2 Ing-Ming Chiu,3,4 Gou-Jen Wang1–3 1Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3PhD Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, 4Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan Abstract: Nerve repair in tissue engineering involves the precise construction of a scaffold to guide nerve cell regeneration in the desired direction. However, improvements are needed to facilitate the cell migration/growth rate of nerves in the center of a nerve conduit. In this paper, we propose a nerve guidance conduit with a hybrid structure comprising a microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA bundle wrapped in a micro/nanostructured PLGA membrane. We applied sequential fabrication processes, including photolithography, nano-electroforming, and polydimethylsiloxane casting to manufacture master molds for the repeated production of the PLGA subelements. After demolding it from the master molds, we rolled the microfibrous membrane into a bundle and then wrapped it in the micro/nanostructured membrane to form a nerve-guiding conduit. We used KT98/F1B-GFP cells to estimate the migration rate and guidance ability of the fabricated nerve conduit and found that both elements increased the migration rate 1.6-fold compared with a flat PLGA membrane. We also found that 90% of the cells in the hybrid nano/microstructured membrane grew in the direction of the designed patterns. After 3 days of culturing, the interior of the nerve conduit was filled with cells, and the microfiber bundle was also surrounded by cells. Our conduit cell culture results also demonstrate that the proposed micro/nanohybrid and microfibrous structures can retain their shapes. The proposed hybrid-structured conduit demonstrates a high capability for guiding nerve cells and promoting cell migration, and, as such, is

  16. Formation of heteroepitaxy in different shapes of Au-CdSe metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Pradhan, Narayan; Patra, Amitava

    2013-10-25

    Formation of heteroepitaxy and designing different-shaped heterostructured nanomaterials of metal and semiconductor in solution remains a frontier area of research. However, it is evident that the synthesis of such materials is not straightforward and needs a selective approach to retain both metal and semiconductor identities in the reaction system during heterostructure formation. Herein, the epitaxial growth of semiconductor CdSe on selected facets of metal Au seeds is reported and different shapes (flower, tetrapod, and core/shell) hetero-nanostructures are designed. These results are achieved by controlling the reaction parameters, and by changing the sequence and timing for introduction of different reactant precursors. Direct evidence of the formation of heteroepitaxy between {111} facets of Au and (0001) of wurtzite CdSe is observed during the formation of these three heterostructures. The mechanism of the evolution of these hetero-nanostructures and formation of their heteroepitaxy with the planes having minimum lattice mismatch are also discussed. This shape-control growth mechanism in hetero-nanostructures should be helpful to provide more information for establishing the fundamental study of heteroepitaxial growth for designing new nanomaterials. Such metal-semiconductor nanostructures may have great potential for nonlinear optical properties, in photovoltaic devices, and as chemical sensors.

  17. Metal oxide nanostructures-containing organic polymer hybrid solarcells: Optimization of processing parameters on cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the chemical synthesis of various ZnO nanostructures and TiO 2 nanoparticles and their dispersion in a P3HT matrix. The photoluminescence studies revealed improved charge transport in the active layer of the optimized TiO 2 nanoparticles...

  18. Study on silicon nanocrystals and polymer bulk heterojunction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Michihiro; Ding, Yi; Zhou, Shu; Nozaki, Tomohiro

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) and semiconductor-polymer (P3HT) nanostructured thin film is investigated for better understanding of bulk heterojunction structure of hybrid solar cell and improving its photon-to-electron conversion performance. SiNCs are synthesized by VHF plasma CVD using silicon tetrachloride. SiNC thin film transistor (TFT) was fabricated to investigate carrier transport properties of SiNC network. As a result, hydrogen-terminated SiNCs behave as n-type semiconductor materials, and electron mobility of SiNC network is improved dramatically. In contrast, chlorine-terminated SiNCs behave as metallic materials and show poor electron transport property because of surface doping effect: electrons are not flow over the SiNC network due to a large electronegativity of chlorine. Additionally, when the chlorine-terminated SiNCs are blended with P3HT, new peaks appear in FTIR absorption spectrum. The result implies that the thiophene structure, which forms the hole transporting pathway, may be damaged by highly reactive surface chlorine and therefore the hole transport property of Cl:SiNCs/P3HT blended film would be deteriorated dramatically. These results are well correlated with Cl- and H-terminated/P3HT hybrid solar cell performance.

  19. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  20. Composition and doping control for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of InP-based double heterojunction bipolar transistor with hybrid base structure consisting of GaAsSb contact and InGaAsSb graded layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Takuya; Kashio, Norihide; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Kurishima, Kenji; Ida, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    We report on a method for composition and doping control for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of a double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) with a hybrid base structure consisting of a compositionally graded InGaAsSb for boosting an average electron velocity and a heavily doped thin GaAsSb for lowering the base contact resistivity. The GaAsSb contact layer can be formed by simply turning off the supply of In precursor tetramethylindium (TMIn) after the growth of the composition and doping graded InGaAsSb base. Consequently, the solid composition and hole concentration of hybrid base can be properly controlled by just modulating the supply of only TMIn and carbon tetrabromide. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the DHBT wafer reveals that the contents of In, Ga, and C inside the base are actually modulated from the collector side to the emitter side as expected. Transmission-line-model measurements were performed for the compositionally graded-InGaAsSb/GaAsSb hybrid base. The contact resistivity is estimated to be 5.3 Ω µm2, which is lower than half the value of a compositionally graded InGaAsSb base without the GaAsSb contact layer. The results indicate that the compositionally-graded-InGaAsSb/GaAsSb-contact hybrid base structure grown by this simple method is very advantageous for obtaining DHBTs with a very high maximum oscillation frequency.

  1. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Carlos; Barriga-Castro, Enrique Díaz; Gómez-Treviño, Alberto; Núñez, Nuria O; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols). In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM) exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M) are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy studies indicated that the bioreduction of the Ag− ions takes place through their interactions with free amines, carboxylate ions, and hydroxyl groups. As a consequence of such interactions, residues of proteins and polyphenols cap the biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles providing them a hybrid core/shell structure. In addition, these biosynthesized Ag nanomaterials exhibited size-dependent plasmon extinction bands and enhanced bactericidal activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, displaying minimal inhibitory Ag concentrations lower than typical values reported in the literature for Ag nanoparticles, probably due to the synergy of

  2. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  3. Nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon composite as an electrode material for asymmetric hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Ok; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-02-01

    A nanostructured TiO2-coated activated carbon (TAC) composite was synthesized by a modified sol-gel reaction and employed it as a negative electrode active material for an asymmetric hybrid capacitor. The structural characterization showed that the TiO2 nano-layer was deposited on the surface of the activated carbon and the TAC composite has a highly mesoporous structure. The evaluation of electrochemical characteristics of the TAC electrode was carried out by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained specific capacitance of the TAC composite was 42.87 F/g, which showed by 27.1% higher than that of the activated carbon (AC). The TAC composite also exhibited an excellent cycle performance and kept 95% of initial capacitance over 500 cycles.

  4. Biofunctionalization of carbon nanotubes/chitosan hybrids on Ti implants by atom layer deposited ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhou; Liu, Xiangmei; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ZnO using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on chitosan (CS) modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were first introduced onto the surfaces of biomedical implants. When the content of ZnO is not sufficient, CNTs can strengthen the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus by 8% and 39%, respectively. CS can improve the cytocompatibility of CNTs and ZnO. The amount of Zn content can be controlled by changing the cycling numbers of ALD processes. This hybrid coating can not only endow medical implants with high self-antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of over 73% and 98%, respectively, but also regulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts by controlling the amount of ZnO.

  5. Ag nanoparticle-ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructures as enhanced and robust antimicrobial textiles via a green chemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Tang, Haoying; Yuan, Weiwei; Song, Wei; Niu, Yongshan; Yan, Ling; Yu, Min; Dai, Ming; Feng, Siyu; Wang, Menghang; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-11

    A new approach for fabrication of a long-term and recoverable antimicrobial nanostructure/textile hybrid without increasing the antimicrobial resistance is demonstrated. Using in situ synthesized Ag nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on ZnO nanowires (NWs) grown on textiles by a 'dip-in and light-irradiation' green chemical method, we obtained ZnONW@AgNP nanocomposites with small-size and uniform Ag NPs, which have shown superior performance for antibacterial applications. These new Ag/ZnO/textile antimicrobial composites can be used for wound dressings and medical textiles for topical and prophylactic antibacterial treatments, point-of-use water treatment to improve the cleanliness of water and antimicrobial air filters to prevent bioaerosols accumulating in ventilation, heating, and air-conditioning systems.

  6. Hybrid C-nanotubes/Si 3D nanostructures by one-step growth in a dual-plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Francesco; Orlanducci, Silvia; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Cianchetta, Ilaria; Magni, Corrado; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Pasquali, Matteo; Tamburri, Emanuela; Matassa, Roberto; Rossi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures consisting of Si polycrystalline nanocones, with an anemone-like termination coated with C-nanotubes bundles, have been generated on a (1 0 0) Si substrate in a dual mode microwave/radio-frequency plasma reactor. The substrate is both heated and bombarded by energetic H ions during the synthesis process. The nanocones growth is explained considering pull of the growing Si nanocrystalline phase along the lines of the electrical field, likely via a molten/recrystallization mechanism. The one-step building of the achieved complex 3D architectures is described in terms of dynamic competition between Si and C nanotubes growth under the peculiar conditions of kinetically driven processes.

  7. Self-organization of a hybrid nanostructure consisting of a nanoneedle and nanodot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai; Wu, Junsheng; Wang, Ying; Chow, Chee Lap; Liu, Qing; Gan, Chee Lip; Tang, Xiaohong; Rawat, Rajdeep Singh; Tan, Ooi Kiang; Ma, Jan; Huang, Yizhong

    2012-09-24

    A special materials system that allows the self-organization of a unique hybrid nanonipple structure is developed. The system consists of a nanoneedle with a small nanodot sitting on top. Such hybrid nanonipples provide building blocks to assemble functional devices with significantly improved performance. The application of the system to high-sensitivity gas sensors is also demonstrated.

  8. One-dimensional carbon nanotube/SnO2/noble metal nanoparticle hybrid nanostructure: synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Youxing; Guo, Shaojun; Zhu, Chengzhou; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2010-08-02

    Herein we report a facile and efficient method for self-assembling noble-metal nanoparticles (NPs) to the surface of SnO(2)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNT@SnO(2)) to construct CNT@SnO(2)/noble metal NP hybrids. By using SnCl(4) as the precursor of the SnO(2) shell on the surface of CNTs, the hydrolysis speed of SnCl(4) was slowed down in ethanol containing a trace amount of urea and water. The coaxial nanostructure of CNT@SnO(2) was confirmed by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the coating layer of SnO(2) was homogeneous with the mean thickness of 8 nm. The CNT@SnO(2)/noble-metal NP hybrids were obtained by mixing noble-metal NPs with as-prepared CNT@SnO(2) coaxial nanocables by means of a self-assembly strategy. With the amino group terminated, the CNT@SnO(2) coaxial nanocable can readily adsorb the as-prepared noble-metal NPs (Au, Ag, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd NPs). The presence of an amino group at the surface of SnO(2) was proved by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, H(2)O(2) sensing by amperometric methods could serve as detection models for investigating the electrocatalytic ability of as-prepared hybrid materials. It was found that wide linear ranges and low detection limits were obtained by using the enzyme-free CNT@SnO(2)@Au-Pt modified electrode, which indicated the potential utilizations of the hybrid based on CNT@SnO(2) for electrochemical sensing.

  9. Efficient NiSe-Ni3Se2/Graphene Electrocatalyst in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Role of Hollow Hybrid Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhen, Mengmeng; Bai, Jinwu; Jin, Shaowei; Liu, Lu

    2016-07-13

    Hollow and hybrid nanomaterials are excellent electrocatalysts on account of their novel electrocatalytic properties compared with homogeneous solid nanostructures. In this report, NiSe-Ni3Se2 hybrid nanostructure with morphology of hollow hexagonal nanodisk was synthesized in situ on graphene. A series of NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO with different phase constitutions and nanostructures were obtained by controlling the durations of solvothermal treatment. Because of their unique hollow and hybrid structure, NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO hollow nanodisks exhibited higher electrocatalytic performance than NiSe/RGO and solid NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO nanostructure for reducing I3(-) as counter cell (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Additionally, NiSe-Ni3Se2/RGO hollow nanodisks achieved much lower charge transfer resistance (Rct = 0.68 Ω) and higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (7.87%) than those of Pt (Rct = 1.41 Ω, PCE = 7.28%).

  10. New highly fluorescent biolabels based on II VI semiconductor hybrid organic inorganic nanostructures for bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, B. S.; Farias, P. M. A.; Menezes, F. D.; Brasil, A. G., Jr.; Fontes, A.; Romão, L.; Amaral, J. O.; Moura-Neto, V.; Tenório, D. P. L. A.; Cesar, C. L.; Barbosa, L. C.; Ferreira, R.

    2008-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots based on II-VI materials may be prepared to develop good biolabeling properties. In this study we present some well-succeeded results related to the preparation, functionalization and bioconjugation of CdY (Y = S, Se and Te) to biological systems (live cells and fixed tissues). These nanostructured materials were prepared using colloidal synthesis in aqueous media resulting nanoparticles with very good optical properties and an excellent resistance to photodegradation.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured titania films with integrated function from inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawolle, Monika; Niedermeier, Martin A; Kaune, Gunar; Perlich, Jan; Lellig, Philipp; Memesa, Mine; Cheng, Ya-Jun; Gutmann, Jochen S; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2012-08-07

    Nanostructured titania films are of growing interest due to their application in future photovoltaic technologies. Therefore, a lot of effort has been put into the controlled fabrication and tailoring of titania nanostructures. The controlled sol-gel synthesis of titania, in particular in combination with block copolymer templates, is very promising because of its high control on the nanostructure, easy application and cheap processing possibilities. This tutorial review gives a short overview of the structural control of titania films gained by using templated sol-gel chemistry and shows how this approach is extended by the addition of further functionality to the films. Different expansions of the sol-gel templating are possible by the fabrication of gradient samples, by the addition of a homopolymer, by the combination with micro-fluidics and also by the application of novel precursors for low-temperature processing. Moreover, hierarchically structured titania films can be fabricated via the subsequent application of several sol-gel steps or via the inclusion of colloidal templates in a one-step process. Integrated function in the block copolymer used in the sol-gel synthesis allows for the fabrication of an integrated blocking layer or an integrated hole-conductor. Both approaches grant a one-step fabrication of two components of a working solar cell, which make them very promising towards a cheap solar cell production route. Looking to the complete solar cell, the top contact is also of great importance as it influences the function of the whole solar cell. Thus, the mechanisms acting in the top contact formation are also reviewed. For all these aspects, characterization techniques that allow for a structural investigation of nanostructures inside the active layers are important. Therefore, the characterization techniques that are used in real space as well as in reciprocal space are explained shortly as well.

  12. Hydrolysis preparation of the compact TiO2 layer using metastable TiCl4 isopropanol/water solution for inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Dai; Chengwu, Shi; Yanru, Zhang; Ni, Wu

    2015-07-01

    A hydrolysis process was applied to prepare the compact TiO2 layer using the fresh metastable TiCl4 isopropanol/water solution as the precursor solution for the preparation of the inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The optimal compact TiO2 layer prepared from the aqueous solution of 2 mol/L TiCl4 diluted in isopropanol at 1 : 3 by volume as precursor solution was uniform and with a film thickness of 126 nm. The corresponding perovskite solar cell gave a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 10.61%. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51472071, 51272061, 51072043), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2011CBA00700).

  13. Direct evidence of chemically inhomogeneous, nanostructured, Si-O buried interfaces and their effect on the efficiency of carbon nanotube/Si photovoltaic heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Pintossi, Chiara

    2013-09-12

    An angle resolved X-ray photoemission study of carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is reported, providing a direct probe of a chemically inhomogeneous, Si-O buried interface between the carbon nanotube (CNT) networked layer and the n-type Si substrate. By changing the photoelectron takeoff angle of the analyzer, a nondestructive in-depth profiling of a CNT/SiOx/SiO2/Si complex interface is achieved. Data are interpreted on the basis of an extensive modeling of the photoemission process from layered structures, which fully accounts for the depth distribution function of the photoemitted electrons. As X-ray photoemission spectroscopy provides direct access to the buried interface, the aging and the effects of chemical etching on the buried interface have been highlighted. This allowed us to show how the thickness and the composition of the buried interface can be related to the efficiency of the PV cell. The results clearly indicate that while SiO2 is related to an increase of the efficiency, acting as a buffer layer, SiOx is detrimental to cell performances, though it can be selectively removed by etching in HF vapors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Time resolved single molecule spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dot/conjugated organic hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoi, Michael Yemoh

    Single molecule studies on CdSe quantum dots functionalized with oligo-phenylene vinylene ligands (CdSe-OPV) provide evidence of strong electronic communication that facilitate charge and energy transport between the OPV ligands and the CdSe quantum dot core. This electronic interaction greatly modify, the photoluminescence properties of both bulk and single CdSe-OPV nanostructure thin film samples. Size-correlated wide-field fluorescence imaging show that blinking suppression in single CdSe-OPV is linked to the degree of OPV coverage (inferred from AFM height scans) on the quantum dot surface. The effect of the complex electronic environment presented by photoexcited OPV ligands on the excited state property of CdSe-OPV is measured with single photon counting and photon-pair correlation spectroscopy techniques. Time-tagged-time-resolved (TTTR) single photon counting measurements from individual CdSe-OPV nanostructures, show excited state lifetimes an order of magnitude shorter relative to conventional ZnS/CdSe quantum dots. Second-order intensity correlation measurements g(2)(tau) from individual CdSe-OPV nanostructures point to a weak multi-excitonic character with a strong wavelength dependent modulation depth. By tuning in and out of the absorption of the OPV ligands we observe changes in modulation depth from g(2) (0) ≈ 0.2 to 0.05 under 405 and 514 nm excitation respectively. Defocused images and polarization anisotropy measurements also reveal a well-defined linear dipole emission pattern in single CdSe-OPV nanostructures. These results provide new insights into to the mechanism behind the electronic interactions in composite quantum dot/conjugated organic composite systems at the single molecule level. The observed intensity flickering , blinking suppression and associated lifetime/count rate and antibunching behaviour is well explained by a Stark interaction model. Charge transfer from photo-excitation of the OPV ligands to the surface of the Cd

  15. Mechanically Self-Assembled, Three-Dimensional Graphene-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Advanced Nanoplasmonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Juyoung; Wang, Michael Cai; Kang, Pilgyu; Nam, SungWoo

    2015-11-11

    Hybrid structures of graphene and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been actively investigated as higher quality surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. Compared with SERS substrates, which only contain metal NPs, the additional graphene layer provides structural, chemical, and optical advantages. However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of graphene limits the fabrication of the hybrid structure of graphene and NPs to 2D. Introducing three-dimensionality to the hybrid structure would allow higher detection sensitivity of target analytes by utilizing the three-dimensional (3D) focal volume. Here, we report a mechanical self-assembly strategy to enable a new class of 3D crumpled graphene-gold (Au) NPs hybrid nanoplasmonic structures for SERS applications. We achieve a 3D crumpled graphene-Au NPs hybrid structure by the delamination and buckling of graphene on a thermally activated, shrinking polymer substrate. We also show the precise control and optimization of the size and spacing of integrated Au NPs on crumpled graphene and demonstrate the optimized NPs' size and spacing for higher SERS enhancement. The 3D crumpled graphene-Au NPs exhibits at least 1 order of magnitude higher SERS detection sensitivity than that of conventional, flat graphene-Au NPs. The hybrid structure is further adapted to arbitrary curvilinear structures for advanced, in situ, nonconventional, nanoplasmonic sensing applications. We believe that our approach shows a promising material platform for universally adaptable SERS substrate with high sensitivity.

  16. Hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Tilahun Awoke; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wotango, Aselefech Sorsa; Pan, Chun-Jern; Chen, Hung-Ming; Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Su, Wei-Nien; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we design hybrid nanostructured microporous carbon-mesoporous carbon doped titanium dioxide/sulfur composite (MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S) as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host material is produced by a low-cost, hydrothermal and annealing process. The resulting conductive material shows dual microporous and mesoporous behavior which enhances the effective trapping of sulfur and polysulfides. The hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2/S composite material possesses rutile TiO2 nanotube structure with successful carbon doping while sulfur is uniformly distributed in the hybrid MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 composite materials after the melt-infusion process. The electrochemical measurement of the hybrid material also shows improved cycle stability and rate performance with high sulfur loading (61.04%). The material delivers an initial discharge capacity of 802 mAh g-1 and maintains it at 578 mAh g-1 with a columbic efficiency greater than 97.1% after 140 cycles at 0.1 C. This improvement is thought to be attributed to the unique hybrid nanostructure of the MC-Meso C-doped TiO2 host and the good dispersion of sulfur in the narrow pores of the MC spheres and the mesoporous C-doped TiO2 support.

  17. Nanowire formation is preceded by nanotube growth in templated electrodeposition of cobalt hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Daniel M.; Vidu, Ruxandra; Stroeve, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Cobalt fluted nanowires, novel nanostructures with a diameter of 200 nm consisting of a solid nanowire base and a thin, nanotubular flute shape, were grown in track-etched polycarbonate membranes via templated electrodeposition. The structures were characterized electrochemically via cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and charge stripping, and structurally via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and focused ion beam cross-sectioning. Electrochemical and structural analysis reveals details of their deposition kinetics, structure, and morphology, and indicate possible mechanisms for their formation and control. These unique structures provide inspiration for an array of possible applications in electronics, photonics, and other fields.

  18. A nanostructured Ni/graphene hybrid for enhanced electrochemical hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Moon-Hyung; Min, Young-Je [Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon [Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung-Min, E-mail: smpaek@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae-Min, E-mail: jaemin.oh@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide(GO) was hybridized with the Ni(OH){sub 2}. • The Ni(OH){sub 2}/GO was reduced to Ni/graphene. • XRD, TEM, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were examined. • The hydrogen storage property of Ni/graphene was significantly enhanced. - Abstract: To fabricate electrochemical hydrogen storage materials with delaminated structure, the graphene oxide (GO) in the ethylene glycol solution was reassembled in the presence of the precursor of Ni nanoparticles, and then, the reassembled hybrid was reduced under hydrogen atmosphere to obtain Ni/graphene hybrid. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray absorption spectscopic (XAS) analysis clearly show that Ni nanoparticles in Ni/graphene hybrid maintain its nanosized nature even after hybridization with graphene nanosheet (GNS). According to the TEM analysis, the Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 5.2 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the GNS in such a way that the nanoporous structure with much amount of void spaces could be fabricated. The obtained Ni/GNS exhibits a hydrogen storage capacity of 160 mA h/g, while the specific capacity of the graphene nanosheet was only 21 mA h/g. A flexible delaminated structure of Ni/GNS nanocomposite could provide additional intercalation sites for accommodation of hydrogen, leading to the enhancement of hydrogen storage capacity.

  19. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  20. Au-Graphene Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure Sensor Based on Intensity Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alharbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating plasmonic materials, like gold with a two-dimensional material (e.g., graphene enhances the light-material interaction and, hence, plasmonic properties of the metallic nanostructure. A localized surface plasmon resonance sensor is an effective platform for biomarker detection. They offer a better bulk surface (local sensitivity than a regular surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor; however, they suffer from a lower figure of merit compared to that one in a propagating surface plasmon resonance sensors. In this work, a decorated multilayer graphene film with an Au nanostructures was proposed as a liquid sensor. The results showed a significant improvement in the figure of merit compared with other reported localized surface plasmon resonance sensors. The maximum figure of merit and intensity sensitivity of 240 and 55 RIU−1 (refractive index unit at refractive index change of 0.001 were achieved which indicate the capability of the proposed sensor to detect a small change in concentration of liquids in the ng/mL level which is essential in early-stage cancer disease detection.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro release of diclofenac sodium from hybrid nanostructured magnetite-calcium pectinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Raj Kumar, E-mail: duttafcy@iitr.ernet.in; Sahu, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhsahu12@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry (India); Reddy, V. R., E-mail: vrreddy@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (India)

    2012-08-15

    A stable spherical nanostructured calcium pectinate loaded with diclofenac sodium (DS) and functionalized by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, referred as MCPDS, was developed as a potential magnetically targeted drug delivery system. The sizes of the MCPDS were in the range of 100-200 nm in dried condition, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the aqueous medium, the sizes of MCPDS were in the range 300 {+-} 50 nm, measured by dynamic light scattering technique. The X-ray diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy confirmed magnetite phase in MCPDS. The magnetic property of the MCPDS nanostructures was confirmed from high saturation magnetization (44.05 emu/g), measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The superparamagnetic property of MCPDS was characterized by superconducting quantum unit interference device magnetometry and corroborated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The loading efficiency of DS in MCPDS was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and corroborated by thermal analysis. The in vitro release of the drug from MCPDS in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in phosphate buffer solution was found to be pH sensitive and exhibited sustained release property. The cumulative drug release agreed well with that of swelling controlled diffusion mechanism, given by the Korsemeyer Peppas model.

  2. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok; Lim, Jongsun

    2017-01-01

    We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS2 and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS2-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS2-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS2-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS2 FETs. In addition, the MoS2-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  3. Silicon/Organic Hybrid Solar Cells with 16.2% Efficiency and Improved Stability by Formation of Conformal Heterojunction Coating and Moisture-Resistant Capping Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Yang, Zhenhai; Yu, Jing; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Amine, Joseph Chen; Cui, Yi

    2017-02-02

    Silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction solar cells with 16.2% efficiency and excellent stability are fabricated on pyramid-textured silicon substrates by applying a water-insoluble ester as capping layer. It shows that conformal coating of PEDOT:PSS on textured silicon can greatly improve the junction quality with the main stability failure routes related to the moisture-induced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) aggregations and the tunneling silicon oxide autothickening.

  4. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  5. Ion-exchange synthesis and improved photovoltaic performance of CdS/Ag2S heterostructures for inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xiong; Zhang, Yange; Li, Pinjiang

    2016-11-01

    A facile ultrasound-assisted ion exchange route was developed for the synthesis of CdS/Ag2S heterojunctions by ion exchange between the nanostructured CdS film and [Ag(NH3)2]+ under ultrasonication. The CdS/Ag2S heterojunction film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis DRS spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements, and the transient photovoltage (TPV) technique. CdSsbnd Ag2S heterojunctions exhibit a dense morphology, enhanced visible light absorption and stronger photocurrent response than the pure CdS films. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was then spin coated into the CdS/Ag2S framework. Hybrid solar cells constructed with FTO/CdS/Ag2S/P3HT/Au display relatively higher power conversion efficiency than FTO/CdS/P3HT/Au.

  6. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1 Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro,2 Alberto Gómez-Treviño,3 Nuria O Núñez,4 Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez1 1Research Center of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 2Central Laboratory of Analytical Instrumentation, Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Coahuila, Mexico; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 4Colloidal Materials Research Group, Institute of Materials Science of Seville, Spanish National Research Council, University of Seville, Seville, Spain Abstract: Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols. In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy

  7. Luminescent properties of hybrid nanostructures of ion-exchanged Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Nan; Ji, Lu; Du, Guoping, E-mail: guopingdu@ncu.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    In this work, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursors were first prepared by a hydrothermal method, and then Eu{sup 3+} ions were doped into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursors by an ion-exchange process. After annealing the precursors, the Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}) nanoparticles were successfully obtained. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were then capped with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) ligands to form the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}–TTA hybrid nanostructures. It has been shown that TTA ligands can effectively sensitize the luminescence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles. Greatly extended excitation band from 300 nm to 400 nm was observed for the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}–TTA hybrid nanostructures. X-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the hybrid nanostructures. - Highlights: • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles were prepared using an ion-exchange method. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+}-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone inorganic–organic hybrid nanostructures were successfully prepared for the first time. • A strong luminescence sensitization of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles by 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone ligands was observed. • The excitation band of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoparticles was greatly extended by 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone ligands.

  8. Micro-mechanics of nanostructured carbon/shape memory polymer hybrid thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, M.; Xu, B.; Pei, Yutao T.; Lu, H.B.; Fu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of hybrid shape memory polymer polystrene (PS) based nanocomposites with skeletal structures of CNFs/MWCNTs formed inside. Experimental results showed an increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) with CNF/MWCNT concentrations instead of a decrease of Tg in n

  9. Surface morphology of PMMA/boehmite hybrid nanostructures prepared via facile one-pot process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Misagh; Farzi, Gholamali

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed the novel aqueous-based PMMA/AlOOH hybrid by a one-pot process starting from their relevant precursors in a controlled manner. Starting chemical reactions directly from precursors and the sequence of adding reactants provide the possibility towards enhancing the homogeneity of the final product. Inorganic and organic segments were made compatible by means of oleic acid as a coupling agent. Boehmite to PMMA weight ratio as the main parameter was varied from 0 to 18% and the morphology, particle size, size distribution, and topography map of hybrids was shown to be composition dependent. Final PMMA/Bo nanohybrids were characterized using FTIR to confirm the chemical interactions between inorganic and organic segments. TEM analysis showed that nanohybrid particles with irregular shapes containing inorganic particles dispersed in the organic matrix are formed with an average diameter which depends on boehmite content. The presence of phase transformation of Bo makes PMMA/Bo hybrids significantly thermally stable. According to AFM topography map analysis and relevant Gaussian fit function, the roughness of nanocomposite, the size of hybrid nanoparticles and deviation from the mean value (size) were increased as Bo increases from 0 to 18.

  10. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  11. Solution-processed, nanostructured hybrid solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Zheng, Ying; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Holloway, Paul H; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-06-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, as an alternative to all-organic solar cells, have received significant attention for their potential advantages in combining the solution-processability and versatility of organic materials with high charge mobility and environmental stability of inorganic semiconductors. Here we report efficient and air-stable hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity based on a low-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and spherical CdSe nanoparticles. The solvents used for depositing the hybrid PCPDTBT:CdSe active layer were shown to strongly influence the film morphology, and subsequently the photovoltaic performance of the resulted solar cells. Appropriate post-deposition annealing of the hybrid film was also shown to improve the solar cell efficiency. The inclusion of a thin ZnO nanoparticle layer between the active layer and the metal cathode leads to a significant increase in device efficiency especially at long wavelengths, due to a combination of optical and electronic effects including more optimal light absorption in the active layer and elimination of unwanted hole leakage into the cathode. Overall, maximum power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7 ± 0.2% and spectral sensitivity extending above 800 nm were achieved in such PCPDTBT:CdSe nanosphere hybrid solar cells. Furthermore, the devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer retained ∼70% of the original efficiency after storage under ambient laboratory conditions for over 60 days without any encapsulation.

  12. Three-dimensional Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays for lithium-ion microbattery anodes with enhanced areal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Feng, Yamin; Meng, Gaoxiang; Ding, Hao; Huang, Xintang

    2013-04-10

    The areal capacity of lithium-ion microbatteies (LIMBs) can be potentially increased by adopting a three-dimensional (3D) architectured electrode. Herein, we report the novel 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays that were built directly on current collectors via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a calcination-reduction process. Branched SnO2 nanorods grew uniformly on Ni2(OH)2CO3 nanowall arrays, resulting in the formation of precursors with a 3D interconnected architecture. By using ethylene glycol as the reducing agent, the glucose-coated SnO2/Ni2(OH)2CO3 precursors were evolved into an interesting 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays within the calcination treatment. Compared to conventional 2D SnOx/C nanorod arrays, the electrode of 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays exhibited enhanced lithium storage capacity per unit area, preferable rate capability and improved cycling performance when tested for LIMBs. The superior performance might be attributed to the open-up Ni frameworks that can not only serve as effective channels for electrons transport and Li+ diffusion but also help to accommodate the large volume changes upon lithiation/delithiation.

  13. Controlling Light-Matter Interaction in Semiconductors with Hybrid Nano-Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, Michael R.

    Nano-structures, such as photonic crystal cavities and metallic antennas, allow one to focus and store optical energy into very small volumes, greatly increasing light-matter interactions. These structures produce resonances which are typically characterized by how well they confine energy both temporally (quality factor -- Q) and spatially (mode volume -- V). In order to observe non-linear effects, modified spontaneous emission (e.g. Purcell enhancement), or quantum effects (e.g. vacuum Rabi splitting), one needs to maximize the ratio of Q/V while also maximizing the coupling between the resonance and the active medium. In this dissertation I will discuss several projects related by the goal of controlling light-matter interactions using such nano-structures. In the first portion of this dissertation I will discuss the deterministic placement of self-assembled InAs quantum dots, which would allow one to precisely position an optically-active material, for maximum interaction, inside of a photonic crystal cavity. Additionally, I will discuss the use of atomic layer deposition to tune and improve both the resonance wavelength and quality factor of silicon based photonic crystal cavities. Moving from dielectric materials to metals allows one to achieve mode-volumes well below the diffraction limit. The quality factor of these resonators is severely limited by Ohmic loss in the metal; however, the small mode-volume still allows for greatly enhanced light-matter interaction. In the second portion of this dissertation I will investigate the coupling between an array of metallic resonators (antennas) and a nearby semiconductor quantum well. Using time-resolved pump-probe measurements I study the properties of the coupled system and compare the results to a model which allows one to quantitatively compare various antenna geometries.

  14. Collective scattering in hybrid nanostructures with many atomic oscillators coupled to an electromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauché, Pierre; Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Lalanne, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable interest in collective effects in hybrid systems formed by molecular or atomic ensembles strongly coupled by an electromagnetic resonance. For analyzing such collective effects, we develop an efficient and general theoretical formalism based on the natural modes of the resonator. The main strength of our approach is its generality and the high level of analyticity enabled by modal analysis, which allows one to model complex hybrid systems without any restriction on the resonator shapes or material properties, and to perform statistical computations to predict general properties that are robust to spatial and polarization disorders. Most notably, we establish that super-radiant modes remain even after ensemble averaging and act as an "invisibility cloak" with a spectral bandwidth that scales with the number of oscillators and the spatially averaged Purcell factor.

  15. To the theory of hybrid organics/semiconductor nanostructures in microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskiy, O. A.; Agranovich, V. M.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the hybrid structure in microcavity where the energy of Frenkel exciton in organic layer is equal to the energy of Wannier - Mott exciton in semiconductor quantum well (QW). The exciton located in QW of semiconductor layer can interact with molecules of organic layer and under influence of this interaction can change the position jumping and exciting one of organic molecules. The exciton located in molecule of organic layer also can change the position jumping to semiconductor QW. The number of such jumps depends on the intensity of interaction. In the paper we consider the influence of direct Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction and indirect interaction through the optical field of microcavity on the kinetics of excitation. It was shown that the dispersion of hybrid states are modified by Coulomb interaction particularly when the distance between layers is enough small. The lowest branch of dispersion curves with deep minimum at nonzero wave vector may be useful in the studies of the condensation of low energy hybrid excitations.

  16. Polymer Nanodot-Hybridized Alkyl Silicon Oxide Nanostructures for Organic Memory Transistors with Outstanding High-Temperature Operation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulyeon; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Jeongnam; Jeong, Jaehoon; Han, Hyemi; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Organic memory devices (OMDs) are becoming more important as a core component in flexible electronics era because of their huge potentials for ultrathin, lightweight and flexible plastic memory modules. In particular, transistor-type OMDs (TOMDs) have been gradually spotlighted due to their structural advantages possessing both memory and driving functions in single devices. Although a variety of TOMDs have been developed by introducing various materials, less attention has been paid to the stable operation at high temperatures. Here we demonstrate that the polymer nanodot-embedded alkyl silicon oxide (ASiO) hybrid materials, which are prepared by sol-gel and thermal cross-linking reactions between poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and vinyltriethoxysilane, can deliver low-voltage (1~5 V) TOMDs with outstanding operation stability (>4700 cycles) at high temperatures (150 °C). The efficient low-voltage memory function is enabled by the embedded PVP nanodots with particular lattice nanostructures, while the high thermal stability is achieved by the cross-linked ASiO network structures. PMID:27703187

  17. Polymer Nanodot-Hybridized Alkyl Silicon Oxide Nanostructures for Organic Memory Transistors with Outstanding High-Temperature Operation Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulyeon; Seo, Jooyeok; Kim, Jeongnam; Jeong, Jaehoon; Han, Hyemi; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-10-01

    Organic memory devices (OMDs) are becoming more important as a core component in flexible electronics era because of their huge potentials for ultrathin, lightweight and flexible plastic memory modules. In particular, transistor-type OMDs (TOMDs) have been gradually spotlighted due to their structural advantages possessing both memory and driving functions in single devices. Although a variety of TOMDs have been developed by introducing various materials, less attention has been paid to the stable operation at high temperatures. Here we demonstrate that the polymer nanodot-embedded alkyl silicon oxide (ASiO) hybrid materials, which are prepared by sol-gel and thermal cross-linking reactions between poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and vinyltriethoxysilane, can deliver low-voltage (1~5 V) TOMDs with outstanding operation stability (>4700 cycles) at high temperatures (150 °C). The efficient low-voltage memory function is enabled by the embedded PVP nanodots with particular lattice nanostructures, while the high thermal stability is achieved by the cross-linked ASiO network structures.

  18. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Lantratov, V. M.; Maximov, M. V.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm-2 for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm-2 for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm-1 and 37 A cm-2 per layer, respectively.

  19. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, S A; Kalyuzhnyy, N A; Lantratov, V M; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A E

    2015-09-25

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm(-2) for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm(-2) for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm(-1) and 37 A cm(-2) per layer, respectively.

  20. Pt–Ru decorated self-assembled TiO2–carbon hybrid nanostructure for enhanced methanol electrooxidation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Nishanth; P Sridhar; S Pitchumani; A K Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Porous titanium oxide–carbon hybrid nanostructure (TiO2–C) with a specific surface area of 350 m2/g and an average pore-radius of 21.8 Å is synthesized via supramolecular self-assembly with an in situ crystallization process. Subsequently, TiO2–C supported Pt–Ru electro-catalyst (Pt–Ru/TiO2–C) is obtained and investigated as an anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed to evaluate the crystalline nature and the structural properties of TiO2–C. TEM images reveal uniform distribution of Pt–Ru nanoparticles (Pt−Ru = 1.5–3.5 nm) on TiO2–C. Methanol oxidation and accelerated durability studies on Pt–Ru/TiO2–C exhibit enhanced catalytic activity and durability compared to carbon-supported Pt–Ru. DMFC employing Pt–Ru/TiO2–C as an anode catalyst delivers a peak-power density of 91 mW/cm2 at 65 °C as compared to the peak-power density of 60 mW/cm2 obtained for the DMFC with carbon-supported Pt–Ru anode catalyst operating under similar conditions.

  1. Ability of dynamic holography in self-assembled hybrid nanostructured silica films for all-optical switching and multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telbiz, German; Bugaychuk, Svitlana; Leonenko, Eugen; Derzhypolska, Liudmyla; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir; Pryadko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The sol-gel method has been employed in the fabrication of easily processable mesostructured films consisting of a nonionic surfactant and silica as the inorganic component. The ability of the occluded Pluronic P123 mesostructures to solubilize guest molecules made these films ideal host matrices for organic dyes and molecular assemblies, possessing substantial nonlinear susceptibilities. These films were explored for use as the photonic layer in all-optical time-to-space converters and proved successful at increasing the optical response of the intercalated dyes to a point that would make these composite films applicable for use as the photonic layer. Recording of a dynamical grating in a single-pulse regime has been obtained. Since the dynamical grating exhibits the fast relaxation time (up to 10 ns), the nonlinear mechanism represents an electronic excitation of the photosensitive molecules. As far as the dye molecules are distributed in nanoporous silica, a model of `gas of molecular dye' may be rightly used in order to consider nonlinear optical properties in the nanostructured hybrid films. We suppose that further improvement of the nonlinear optical nanomaterials may follow on the way to embed additional inclusions, which will not promote the heat accumulation in the host matrix and will lead to effective dissipation of the heat energy.

  2. Preparation of three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure-encapsulated sulfur cathode for high-rate lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yang, Juan; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zou, Youlan; Tang, Jingjing; Wang, Songcan; Chen, Feng

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid nanostructure incorporating the merits of the MWCNTs webs (MWCNTs-W) and the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is designed to improve the high-rate cycling performance of the lithium-sulfur batteries. Owing to the excellent Li+ ion and electronic transport properties of the MWCNTs-W and the RGO, this unique structure can provide a three-dimensional conductive network and promote rapid charge-transfer reaction at the cathode. Furthermore, because of the rough surface and porous structure of the MWCNTs after activation with KOH, and the special adsorption ability of the RGO, the soluble polysulfide intermediates can be effectively trapped in the cathode. Therefore, when evaluating the electrochemical properties of the RGO@MWCNTs-W/S composite as the cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries, it exhibits an excellent cyclical stability and high rate performance. In particular, even at an ultrahigh rate (5 C), a discharge capacity as high as 620 mAh g-1 is still retained for the RGO@MWCNTs-W/S composite with 68.93 wt% sulfur after 200 cycles, and the average coulombic efficiency is 96%.

  3. Apoferritin fibers: a new template for 1D fluorescent hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Rocío; Castello, Fabio; Bondia, Patricia; Casado, Santiago; Flors, Cristina; Cuesta, Rafael; Domínguez-Vera, José M.; Orte, Angel; Gálvez, Natividad

    2016-05-01

    Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a heating process. Depending on the experimental conditions, fibers with different morphologies and sizes are obtained. The wire-like protein structure is rich in functional groups and allows chemical functionalization with diverse quantum dots (QD), as well as with different Alexa Fluor (AF) dyes, leading to hybrid fluorescent fibers with variable emission wavelengths, from green to near infrared, depending on the QD and AFs coupled. For fibers containing the pair AF488 and AF647, efficient fluorescence energy transfer from the covalently coupled donor (AF488) to acceptor tags (AF647) takes place. Apoferritin fibers are proposed here as a new promising template for obtaining hybrid functional materials.Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a

  4. Polythiophene-gold nanoparticle hybrid systems: Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of nanostructured films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yu, Liew Ting; Srinivasan, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing nanoscale polythiophene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrid systems assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Regio-regular poly(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl (PMEEMT) and poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (PDDT) were employed as the polymeric constituents. The presence of PDDT improved the amphiphilicity of PMEEMT by addressing the phase separation that occurred due to convective hydrodynamic instability on the substrate. 4 layer stacks of 90% and 99% PMEEMT films exhibited uniform film structure with a significant reduction in phase separation. A detailed mechanism for minimization of the surface effect has been proposed based on the interaction of polythiophenes with the substrate. For the first time, an ex situ approach has been adopted to incorporate AuNPs into LB films without affecting the film morphology and uniformity. The incorporation of AuNPs into the polythiophene matrix, aided by the affinity of sulphur for gold, was strongly dependent on the molecular arrangement of the matrix, which in turn depended on the composition of the matrix. The hybrid polythiophene films exhibited enhanced conductivity and can be applied in sensors, photovoltaics and memory devices.In this work, we demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing nanoscale polythiophene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrid systems assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Regio-regular poly(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl (PMEEMT) and poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (PDDT) were employed as the polymeric constituents. The presence of PDDT improved the amphiphilicity of PMEEMT by addressing the phase separation that occurred due to convective hydrodynamic instability on the substrate. 4 layer stacks of 90% and 99% PMEEMT films exhibited uniform film structure with a significant reduction in phase separation. A detailed mechanism for minimization of the surface effect has been proposed based on the interaction

  5. Hybrid methyl green/cobalt-polyoxotungstate nanostructured films: Self-assembly, electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novais, Hugo C.; Fernandes, Diana M., E-mail: diana.fernandes@fc.up.pt; Freire, Cristina, E-mail: acfreire@fc.up.pt

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Hybrid {MG/Co(PW9)2}{sub n} multilayer films were successfully prepared and exhibit W-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate anions. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer hybrid films {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} were sucessfully prepared. • UV–vis was used to monitor film build-up and showed regular stepwise film growth. • XPS confirmed sucessfull {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} film fabrication. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards nitrite and iodate reduction. - Abstract: Hybrid multilayer films were prepared by alternately depositing cationic dye methyl green (MG) and anionic sandwich-type polyoxometalate K{sub 10}[Co{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}] (Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2}) via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method. Film build-up was monitored by UV–vis spectroscopy which showed a regular stepwise growth. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data confirmed the successful fabrication of the hybrid films with MG-Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2} composition and scanning electron microscopy images revealed a completely covered surface with a non-uniform distribution of the molecular species. Electrochemical characterization of films by cyclic voltammetry revealed two tungsten-based reduction processes in the potential range between −0.9 and −0.5 V due to W{sup VI} → W{sup V} in Co(PW{sub 9}){sub 2}. Studies with the redox probes, [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} and [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+/2+}, revealed that not only the electrostatic attractions or repulsions have effects on the kinetics of the probe reactions, but also the film thickness. Additionally, the {MG/Co(PW_9)_2}{sub n} multilayer films exhibit efficient W-based electrocatalytic activity towards reduction of nitrite and iodate.

  6. Femtosecond Carrier Dynamics in Gold-MoS2 Hybrid Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Robatjazi, Hossein; Thomann, Isabell

    Small plasmonic nanoparticles are known to efficiently generate energetic hot carriers that can be harnessed by injecting them across a Schottky barrier. To understand the role of plasmon-induced hot carrier generation across Schottky junctions in photocatalytic processes, we synthesized quasi-2D MoS2 monolayer flakes decorated with Au nanoparticles in ethanol. Our goal is to study ultrafast plasmon induced electron injection from Au nanospheres into MoS2 monolayer flakes. We will present femtosecond transient absorption measurements on MoS2/Au hybrid nanoparticles in ethanol solvent, and compare them with neat MoS2 flakes in ethanol.

  7. ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. J.; Teherani, F. H.; Sandana, V. E.; Razeghi, M.

    2010-02-01

    ZnO-based thin films and nanostructures grown by PLD for various emerging optoelectronic applications. AZO thin films are currently displacing ITO for many TCO applications due to recent improvements in attainable AZO conductivity combined with processing, cost and toxicity advantages. Advances in the channel mobilities and Id on/off ratios in ZnO-based TTFTs have opened up the potential for use as a replacement for a-Si in AM-OLED and AM-LCD screens. Angular-dependent specular reflection measurements of self-forming, moth-eye-like, nanostructure arrays grown by PLD were seen to have growth of InGaN-based solar cells on cheap substrates. The green gap in InGaN-based LEDs was combated by substituting low Ts PLD n-ZnO for MOCVD n-GaN in inverted hybrid heterojunctions. This approach maintained the integrity of the InGaN MQWs and gave LEDs with green emission at just over 510 nm. Hybrid n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunctions were also seen to have the potential for UV (375 nm) EL, characteristic of ZnO NBE emission. This suggests that there was significant hole injection into the ZnO and that such LEDs could profit from the relatively high exciton binding energy of ZnO.

  8. In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sebastian; Garnett, Oliver; Tokmoldin, Nurlan; Tsoi, Wing C; Haque, Saif A; Kim, Ji-Seon

    2014-01-01

    The performance of hybrid (organic-inorganic) photovoltaic devices is critically dependent on the thin film morphology. This work studies the film formation process using the in situ thermal decomposition of a soluble precursor to form a well-distributed network of CdS nanoparticles within a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer matrix. Resonant Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the formation of the inorganic nanoparticles and the corresponding changes in the molecular order of the polymer. We find that the CdS precursor decomposes rapidly upon heating to 160 °C, but that this has a disruptive effect on the P3HT. The extent of this disruption can be controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature, and nanowire aggregates of P3HT are found to have increased susceptibility. Atomic force microscopy reveals that at high temperatures (>200 °C), cracks form in the film, resulting in a 'plateau'-like microstructure. In order to retain the preferable 'granular' microstructure and to control the molecular disruption, low decomposition temperatures are needed. This work identifies a particular problem for optimising the hybrid thin film morphology and shows how it can be partially overcome.

  9. Polythiophene-gold nanoparticle hybrid systems: Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of nanostructured films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Yu, Liew Ting; Srinivasan, M P

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a simple method of synthesizing nanoscale polythiophene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybrid systems assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Regio-regular poly(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxymethyl)thiophene-2,5-diyl (PMEEMT) and poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (PDDT) were employed as the polymeric constituents. The presence of PDDT improved the amphiphilicity of PMEEMT by addressing the phase separation that occurred due to convective hydrodynamic instability on the substrate. 4 layer stacks of 90% and 99% PMEEMT films exhibited uniform film structure with a significant reduction in phase separation. A detailed mechanism for minimization of the surface effect has been proposed based on the interaction of polythiophenes with the substrate. For the first time, an ex situ approach has been adopted to incorporate AuNPs into LB films without affecting the film morphology and uniformity. The incorporation of AuNPs into the polythiophene matrix, aided by the affinity of sulphur for gold, was strongly dependent on the molecular arrangement of the matrix, which in turn depended on the composition of the matrix. The hybrid polythiophene films exhibited enhanced conductivity and can be applied in sensors, photovoltaics and memory devices.

  10. Nanostructured SnO2 encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Priya; Srivastava, Manish; Verma, Ranjana; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, D; Singh, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol-gel derived tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic-inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic-inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO2 nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO2 and SnO2-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV-Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO2 and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2-22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm(-2). Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO2-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO2-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters.

  11. Nanostructured Indium Oxide Coated Silicon Nanowire Arrays: A Hybrid Photothermal/Photochemical Approach to Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Laura B; O'Brien, Paul G; Jelle, Abdinoor; Sandhel, Amit; Perovic, Douglas D; Mims, Charles A; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2016-09-27

    The field of solar fuels seeks to harness abundant solar energy by driving useful molecular transformations. Of particular interest is the photodriven conversion of greenhouse gas CO2 into carbon-based fuels and chemical feedstocks, with the ultimate goal of providing a sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Nonstoichiometric, hydroxylated indium oxide nanoparticles, denoted In2O3-x(OH)y, have been shown to function as active photocatalysts for CO2 reduction to CO via the reverse water gas shift reaction under simulated solar irradiation. However, the relatively wide band gap (2.9 eV) of indium oxide restricts the portion of the solar irradiance that can be utilized to ∼9%, and the elevated reaction temperatures required (150-190 °C) reduce the overall energy efficiency of the process. Herein we report a hybrid catalyst consisting of a vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) support evenly coated by In2O3-x(OH)y nanoparticles that utilizes the vast majority of the solar irradiance to simultaneously produce both the photogenerated charge carriers and heat required to reduce CO2 to CO at a rate of 22.0 μmol·gcat(-1)·h(-1). Further, improved light harvesting efficiency of the In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW films due to minimized reflection losses and enhanced light trapping within the SiNW support results in a ∼6-fold increase in photocatalytic conversion rates over identical In2O3-x(OH)y films prepared on roughened glass substrates. The ability of this In2O3-x(OH)y/SiNW hybrid catalyst to perform the dual function of utilizing both light and heat energy provided by the broad-band solar irradiance to drive CO2 reduction reactions represents a general advance that is applicable to a wide range of catalysts in the field of solar fuels.

  12. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  13. Novel nanostructured enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid carriers overcome tumor multidrug resistance of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Wu, Lei; Kou, Longfa; Xu, Meng; Sun, Jin; Wang, Yongjun; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peng; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-20

    Novel enoxaparin sodium-PLGA hybrid nanocarries (EPNs) were successfully designed for sustained delivery of hydrophilic cationic doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). By incorporation of the negative polymer of enoxaparin sodium (ES), DOX was highly encapsulated into EPNs with an encapsulation efficiency of 92.49%, and ES effectively inhibited the proliferation of HUVEC cell lines. The in vivo pharmacokinetics study after intravenous injection indicated that DOX-loaded EPNs (DOX-EPNs) exhibited a higher area under the curve (AUC) and a longer half-life (t1/2) in comparison with DOX solution (DOX-Sol). The biodistribution study demonstrated that DOX-EPNs increased the DOX level in plasma and decreased the accumulation of DOX in liver and spleen. Compared with DOX-Sol, DOX-EPNs increased the cytotoxicity in P-gp over-expressing MCF-7/Adr cells, attributed to the higher intracellular efficiency of DOX produced by the EPNs. DOX-EPNs entered into resistant tumor cells by multiple endocytosis pathways, which resulted in overcoming the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/Adr cells by escaping the efflux induced by P-gp transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpak, AM; Grossman, JC

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4773306

  15. Micro-mechanics of nanostructured carbon/shape memory polymer hybrid thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Xu, Ben; Pei, Yutao; Lu, Haibao; Fu, Yong Qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of hybrid shape memory polymer polystrene (PS) based nanocomposites with skeletal structures of CNFs/MWCNTs formed inside. Experimental results showed an increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) with CNF/MWCNT concentrations instead of a decrease of Tg in nanocomposites filled by spherical particles, and an increase in mechanical properties on both macro- and μm-scales. Compared with CNFs, MWCNTs showed a better mechanical enhancement for PS nanocomposites due to their uniform distribution in the nanocomposites. In nanoindentation tests using the Berkovich tips, indentation size effects and pile-up effects appeared obviously for the nanocomposites, but not for pure PS. Experimental results revealed the enhancement mechanisms of CNFs/MWCNTs related to the secondary structures formed by nanofillers, including two aspects, i.e., filler-polymer interfacial connections and geometrical factors of nanofillers. The filler-polymer interfacial connections were strongly dependent on temperature, thus leading to the opposite changing trend of loss tangent with nanofiller concentrations, respectively, at low and high temperature. The geometrical factors of nanofillers were related to testing scales, further leading to the appearance of pile-up effects for nanocomposites in the nanoindentation tests, in which the size of indents was close to the size of the nanofiller skeleton.

  16. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  17. Lanthanide doped ultrafine hybrid nanostructures: multicolour luminescence, upconversion based energy transfer and luminescent solar collector applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyam; Shahi, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, Shyam Bahadur

    2017-01-05

    We herein demonstrate novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) composed of inorganic NPs, NaY0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4, and an organic β-diketonate complex, Eu(TTA)3Phen, for energy harvesting applications. Both the systems maintain their core integrity and remain entangled through weak interacting forces. HNPs incorporate the characteristic optical behaviour of both the systems i.e. they give an intense red emission under UV excitation, due to Eu(3+) in organic complexes, and efficient green upconversion emission of Er(3+) in inorganic NPs for NIR (980 nm) excitation. However, (i) an energy transfer from Er(3+) (inorganic NPs) to Eu(3+) (organic complex) under NIR excitation, and (ii) an increase in the decay time of (5)D0 → (7)F2 transition of Eu(3+) for HNPs as compared to the Eu(TTA)3Phen complex, under different excitation wavelengths, are added optical characteristics which point to an important role of the interface between both the systems. Herein, the ultra-small size (6-9 nm) and spherical shape of the inorganic NPs offer a large surface area, which improves the weak interaction force between both the systems. Furthermore, the HNPs dispersed in the PMMA polymer have been successfully utilized for luminescent solar collector (LSC) applications.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, Tatyana, E-mail: Zima@solid.nsc.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Baklanova, Natalya [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Ivan [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  19. Approaches to nanostructure control and functionalizations of polymer@silica hybrid nanograss generated by biomimetic silica mineralization on a self-assembled polyamine layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Yuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the rational control of the nanostructure and surface morphology of a polyamine@silica nanoribbon-based hybrid nanograss film, which was generated by performing a biomimetic silica mineralization reaction on a nanostructured linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI layer preorganized on the inner wall of a glass tube. We found that the film thickness, size and density of the nanoribbons and the aggregation/orientation of the nanoribbons in the film were facile to tune by simple adjustment of the biomimetic silicification conditions and LPEI self-assembly on the substrate. Our LPEI-mediated nanograss process allows the facile and programmable generation of a wide range of nanostructures and surface morphologies without the need for complex molecular design or tedious techniques. This ribbon-based nanograss has characteristics of a LPEI@silica hybrid structure, suggesting that LPEI, as a polymeric secondary amine, is available for subsequent chemical reaction. This feature was exploited to functionalize the nanograss film with three representative species, namely porphyrin, Au nanoparticles and titania. Of particular note, the novel silica@titania composite nanograss surface demonstrated the ability to convert its wetting behavior between the extreme states (superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic by surface hydrophobic treatment and UV irradiation. The anatase titania component in the nanograss film acts as a highly efficient photocatalyst for the decomposition of the low-surface-energy organic components attached to the nanosurface. The ease with which the nanostructure can be controlled and facilely functionalized makes our nanograss potentially important for device-based application in microfluidic, microreactor and biomedical fields.

  20. Electrochemical Self-Assembly of Nanostructured CuSCN/Rhodamine B Hybrid Thin Film and Its Dye-Sensitized Photocathodic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid thin films of CuSCN and rhodamine B (RB) are electrochemically self-assembled (ESA) by cathodic electrolysis in an ethanol/water mixture containing Cu2+, SCN–, and RB. By selecting the solvent, Cu2+/SCN– ratio, and the concentration of RB, we demonstrate several control parameters in the film formation. High loading of RB into the film has been achieved to reach a CuSCN:RB volume ratio of approximately 2:1. The RB solid could almost completely be extracted from the hybrid film by soaking the film in dimethylacetamide (DMA), leading to a large increase of the surface area. The crystallographic orientation of the nanostructure with respect to the substrate can be controlled. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of RB has been observed for the CuSCN/RB hybrid film, implying hole injection from RB excited state to CuSCN. Photoelectrochemical study on the porous crystalline CuSCN obtained after the DMA treatment and sensitized with RB revealed sensitized photocathodic action under visible light illumination, indicating the potential usefulness of the porous CuSCN electrodes for construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:25101148

  1. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti

    2016-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO2 as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO2 nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO3)2.4H2O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO2 NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT's concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10-3, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO2 NR-P3HT's concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  2. Phase Tuning of Nanostructured Gallium Oxide via Hybridization with Reduced Graphene Oxide for Superior Anode Performance in Li-Ion Battery: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharad B; Kim, In Young; Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Oh, Seung Mi; Eom, Taedaehyeong; Kim, Hyungjun; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-08-26

    The crystal phase of nanostructured metal oxide can be effectively controlled by the hybridization of gallium oxide with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at variable concentrations. The change of the ratio of Ga2O3/rGO is quite effective in tailoring the crystal structure and morphology of nanostructured gallium oxide hybridized with rGO. This is the first example of the phase control of metal oxide through a change of the content of rGO hybridized. The calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) clearly demonstrate that the different surface formation energy and Ga local symmetry of Ga2O3 phases are responsible for the phase transition induced by the change of rGO content. The resulting Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites show promising electrode performance for lithium ion batteries. The intermediate Li-Ga alloy phases formed during the electrochemical cycling are identified with the DFT calculations. Among the present Ga2O3-rGO nanocomposites, the material with mixed α-Ga2O3/β-Ga2O3/γ-Ga2O3 phase can deliver the largest discharge capacity with the best cyclability and rate characteristics, highlighting the importance of the control of Ga2O3/rGO ratio in optimizing the electrode activity of the composite materials. The present study underscores the usefulness of the phase-control of nanostructured metal oxides achieved by the change of rGO content in exploring novel functional nanocomposite materials.

  3. Organic Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement By Employing Au Nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    Specialists Conference Conference Date: June 14, 2015 Organic - Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement by Employing Au Nanocluster Manisha...tunable conductivity, organic polymer, heterojunction, nanocluster I. INTRODUCTION Recently, organic / inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells have...conventional Si p−n junction. These heterojunction devices are intended to exploit the advantageous properties of both organic and inorganic materials

  4. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingzhen; Johnston, Michael B; Snaith, Henry J

    2013-09-19

    Many different photovoltaic technologies are being developed for large-scale solar energy conversion. The wafer-based first-generation photovoltaic devices have been followed by thin-film solid semiconductor absorber layers sandwiched between two charge-selective contacts and nanostructured (or mesostructured) solar cells that rely on a distributed heterojunction to generate charge and to transport positive and negative charges in spatially separated phases. Although many materials have been used in nanostructured devices, the goal of attaining high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a way has yet to be achieved. Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanostructured devices. Here we show that nanostructuring is not necessary to achieve high efficiencies with this material: a simple planar heterojunction solar cell incorporating vapour-deposited perovskite as the absorbing layer can have solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 15 per cent (as measured under simulated full sunlight). This demonstrates that perovskite absorbers can function at the highest efficiencies in simplified device architectures, without the need for complex nanostructures.

  5. Functional Imaging of Hybrid Nanostructures. Visualization of Mechanisms for Solar Energy Utilization. Northwestern FG-02-07ER46401 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The report describes advances in understanding the interaction of light with hybrid nanostructured materials, and the influence of physical and electronic structure on the flow of excess energetic charge carriers to support the design and optimization of new materials for photoelectrical and photoelectrochemical energy conversion. Raman scattering, multi-wavelength optical excitation, and numerical modeling are combined with electrical transport measurements on model hybrid materials structures and devices to resolve, in energy and space, the absorption of light, the generation of excess energetic charge carriers, and the efficiency of their separation to generate electrical and chemical energy. Appropriate combinations of spatially-resolved, time-resolved, and spectrally-resolved measurements are used to isolate and quantify various steps in the energy conversion process, including geometrically and plasmonically enhanced absorption, the generation of carriers with excess energy, and the efficiency with which the carriers can move to and perform useful chemistry at interfaces.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured hybrids based on iron oxide and branched PEI polymers. Influence of high pressure on structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, L.M., E-mail: mpopescu@imnr.ro [National R& D Institute for Non-ferrous and Rare Metals, 102 Biruintei Blvd, Pantelimon, Judetul Ilfov (Romania); Piticescu, R.M., E-mail: roxana@imnr.ro [National R& D Institute for Non-ferrous and Rare Metals, 102 Biruintei Blvd, Pantelimon, Judetul Ilfov (Romania); Petriceanu, M., E-mail: mirelap@imnr.ro [National R& D Institute for Non-ferrous and Rare Metals, 102 Biruintei Blvd, Pantelimon, Judetul Ilfov (Romania); Ottaviani, M.F., E-mail: maria.ottaviani@uniurb.it [University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Department of Earth, Life and Environmental Sciences, Urbino (Italy); Cangiotti, M., E-mail: michela.cangiotti@uniurb.it [University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Department of Earth, Life and Environmental Sciences, Urbino (Italy); Vasile, E., E-mail: eugeniuvasile@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); National R& D Institute for Non-ferrous and Rare Metals, 102 Biruintei Blvd, Pantelimon, Judetul Ilfov (Romania); Dîrtu, M.M., E-mail: marinela.dirtu@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Mater and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Wolff, M., E-mail: mariusz.wolff@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Mater and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Garcia, Y., E-mail: yann.garcia@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Mater and Nanosciences, Molecules, Solids and Reactivity (IMCN/MOST), Université Catholique de Louvain, Place L. Pasteur 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); and others

    2015-07-01

    Homogeneous hybrids in which iron oxide nanoparticles are entrapped within polymer structure are of interest for their potential applications in biomedical field, such as diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic purposes. For this reason, hybrid nanomaterials based on branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) and iron oxide with different ratios were synthesized in a single step by hydrothermal procedure at high pressure and low temperature. Iron oxide is formed in the presence of branched PEI and the interaction between them takes place in the reaction medium. The influence of synthesis parameters on the hybrid formation, as well as chemical and structural properties was studied by means of FTIR, DSC-TG, HRTEM, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic measurements (SQUID) and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer analyses. It has been shown that synthesis parameters influence thermal stability and morphology of the hybrids. FeO(OH) crystallites of 2–5 nm are formed. Iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles strongly entrapped in PEI structure are obtained. The low and distributed values of the specific spontaneous magnetisation in samples prepared under the same pressure conditions support the presence of very fine FeO(OH) nanoparticles, which formation and magnetic properties are depending on the mass ratio between iron oxide and PEI. - Highlights: • Polyethyleneimine (PEI) – iron oxide hybrids were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Synthesis parameters influence thermal stability and morphology of the hybrids. • Small crystallites of FeO(OH) with size between 2 and 5 nm are formed. • Formation of stable hybrid nanostructures in the pressure range 1000–3000 atm. • FeO(OH) nanoparticles are entrapped in PEI structure at low inorganic–organic ratio.

  7. Design of BAs-AlN monolayered honeycomb heterojunction structures: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino, E-mail: flo@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: Single-layer honeycomb heterojunction structures based on alternated and coupled ribbons of BAs and AlN are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different ribbon widths joined along the zigzag and armchair edges. Optimized heterojunction geometries results revealed that BAs narrow ribbons exhibit a corrugation effect at the interface due to a lattice mismatch. From formation energy calculations, it was found that zigzag heterojunctions are more stable than the armchair heterojunctions. - Highlights: • We design new 2D-semiconductor heterojunction nanostructures. • Monolayers formed by alternated strips (heterojunctions) of aluminum-nitride and boron-arsenide, with graphene-like structure are explored by DFT method. • Due to the lattice mismatch, an effect of corrugation was observed in heterojunctions AlN and BAs. • Electronic band gaps are strongly dependent on width and chirality (zigzag or armchair) of the strips. • Formation energy calculations revealed that zigzag heterojunctions are more stable than the armchair heterojunctions. - Abstract: BAs and AlN are semiconductor materials with an indirect and direct gap respectively in the bulk phase. Recently, electronic calculations have demonstrated that a single-layer or few layers of BAs and AlN exhibit a graphite-like structure with interesting electronic properties. In this work, infinite sheets single-layer heterojunction structures based on alternated strips with honeycomb BAs and AlN layers are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different strip widths joined along zigzag and armchair edges. Results in optimized heterojunction geometries revealed that BAs narrow strips exhibit a corrugation

  8. Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Scott H.; Su, Yali; Gao, Yufei; Heald, Steve M.

    2004-02-03

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  9. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  11. Realization of 13.6% Efficiency on 20 μm Thick Si/Organic Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells via Advanced Nanotexturing and Surface Recombination Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Liao, Mingdun; Yang, Xi; Ying, Zhiqin; Zhou, Suqiong; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-23

    Hybrid silicon/polymer solar cells promise to be an economically feasible alternative energy solution for various applications if ultrathin flexible crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates are used. However, utilization of ultrathin c-Si encounters problems in light harvesting and electronic losses at surfaces, which severely degrade the performance of solar cells. Here, we developed a metal-assisted chemical etching method to deliver front-side surface texturing of hierarchically bowl-like nanopores on 20 μm c-Si, enabling an omnidirectional light harvesting over the entire solar spectrum as well as an enlarged contact area with the polymer. In addition, a back surface field was introduced on the back side of the thin c-Si to minimize the series resistance losses as well as to suppress the surface recombination by the built high-low junction. Through these improvements, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.6% was achieved under an air mass 1.5 G irradiation for silicon/organic hybrid solar cells with the c-Si thickness of only about 20 μm. This PCE is as high as the record currently reported in hybrid solar cells constructed from bulk c-Si, suggesting a design rule for efficient silicon/organic solar cells with thinner absorbers.

  12. Flavonol-carbon nanostructure hybrid systems: a DFT study on the interaction mechanism and UV/Vis features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2016-02-14

    Flavonols are a class of natural compounds with potential biological and pharmacological applications. They are also natural pigments responsible for the diversity of colors in plants. Flavonols offer the possibility of tuning their features through chemical functionalization as well as the presence of an aromatic backbone, which could lead to non-covalent interactions with different nanostructures or aromatic molecules. In this work, a protocol based on ONIOM (QM/QM) calculations to investigate the structural features (binding energies, intermolecular interactions) of flavonols interacting with the surface of several carbon nanostructures (such as graphene, fullerene C60 and carbon nanotubes) is developed. The confinement of flavonols inside carbon nanotubes has also been studied. Three flavonols, galangin, quercetin and myricetin, as well as pristine flavone were selected. Special attention has also been paid to the changes in UV/Vis features of flavonols due to the interaction with carbon nanostructures. Our results point out that π-stacking interactions are the driving force for the adsorption onto carbon nanostructures as well as for the confinement inside carbon nanotubes. Likewise, UV/Vis features of flavonols could be fine-tuned through the interaction with suitable carbon nanostructures.

  13. Coatings of nanostructured pristine graphene-IrOx hybrids for neural electrodes: Layered stacking and the role of non-oxygenated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, E. [Institut Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Lichtenstein, M.P.; Suñol, C. [Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB-CSIC), Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), c/Rosselló 161, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Casañ-Pastor, N., E-mail: nieves@icmab.es [Institut Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    The need to enhance charge capacity in neural stimulation-electrodes is promoting the formation of new materials and coatings. Among all the possible types of graphene, pristine graphene prepared by graphite electrochemical exfoliation, is used in this work to form a new nanostructured IrOx–graphene hybrid (IrOx–eG). Graphene is stabilized in suspension by IrOx nanoparticles without surfactants. Anodic electrodeposition results in coatings with much smaller roughness than IrOx–graphene oxide. Exfoliated pristine graphene (eG), does not electrodeposit in absence of iridium, but IrOx-nanoparticle adhesion on graphene flakes drives the process. IrOx–eG has a significantly different electronic state than graphene oxide, and different coordination for carbon. Electron diffraction shows the reflection features expected for graphene. IrOx 1–2 nm cluster/nanoparticles are oxohydroxo-species and adhere to 10 nm graphene platelets. eG induces charge storage capacity values five times larger than in pure IrOx, and if calculated per carbon atom, this enhancement is one order magnitude larger than the induced by graphene oxide. IrOx–eG coatings show optimal in vitro neural cell viability and function as cell culture substrates. The fully straightforward electrochemical exfoliation and electrodeposition constitutes a step towards the application of graphene in biomedical systems, expanding the knowledge of pristine graphene vs. graphene oxide, in bioelectrodes. - Highlights: • Pristine Graphene is incorporated in coatings as nanostructured IrOx–eG hybrid. • IrOx-nanoparticles drive the electrodeposition of graphene. • Hybrid CSC is one order of magnitude the charge capacity of IrOx. • Per carbon atom, the CSC increase is 35 times larger than for graphene oxide. • Neurons are fully functional on the coating.

  14. Laterally Ordered Bulk Heterojunction of Conjugated Polymers : Nanoskiving a Jelly Roll

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipomi, Darren J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Reus, William F.; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of a nanostructured heterojunction of two conjugated polymers by a three-step process: i) spin-coating a multilayered film of the two polymers, ii) rolling the film into a cylinder (a ‘‘jelly roll’’) and iii) sectioning the film perpendicular to the axis of the r

  15. Carbon nanotube heterojunctions: unusual deformations and mechanical vibration properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, F.; Narojczyk, J.; Wojciechowski, K. W.; Inman, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical deformation and dynamics properties of single wall carbon nanotube heterojunctions (HJ) oscillators are investigated using an hybrid finite element atomistic-continuum approach. The nanotube HJs provide a peculiar deformation pattern, with combined bending and axial stretching of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and a broad agreement of their axial stiffness with spring series continuum mechanics and existing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show also peculiar distributions of the natural frequencies and modes of the hetero-junctions compared to classical single-wall nanotube configurations, and the mass-sensor capability of (5,5)-(10,10) SWCNT HJ structures, with frequency shifts highly depending on the heterojunction section subjected to the mass loading.

  16. Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiban, L; Hartmann, L; Fiore, A; Djurado, D; Chandezon, F; Reiss, P; Legrand, J-F; Doyle, S; Brinkmann, M; Ersen, O

    2012-11-21

    Highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid thin films made of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and colloidal CdSe nanocrystals are prepared by a zone melting method using epitaxial growth on 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene oriented crystals. The structure of the films has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation, electron diffraction and 3D electron tomography to afford a multi-scale structural and morphological description of the highly structured hybrid films. A quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volumes based on electron tomography is used to establish a 3D map of the distribution of the CdSe nanocrystals in the bulk of the films. In particular, the influence of the P3HT-CdSe ratio on the 3D structure of the hybrid layers has been analyzed. In all cases, a bi-layer structure was observed. It is made of a first layer of pure oriented semi-crystalline P3HT grown epitaxially on the TCB substrate and a second P3HT layer containing CdSe nanocrystals uniformly distributed in the amorphous interlamellar zones of the polymer. The thickness of the P3HT layer containing CdSe nanoparticles increases gradually with increasing content of NCs in the films. A growth model is proposed to explain this original transversal organization of CdSe NCs in the oriented matrix of P3HT.

  17. Plasmonic resonances in hybrid systems of aluminum nanostructured arrays and few layer graphene within the UV-IR spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Campuzano, Ricardo; Saniger, J M; Mendoza, Doroteo

    2017-09-15

    The size-controllable and ordered Al nanocavities and nanodomes arrays were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of aluminum using phosphoric acid, citric acid and mixture both acids. Few layer graphene (FLG) was transferred directly on top of Al nanostructures and their morphology were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The interaction between FLG and the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures arrays were investigated based on specular reflectivity in the UV-Vis-IR range and Raman Spectroscopy. We found that their optical reflectivity was dramatically reduced as compared with unstructured Al. At the same time pronounced reflectivity dips were detectable in the 200 nm-896 nm wavelength range, which were ascribed to plasmonic resonances. The plasmonic properties of these nanostructures do not exhibit evident changes by the presence of FLG in the UV-Vis range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By contrast, the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) of FLG was observed in nanocavities and nanodomes structures that result in an intensity increase of the characteristic G and 2D bands of FLG induced by the plasmonic properties of Al nanostructures. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Real-time observation of ultrafast Rabi oscillations between excitons and plasmons in metal/molecular aggregate hybrid nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerullo G.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate ultrafast coherent manipulation of the normal mode splitting in metal/molecular-aggregate nanostructures by real-time observation of Rabi oscillations between excitons and surface-plasmon-polaritons. Oscillations in exciton density on a 10-fs timescale control the Rabi splitting.

  19. Improved Work Function of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonic acid) and its Effect on Hybrid Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Ling; Pan, Jianmei; Hu, Yue; Li, Songjun; Zhao, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid silicon/organic solar cells have been recently extensively investigated due to their simple structure and low-cost fabrication process. However, the efficiency of the solar cells is greatly limited by the barrier height as well as the carrier recombination at the silicon/organic interface. In this work, hydrochloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) is employed into the poly(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution, and the work function (WF) of the PEDOT:PSS layer has been successfully improved. Based on the Pt-modified PEDOT:PSS layer, the efficiency of the silicon/PEDOT:PSS cell can be increased to 11.46%, corresponding to ~20% enhancement to the one without platinum (Pt) modification. Theoretical and experimental results show that, when increasing the WF of the PEDO:PSS layer, the barrier height between the silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface can be effectively enhanced. Meanwhile, the carrier recombination at the interface is significantly reduced. These results can contribute to better understanding of the interfacial mechanism of silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface, and further improving the device performance of silicon/organic solar cells.

  20. Improved Work Function of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonic acid) and its Effect on Hybrid Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Ling; Pan, Jianmei; Hu, Yue; Li, Songjun; Zhao, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid silicon/organic solar cells have been recently extensively investigated due to their simple structure and low-cost fabrication process. However, the efficiency of the solar cells is greatly limited by the barrier height as well as the carrier recombination at the silicon/organic interface. In this work, hydrochloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) is employed into the poly(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution, and the work function (WF) of the PEDOT:PSS layer has been successfully improved. Based on the Pt-modified PEDOT:PSS layer, the efficiency of the silicon/PEDOT:PSS cell can be increased to 11.46%, corresponding to 20% enhancement to the one without platinum (Pt) modification. Theoretical and experimental results show that, when increasing the WF of the PEDO:PSS layer, the barrier height between the silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface can be effectively enhanced. Meanwhile, the carrier recombination at the interface is significantly reduced. These results can contribute to better understanding of the interfacial mechanism of silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface, and further improving the device performance of silicon/organic solar cells.

  1. Using flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite and novel organic-inorganic hybrid material to construct an amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfen; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Li, Wenjuan; Fu, Ping; Min, Ligen

    2010-02-01

    A new type of amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated by entrapping horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the organic-inorganic hybrid material composed of zirconia-chitosan sol-gel and Au nanoparticles (ZrO2-CS-AuNPs). The sensitivity of the biosensor was enhanced by a flowerlike polymer-copper nanostructure composite (pPA-FCu) which was prepared from co-electrodeposition of CuSO4 solution and 2,6-pyridinediamine solution. Several techniques, including UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the assembly process and performance of the biosensor. The results showed that this pPA-FCu nanostructure not only had excellent redox electrochemical activity, but also had good catalytic efficiency for hydrogen peroxide. Also the ZrO2-CS-AuNPs had good film forming ability, high stability and good retention of bioactivity of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensors showed a linear range from 7.80 x 10(-7) to 3.7 x 10(-3) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 3.2 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3) under optimized experimental conditions. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant was determined to be 0.32 mM, showing good affinity. In addition, the biosensor which exhibits good analytical performance, acceptable stability and good selectivity, has potential for practical applications.

  2. Polymer crystallization as a tool to pattern hybrid nanostructures: growth of 12 nm ZnO arrays in poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Reza; Huettner, Sven; Vaynzof, Yana; Ducati, Caterina; Divitini, Giorgio; Lohwasser, Ruth H; Musselman, Kevin P; Sepe, Alessandro; Scherer, Maik R J; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Steiner, Ullrich; Friend, Richard H

    2013-09-11

    Well-ordered hybrid materials with a 10 nm length scale are highly desired. We make use of the natural length scale (typically 10-15 nm) of the alternating crystalline and amorphous layers that are generally found in semicrystalline polymers to direct the growth of a semiconducting metal oxide. This approach is exemplified with the growth of ZnO within a carboxylic acid end-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-COOH). The metal-oxide precursor vapors diffuse into the amorphous parts of the semicrystalline polymer so that sheets of ZnO up to 0.5 μm in size can be grown. This P3HT-ZnO nanostructure further functions as a donor-acceptor photovoltaic system, with length scales appropriate for charge photogeneration.

  3. Effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Couplings on Electron Spin Polarization in a Hybrid Magnetic-Electric Barrier Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Peng; Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Tang, Qiang; Zhou, Yong-Long

    2017-04-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on the spin-dependent electron transport in a hybrid magnetic-electric barrier nanostructure with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic strip and a Schottky metal strip on top of a semiconductor heterostructure. The spin-orbit coupling-dependent transmission coefficient, conductance, and spin polarization are calculated by solving the Schrödinger equation exactly with the help of the transfer-matrix method. We find that both the magnitude and sign of the electron spin polarization vary strongly with the spin-orbit coupling strength. Thus, the degree of electron spin polarization can be manipulated by properly adjusting the spin-orbit coupling strength, and such a nanosystem can be employed as a controllable spin filter for spintronics applications.

  4. Three-dimensional configurations of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural blocks (Ⅰ). A quantum mechanical investigation for ladder-like structure of vinylsilsesquioxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xingwen; HU; Lijiang; HUANG; Yudong; SUN; Dezhi; SU

    2004-01-01

    The organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural vinylsilsesquioxanes (VSSO) were prepared from the hydrolytic condensation of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS). The proposed formulas of VSSO were assigned with standard spectroscopic techniques, FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C and 29Si) and MALDI-TOF MS, and a generic formula of the SSO, Tn(OH)x(OR')y (x, y = 0, 1, 2...; n =1, 2...; T = RSiO1.s-(x+y)/2n). Geometric parameters (Si-O and Si-C bond lengths, Si-O-Si and O-Si-O bond angles) and total energies of the multi-structures of VSSO were calculated by a quantum mechanical investigation and molecular symmetries. According to the results of the calculation, most molecules had stabler ladder structures than the cage isomers, therefore, the most probably reasonable and optimum structure of the VSSO system was the ladder type.

  5. Three-dimensional configurations of organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural blocks (Ⅰ).A quantum mechanical investigation for ladder-like structure of vinylsilsesquioxane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingwen; HU Lijiang; HUANG Yudong; SUN Dezhi; SUN Yi

    2004-01-01

    The organic/inorganic hybrid nanostructural vinylsilsesquioxanes (VSSO) were prepared from the hydrolytic condensation of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VMS). The proposed formulas of VSSO were assigned with standard spectroscopic techniques, FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C and 29Si) and MALDI-TOF MS, and a generic formula of the SSO, Tn(OH)x(OR')y (x, y = 0, 1, 2...; n =1, 2...; T = RSiO1.s-(x+y)/2n). Geometric parameters (Si-O and Si-C bond lengths, Si-O-Si and O-Si-O bond angles) and total energies of the multi-structures of VSSO were calculated by a quantum mechanical investigation and molecular symmetries. According to the results of the calculation, most molecules had stabler ladder structures than the cage isomers, therefore, the most probably reasonable and optimum structure of the VSSO system was the ladder type.

  6. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg(-1) and 47.5 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1), respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  7. ZnO based heterojunctions and their application in environmental photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuquan; Li, Cuiyan; Yuan, Shuai; Ma, Mingguo; Qiang, Yinghuai; Zhu, Jiefang

    2016-10-01

    As an alternative to TiO2 photocatalysts, ZnO exhibits a large potential for photocatalytic (PC) applications in environmental treatments, such as degradation of wastewater, sterilization of drinking water, and air cleaning. However, the efficiency achieved with ZnO to date is far from that expected for commercialization, due to rapid charge recombination, photo-corrosion as well as poor utilization of solar energy. Fortunately, in recent years, a great number of breakthroughs have been achieved in PC performance (including activity and stability) of micro-/nano- structured ZnO by forming heterojunctions (HJs) with metal nanoparticles (NPs), carbon nanostructures and other semiconductors. In most cases, the improvement of PC performance was ascribed to the better charge separation at the interfaces between ZnO and the other components. Sometimes, the formation of hybrids is also in favor of visible light harvesting. This review summarizes recent advances in the fields of environmental photocatalysis by ZnO based HJs, and especially emphasizes their abilities in degradation of organic pollutants or harmful substances in water. We aim to reveal the mechanism underlying the enhanced PC performance by constructing HJs, and extend the potential of ZnO HJ photocatalysts for future trends, and practical, large-scale applications in environment-related fields.

  8. Preparation of LiMn2O4 Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure by Combustion Synthesis and Their Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rangappa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid cathode material has been synthesized by spray drying combustion process. The spinel structure cubic phase LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material was prepared by spray drying process at 120 ℃ and subsequent heat treatment at 700 ℃ for 1 hour. The result indicates that the spinel shaped LiMn2O4 particles wrapped with graphene sheets were formed with particle size in the range of 60-70 nm. The charge-discharge measurement indicates that the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid material shows an improved discharge capacity of 139 mAh/g at 0.1C rate. The pristine LiMn2O4 nano crystals present only about 132 mAh/g discharge capacity. The LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples show good cyclic performance with only 13% of capacity fading in 30 cycles when compared to the pristine LiMn2O4 that shows 22% of capacity fading in 30 cycles. The capacity retention of the LiMn2O4 graphene hybrid samples is about 10% higher than the pristine cycle after 30 cycles.

  9. Accelerated Thermal-Aging-Induced Degradation of Organometal Triiodide Perovskite on ZnO Nanostructures and Its Effect on Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Dhar, A

    2016-07-20

    Organometal halide perovskite materials are presently some of the pacesetters for light harvesting in hybrid photovoltaic devices because of their excellent inherent electrical and optical properties. However, long-term durability of such perovskite materials remains a major bottleneck for their commercialization especially in countries with hot and humid climatic conditions, thus violating the international standards for photovoltaic technology. Albeit, TiO2 as an electron-transport layer has been well investigated for perovskite solar cells; the high-temperature processing makes it unsuitable for low-cost and large-scale roll-to-roll production of flexible photovoltaic devices. Herein, we have chosen low-temperature (photovoltaic devices. We have also elaborately addressed the effect of the annealing duration on the conversion of a precursor solution into the required perovskite phase on ZnO nanostructures. The investigations show that the presence of ZnO nanostructures accelerates the rate of degradation of MAPbI3 films under ambient annealing and thus requires proper optimization. The role of ZnO in enhancing the degradation kinetics of the perovskite layer has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a buffer layer passivation technique. The effect of the annealing duration of the MAPbI3 perovskite on the optical, morphological, and compositional behavior has been closely studied and correlated with the photovoltaic efficiency. The study captures the degradation behavior of the commercially interesting MAPbI3 perovskite on a ZnO electron-transport layer and thus can provide insight for developing alternative families of perovskite material with better thermal and environmental stability for application in low-cost flexible photovoltaic technology.

  10. High performance sodium-ion hybrid capacitor based on Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binson; Shaijumon, M. M.

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid Na-ion capacitors bridge the performance gap between Na-ion batteries and supercapacitors and offer excellent energy and power characteristics. However, designing efficient anode and cathode materials with improved kinetics and long cycle life is essential for practical implementation of this technology. Herein, layered sodium titanium oxide hydroxide, Na2Ti2O4(OH)2, synthesized through hydrothermal technique, is studied as efficient anode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Half-cell electrochemical studies vs. Na/Na+ showed excellent performance for Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 electrode, with ∼57.2% of the total capacity (323.3 C g-1 at 1.0 mV s-1) dominated by capacitive behavior and the remaining due to Na-intercalation. The obtained values are in good agreement with Trasatti plots indicating the potential of this material as efficient anode for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Further, a full cell Na-ion capacitor is fabricated with Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 as anode and chemically activated Rice Husk Derived Porous Carbon (RHDPC-KOH) as cathode by using organic electrolyte. The hybrid device, operated at a maximum cell voltage of 4 V, exhibits stable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of ∼65 Wh kg-1 (at 500 W kg-1, 0.20 A g-1) and with more than ∼ 93% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles.

  11. Novel transparent zirconium-based hybrid material with multilayered nanostructures: studies of surface dewettability toward alkane liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheder, Benjamin; Urata, Chihiro; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    We have successfully prepared unique inorganic-organic hybrid materials that demonstrate excellent transparency and dewettability toward various alkane liquids (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane and n-decane) without relying on conventional surface roughening and perfluorination. Such coatings were made using a novel family of hybrid materials generated by substituting carboxylic acids, with a range of alkyl chain lengths (CH(3)(CH(2))(x-2)COOH where x = total carbon number, i.e., 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 22, or 24, into zirconium (Zr) tetra-propoxide complexes. This precursor was then mixed with acetic acid and spincast to produce transparent thin Zr-carboxylic acid (ZrCA(x)) hybrid films using a nonhydrolytic sol-gel process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided proof of Zr-O-Zr network formation in the films upon casting and also followed changes to the physical nature (liquid-like or solid-like) of the alkyl chain assemblies depending upon alkyl chain length. X-ray diffractometry revealed that the hybrid films prepared using the longer chain carboxylic acids (ZrCA(x≥18)) spontaneously self-assembled into lamella structures with d-spacings ranging from 29.5 to 32.7 Angstroms, depending on the length of the alkyl chain. On the other hand the remaining films (ZrCA(xoleophobicity among the seven hybrid films. In particular, small volume alkane droplets (5 μL) could be easily set in motion to move across and off ZrCA(14) film surfaces without pinning at low tilt angles (~6°).

  12. Nanostructured films of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in photovoltaics; Nanostrukturierte Filme aus anorganisch-organischen Hybridmaterialien fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlich, Jan

    2009-06-25

    Nanostructured thin films of crystalline TiO{sub 2} for applications in photovoltaics were studied. The fabrication of the thin films is based on a hybrid approach. The anorganic metal oxide prepared via a sol-gel synthesis is structurated by the template properties of the applied organic block-copolymer. Via the film epitaxy by means of centrifugal coating first hybrid films (polymer-nanocomposite films) were fabricated, which were changed by calcination into crystalline TiO{sub 2} films with taylored morphology. The successful development of novel preparation approaches to the adaption to consisting conditions in the application field of photovoltaics contains a route to the fine-tuning of the morphology as well as the fabrication of hierarchical morphologies in different configurations. The structural study of the single nanostructurated TiO{sub 2} films up to the functional multilayer arrangement as photovoltaic demonstration cell was performed with conventionally imaging methods, as for instance scanning force microscopy and electron microscopy as well as the special small-angle X-ray scattering method under rigid incident angle (GISAXS). [German] Es wurden nanostrukturierte duenne Filme aus kristallinem TiO{sub 2} fuer Anwendungen in der Photovoltaik untersucht. Die Herstellung der duennen Filme basiert auf einem Hybridansatz. Das ueber eine Sol-Gel-Synthese bereitgestellte anorganische Metalloxid wird durch die Template-Eigenschaften des eingesetzten organischen Block-Copolymers strukturiert. Ueber die Filmaufbringung mittels Schleuderbeschichtung wurden zunaechst Hybridfilme (Polymer-Nanokompositfilme) hergestellt, die durch Kalzinierung in kristalline TiO{sub 2}-Filme mit massgeschneiderter Morphologie umgewandelt werden. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von neuartigen Praeparationsansaetzen zur Adaption an bestehende Gegebenheiten im Anwendungsgebiet der Photovoltaik beinhaltet eine Route zur Feineinstellung der Morphologie sowie die Herstellung von

  13. Preparation of g-C3N4/ZnMoCdS hybrid heterojunction catalyst with outstanding nitrogen photofixation performance under visible light via hydrothermal post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Hu, Shaozheng; Fan, Zhiping; Liu, Daosheng; Zhao, Yanfeng; Ma, Hongfei; Li, Fayun

    2016-02-28

    Nitrogen fixation is the second most important chemical process in nature, next to photosynthesis. Herein, we report a novel g-C3N4/ZnMoCdS heterojunction photocatalyst with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light prepared by hydrothermal post-treatment. The as-prepared ZnMoCdS is the ternary metal sulfide Zn(0.12)Mo(0.12)Cd(0.9)S(1.14) with many sulfur vacancies, not a mixture of ZnS, MoS2 and CdS. Strong electronic coupling, as evidenced by the UV-Vis, XPS and EIS results, exists between two components in g-C3N4/ZnMoCdS heterojunction photocatalysts, leading to more effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and faster interfacial charge transfer. The sulfur vacancies on ternary metal sulfides not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from the catalyst to N2 molecules, thus significantly improving their nitrogen photofixation ability. With an optimal ZnMoCdS mass percentage of 80%, the as-prepared heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits the highest NH4(+) generation rate under visible light, which is 13.5-fold and 1.75-fold greater than those of individual g-C3N4 and ZnMoCdS, respectively.

  14. Semiconductor nanostructures for optoelectronic devices processing, characterization and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the current state of semiconductor nanodevice development, examining nanowires, nanorods, hybrid semiconductor nanostructures, wide bandgap nanostructures for visible light emitters and graphene and describing their device applications.

  15. Understanding the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot-fullerene (C60) hybrid nanostructure for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Sarkar, Pranab

    2014-09-01

    By using the density-functional tight binding method, we studied the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dot(QD)-buckminsterfullerene (C60) hybrid systems as a function of both the size of the QD and concentration of the fullerene molecule. Our calculation reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of the hybrid CdSeQD-C60 systems lies on the fullerene moiety, whereas the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level lies either on the QD or the fullerene depending on size of the CdSe QD. We explored the possibility of engineering the energy level alignment by varying the size of the CdSe QD. With increase in size of the QD, the HOMO level is shifted upward and crosses the HOMO level of the C60-thiol molecule resulting transition from the type-I to type-II band energy alignment. The density of states and charge density plot support these types of band gap engineering of the CdSe-C60 hybrid systems. This type II band alignment indicates the possibility of application of this nanohybrid for photovoltaic purpose.

  16. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  17. A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence in lanthanide-based magnetic hybrid nanostructure and its demonstration for the detection of latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Praveen K; Singh, Priyam; Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Sunil K; Rai, Shyam B; Prakash, Rajiv

    2017-04-01

    We have synthesized a novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructure (IOHN) composed of fluoride nanophosphor (NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4) and β-diketones complex (Eu(DBM)3Phen). The Le Bail fitting of X-ray diffraction data suggests that the nanophoshor crystallizes in a hexagonal structure (P63/m space group). The TEM studies reveal that the nanophosphor and the IOHN both have average particle size of 6-8nm. The Eu(DBM)3Phen and NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4 show characteristic down-shifting (DS) and up-conversion (UC) emission, under UV and NIR excitation, respectively. The IOHN comprises an excellent dual-mode optical features (DS and UC) of both the phases. Energy transfer from Er(3+) (doped in inorganic phase) to Eu(3+) (coordinated in organic phase) clearly demonstrates for a viable coupling between both the phases. IOHN material was found to be unique for the visualization of latent fingermarks. Because of ultrafine particle size the surface to volume ratio is relatively higher which improves the attachment of particles with the fingermarks. On the other hand, the strong paramagnetic property helps to remove excess material with magnetic wand easily. These properties provide an opportunity to probe even very weak fingermarks. Notwithstanding this, the dual-mode emission is useful for the visualization of latent fingermarks on multi-color surfaces as well.

  18. Nanostructured lipid-carrageenan hybrid carriers (NLCCs) for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone hydrochloride to enhance anticancer activity bypassing the BCRP-mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guixia; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Jin; He, Zhonggui

    2016-08-01

    Novel nanostructured lipid-carrageenan hybrid carriers (NLCCs) were exploited for controlled delivery of water soluble chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone hydrochloride (MTO) with high loading capacity, sustained release property, and potential for improving oral bioavailability and antitumor efficacy. By introducing the negative polymer of carrageenan, MTO was highly incorporated into NLCCs with encapsulation efficiency of 95.8% by electrostatic interaction. In vivo pharmacokinetics of MTO solution (MTO-Sol) and MTO-NLCCs in rats demonstrated that the apparent bioavailability of MTO-NLCCs was increased to approximate 3.5-fold compared to that of MTO-Sol. The cytotoxicity investigations by MTT method indicated that NLCCs could significantly enhanced the antitumor efficacy against resistant MCF-7/MX cells. The relative cellular association of MTO-NLCCs was 9.2-fold higher than that of MTO-Sol in breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) over-expressing MCF-7/MX cells, implying that BCRP-mediated drug efflux was diminished by the introduction of NLCCs. The endocytosis inhibition study implied that the NLCCs entered the MCF-7/MX cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis process, which can bypass the efflux of MTO mediated by BCRP. The new developed NLCCs provide an effective strategy for oral delivery of water-soluble MTO with improved encapsulation efficiency, oral bioavailability, and cytotoxicity against resistant breast cancer cells.

  19. Insights into electrode/electrolyte interfacial processes and the effect of nanostructured cobalt oxides loading on graphene-based hybrids by scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju; Carrizosa, Sara B.

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured cobalt oxide polymorphs (CoO and Co3O4) deposited via electrodeposition allowed optimal loading on supercapacitive graphene nanosheets producing a set of graphene-based hybrids namely, CoO/GO, CoO/ErGO, Co3O4/GO, Co3O4/rGO, and Co3O4/ErGO, as pseudocapacitive electrochemical electrodes. We gained fundamental insights into the complex physicochemical interfacial processes at electrode surfaces and electrode/electrolyte (or solid/liquid) interfaces by scanning electrochemical microscopy operating in the feedback probe approach and imaging modes while monitoring and mapping the redox probe (re)activity behavior. We determined the various experimental descriptors including diffusion coefficient, electron transfer rate, and electroactive site distribution on electrodes. We emphasize the interplay of (1) heterogeneous basal and edge plane active sites, (2) graphene surface functional moieties (conducting/semiconducting), and (3) crystalline spinel cobalt oxides (semiconducting/insulating) coated graphene, reinforcing the available electron density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level contributing to higher electroactivity, faster interfacial diffusion, and shorter distances for electron transfer, facilitated through molecular and chemical bridges obtained by electrodeposition as compared with the physical deposition.

  20. Ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical determination of chromium(VI) in water samples by ion-imprinted/formate anion-incorporated graphitic carbon nitride nanostructured hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tian; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Lizhi; Gong, Jingming

    2016-07-15

    A rapid and highly sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) method has been proposed for the determination of trace amounts of chromium in water samples under visible-light irradiation. Here, a unique nanostructured hybrid of formate anion incorporated graphitic carbon nitride (F-g-C3N4) is smartly integrated with a Cr(VI) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) as a photoactive electrode (denoted as IIP@F-g-C3N4). The nanohybrid of F-g-C3N4 exhibits an enhanced charge separation with substantially improved PEC responses versus g-C3N4. The newly designed IIP@F-g-C3N4 PEC sensor exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for the determination of Cr(VI) because it offers efficient photogenerated electron reduction toward Cr(VI). The PEC analysis is highly linear over Cr(VI) concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100.00ppb with a detection limit of 0.006ppb (S/N=3). Our approach can be used to detect Cr(VI), Cr(III) and the total chromium level in aqueous solution through oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) and the determination of the total chromium as Cr(VI). In practical applications, this low-cost and sensitive assay has been successfully applied for speciation determination of chromium in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Micro arc oxidized HAp-TiO 2 nanostructured hybrid layers-part I: Effect of voltage and growth time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S.; Bayati, M. R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Rezaei, H. R.; Zargar, H. R.; Samanipour, F.; Shoaei-Rad, V.

    2011-05-01

    Micro arc oxidation was employed to grow hydroxyapatite-TiO 2 nanostructured porous composite layers. The layers were synthesized on the titanium substrates in the electrolytes consisting of calcium acetate and sodium β-glycerophosphate salts under different applied voltages for various times. SEM and AFM investigations revealed a porous structure and rough surface where the pores size and the surface roughness were respectively determined as 70-650 nm and 9.8-12.7 nm depending on the voltage and time. Chemical composition and phase structure of the layers were evaluated using EDX, XPS, and XRD methods. The layers consisted of the hydroxyapatite, anatase, α-TCP, and calcium titanatephases with a varying fraction depending on the growth conditions. The hydroxyapatite crystalline size was also determined as ˜42 nm. The sample fabricated under the voltage of 350 V for 3 min exhibited the most appropriate Ca/P ratio (˜1.60) as well as the highest amount of the hydroxyapatite phase. This sample had a fine surface morphology and a high pores density.

  2. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  3. Low Temperature Sensing Properties of a Nano Hybrid Material Based on ZnO Nanotetrapods and Titanyl Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Calestani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanotetrapods have recently been exploited for the realization of high-sensitivity gas sensors, but they are affected by the typical drawbacks of metal-oxides, i.e., poor selectivity and a relatively high working temperature. On the other hand, it has been also demonstrated that the combined use of nanostructured metal oxides and organic molecules can improve the gas sensing performance sensitivity or selectivity, even at lower temperatures. A gas sensor device, based on films of interconnected ZnO nanotetrapods properly functionalized by titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc, has been realized in order to combine the high surface to volume ratio and structural stability of the crystalline ZnO nanostructures with the enhanced sensitivity of the semiconducting TiOPc molecule, especially at low temperature. The electronic properties of the resulting nanohybrid material are different from those of each single component. The response of the hybrid nanostructure towards different gases has been compared with that of ZnO nanotetrapod without functionalization in order to highlight the peculiar properties of the hybrid interaction(s. The dynamic response in time has been studied for different gases and temperatures; in particular, an increase in the response to NO2 has been observed, even at room temperature. The formation of localized p-n heterojunctions and the possibility of exchanging charge carriers at the hybrid interface is shown to be crucial for the sensing mechanism.

  4. Nanostructured Silica/Gold-Cellulose-Bonded Amino-POSS Hybrid Composite via Sol-Gel Process and Its Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Heung Soo; Lee, Young-June; Hong, Gwang-Wook; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    It is demonstrated in this paper that silica nanoparticles coated with core/shell gold provide efficient thermal, optical, and morphological properties with respect to the cellulose-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) hybrid system. The one-step synthesis of a silica/gold nanocomposite is achieved with a simultaneous hydrolysis and reduction of gold chloride in the presence of formic acid, and the trimethoxysilane group acts as a silica precursor. The focus here comprises the synthesis of cellulose-POSS and silica/gold hybrid nanocomposites using the following two methods: (1) an in situ sol-gel process and (2) a polyvinyl alcohol/tetrakis (hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride process. Accordingly, the silica/gold core/shell nanoparticles are synthesized. The growth and attachment of the gold nanoparticles onto the functionalized surface of the silica at the nanometer scale is achieved via both the sol-gel and the tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride processes. The cellulose-POSS-silica/gold nanocomposites are characterized according to Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, UV, photoluminescence, SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TEM, thermogravimetric, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses.

  5. A Nanostructured Bifunctional platform for Sensing of Glucose Biomarker in Artificial Saliva: Synergy in hybrid Pt/Au surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo A; Shimizu, Flávio M; Coelho, Dyovani; Piazzeta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Machado, Sergio A S; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-12-15

    We report on a bimetallic, bifunctional electrode where a platinum (Pt) surface was patterned with nanostructured gold (Au) fingers with different film thicknesses, which was functionalized with glucose oxidase (GOx) to yield a highly sensitive glucose biosensor. This was achieved by using selective adsorption of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) onto Au fingers, which allowed GOx immobilization only onto the Au-SAM surface. This modified electrode was termed bifunctional because it allowed to simultaneously immobilize the biomolecule (GOx) on gold to catalyze glucose, and detect hydrogen peroxide on Pt sites. Optimized electrocatalytic activity was reached for the architecture Pt/Au-SAM/GOx with 50nm thickness of Au, where synergy between Pt and Au allowed for detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a low applied potential (0V vs. Ag/AgCl). Detection was performed for H2O2 in the range between 4.7 and 102.7 nmol L(-1), with detection limit of 3.4×10(-9) mol L(-1) (3.4 nmol L(-1)) and an apparent Michaelis-Menten rate constant of 3.2×10(-6)molL(-1), which is considerably smaller than similar devices with monometallic electrodes. The methodology was validated by measuring glucose in artificial saliva, including in the presence of interferents. The synergy between Pt and Au was confirmed in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements with an increased electron transfer, compared to bare Pt and Au electrodes. The approach for fabricating the reproducible bimetallic Pt/Au electrodes is entirely generic and may be explored for other types of biosensors and biodevices where advantage can be taken of the combination of the two metals.

  6. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Hu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors.

  7. Highly efficient uniform ZnO nanostructures for an electron transport layer of inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sarah; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Sang Kyu; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye; Jin, Sung-Ho; Shin, Won Suk; Song, Chang Eun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jeong, Jong-Ryul

    2013-07-11

    A highly uniform and predesigned ZnO nanostructure fabricated by single step direct nanoimprinting was used as the efficient electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Improved photovoltaic cell efficiency with long-term stability can be observed due to the large interface between the active layer and nanostructured ZnO ETL.

  8. Cobalt-Porphyrin-Platinum-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures: A Novel Peroxidase Mimetic System For Improved Electrochemical Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jian; Qiu, Zhenli; Wei, Qiaohua; Zhuang, Junyang; Tang, Dianping

    2015-10-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt flat stacking on the reduced graphene oxide with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO) were first synthesized and functionalized with monoclonal rabbit anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody (anti-AFB1) for highly efficient electrochemical immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and spectral techniques were employed to characterize the PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO hybrids. Using anti-AFB1-conjugated PtNPs/CoTPP/rGO as the signal-transduction tag, a novel non-enzymatic electrochemical immunosensing system was designed for detection of target AFB1 on the AFB1-bovine serum albumin-functionalized sensing interface. Experimental results revealed that the designed immunoassay could exhibit good electrochemical responses for target analyte and allowed the detection of AFB1 at a concentration as low as 5.0 pg mL-1 (5.0 ppt). Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Importantly, the methodology was further validated for analyzing naturally contaminated or spiked blank peanut samples with consistent results obtained by AFB1 ELISA kit, thus providing a promising approach for quantitative monitoring of organic pollutants.

  9. Application of Black Pearl carbon-supported WO 3 nanostructures as hybrid carriers for electrocatalytic RuSe x nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, Krzysztof; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Fiechter, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    RuSe x electrocatalytic nanoparticles were deposited onto hybrid carriers composed of Black Pearl carbon-supported tungsten oxide; and the resulting system's electrochemical activity was investigated during oxygen reduction reaction. The tungsten oxide-utilizing and RuSe x nanoparticle-containing materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical diagnostic techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk voltammetry. Application of Black Pearl carbon carriers modified with ultra-thin films of WO 3 as matrices (supports) for RuSe x catalytic centers results during electroreduction of oxygen in 0.5 mol dm -3 H 2SO 4 (under rotating disk voltammetric conditions) in the potential shift of ca. 70 mV towards more positive values relative to the behavior of the analogous WO 3-free system. Also the percent formation (at ring in the rotating ring-disk voltammetry) of the undesirable hydrogen peroxide has been decreased approximately twice by utilizing WO 3-modified carbon carriers. The results are consistent with the bifunctional mechanism in which oxygen reduction is initiated at RuSe x centers and the hydrogen peroxide intermediate is reductively decomposed at reactive WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports. The electrocatalytic activity of the system utilizing WO 3-modified Black Pearl supports has been basically unchanged upon addition of acetic acid, formic acid or methyl formate to the sulfuric acid supporting electrolyte.

  10. Interface Engineering of High Efficiency Organic-Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Liu, Yaoping; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huili; Mei, Zengxia; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-01-13

    Insufficient interface conformity is a challenge faced in hybrid organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells because of using conventional pyramid antireflection texturing provoking the porosity of interface. In this study, we tested alternative textures, in particular rounded pyramids and inverted pyramids to compare the performance. It was remarkably improved delivering 7.61%, 8.91% and 10.04% efficiency employing conventional, rounded, and inverted pyramids, respectively. The result was interpreted in terms of gradually improving conformity of the Ag/organic/silicon interface, together with the gradually decreasing serial resistance. Altogether, the present data may guide further efforts arising the interface engineering for mastering high efficient heterojunction solar cells.

  11. Heterojunction Interface Modification and Its Effect on the Photovoltaic Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells%杂化太阳电池中异质结界面的修饰及其对电池光电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴娟; 郝彦忠; 孙宝; 李英品; 范龙雪; 孙硕; 王尚鑫

    2014-01-01

    有机-无机杂化太阳电池综合了有机、无机材料的优点,成本低、理论效率高,受到人们的广泛关注。杂化太阳电池的光活性层由无机半导体和有机共轭聚合物复合而成。当光照射到活性层上时,共轭聚合物吸收光子产生激子(电子-空穴对);激子迁移到有机给体-无机受体的异质结界面处发生解离而产生自由电子和空穴;自由电子和空穴分别向无机半导体和有机聚合物传输,从而实现电荷的分离和传导。激子在有机-无机异质结界面处的分离效率是影响电池性能的一个重要因素。有机、无机两相材料往往因为接触面积小以及相容性差使此两相材料接触不佳,激子迁移到此界面不能有效分离,从而严重影响了杂化太阳电池的效率。这个问题可以通过此界面的修饰加以改善。本文即综述了有机-无机异质结界面修饰的方法、作用和意义,并展望了杂化太阳电池未来的发展趋势和应用前景。%Much attention has been focused on hybrid solar cells because of their low cost and high theoretical efficiencies. The photoactive layer of hybrid solar cells is composed of inorganic semiconductor and organic conjugated polymer. Excitons (electron-hole pairs) are formed upon the absorption of photons by the polymer. The excitons diffuse to the heterojunction interface between the organic donor and inorganic acceptor, and then dissociate to free electrons and holes. These electrons and holes then transfer to the inorganic and organic materials to realize charge separation and transportation. The exciton dissociation efficiency at the organic-inorganic heterojunction interface influences the photovoltaic performance of the cell. A smal contact area and poor chemical compatibility between the organic and inorganic materials decrease the exciton dissociation efficiency, and thus the overal cellefficiency. This can be overcome by modifying the

  12. Nanostructured germanium deposited on heated substrates with enhanced photoelectric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Stavarache

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining high-quality materials, based on nanocrystals, at low temperatures is one of the current challenges for opening new paths in improving and developing functional devices in nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics. Here we report a detailed investigation of the optimization of parameters for the in situ synthesis of thin films with high Ge content (50 % into SiO2. Crystalline Ge nanoparticles were directly formed during co-deposition of SiO2 and Ge on substrates at 300, 400 and 500 °C. Using this approach, effects related to Ge–Ge spacing are emphasized through a significant improvement of the spatial distribution of the Ge nanoparticles and by avoiding multi-step fabrication processes or Ge loss. The influence of the preparation conditions on structural, electrical and optical properties of the fabricated nanostructures was studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electrical measurements in dark or under illumination and response time investigations. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of the procedure by the means of an Al/n-Si/Ge:SiO2/ITO photodetector test structure. The structures, investigated at room temperature, show superior performance, high photoresponse gain, high responsivity (about 7 AW−1, fast response time (0.5 µs at 4 kHz and great optoelectronic conversion efficiency of 900% in a wide operation bandwidth, from 450 to 1300 nm. The obtained photoresponse gain and the spectral width are attributed mainly to the high Ge content packed into a SiO2 matrix showing the direct connection between synthesis and optical properties of the tested nanostructures. Our deposition approach put in evidence the great potential of Ge nanoparticles embedded in a SiO2 matrix for hybrid integration, as they may be employed in structures and devices individually or with other materials, hence the possibility of fabricating various heterojunctions on Si, glass or flexible substrates for future development of Si

  13. Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shin-ichiro, E-mail: s-inoue@nict.go.jp [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Naoki, Tamari [Advanced ICT Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Tokuyama Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Kinoshita, Toru; Obata, Toshiyuki; Yanagi, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Tokuyama Corporation, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2015-03-30

    Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) aluminum gallium nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on transparent aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates with high light extraction efficiency and high power are proposed and demonstrated. The AlN bottom side surface configuration, which is composed of a hybrid structure of photonic crystals and subwavelength nanostructures, has been designed using finite-difference time-domain calculations to enhance light extraction. We have experimentally demonstrated an output power improvement of up to 196% as a result of the use of the embedded high-light-extraction hybrid nanophotonic structure. The DUV-LEDs produced have demonstrated output power as high as 90 mW in DC operation at a peak emission wavelength of 265 nm.

  14. Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Neheru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Jit, Satyabrata, E-mail: sjit.ece@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) core–shell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type 〈100〉 planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377 nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378 nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550 nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance (<3%) in the visible wavelength region compared to Si/ZnO heterojunctions (>20%). The current–voltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO core–shell heterojunction devices, the

  15. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  16. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  17. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-01-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  18. EDITORIAL: Nanostructured solar cells Nanostructured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Conversion into electrical power of even a small fraction of the solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface has the potential to satisfy the world's energy demands without generating CO2 emissions. Current photovoltaic technology is not yet fulfilling this promise, largely due to the high cost of the electricity produced. Although the challenges of storage and distribution should not be underestimated, a major bottleneck lies in the photovoltaic devices themselves. Improving efficiency is part of the solution, but diminishing returns in that area mean that reducing the manufacturing cost is absolutely vital, whilst still retaining good efficiencies and device lifetimes. Solution-processible materials, e.g. organic molecules, conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanoparticles, offer new routes to the low-cost production of solar cells. The challenge here is that absorbing light in an organic material produces a coulombically bound exciton that requires dissociation at a donor-acceptor heterojunction. A thickness of at least 100 nm is required to absorb the incident light, but excitons only diffuse a few nanometres before decaying. The problem is therefore intrinsically at the nano-scale: we need composite devices with a large area of internal donor-acceptor interface, but where each carrier has a pathway to the respective electrode. Dye-sensitized and bulk heterojunction cells have nanostructures which approach this challenge in different ways, and leading research in this area is described in many of the articles in this special issue. This issue is not restricted to organic or dye-sensitized photovoltaics, since nanotechnology can also play an important role in devices based on more conventional inorganic materials. In these materials, the electronic properties can be controlled, tuned and in some cases completely changed by nanoscale confinement. Also, the techniques of nanoscience are the natural ones for investigating the localized states, particularly at

  19. Efficient Perovskite-organic Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Integrated Solar Cells%高效钙钛矿-有机本体异质结杂化串联太阳能电池

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彤; 左红文; 王亚凌; 秦文静; 曹焕奇; 杨利营; 姚聪; 葛子义; 印寿根

    2015-01-01

    An integrated perovskite/organic bulk-heterojunction ( BHJ) photovoltaic device was fabricated for effi-cient light harvesting and energy conversion. The structure of the solar cells consists of two photovoltaic layers, name-ly a methylammonium lead iodide ( CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) and poly ( 3-hexylthiophene ) ( P3HT ) blended with metha-nofullerene [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) organic BHJ active layer. The power conversion ef-ficiency (PCE) of 6. 54% was achieved in the integrated device with a Jsc of 19. 14 mA /cm2, a Voc of 0. 76 V, and a FF of 45. 0%. Compared to that of CH3 NH3 PbI3/PCBM planar device, the enhanced performance indicates that the BHJ film absorbs light and contributes to the current density of the device. Our research further demonstrates the compatibility and synergistic potential of the perovskite and organic bulk-heterojunction ( BHJ) photovoltaic device.%制备了一种有机铅卤钙钛矿-有机本体异质结杂化串联太阳能电池。采用紫外可见吸收光谱、原子力显微镜对薄膜形貌进行了表征。结果表明:有机本体异质结层可以有效改善钙钛矿的表面形貌,增强了可见光的吸收。优化后的串联结构电池的短路电流可达19.14 mA /cm2,开路电压为0.76 V,光电转换效率达到了6.54%。钙钛矿电池和有机本体异质结电池串联结构可以同时提高短路电流及填充因子,二者具有较好的相容性和协同作用。

  20. All inorganic iron pyrite nano-heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeminde, Alec; Scott, Randall; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-11-01

    The large absorption coefficient of iron pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals coupled with their low-cost and vast-abundance shows great promise as a potential photovoltaic absorber. Here, we demonstrate that bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nanostructures consisting of 80 nm FeS2 nanocubes (NCs) and 4 nm CdS quantum dot (QD) matrix, lead to a well-defined percolation network, which significantly improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.79 V and power conversion efficiency of 1.1% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from p-type colloidal FeS2 NCs exhibit plasmonic photoelectron conversion. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of colloidal nanocrystals exhibiting the LSPRs effect and is compatible with solution processing, thereby offering a general tactic to enhancing the efficiency of all inorganic BHJ solar cells and LSPRs-based NIR photodetectors.The large absorption coefficient of iron pyrite (FeS2) nanocrystals coupled with their low-cost and vast-abundance shows great promise as a potential photovoltaic absorber. Here, we demonstrate that bulk heterojunction (BHJ) nanostructures consisting of 80 nm FeS2 nanocubes (NCs) and 4 nm CdS quantum dot (QD) matrix, lead to a well-defined percolation network, which significantly improved open-circuit voltage (Voc) to 0.79 V and power conversion efficiency of 1.1% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) arising from p-type colloidal FeS2 NCs exhibit plasmonic photoelectron conversion. Our approach can be applied to a wide range of colloidal nanocrystals exhibiting the LSPRs effect and is compatible with solution processing, thereby offering a general tactic to enhancing the efficiency of all inorganic BHJ solar cells and LSPRs-based NIR photodetectors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32097e

  1. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 Heterojunctions: Promising TiO2-based Photocatalysts under Visible Light

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082 eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be...

  2. Photocurrent generation in nanostructured organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Photocurrent generation in nanostructured organic solar cells is simulated using a dynamical Monte Carlo model that includes the generation and transport properties of both excitons and free charges. Incorporating both optical and electrical properties, we study the influence of the heterojunction nanostructure (e.g., planar vs bulk junctions) on donor-acceptor organic solar cell efficiencies based on the archetype materials copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C(60). Structures considered are planar and planar-mixed heterojunctions, homogeneous and phase-separated donor-acceptor (DA) mixtures, idealized structures composed of DA pillars, and nanocrystalline DA networks. The thickness dependence of absorption, exciton diffusion, and carrier collection efficiencies is studied for different morphologies, yielding results similar to those experimentally observed. The influences of charge mobility and exciton diffusion length are studied, and optimal device thicknesses are proposed for various structures. Simulations show that, with currently available materials, nanocrystalline network solar cells optimize both exciton diffusion and carrier collection, thus providing for highly efficient solar energy conversion. Estimations of achievable energy conversion efficiencies are made for the various nanostructures based on current simulations used in conjunction with experimentally obtained fill factors and open-circuit voltages for conventional small molecular weight materials combinations.

  3. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence in InAs/InAlGaAs/InP Quantum Wire and Dot Hybrid Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-Rong; XU Bo; WANG Hai-Fei; ZHAO Guo-Qing; SHI Shu-Hui; SHEN Xiao-Zhi; LI Jun-Feng; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWRs) are fabricated on an InP substrate by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated in these nanostructures as a function of temperature. An anomalous enhancement of PL intensity and a temperature insensitive PL emission are observed from lnAs nanostructures grown on InP substrates using lnAIGaAs as the matrix layer and the origin of this phenomenon is discussed. We attribute the anomalous temperature dependence of photoluminescence to the formation of Al-rich and In-rich region in the InAlGaAs buffer layer and the cap layer.%@@ Self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWRs) are fabricated on an InP substrate by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (SSMBE).Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated in these nanostructures as a function of temperature.An anomalous enhancement of PL intensity and a temperature insensitive PL emission are observed from InAs nanostructures grown on InP substrates using InAlGaAs as the matrix layer and the origin of this phenomenon is discussed.We attribute the anomalous temperature dependence of photoluminescence to the formation of Al-rich and In-rich region in the InAlGaAs buffer layer and the cap layer.

  4. Characterization of photovoltaics with In2S3 nanoflakes/p-Si heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Ji, Liang-Wen; Meen, Teen-Hang; Chen, Yan-Lung; Chi, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-01-15

    We demonstrate that heterojunction photovoltaics based on hydrothermal-grown In2S3 on p-Si were fabricated and characterized in the paper. An n-type In2S3 nanoflake-based film with unique 'cross-linked network' structure was grown on the prepared p-type silicon substrate. It was found that the bandgap energy of such In2S3 film is 2.5 eV by optical absorption spectra. This unique nanostructure significantly enhances the surface area of the In2S3 films, leading to obtain lower reflectance spectra as the thickness of In2S3 film was increased. Additionally, such a nanostructure resulted in a closer spacing between the cross-linked In2S3 nanostructures and formed more direct conduction paths for electron transportation. Thus, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) was effectively improved by using a suitable thickness of In2S3. The power conversion efficiency (PCE, η) of the AZO/In2S3/textured p-Si heterojunction solar cell with 100-nm-thick In2S3 film was 2.39%.

  5. Characterization of photovoltaics with In2S3 nanoflakes/p-Si heterojunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Yu-Jen; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Ji, Liang-Wen; Meen, Teen-Hang; Chen, Yan-Lung; Chi, Hsiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that heterojunction photovoltaics based on hydrothermal-grown In2S3 on p-Si were fabricated and characterized in the paper. An n-type In2S3 nanoflake-based film with unique 'cross-linked network’ structure was grown on the prepared p-type silicon substrate. It was found that the bandgap energy of such In2S3 film is 2.5 eV by optical absorption spectra. This unique nanostructure significantly enhances the surface area of the In2S3 films, leading to obtain lower reflectance spect...

  6. Heterojunction Structures for Photon Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-21

    semi- conductor material quantum dot particles to absorb photons is another method can be used in broaden- ing the spectral response of DSSCs ...dye to use as a dye sensitized solar cell 132 ( DSSC ) and (2) use of interband transitions in the PbS- quantum dot (PbS-QD) embedded ZnO as a UV-IR...aggregate sensitized heterojunctions for solar cell and photon detection applications, (3) heterojunctions sensitized with quantum dots as low cost

  7. High Detectivity Graphene-Silicon Heterojunction Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhu, Miao; Du, Mingde; Lv, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanchang; Yang, Yao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Fang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    A graphene/n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunction has been demonstrated to exhibit strong rectifying behavior and high photoresponsivity, which can be utilized for the development of high-performance photodetectors. However, graphene/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors reported previously suffer from relatively low specific detectivity due to large dark current. Here, by introducing a thin interfacial oxide layer, the dark current of graphene/n-Si heterojunction has been reduced by two orders of magnitude at zero bias. At room temperature, the graphene/n-Si photodetector with interfacial oxide exhibits a specific detectivity up to 5.77 × 10(13) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) at the peak wavelength of 890 nm in vacuum, which is highest reported detectivity at room temperature for planar graphene/Si heterojunction photodetectors. In addition, the improved graphene/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors possess high responsivity of 0.73 A W(-1) and high photo-to-dark current ratio of ≈10(7) . The current noise spectral density of the graphene/n-Si photodetector has been characterized under ambient and vacuum conditions, which shows that the dark current can be further suppressed in vacuum. These results demonstrate that graphene/Si heterojunction with interfacial oxide is promising for the development of high detectivity photodetectors.

  8. Charge depletion in organic heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. W.; Lo, M. F.; Lee, S. T.; Lee, C. S.

    2012-03-01

    Until now two types of organic-organic heterojunction (OHJ) have been observed in P-N junctions formed between undoped-organic semiconductors. Charge-transfers across OHJs are either negligible or showing electron transfer from P-type to N-type materials, leading to charges accumulation near the interface. Here, we observed that junction of 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA)/bathocuproine (BCP) show the third-behavior. Electrons in BCP (N-type) transfer to m-MTDATA (P-type), leading to depletion of mobile majority carriers near the junction. While "depletion junctions" are typical in inorganic semiconductors, there are no reports in undoped-OHJ. Formation mechanism of depletion OHJs and fundamental differences between inorganic and organic HJs are discussed.

  9. Self-Assembly of 1D/2D Hybrid Nanostructures Consisting of a Cd(II Coordination Polymer and NiAl-Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Abellán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of a novel hybrid material based on the combination of a 2D-layered double hydroxide (LDH nanosheets and a 1D-coordination polymer (1D-CP has been achieved through a simple mixture of suspensions of both building blocks via an exfoliation/restacking approach. The hybrid material has been thoroughly characterized demonstrating that the 1D-CP moieties are intercalated as well as adsorbed on the surface of the LDH, giving rise to a layered assembly with the coexistence of the functionalities of their initial constituents. This hybrid represents the first example of the assembly of 1D/2D nanomaterials combining LDH with CP and opens the door for a plethora of different functional hybrid systems.

  10. Seed-induced growing various TiO{sub 2} nanostructures on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with much enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongli, E-mail: lylbjut@gmail.com [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Wang, Jinshu, E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yang, Yilong; Zhang, Yan; He, Di; An, Qier [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, China Academy of Science, 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • “Seeding” endows 2D g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with anchoring sites to grow various TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. • 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanostructured TiO{sub 2} on the surfaces of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are readily tunable. • The hybrids demonstrate remarkably enhanced photocatalysis upon visible light. • Photoinduced holes are well involved in photocatalysis due to the charge separation. - Abstract: In this study, we provide a seed-induced solvothermal method to grow various TiO{sub 2} nanostructures on the surfaces of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, such as 0D nanoparticles, 1D nanowires 2D nanosheets and 3D mesoporous nanocrystals. We show that the “seeding” endows g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with anchoring sites toward the heterogeneous nucleation growth of TiO{sub 2}, and the distribution of the loaded TiO{sub 2} can be controlled by tuning the amount of nucleation in the dispersion. Among synthesized nanostructures, seed-grown Meso-TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} hybrids exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity upon visible light irradiation using methyl orange and phenol as probe organics, which are about 2–4 times and 29–37 times as high as those of direct-grown Meso-TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} without seeding and bare g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for degradation of MO and phenol, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalysis can be ascribed to the adequate separation of photogenerated electrons at the heterojunction interfaces and dominant contribution of photoinduced holes mainly caused by the well-constructed nano- architectures.

  11. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  12. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A new approach to fabricating silicon nanowire/poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid heterojunction solar cells∗%一种新方法制备硅/聚(3,4-乙撑二氧噻吩)核/壳纳米线阵列杂化太阳能电池*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娟; 韦尚江; 吕文辉; 吴丹; 李亚军; 周文政†

    2013-01-01

    The silicon/poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) core/shell organic/inorganic nanowire array (SiNWs/PEDOT) hybrid heterojunc-tion solar cells are successfully fabricated by silver-assisted chemical etching method and vapor phase polymerization processes. The SiNWs/PEDOT hybrid solar cell shows that the performance is improved greatly and an excellent power conversion efficiency of 3.23%is achieved, which is as seven times as large as that of the planar cell without the nanowire structure. In addition, the studies of the reflectance, the I-V curve and the external quantum efficiency show that the great enhancement of performance for the SiNWs/PEDOT cell is due to the fact that the Si/PEDOT core/shell nanowire structure is successfully fabricated by vapor phase polymerization method, resulting in a high light trapping effect, a large junction area and an enhancement of the carrier collection efficiency.%  采用气相聚合法制备了有机/无机杂化的硅/聚3,4-乙撑二氧噻吩核/壳纳米线阵列(SiNWs/PEDOT)太阳能电池.相对平面结构Si/PEDOT太阳能电池, SiNWs/PEDOT太阳能电池的能量转换效率提升了7倍,达到3.23%.对比分析反射光谱、I-V 曲线及外量子效率的实验结果,发现SiNWs/PEDOT太阳能电池性能改进的主要原因可归结为:气相聚合法能够有效地制备出SiNWs/PEDOT电池的核/壳纳米线阵列结构,使得器件具有高光捕获、高比结面积和高电荷收集效率.

  14. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod-nanotube semiconductor/p-silicon heterojunction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Yasemin; Görgün, Kamuran; Ilican, Saliha; Caglar, Mujdat; Yakuphanoğlu, Fahrettin

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide material is usable in electronic device applications such as light-emitting diodes, heterojunction diode, sensors, solar cell due to its interesting electrical conductivity and optical properties. Magnesium-doped zinc oxide nanorod (NR)-nanotube (NT) films were grown by microwave-assisted chemical bath deposition to fabricate ZnO-based heterojunction diode. It is found that ZnO hexagonal nanorods turn into hexagonal nanotubes when the Mg doping ratio is increased from 1 to 10 %. The values of the optical band gap for 1 % Mg-doped ZnO NR and 10 % Mg-doped ZnO NT films are found to be 3.14 and 3.22 eV, respectively. The n-ZnO:Mg/p-Si heterojunction diodes were fabricated. The diodes exhibited a rectification behavior with ideality factor higher than unity due to the presence of surface states in the junction and series resistance. The obtained results indicate that Mg doping improves the electrical and optical properties of ZnO.

  15. Observation of a photoinduced, resonant tunneling effect in a carbon nanotube–silicon heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aramo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant resonant tunneling effect has been observed under the 2.4 V junction threshold in a large area, carbon nanotube–silicon (CNT–Si heterojunction obtained by growing a continuous layer of multiwall carbon nanotubes on an n-doped silicon substrate. The multiwall carbon nanostructures were grown by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on a 60 nm thick, silicon nitride layer, deposited on an n-type Si substrate. The heterojunction characteristics were intensively studied on different substrates, resulting in high photoresponsivity with a large reverse photocurrent plateau. In this paper, we report on the photoresponsivity characteristics of the device, the heterojunction threshold and the tunnel-like effect observed as a function of applied voltage and excitation wavelength. The experiments are performed in the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelength range. The high conversion efficiency of light radiation into photoelectrons observed with the presented layout allows the device to be used as a large area photodetector with very low, intrinsic dark current and noise.

  16. Novel Carboxylic Acid Solvolysis Route to Synthesis Electrode-active Nanostructured Spinel-Li_4Ti_5O_(12) for Lithium Batteries and Hybrid Capacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teressa; Nathan; Michael; Cloke; S; R; S; Prabaharan

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Nanostructured spinel-type Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) was prepared using Lewis acid base reaction technique involving a mixture of titanium β-diketonate and lithium nitrate as starting materials in the presence of aqueous citric acid as a solvolysis agent. The above method yielded a simple single step process without involving sol to gel conversion. The phase purity of the synthesized product after calcining at 800 ℃ for 24 h in air showed a spinel structure without any residual impurities. The nanostru...

  17. Sequence-specific recognition of DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusling, David A; Fox, Keith R

    2014-05-15

    DNA is the most exploited biopolymer for the programmed self-assembly of objects and devices that exhibit nanoscale-sized features. One of the most useful properties of DNA nanostructures is their ability to be functionalized with additional non-nucleic acid components. The introduction of such a component is often achieved by attaching it to an oligonucleotide that is part of the nanostructure, or hybridizing it to single-stranded overhangs that extend beyond or above the nanostructure surface. However, restrictions in nanostructure design and/or the self-assembly process can limit the suitability of these procedures. An alternative strategy is to couple the component to a DNA recognition agent that is capable of binding to duplex sequences within the nanostructure. This offers the advantage that it requires little, if any, alteration to the nanostructure and can be achieved after structure assembly. In addition, since the molecular recognition of DNA can be controlled by varying pH and ionic conditions, such systems offer tunable properties that are distinct from simple Watson-Crick hybridization. Here, we describe methodology that has been used to exploit and characterize the sequence-specific recognition of DNA nanostructures, with the aim of generating functional assemblies for bionanotechnology and synthetic biology applications.

  18. Fe-Cluster Pushing Electrons to N-Doped Graphitic Layers with Fe3C(Fe) Hybrid Nanostructure to Enhance O2 Reduction Catalysis of Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Jiangtao; Weng, Mouyi; Tan, Rui; Tian, Leilei; Yang, Jinlong; Amine, Joseph; Zheng, Jiaxin; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2017-02-08

    Non-noble metal catalysts with catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comparable or even superior to that of Pt/C are extremely important for the wide application of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we develop a simple and controllable strategy to synthesize Fe-cluster embedded in Fe3C nanoparticles (designated as Fe3C(Fe)) encased in nitrogen-doped graphitic layers (NDGLs) with graphitic shells as a novel hybrid nanostructure as an effective ORR catalyst by directly pyrolyzing a mixture of Prussian blue (PB) and glucose. The pyrolysis temperature was found to be the key parameter for obtaining a stable Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL core-shell nanostructure with an optimized content of nitrogen. The optimized Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst showed high catalytic performance of ORR comparable to that of the Pt/C (20 wt %) catalyst and better stability than that of the Pt/C catalyst in alkaline electrolyte. According to the experimental results and first principle calculation, the high activity of the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of an adequate content of nitrogen doping in graphitic carbon shells and Fe-cluster pushing electrons to NDGL. A zinc-air battery utilizing the Fe3C(Fe)@NDGL catalyst demonstrated a maximum power density of 186 mW cm(-2), which is slightly higher than that of a zinc-air battery utilizing the commercial Pt/C catalyst (167 mW cm(-2)), mostly because of the large surface area of the N-doped graphitic carbon shells. Theoretical calculation verified that O2 molecules can spontaneously adsorb on both pristine and nitrogen doped graphene surfaces and then quickly diffuse to the catalytically active nitrogen sites. Our catalyst can potentially become a promising replacement for Pt catalysts in metal-air batteries and fuel cells.

  19. High-resolution photocurrent mapping of carbon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghard, Marko; Mews, Alf

    2012-07-24

    The spatial resolution of photocurrent measurements on carbon nanostructures has reached 20 nm, as demonstrated by Hartschuh and co-workers for individual carbon nanotubes in this issue of ACS Nano. In this Perspective, we provide a brief overview of the applications of scanning photocurrent microscopy to various one- and two-dimensional nanostructures and highlight the importance of the optical antenna concept for future studies of the optoelectronic properties of hybrid nanostructures.

  20. Design and electrical characterization of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A., E-mail: aaaalghamdi4@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nawar, Ahmed M.; El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Ameer [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Department of Physics, North Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We have successfully fabricated a Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al organic/inorganic heterojunction. • The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. • The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. • Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior. • Open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%. - Abstract: Hybrid organic/inorganic heterojunction of nanocrystalline Anthracene and p-Si was fabricated by using a conventional thermal evaporation technique. The crystal and molecular structure of the Anthracene thin films were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformation-Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The morphologies of the Anthracene/p-Si were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dark current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al heterojunction were investigated at room temperature (293 K). The calculated series resistance and the shunt resistance of the device were found to be 440 Ω and 1.47 MΩ, respectively. The Cheung-Cheung and Norde’s models were used to investigate and determine the heterojunction parameters. The ideality factor and barrier height values of the Au/Anthracene/p-Si/Al diode were obtained to be 1.1 and 0.464 eV, respectively. The dependence of capacitance-voltage (C{sup -2}-V) for the device Anthracene/p-Si was found to be almost linear. Essential junction parameters and performance of heterojunction established a photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) 0.382 V, short circuit photocurrent (I{sub SC}) 0.72 mA and power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.65%.

  1. Evolution of hollow nanostructures in hybrid Ce1-x Cu x O2 under droplet confinement leading to synergetic effects on the physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Landfester, Katharina; Muñoz-Espí, Rafael; Chandra, Amreesh

    2017-02-01

    The paper discusses a successful strategy for tuning the hollow, porous or even solid morphologies of pure and Cu2+-doped CeO2 nanostructures. The reaction of nanodroplets at the interface in miniemulsions is significantly affected by the concentration of dopants. The growth mechanism is both reaction- as well as diffusion-controlled, which finally determines the particular morphology. With a varying degree of dopant concentration and quantum confinement, the concentration of Ce3+ available on the surface of the nano-droplets and -particles is found to change quite appreciably. This immediately leads to modulation in the physical properties, such as ferromagnetism or absorption. The significant red shift in the absorption spectra and associated broadband visible photoluminescence opens newer applications for the present material in visible optoelectronic devices.

  2. Fabrication of Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells by Controlled Low-Pressure Vapor Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbo; Cooper, Jason K; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Giannini, Cinzia; Liu, Yi; Toma, Francesca M; Sharp, Ian D

    2015-02-05

    A new method for achieving high efficiency planar CH3NH3I3-xClx perovskite photovoltaics, based on a low pressure, reduced temperature vapor annealing is demonstrated. Heterojunction devices based on this hybrid halide perovskite exhibit a top PCE of 16.8%, reduced J-V hysteresis, and highly repeatable performance without need for a mesoporous or nanocrystalline metal oxide layer. Our findings demonstrate that large hysteresis is not an inherent feature of planar heterojunctions, and that efficient charge extraction can be achieved with uniform halide perovskite materials with desired composition. X-ray diffraction, valence band spectroscopy, and transient absorption measurements of these thin films reveal that structural modifications induced by chlorine clearly dominate over chemical and electronic doping effects, without affecting the Fermi level or photocarrier lifetime in the material.

  3. Flower-Like CuO/ZnO Hybrid Hierarchical Nanostructures Grown on Copper Substrate: Glycothermal Synthesis, Characterization, Hydrophobic and Anticorrosion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Beshkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have demonstrated a facile formation of CuO nanostructures on copper substrates by the oxidation of copper foil in ethylene glycol (EG at 80 °C. On immersing a prepared CuO film into a solution containing 0.1 g Zn(acac2 in 20 mL EG for 8 h, ZnO flower-like microstructures composed of hierarchical three-dimensional (3D aggregated nanoparticles and spherical architectures were spontaneously formed at 100 °C. The as-synthesized thin films and 3D microstructures were characterized using XRD, SEM, and EDS techniques. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 as surfactants and stabilizers on the morphology of the CuO and ZnO structures were discussed. Possible growth mechanisms for the controlled organization of primary building units into CuO nanostructures and 3D flower-like ZnO architectures were proposed. The hydrophobic property of the products was characterized by means of water contact angle measurement. After simple surface modification with stearic acid and PDMS, the resulting films showed hydrophobic and even superhydrophobic characteristics due to their special surface energy and nano-microstructure morphology. Importantly, stable superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 153.5° was successfully observed for CuO-ZnO microflowers after modification with PDMS. The electrochemical impedance measurements proved that the anticorrosion efficiency for the CuO/ZnO/PDMS sample was about 99%.

  4. Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    with macroscopic reinforcements such as fiber, clay, glass mineral and other fillers. The nano-alloyed polymers are particularly useful for producing...applications, including space-sur- vivable materials and seals, gaskets, cosmetics , and personal care. 25 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets B-3 U.S. Patent Mar...the incorporation of fluorinated nanostructured chemicals onto the surface of a secondary material (such as Ti02 , CaC03 , glass or mineral

  5. Ultraviolet–Visible photo-response of p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO heterojunction prepared on flexible (PET) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfadill, Nezar G., E-mail: abualneez999@yahoo.com [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Hashim, M.R.; Saron, K.M.A.; Chahrour, Khaled M.; Qaeed, M.A. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics University Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Bououdina, M. [Nanotechnology Centre, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2015-04-15

    The deposition of monocrystalline ZnO nanostructures (using different concentration of reaction solution) on Cu{sub 2}O thin film by hydrothermal method is reported. The mechanism of growing different ZnO nanostructures i.e. nanoneedles, nanotubes and nanorods are explained based on the gradient of Zn{sup +} species (resulting from precipitation) in reaction solution. The UV-VIS photo-detection properties of the three selected p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO heterojunctions are studied by illuminated I–V characteristic and the wavelength dependent photo-responsivity properties. The spectral responsivity curves can be divided into three regions (1.9–2.17 eV), (2.2–2.9 eV) and (>3.2 eV) denoted as A, B and C. The regions A and C are assigned for band to band level absorption in Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO respectively, while region C is associated with a combination of two absorption process: part of photons were absorbed by the band to deep level absorption in ZnO and the transmitted photons were absorbed in Cu{sub 2}O. It is found that the heterojunctions with nanotubes exhibit higher responsivity than other nanostructures, which is mainly due to the large surface-to-volume ratio. - Highlights: • Fabrication of p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO heterojunction on flexible PET substrate. • Synthesis of different ZnO nanostructures i.e. nanoneedles, nanotubes and nanorods. • The UV-VIS photo-detection properties of p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO heterojunctions.

  6. Microwave assisted synthesis of porous ZnO/SnS heterojunction and its application in visible light degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makama, A. B., E-mail: abmakama@hotmail.com; Salmiaton, A., E-mail: mie@upm.edu.my; Choong, T. S. Y., E-mail: csthomas@upm.edu.my; Abdullah, N., E-mail: nhafizah@upm.edu.my [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Serdang, UPM 43400 (Malaysia); Saion, E. B., E-mail: elias@upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Serdang, UPM 43400 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Porous ZnO/SnS heterojunctions were successfully synthesized via microwave-assisted heating of aqueous solutions containing different amounts of SnS precursors (SnCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S) in the presence of fixed amount of ZnCO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The experimental results revealed that the heterojunctions exhibited much higher visible light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the ciprofloxacin than pure SnS nanocrystals. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency (1-C{sub t}/C{sub 0}) of the pollutant for the most active heterogeneous nanostructure is about four times more efficient than pure SnS. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency is ascribed to the synergic effect of high photon absorption and reduction in the recombination of electrons and holes because of efficient separation and electron transfer from the SnS to ZnO nanoparticles.

  7. A Heterojunction Based on Well-ordered Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite and Its Photovoltaic Performance%基于有机/无机杂化钙钛矿有序结构的异质结及其光伏性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志胜; 杨立功; 吴刚; 汪茫; 陈红征

    2011-01-01

    研究了一种新型的有机/无机杂化钙钛矿材料(3-BrC3H6NH3)2CuBr4薄膜的聚集态形貌和良好的微观有序性特征,霍尔迁移率测试结果表明该材料为p型半导体,空穴迁移率为0.0025 cm2·V-1·s-1.利用其在紫外-可见光谱范围内与C60薄膜具有良好的光吸收互补性,制备并研究了(3-BrC3H6NH3)2CuBr4/C60层状异质结结构中的暗态传输和光伏性能.对不同退火温度下杂化钙钛矿薄膜的聚集态特性和器件性能之间的联系进行了探讨,结果表明在低温退火条件下,由于钙钛矿结构材料中有机组分排列更加有序,器件显示更好的性能.%Aggregation morphology and microscopic ordered characterstics of a novel organic-inorganic hybrid material (3-BrC3H6NH3)2CuBr4 thin-film with perovskite structure were studied.Hall mobility test showed that the perovskite was p-type semiconductor with a hole mobility of 0.0025 cm2·V-1·s-1.The perovskite had good spectral response in the UV-Vis range with good complementarity with C60.Planar heterojunctions consisting of (3-BrC3H6NH3)2CuBr4/C60 were fabricated to study the charge transport and photovoltaic performance.The effects of annealing temperature and aggregation morphology of the films on the performance of the photovoltaic prototype were also investigated.The results showed that the best performance of the devices was obtained after the low temperature annealing treatment, which led to an ordered organic array in the perovskite.

  8. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  9. Growth of GaN@InGaN Core-Shell and Au-GaN Hybrid Nanostructures for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevye Kuykendall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a method to control the bandgap energy of GaN nanowires by forming GaN@InGaN core-shell hybrid structures using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. Furthermore, we show the growth of Au nanoparticles on the surface of GaN nanowires in solution at room temperature. The work shown here is a first step toward engineering properties that are crucial for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of photocatalytic materials. The hybrid structures were characterized by various techniques, including photoluminescence (PL, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD.

  10. Biomolecule-based nanomaterials and nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Itamar; Willner, Bilha

    2010-10-13

    Biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotube) hybrid systems provide new materials that combine the unique optical, electronic, or catalytic properties of the nanoelements with the recognition or biocatalytic functions of biomolecules. This article summarizes recent applications of biomolecule-nanoparticle (or carbon nanotubes) hybrid systems for sensing, synthesis of nanostructures, and for the fabrication of nanoscale devices. The use of metallic nanoparticles for the electrical contacting of redox enzymes with electrodes, and as catalytic labels for the development of electrochemical biosensors is discussed. Similarly, biomolecule-quantum dot hybrid systems are implemented for optical biosensing, and for monitoring intracellular metabolic processes. Also, the self-assembly of biomolecule-metal nanoparticle hybrids into nanostructures and functional nanodevices is presented. The future perspectives of the field are addressed by discussing future challenges and highlighting different potential applications.

  11. Singlet exciton fission in nanostructured organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Priya J; Mohanty, Aseema; Sussman, Jason; Lee, Jiye; Baldo, Marc A

    2011-04-13

    Singlet exciton fission is an efficient multiexciton generation process in organic molecules. But two concerns must be satisfied before it can be exploited in low-cost solution-processed organic solar cells. Fission must be combined with longer wavelength absorption in a structure that can potentially surpass the single junction limit, and its efficiency must be demonstrated in nanoscale domains within blended devices. Here, we report organic solar cells comprised of tetracene, copper phthalocyanine, and the buckyball C(60). Short wavelength light generates singlet excitons in tetracene. These are subsequently split into two triplet excitons and transported through the phthalocyanine. In addition, the phthalocyanine absorbs photons below the singlet exciton energy of tetracene. To test tetracene in nanostructured blends, we fabricate coevaporated bulk heterojunctions and multilayer heterojunctions of tetracene and C(60). We measure a singlet fission efficiency of (71 ± 18)%, demonstrating that exciton fission can efficiently compete with exciton dissociation on the nanoscale.

  12. InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A new solar cell structure called a heterojunction barrier solar cell is described. As with previously reported quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cell structures, a layer of narrow band-gap material, such as GaAs or indium-rich InGaP, is inserted into the depletion region of a wide band-gap PN junction. Rather than being thin, however, the layer of narrow band-gap material is about 400-430 nm wide and forms a single, ultrawide well in the depletion region. Thin (e.g., 20-50 nm), wide band-gap InGaP barrier layers in the depletion region reduce the diode dark current. Engineering the electric field and barrier profile of the absorber layer, barrier layer, and p-type layer of the PN junction maximizes photogenerated carrier escape. This new twist on nanostructured solar cell design allows the separate optimization of current and voltage to maximize conversion efficiency.

  13. Photosensitive and temperature-dependent I–V characteristics of p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Hao; Ai, Lei [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Li, Songzhan [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan, Hubei 430073 (China); Huang, Huihui; Mo, Xiaoming; Wang, Haoning; Chen, Zhao; Liu, Yuping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Fang, Guojia, E-mail: gjfang@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education of China, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod array heterojunction was prepared. • The heterojunction shows good morphology and crystal properties. • The diode exhibits excellent rectifying behavior. • The diode exhibits strong temperature dependent I–V properties. • The hybrid diode shows good photosensitivity under the ultraviolet irradiation. - Abstract: A p-NiO film/n-ZnO nanorod (NR) array heterojunction was prepared by deposition of NiO film on ZnO NRs using radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. The well-aligned ZnO NRs were fabricated by a simple and economic hydrothermal method on a ZnO:Al-coated glass substrate. Good morphology and crystal properties of the fabricated ZnO NRs and NiO film were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The p–n heterojunction exhibits excellent rectifying behaviour and strong temperature-dependent current–voltage properties in the range from −50 to 80 °C. The hybrid NR heterojunction diode shows good photosensitivity under the irradiation of 365 nm ultraviolet light. These results present potential applications in future microelectronic devices based on NiO films and the one-dimensional ZnO nanomaterials.

  14. Research Progress of ZnO Nanostructure/Conjugated Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells%ZnO纳米结构/聚合物杂化太阳能电池的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖

    2012-01-01

    在介绍电池基本理论和共混结构、取向结构不同特点的基础上,综述了近年来这两种不同结构纳米ZnO/聚合物杂化太阳能电池的最新研究进展.分析表明目前电池效率较低与光吸收效率较低、光谱吸收范围较窄、载流子迁移率不均衡、界面相容性较差等问题有关.%The progress of photovoltaic devices based on conjugated ZnO nanostructures/ conjugated polymer are reviewed as well as the working mechanism and the types of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. Finally, the problems of low efficiency and narrow spectral absorption, unbalanced carrier mobility and interfacial compatibity are presented.

  15. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  16. Hybrid nanostructures of well-organized arrays of colloidal quantum dots and a self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles for enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoying; McBride, Sean P.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprised of well-organized arrays of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in close proximity to metal nanoparticles (NPs) represent an appealing system for high-performance, spectrum-tunable photon sources with controlled photoluminescence. Experimental realization of such materials requires well-defined QD arrays and precisely controlled QD-metal interspacing. This long-standing challenge is tackled through a strategy that synergistically combines lateral confinement and vertical stacking. Lithographically generated nanoscale patterns with tailored surface chemistry confine the QDs into well-organized arrays with high selectivity through chemical pattern directed assembly, while subsequent coating with a monolayer of close-packed Au NPs introduces the plasmonic component for fluorescence enhancement. The results show uniform fluorescence emission in large-area ordered arrays for the fabricated QD structures and demonstrate five-fold fluorescence amplification for red, yellow, and green QDs in the presence of the Au NP monolayer. Encapsulation of QDs with a silica shell is shown to extend the design space for reliable QD/metal coupling with stronger enhancement of 11 times through the tuning of QD-metal spatial separation. This approach provides new opportunities for designing hybrid nanomaterials with tailored array structures and multiple functionalities for applications such as multiplexed optical coding, color display, and quantum transduction.

  17. Directly Grown Nanostructured Electrodes for High Volumetric Energy Density Binder-Free Hybrid Supercapacitors: A Case Study of CNTs//Li4Ti5O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenhua; Wang, Chong; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid supercapacitor (HSC), which typically consists of a Li-ion battery electrode and an electric double-layer supercapacitor electrode, has been extensively investigated for large-scale applications such as hybrid electric vehicles, etc. Its application potential for thin-film downsized energy storage systems that always prefer high volumetric energy/power densities, however, has not yet been explored. Herein, as a case study, we develop an entirely binder-free HSC by using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) network film as the cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanowire array as the anode and study the volumetric energy storage capability. Both the electrode materials are grown directly on carbon cloth current collector, ensuring robust mechanical/electrical contacts and flexibility. Our 3 V HSC device exhibits maximum volumetric energy density of ~4.38 mWh cm-3, much superior to those of previous supercapacitors based on thin-film electrodes fabricated directly on carbon cloth and even comparable to the commercial thin-film lithium battery. It also has volumetric power densities comparable to that of the commercial 5.5 V/100 mF supercapacitor (can be operated within 3 s) and has excellent cycling stability (~92% retention after 3000 cycles). The concept of utilizing binder-free electrodes to construct HSC for thin-film energy storage may be readily extended to other HSC electrode systems.

  18. Pulse electrosynthesis of novel wormlike gadolinium oxide nanostructure and its nanocomposite with conjugated electroactive polymer as a hybrid and high efficient electrode material for energy storage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Hamid Mohammad; Ehsani, Ali

    2016-12-15

    An effective approach for increasing the life cycle of pure p-type conductive polymers is combining conventional conductive polymers and nanomaterials to fabricate hybrid electrodes. In this paper, Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) has first been synthesized using pulse electrochemical approach. Hybrid POAP/Gd2O3 films have then been fabricated by POAP electropolymerization in the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles as active electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors. Surface and electrochemical analyses have been used for characterization of Gd2O3 and POAP/Gd2O3 composite films. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been applied to study the system performance. Specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of the composite film are calculated 300F·g(-1), 41.66Wh·kg(-1) and 833.22W·kg(-1) respectively. This work introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with such advantages as the ease of synthesis, high active surface area and stability in an aqueous electrolyte.

  19. Oxygen- and Lithium-Doped Hybrid Boron-Nitride/Carbon Networks for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeganfar, Farzaneh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-12-20

    Hydrogen storage capacities have been studied on newly designed three-dimensional pillared boron nitride (PBN) and pillared graphene boron nitride (PGBN). We propose these novel materials based on the covalent connection of BNNTs and graphene sheets, which enhance the surface and free volume for storage within the nanomaterial and increase the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen uptake capacities. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations show that these lithium- and oxygen-doped pillared structures have improved gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen capacities at room temperature, with values on the order of 9.1-11.6 wt % and 40-60 g/L. Our findings demonstrate that the gravimetric uptake of oxygen- and lithium-doped PBN and PGBN has significantly enhanced the hydrogen sorption and desorption. Calculations for O-doped PGBN yield gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacities greater than 11.6 wt % at room temperature. This increased value is attributed to the pillared morphology, which improves the mechanical properties and increases porosity, as well as the high binding energy between oxygen and GBN. Our results suggest that hybrid carbon/BNNT nanostructures are an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage, owing to the combination of the electron mobility of graphene and the polarized nature of BN at heterojunctions, which enhances the uptake capacity, providing ample opportunities to further tune this hybrid material for efficient hydrogen storage.

  20. DNA nanostructure meets nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guomei; Surwade, Sumedh P; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Haitao

    2013-04-07

    Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology have made it possible to construct DNA nanostructures of almost arbitrary shapes with 2-3 nm of precision in their dimensions. These DNA nanostructures are ideal templates for bottom-up nanofabrication. This review highlights the challenges and recent advances in three areas that are directly related to DNA-based nanofabrication: (1) fabrication of large scale DNA nanostructures; (2) pattern transfer from DNA nanostructure to an inorganic substrate; and (3) directed assembly of DNA nanostructures.

  1. Photoelectric characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamei, Wu; Ruixia, Yang; Hanmin, Tian; Shuai, Chen

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film is prepared on p-type silicon substrate using the one-step solution method to form a CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction. The film morphology and structure are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photoelectric properties of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction are studied by testing the current-voltage (I-V) with and without illumination and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. It turns out from the I-V curve without illumination that the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction has a rectifier feature with the rectification ratio over 70 at the bias of ±5 V. Also, there appears a photoelectric conversion phenomenon on this heterojunction with a short circuit current (Isc) of 0.16 μA and an open circuit voltage (Voc) of about 10 mV The high frequency C-V characteristic of the Ag/CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction turns out to be similar to that of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, and a parallel translation of the C-V curve along the forward voltage axis is found. This parallel translation means the existence of defects at the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si interface and positive fixed charges in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer. The defects at the interface of the CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction result in the dramatic decline of the Voc. Besides, the C-V test of CH3NH3PbI3 film shows a non-linear dielectric property and the dielectric value is about 4.64 as calculated. Project supported by the Hebei Province Natural Science Foundation of China (No. F2014202184) and the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 15JCZDJC37800).

  2. A new chemical route to a hybrid nanostructure: room-temperature solid-state reaction synthesis of Ag@AgCl with efficient photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Cao, Yali

    2012-08-07

    The room-temperature solid-state chemical reaction technique has been used to synthesize the silver nanoparticle-loaded semiconductor silver@silver chloride for the first time. It has the advantages of convenient operation, lower cost, less pollution, and mass production. This simple technique created a wide array of nanosized silver particles which had a strong surface plasmon resonance effect in the visible region, and built up an excellent composite structure of silver@silver chloride hybrid which exhibited high photocatalytic activity and stability towards decomposition of organic methyl orange under visible-light illumination. Moreover, this work achieved the control of composition of the silver@silver chloride composite simply by adjusting the feed ratio of reactants. It offers an alternative method for synthesising metal@semiconductor composites.

  3. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  4. Large Spatially Resolved Rectification in a Donor-Acceptor Molecular Heterojunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Joseph A; Giebink, Noel C; Guisinger, Nathan P; Darancet, Pierre; Guest, Jeffrey R

    2016-04-13

    We demonstrate that rectification ratios (RR) of ≳250 (≳1000) at biases of 0.5 V (1.2 V) are achievable at the two-molecule limit for donor-acceptor bilayers of pentacene on C60 on Cu using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and microscopy. Using first-principles calculations, we show that the system behaves as a molecular Schottky diode with a tunneling transport mechanism from semiconducting pentacene to Cu-hybridized metallic C60. Low-bias RRs vary by two orders-of-magnitude at the edge of these molecular heterojunctions due to increased Stark shifts and confinement effects.

  5. Self-assembled, nanowire network electrodes for depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2013-01-06

    Herein, a solution-processed, bottom-up-fabricated, nanowire network electrode is developed. This electrode features a ZnO template which is converted into locally connected, infiltratable, TiO2 nanowires. This new electrode is used to build a depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell employing hybrid-passivated colloidal quantum dots. The new electrode allows the application of a thicker, and thus more light-absorbing, colloidal quantum dot active layer, from which charge extraction of an efficiency comparable to that obtained from a thinner, planar device could be obtained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The field-dependent interface recombination velocity for organic-inorganic heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmytkowski, Jędrzej

    2016-10-01

    We have derived an analytical formula which describes the field-dependent interface recombination velocity for the boundary of two materials characterized by different permittivities. The interface recombination of charge carriers has been considered in the presence of image force Schottky barrier. We suggest that this effect may play an important role in the loss of current for organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions. It has been proved that the presented method is a generalization of the Scott-Malliaras model of surface recombination at the organic/metal interface. We also discuss that this model is intuitively similar but not analogous to the Langevin mechanism of bulk recombination.

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chaosheng; Wu, Zhudong; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2014-11-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was hybridized by In2S3 to form a novel In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst via a hydrothermal method. TEM and HRTEM results reveal that In2S3 nanoparticles and g-C3N4 closely contact with each other to form an intimate interface. The as-obtained In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than those of pure g-C3N4 and In2S3 for the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions could be attributed to its wide absorption in the visible region and efficient electron-hole separation. On the basis of radical scavenger experiments, superoxide radicals and holes are suggested to play a critical role in RhB degradation over In2S3/g-C3N4 heterojunctions.

  8. Morphology Control in co-evaporated bulk heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacik, P; Assender, HE; Watt, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction solar cells made by vacuum co-evaporation of polythiophene (PTh) and fullerene (C60) are reported and the blend morphology control through donor-acceptor composition and post-situ annealing demonstrated. Co-deposited heterojunctions are shown to generate about 60% higher photocurrents than their thickness-optimized PTh/C60 planar heterojunction counterparts. Furthermore, by annealing the devices post-situ the power conversion efficiency is improved by as much as 80%. UV-vi...

  9. Ultrasonic treatment of CoFe2O4@B2O3-SiO2 as a new hybrid magnetic composite nanostructure and catalytic application in the synthesis of dihydroquinazolinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Ali; Aghaei, Morteza; Hafizi-Atabak, Hamid Reza; Ferdowsi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    New hybrid magnetic composite nanostructure are prepared via ultrasonic treatment by glass-ceramic method, characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), element distribution image (EDX mapping), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) and N2 adsorption-desorption by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. Then, the catalytic activity of the prepared CoFe2O4@B2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles was tested in the synthesis of 2-substituted-3-(phenylamino)-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones in deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on choline chloride as an eco-friendly and recyclable media. This novel protocol offers several advantages such as high yields (70-93%), short reaction times (10-20min), environmentally-friendly reaction media, easily isolation of the products, simple preparation and recoverability of the nanocatalysts (at least 5 times), recyclability of the solvents from the reaction mixture without use of hazardous volatile organic solvent. The catalyst was readily recycled by the use of an external magnetic field and could be reused several times without significant loss of activity or mass. The saturation magnetization of CoFe2O4@B2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles was 8.97emug(-1). Their average size distribution was about 12.5nm. DES was a mixture of choline chloride and urea that was recovered from the filtrate by evaporating the water under vacuum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Photovoltaic effects in II-VI heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bube, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Photovoltaic effects have been investigated in II-VI heterojunctions prepared by close-space vapor transport, vacuum evaporation, spray pyrolysis and sputtering. Solar efficiencies of about 8% have been measured for the following systems: (a) n-CdS film deposited on single crystal p-CdTe by vacuum evaporation, (b) n-ZnCdS film deposited on single crystal p-CdTe by spray pyrolysis, and (c) n-Indium-Tin Oxide film deposited on single crystal p-CdTe by sputtering in an inert atmosphere. Open-circuit voltages greater than 0.8 V have been measured in heterojunctions of type (b) and (c), as well as in CdTe p-n homojunctions produced by ion implantation.

  11. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  12. Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipika; Satsangi, Vibha R.; Dass Kaura, Sahab; Shrivastav, Rohit; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2016-10-01

    Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment Dipika Sharmaa, Vibha R. Satsangib, Rohit Shrivastava, Umesh V. Waghmarec, Sahab Dassa aDepartment of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) bDepartment of Physics and Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) cTheoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560 064 (India) * Phone: +91-9219695960. Fax: +91-562-2801226. E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com. Study on photoelectrochemical activity of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction has been carried out using DFT based band offsets and charge carriers effective mass calculations and their experimental verification. The results of DFT calculations show that BaTiO3 and Cu2O have staggered type band alignment after the heterojunction formation and high mobility of electrons in Cu2O as compared to the electrons in BaTiO3. Staggered type band edges alignment and high mobility of electrons and holes improved the separation of photo-generated charge carriers in BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction. To validate the theoretical results experiments were carried out on pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction with varying thickness of Cu2O. All samples were characterized by X- Ray Diffractometer, SEM and UV-Vis spectrometry. Nanostructured thin films of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 1.44 mA/cm2 at 0.90 V/SCE was exhibited by 442 nm thick BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction photoelectrode Increased photocurrent density and enhanced photoconversion efficiency, exhibited by the heterojunction may be attributed to improved conductivity and enhanced separation of the photogenerated carriers at the BaTiO3/Cu2O interface. The experimental results and first

  13. Bifunctional sensor of pentachlorophenol and copper ions based on nanostructured hybrid films of humic acid and exfoliated layered double hydroxide via a facile layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuang; Peng, Dinghua; Hu, Xianluo; Gong, Jingming

    2013-06-27

    A new, highly sensitive bifunctional electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper ions (Cu(2+)) has been developed, where organic-inorganic hybrid ultrathin films were fabricated by alternate assembly of humic acid (HA) and exfoliated Mg-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets onto ITO substrates via a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. The multilayer films were then characterized by means of UV-vis spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM). These films were found to have a relatively smooth surface with almost equal amounts of HA incorporated in each cycle. Its electrochemical performance was systematically investigated. Our results demonstrate that such a newly designed (LDH/HA)n multilayer films, combining the individual properties of HA (dual recognition ability for organic herbicides and metal ions) together with LDH nanosheets (a rigid inorganic matrix), can be applied to the simultaneous analysis of PCP and Cu(II) without interference from each other. The LBL assembled nanoarchitectures were further investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), which provides insight for bifunctional sensing behavior. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.4 nM PCP, well below the guideline value of PCP in drinking water (3.7 nM) set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), and 2.0 nM Cu(2+), much below the guideline value (2.0 mg L(-1), ~31.2 nM) from the World Health Organization (WHO), respectively. Toward the goal for practical applications, this simple and cost-effective probe was further evaluated by monitoring PCP and Cu(II) in water samples.

  14. Depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhouse, D.A.R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598 (United States); Debnath, Ratan; Kramer, Illan J.; Zhitomirsky, David; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Quantum Solar Power Corporation, 1055 W. Hastings, Ste. 300, Vancouver, BC, V6E 2E9 (Canada); Etgar, Lioz; Graetzel, Michael [Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, School of Basic Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Silicon:Colloidal Quantum Dot Heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Masala, Silvia

    2015-10-13

    A heterojunction between crystalline silicon and colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is realized. A special interface modification is developed to overcome an inherent energetic band mismatch between the two semiconductors, and realize the efficient collection of infrared photocarriers generated in the CQD film. This junction is used to produce a sensitive near infrared photodetector. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Depleted Bulk Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2011-05-26

    The first solution-processed depleted bulk heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells are presented. The architecture allows for high absorption with full depletion, thereby breaking the photon absorption/carrier extraction compromise inherent in planar devices. A record power conversion of 5.5% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions is reported. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 25th anniversary article: Bulk heterojunction solar cells: understanding the mechanism of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeger, Alan J

    2014-01-08

    The status of understanding of the operation of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is reviewed. Because the carrier photoexcitation recombination lengths are typically 10 nm in these disordered materials, the length scale for self-assembly must be of order 10-20 nm. Experiments have verified the existence of the BHJ nanostructure, but the morphology remains complex and a limiting factor. Three steps are required for generation of electrical power: i) absorption of photons from the sun; ii) photoinduced charge separation and the generation of mobile carriers; iii) collection of electrons and holes at opposite electrodes. The ultrafast charge transfer process arises from fundamental quantum uncertainty; mobile carriers are directly generated (electrons in the acceptor domains and holes in the donor domains) by the ultrafast charge transfer (≈70%) with ≈30% generated by exciton diffusion to a charge separating heterojunction. Sweep-out of the mobile carriers by the internal field prior to recombination is essential for high performance. Bimolecular recombination dominates in materials where the donor and acceptor phases are pure. Impurities degrade performance by introducing Shockly-Read-Hall decay. The review concludes with a summary of the problems to be solved to achieve the predicted power conversion efficiencies of >20% for a single cell.

  18. Nanostructured Silicon Used for Flexible and Mobile Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoquan; Shao, Mingwang; Lee, Shuitong

    2016-12-01

    The use of nanostructured silicon for the generation of electricity in flexible and mobile devices is reviewed. This field has attracted widespread interest in recent years due to the emergence of plastic electronics. Such developments are likely to alter the nature of power sources in the near future. For example, flexible photovoltaic cells can supply electricity to rugged and collapsible electronics, biomedical devices, and conformable solar panels that are integrated with the curved surfaces of vehicles or buildings. Here, the unique optical and electrical properties of nanostructured silicon are examined, with regard to how they can be exploited in flexible photovoltaics, thermoelectric generators, and piezoelectric devices, which serve as power generators. Particular emphasis is placed on organic-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic devices, silicon-nanowire-based thermoelectric generators, and core-shell silicon/silicon oxide nanowire-based piezoelectric devices, because they are flexible, lightweight, and portable.

  19. Charge separation sensitized by advanced II-VI semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, David F. [Univ.of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This proposal focuses on how the composition and morphology of pure and alloyed II-VI semiconductor heterostructures control their spectroscopic and dynamical properties. The proposed research will use a combination of synthesis development, electron microscopy, time-resolved electronic spectroscopy and modeling calculations to study these nanostructures. The proposed research will examine the extent to which morphology, compression due to lattice mismatch and alloy effects can be used to tune the electron and hole energies and the spectroscopic properties of II-VI heterojunctions. It will also use synthesis, optical spectroscopy and HRTEM to examine the role of lattice mismatch and hence lattice strain in producing interfacial defects, and the extent to which defect formation can be prevented by controlling the composition profile through the particles and across the interfaces. Finally, we will study the magnitude of the surface roughness in core/shell nanostructures and the role of shell thickness variability on the inhomogeneity of interfacial charge transfer rates.

  20. Piezoelectric two-dimensional nanosheets/anionic layer heterojunction for efficient direct current power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kumar, Brijesh; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jun, Hoin; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-06-01

    Direct current (DC) piezoelectric power generator is promising for the miniaturization of a power package and self-powering of nanorobots and body-implanted devices. Hence, we report the first use of two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure and an anionic nanoclay layer to generate piezoelectric DC output power. The device, made from 2D nanosheets and an anionic nanoclay layer heterojunction, has potential to be the smallest size power package, and could be used to charge wireless nano/micro scale systems without the use of rectifier circuits to convert alternating current into DC to store the generated power. The combined effect of buckling behaviour of the ZnO nanosheets, a self-formed anionic nanoclay layer, and coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanosheets contributes to efficient DC power generation. The networked ZnO nanosheets proved to be structurally stable under huge external mechanical loads.

  1. Piezoelectric two-dimensional nanosheets/anionic layer heterojunction for efficient direct current power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kumar, Brijesh; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jun, Hoin; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Direct current (DC) piezoelectric power generator is promising for the miniaturization of a power package and self-powering of nanorobots and body-implanted devices. Hence, we report the first use of two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure and an anionic nanoclay layer to generate piezoelectric DC output power. The device, made from 2D nanosheets and an anionic nanoclay layer heterojunction, has potential to be the smallest size power package, and could be used to charge wireless nano/micro scale systems without the use of rectifier circuits to convert alternating current into DC to store the generated power. The combined effect of buckling behaviour of the ZnO nanosheets, a self-formed anionic nanoclay layer, and coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanosheets contributes to efficient DC power generation. The networked ZnO nanosheets proved to be structurally stable under huge external mechanical loads.

  2. Towards stable silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, W W; Wu, K J; Wang, K; Shi, T F; Wu, L; Li, S X; Teng, D Y; Ye, C H

    2014-01-16

    Silicon nanoarray hybrid solar cells benefit from the ease of fabrication and the cost-effectiveness of the hybrid structure, and represent a new research focus towards the utilization of solar energy. However, hybrid solar cells composed of both inorganic and organic components suffer from the notorious stability issue, which has to be tackled before the hybrid solar cells could become a viable alternative for harvesting solar energy. Here we show that Si nanoarray/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with improved stability can be fabricated via eliminating the water inclusion in the initial formation of the heterojunction between Si nanoarray and PEDOT:PSS. The Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells are stable against rapid degradation in the atmosphere environment for several months without encapsulation. This finding paves the way towards the real-world applications of Si nanoarray hybrid solar cells.

  3. Rational Design of Zinc Phosphide Heterojunction Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Jeffrey Paul

    The prospect of terawatt-scale electricity generation using a photovoltaic (PV) device places strict requirements on the active semiconductor optoelectronic properties and elemental abundance. After reviewing the constraints placed on an ``earth-abundant'' solar absorber, we find zinc phosphide (α-Zn 3P2) to be an ideal candidate. In addition to its near-optimal direct band gap of 1.5 eV, high visible-light absorption coefficient (>10. 4cm-1), and long minority-carrier diffusion length (>5 μm), Zn3P 2 is composed of abundant Zn and P elements and has excellent physical properties for scalable thin-film deposition. However, to date, a Zn 3P2 device of sufficient efficiency for commercial applications has not been demonstrated. Record efficiencies of 6.0% for multicrystalline and 4.3% for thin-film cells have been reported, respectively. Performance has been limited by the intrinsic p-type conductivity of Zn3P 2 which restricts us to Schottky and heterojunction device designs. Due to our poor understanding of Zn3P2 interfaces, an ideal heterojunction partner has not yet been found. The goal of this thesis is to explore the upper limit of solar conversion efficiency achievable with a Zn3P2 absorber through the design of an optimal heterojunction PV device. To do so, we investigate three key aspects of material growth, interface energetics, and device design. First, the growth of Zn3P2 on GaAs(001) is studied using compound-source molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). We successfully demonstrate the pseudomorphic growth of Zn3P2 epilayers of controlled orientation and optoelectronic properties. Next, the energy-band alignments of epitaxial Zn3P2 and II-VI and III-V semiconductor interfaces are measured via high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the most appropriate heterojunction partner. From this work, we identify ZnSe as a nearly ideal n-type emitter for a Zn3P 2 PV device. Finally, various II-VI/Zn3P2 heterojunction solar cells designs are

  4. Flexible diode of polyaniline/ITO heterojunction on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A.; Deb, K.; Kathirvel, V.; Bera, T.; Thapa, R.; Saha, B.

    2017-10-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic heterojunction between polyaniline and ITO film coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate has been prepared through vapor phase polymerization process. Polaron and bipolaron like defect states induced hole transport and exceptional mobility makes polyaniline a noble hole transport layer. Thus a p-n junction has been obtained between the hole transport layer of polyaniline and highly conductive n-type layer of ITO film. The synthesis process was carried out using FeCl3 as polymerizing agent in the oxidative chemical polymerization process. The prepared polyaniline has been found to be crystalline on characterization through X-ray diffraction measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements were done for compositional analysis of the prepared film. The UV-vis-NIR absorbance spectra obtained for polyaniline shows the characteristics absorbance as observed for highly conductive polyaniline and confirms the occurrence of partially oxidized emeraldine form of polyaniline. The energy band gap of the polyaniline has been obtained as 2.52 eV, by analyzing the optical transmittance spectra. A rectifying behavior has been observed in the electrical J-V plot, which is of great significance in designing polymer based flexible electronic devices.

  5. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    ...% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solution-Processed H-2-Evolving Photocathodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Gomulya, Widianta; Berghuis, Matthijs; Protesescu, Loredana; Detz, Remko J.; Reek, Joost N. H.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report for the first time an H-2-evolving photocathode fabricated by a solution-processed organic inorganic hybrid composed of CdSe and P3HT. The CdSe:P3HT (10:1 (w/w)) hybrid bulk heterojunction treated with 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT) showed efficient water reduction and hydrogen generation. A

  7. The Physics and Applications of a 3D Plasmonic Nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Brandon B.

    In this work, the dynamics of electromagnetic field interactions with free electrons in a 3D metallic nanostructure is evaluated theoretically. This dissertation starts by reviewing the relevant fundamentals of plasmonics and modern applications of plasmonic systems. Then, motivated by the need to have a simpler way of understanding the surface charge dynamics on complex plasmonic nanostructures, a new plasmon hybridization tree method is introduced. This method provides the plasmonicist with an intuitive way to determine the response of free electrons to incident light in complex nanostructures within the electrostatic regime. Next, a novel 3D plasmonic nanostructure utilizing reflective plasmonic coupling is designed to perform biosensing and plasmonic tweezing applications. By applying analytical and numerical methods, the effectiveness of this nanostructure at performing these applications is determined from the plasmonic response of the nanostructure to an excitation beam of coherent light. During this analysis, it was discovered that under certain conditions, this 3D nanostructure exhibits a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference of an in-plane dark mode and an out-of-plane bright mode. In evaluating this nanostructure for sensing changes in the local dielectric environment, a figure of merit of 68 is calculated, which is competitive with current localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensors. By evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor on a test particle in the vicinity of the nanostructure, it was found that under the right conditions, this plasmonic nanostructure design is capable of imparting forces greater than 10.5 nN on dielectric objects of nanoscale dimensions. The results obtained in these studies provides new routes to the design and engineering of 3D plasmonic nanostructures and Fano resonances in these systems. In addition, the nanostructure presented in this work and the design principles it utilizes have shown

  8. DNA nanostructure immobilization to lithographic DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Omar D.

    Although DNA is well known for its genetic role in biology, DNA has also been sought-after as a material for the self-assembly of biological and electronic devices. Examples of DNA nanostructure construction include DNA tiled self-assembly and DNA Origami, where by controlling the sequence and concentration of DNA molecules, the rational design of geometric DNA nanostructures is possible. The assembly of DNA nanostructures takes place in solution and thus they are in disorder and require further organization to construct circuitry or devices. Hence, it is essential for future applications of this technology to develop methods to direct the placement of DNA nanostructures on a surface. To address this challenge my research examines the use of DNA microarrays to capture DNA nanostructures via DNA hybridization. Modern DNA arrays offer a high-density of sequence-specific molecular recognition sites where the addressable placement of DNA nanostructures can be achieved. Using Maskless Array Synthesizer (MAS) technology, I have characterized photolithographic DNA arrays for the hybridization of DNA complexes like large DNA molecules (> 1 kb), DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates, and DNA Origami. Although modern photolithographic DNA arrays can possess a high-density of sequence (106/cm2), the printed DNA areas are on the order of tens of microns. Thus, I have also developed a method to reduce the DNA array spot size to nanoscale dimensions through the combined use of electron beam lithography with photolithographic DNA synthesis. This work addresses the key elements towards developing a surface patterning technology that takes advantage of DNA base-pairing for both molecular sub-assembly and surface patterning.

  9. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  10. Photovoltage analysis of a heterojunction solar cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Chao; Yao Ruo-He; Geng Kui-Wei

    2011-01-01

    According to the p-n junction model of Shockley, the relationship between the equilibrium carrier concentrations of n-type and p-type semiconductors on the edges of the depletion region of a p-n junction solar cell is analysed. The calculation results show that the photovoltage can exceed the built-in voltage for a special kind of heterojunction solar cell. When the photovoltage exceeds the built-in voltage under illumination, the dark current and the photocurrent are impeded by the peak of voltage barrier at the interface and the expression of the total Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristic is given.

  11. One-dimensional densely aligned perovskite-decorated semiconductor heterojunctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengye; Zheng, Dajiang; Ye, Meidan; Zhang, Chuchu; Xu, Binbin; Lin, Changjian; Sun, Lan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2015-03-25

    By using one-dimensional rutile TiO(2) nanorod arrays as the structure-directing scaffold as well as the TiO(2) source to two consecutive hydrothermal reactions, densely aligned SrTiO(3) -modified rutile TiO(2) heterojunction photocatalysts are crafted for the first time. The first hydrothermal processing yielded nanostructured rutile TiO(2) with the hollow openings on the top of nanorods (i.e., partially etched rutile TiO(2) nanorod arrays; denoted PE-TNRAs). The subsequent second hydrothermal treatment in the presence of Sr(2+) transforms the surface of partially etched rutile TiO(2) nanorods into SrTiO(3) nanoparticles via the concurrent dissolution of TiO(2) and precipitation of SrTiO(3) while retaining the cylindrical shape (i.e., forming SrTiO(3) -decorated rutile TiO(2) composite nanorods; denoted STO-TNRAs). The structural and composition characterizations substantiate the success in achieving STO-TNRA nanostructures. In comparison to PE-TNRAs, STO-TNRA photocatalysts exhibit higher photocurrents and larger photocatalytic degradation rates of methylene blue (3.21 times over PE-TNRAs) under UV light illumination as a direct consequence of improved charge carrier mobility and enhanced electron/hole separation. Such 1D perovskite-decorated semiconductor nanoarrays are very attractive for optoelectronic applications in photovoltaics, photocatalytic hydrogen production, among other areas.

  12. Effect of annealing copper phthalocyanine on the performance of interdigitated bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N. N.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, Z. L.; Jiang, Y. D.

    2012-05-01

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with improved efficiency using thermal annealing-induced nanostructured copper phthalocyanine as a donor layer were fabricated. A power conversion efficiency of 1.47% in the OPV cell with interdigitated CuPc/C60 bulk heterojunction has been obtained under AM 1.5 solar illumination at an intensity of 100 mW/cm2, which is higher than 0.63% of CuPc/C60 planar cell. Through varying the annealing temperature of CuPc films, the influence of interface morphology and crystallinity of CuPc films on the performance of OPV cells was systematically studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrophotometry were used to characterize the CuPc films. The results showed that at an optimal annealing temperature, the crystalline nature and vertical orientation of nanostructured CuPc have been modified, which can facilitate the separation of interfacial electron-hole pairs and charge carrier transport to electrodes.

  13. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  14. DNA-templated three-branched nanostructures for nanoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Héctor A; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Wheeler, Dean R; Davis, Robert C; Harb, John N; Woolley, Adam T

    2005-03-09

    Three-branched DNA molecules have been designed and assembled from oligonucleotide components. These nucleic acid constructs contain double- and single-stranded regions that control the hybridization behavior of the assembly. Specific localization of a single streptavidin molecule at the center of the DNA complex has been investigated as a model system for the directed placement of nanostructures. Highly selective silver and copper metallization of the DNA template has also been characterized. Specific hybridization of these DNA complexes to oligonucleotide-coupled nanostructures followed by metallization should provide a bottom-up self-assembly route for the fabrication and characterization of discrete three-terminal nanodevices.

  15. Photosynthetic reaction centers/ITO hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Tibor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Bencsik, Gabor [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Magyar, Melinda [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Visy, Csaba [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Gingl, Zoltan [Department of Technical Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Krisztina; Varo, Gyoergy [Institute of Biophysics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Biological Research Center, Szeged (Hungary); Hajdu, Kata; Kozak, Gabor [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Nagy, Laszlo, E-mail: lnagy@sol.cc.u-szeged.hu [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary)

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic reaction center proteins purified from Rhodobacter sphaeroides purple bacterium were deposited on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO), a transparent conductive oxide, and the photochemical/-physical properties of the composite were investigated. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that the RC was active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the ITO. The electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytine absorption at 771 nm showed an increased electric field perturbation around this chromophore on the surface of ITO compared to the one measured in solution. This absorption change is associated with the charge-compensating relaxation events inside the protein. Similar life time, but smaller magnitude of this absorption change was measured on the surface of borosilicate glass. The light induced change in the conductivity of the composite as a function of the concentration showed the typical sigmoid saturation characteristics unlike if the photochemically inactive chlorophyll was layered on the ITO. In this later case the light induced change in the conductivity was oppositely proportional to the chlorophyll concentration due to the thermal dissipation of the excitation energy. The sensitivity of the measurement is very high; few picomole RC can change the light induced resistance of the composite. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photosynthetic reaction center/ITO nanocomposite has been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite showed photochemical/-physical activity with very high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This new type of material can be a good model of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Transport through hybrid superconducting/normal nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterer, David

    2013-01-29

    We mainly investigate transport through interacting quantum dots proximized by superconductors. For this purpose we extend an existing theory to describe transport through proximized quantum dots coupled to normal and superconducting leads. It allows us to study the influence of a strong Coulomb interaction on Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This is a particularly interesting topic because it combines two competing properties: in superconductors Cooper pairs are formed by two electrons which experience an attractive interaction while two electrons located on a quantum dot repel each other due to the Coulomb interaction. It seems at first glance that transport processes involving Cooper pairs should be suppressed because of the two competing interactions. However, it is possible to proximize the dot in nonequilibrium situations. At first, we study a setup composed of a quantum dot coupled to one normal, one ferromagnetic, and one superconducting lead in the limit of an infinitely-large superconducting gap. Within this limit the coupling between dot and superconductor is described exactly by the presented theory. It leads to the formation of Andreev-bound states (ABS) and an additional bias scheme opens in which a pure spin current, i.e. a spin current with a vanishing associated charge current, can be generated. In a second work, starting from the infinite-gap limit, we perform a systematic expansion of the superconducting gap around infinity and investigate Andreev currents and Josephson currents. This allows us to estimate the validity of infinite-gap calculations for real systems in which the superconducting gap is usually a rather small quantity. We find indications that a finite gap renormalizes the ABS and propose a resummation approach to explore the finite-gap ABS. Despite the renormalization effects the modifications of transport by finite gaps are rather small. This result lets us conclude that the infinite-gap calculation is a valuable tool to study transport through proximized interacting quantum dots. Not only does a finite superconducting gap give rise to renormalization effects but also the coupling to the normal lead can evoke renormalizations. To explore these we calculate the correction terms arising from the coupling to the normal lead and identify renormalizations of the 0-{pi} transitions of the Josephson current, the extrema of the Andreev current, and the average dot charge. In the previous works the occurring normal conducting leads are assumed to be metallic so that the shape of the band structure can be neglected. If the normal conducting region is a semiconductor, the shape of the band structure plays an important role. In our last calculation we consider a p-type semiconductor-superconductor interface and study oblique injections of light holes and heavy holes. Solving the Bogolyubov-de Gennes equations for a 6 x 6 Kane model we find that light holes and heavy holes can be Andreev reflected and in this process converted into each other. Moreover, in perpendicular incidence heavy holes cannot be Andreev reflected. Two types of critical angles occur. First, a critical angle above which conversion-less Andreev reflection is no longer possible and, second, a critical angle above which heavy holes cannot be converted into light holes anymore.

  17. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  18. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  19. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  20. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M C; Sariciftci, N S

    2013-12-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10-15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley-Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices.

  1. Topologically Matching Supramolecular n/p-Heterojunction Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhosale, Rajesh; Perez-Velasco, Alejandro; Ravikumar, Velayutham; Kishore, Ravuri S. K.; Kel, Oksana; Gomez-Casado, Alberto; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Huskens, Jurriaan; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal; Sawada, Tomohisa; Vauthey, Eric; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Matching matters when building supramolecular n/p-heterojunction photosystems on solid supports that excel with efficient photocurrent generation, important critical thickness, smooth surfaces, and flawless responsiveness to functional probes for the existence of operational intra- and interlayer re

  2. Efficiency of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharber, M.C.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last years the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells has been improved significantly. For a large-scale application of this technology further improvements are required. This article reviews the basic working principles and the state of the art device design of bulk heterojunction solar cells. The importance of high power conversion efficiencies for the commercial exploitation is outlined and different efficiency models for bulk heterojunction solar cells are discussed. Assuming state of the art materials and device architectures several models predict power conversion efficiencies in the range of 10–15%. A more general approach assuming device operation close to the Shockley–Queisser-limit leads to even higher efficiencies. Bulk heterojunction devices exhibiting only radiative recombination of charge carriers could be as efficient as ideal inorganic photovoltaic devices. PMID:24302787

  3. HETEROJUNCTION DIODES OF POROUS SILICON WITH SOLUBLE POLYANILINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-hua Fan; Mei-xiang Wan; Dao-ben Zhu

    1999-01-01

    Two kinds of heterojunction diodes of porous silicon (PS) with soluble polyaniline (PANI) were fabricated. One is a heterojunction diode of PS with water-soluble copolymer of polyaniline(PAOABSA),Al/PS-PAOABSA/Au cell as rectifying diode. Another is a heterojunction diode of PS with soluble polyaniline doped with DBSA, Al/PS-PANI (DBSA)/Au cell as light emitting diode (LED). The rectifying characteristics of the rectifying diodes were measured as a function of the degree of sulfonation and thickness of the copolymers, as well as oxidation of PS. The rectifying ratio of the heterojunction can reach 5.0×104 at ±3 V bias. For the LED, the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra were measured and discussed.

  4. ZnTe/CdTe thin-film heterojunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolesnyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the structural and electrophysical properties of the ZnTe/CdTe heterojunctions, obtained by the method of thermal evaporation in quasi-closed volume. Investigations allowed to define the films structural parameters, such as texture, lattice constant, sizes of grains and coherent-scattering domains, micro-deformation level, and their dependence on the conditions of films production as well. Electrophysical investigations allowed to define the charge-transport mechanism in heterojunction.

  5. Recent Advances in Interface Engineering for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells are considered as one of the most promising next-generation solar cells due to their advantages of low-cost precursors, high power conversion efficiency (PCE and easy of processing. In the past few years, the PCEs have climbed from a few to over 20% for perovskite solar cells. Recent developments demonstrate that perovskite exhibits ambipolar semiconducting characteristics, which allows for the construction of planar heterojunction (PHJ perovskite solar cells. PHJ perovskite solar cells can avoid the use of high-temperature sintered mesoporous metal oxides, enabling simple processing and the fabrication of flexible and tandem perovskite solar cells. In planar heterojunction materials, hole/electron transport layers are introduced between a perovskite film and the anode/cathode. The hole and electron transporting layers are expected to enhance exciton separation, charge transportation and collection. Further, the supporting layer for the perovskite film not only plays an important role in energy-level alignment, but also affects perovskite film morphology, which have a great effect on device performance. In addition, interfacial layers also affect device stability. In this review, recent progress in interfacial engineering for PHJ perovskite solar cells will be reviewed, especially with the molecular interfacial materials. The supporting interfacial layers for the optimization of perovskite films will be systematically reviewed. Finally, the challenges remaining in perovskite solar cells research will be discussed.

  6. Recent Advances in Interface Engineering for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei; Pan, Lijia; Yang, Tingbin; Liang, Yongye

    2016-06-25

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells are considered as one of the most promising next-generation solar cells due to their advantages of low-cost precursors, high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and easy of processing. In the past few years, the PCEs have climbed from a few to over 20% for perovskite solar cells. Recent developments demonstrate that perovskite exhibits ambipolar semiconducting characteristics, which allows for the construction of planar heterojunction (PHJ) perovskite solar cells. PHJ perovskite solar cells can avoid the use of high-temperature sintered mesoporous metal oxides, enabling simple processing and the fabrication of flexible and tandem perovskite solar cells. In planar heterojunction materials, hole/electron transport layers are introduced between a perovskite film and the anode/cathode. The hole and electron transporting layers are expected to enhance exciton separation, charge transportation and collection. Further, the supporting layer for the perovskite film not only plays an important role in energy-level alignment, but also affects perovskite film morphology, which have a great effect on device performance. In addition, interfacial layers also affect device stability. In this review, recent progress in interfacial engineering for PHJ perovskite solar cells will be reviewed, especially with the molecular interfacial materials. The supporting interfacial layers for the optimization of perovskite films will be systematically reviewed. Finally, the challenges remaining in perovskite solar cells research will be discussed.

  7. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 heterojunctions: promising TiO2-based photocatalysts under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-05-02

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082 eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be injected to the conduction band of anatase TiO2 from that of silicane. Finally, the proper interface charge distribution facilitates the carrier separation in the SiH/TiO2(101) interface region. The electron injection and carrier separation can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Our calculation results suggest that such electronic structure of SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has significant advantages over these of doped TiO2 systems for visible-light photocatalysis.

  8. Squaraine Planar-Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fan

    2009-01-01

    derivatives with extraordinarily high extinction coefficients are used as electron donors in bilayer heterojunctions with fullerene C60 as electron acceptor. Due to the very strong squaraine absorption band in the red spectral domain, antibatic behavior due to light filtering is observed in the photocurrent spectrum for film thicknesses of 35 nm to 40 nm. At reduced film thicknesses of 20 nm, this filtering effect at maximum absorption can be alleviated and power conversion efficiencies under simulated AM 1.5 full sun irradiation of 0.59% and 1.01% are obtained for the two squaraine derivatives, respectively. The photovoltaic properties of these cells are investigated with respect to electrode materials and chemical doping.

  9. Organoboron polymers for photovoltaic bulk heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Sebastiano; Fabiano, Simone; Ferrante, Francesco; Previti, Francesco; Patanè, Salvatore; Pignataro, Bruno

    2010-07-15

    We report on the application of three-coordinate organoboron polymers, inherently strong electron acceptors, in flexible photovoltaic (PV) cells. Poly[(1,4-divinylenephenylene)(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylborane)] (PDB) has been blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) to form a thin film bulk heterojunction (BHJ) on PET/ITO substrates. Morphology may be modulated to give a high percentage of domains (10-20 nm in size) allowing exciton separation. The photoelectric properties of the BHJs in devices with aluminium back electrodes were imaged by light beam induced current (LBIC) and light beam induced voltage (LBIV) techniques. Open circuit voltages, short circuit currents and overall external quantum efficiencies obtained are among the highest reported for all-polymer PV cells.

  10. Bulk heterojunction solar cells of three polythienothiophenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Alturk Parlak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconducting conjugated copolymers poly(3-phenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh, poly(3-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-OMe and poly(3-(4-N,N-dimethylaminophenyl-2-(thiophen-2-ylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (PTTPh-N(CH 3 2, which were synthesized previously through Suzuki coupling method, were fabricated for solar cell applications. The devices had a structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/polymer:PC61BM/Al. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells were prepared as blends of PTTPh, PTTPh-OMe, PTTPh-N(CH 3 2 and PC61BM in a 1:1 ratio, which delivered power conversion efficiencies of 0.43%, 0.039% and 0.027%, respectively, without addition of additives or device optimization.

  11. Complex Hollow Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energy-Related Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Hu, Han; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-04-01

    Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures. After a brief classification, the design and synthesis of complex hollow nanostructures are described in detail, which include hierarchical hollow spheres, hierarchical tubular structures, hollow polyhedra, and multi-shelled hollow structures, as well as their hybrids with nanocarbon materials. Thereafter, we discuss their niche applications as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors, sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries, and electrocatalysts for oxygen- and hydrogen-involving energy conversion reactions. The potential superiorities of complex hollow nanostructures for these applications are particularly highlighted. Finally, we conclude this Review with urgent challenges and further research directions of complex hollow nanostructures for energy-related applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Surface structure and field emission properties of cost effectively synthesized zinc oxide nanowire/multiwalled carbon nanotube heterojunction arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Nayeri, F.; Darbari, S.; Soleimani, E. A.; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2012-07-01

    A cost-effective and efficient approach for the synthesis of single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires on vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) array is presented. ZnO nanowires are grown on the base of individual CNT through the low-temperature wet-chemical batch deposition technique, while the size and interspacing of the nanowires can be controlled by precursor concentration, growth temperature and time duration. The scanning electron microscopy image showed that the ZnO nanostructures are successfully grown on the CNT's surface uniformly. The produced nanostructures are characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Also, field emission characteristics of the fabricated double-stage ZnO nanowire/CNT array are investigated and compared with the emission behaviour of CNT and ZnO nanowire arrays. The ZnO nanowire/CNT heterojunction array resulted in a low turn-on field of 1.5 V µm-1 and a threshold field of 4.5 V µm-1, which were lower than both the vertical CNT and ZnO arrays. The field emission properties and stability of the fabricated nanostructures also demonstrated great potential for field emission applications.

  13. Electrical Modulation of Fano Resonance in Plasmonic Nanostructures Using Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Kildishev, Alexander V.;

    2014-01-01

    Pauli blocking of interband transistions gives rise to tunable optical properties in single layer graphene (SLG). This effect is exploited in a graphene-nanoantenna hybrid device where Fano resonant plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated on top of a graphene sheet. The use of Fano resonant......-element simulations. Our approach can be used for development of next generation of tunable plasmonic and hybrid nanophotonic devices....

  14. Graphene-semiconductor heterojunctions and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tzu-Min

    In this thesis we explore the potential of versatile graphene-semiconductor heterojunctions in photodetection and field-effect transistor (FET) applications. The first part of the thesis studies near-infrared photodiode (NIR PD) based on a graphene-n-Si heterojunction in which graphene is used as the absorbing medium. Graphene is chosen for its absorption in NIR wavelengths to which Si is not responsive. Most graphene detectors in the literature are photoconductors that have a high dark current. The graphene-Si heterojunction PD has a large Schottky barrier height that suppresses the dark current and enhances the current rectification and the photon detectivity. The fabricated graphene-Si heterojunction PD under conventional telecommunication 1.3 (1.5)-um illumination exhibits a responsivity of 3 (0.2) mA/W, an internal quantum efficiency of 14 (0.6) %, a noise-equivalent power of 1.5 (30) pW/Hz 0.5, and a specific detectivity of 3 (0.1)x109 cmHz0.5/W. An unexpected tunnel oxide is observed at the graphene-Si interface, further reducing the dark current. The performance in terms of sensitivity and noise is comparable to the commercially available discrete germanium NIR PDs due to its low dark current density on the order of 10 fA/microm 2. The Si CMOS-compatible PD based on graphene-Si heterojunction provides a promising route to realize a critical component for monolithically integrated Si photonic interconnects. The second part of the thesis focuses on a novel graphene junction FET (GJFET) gated by a graphene-semiconductor heterojunction. The majority of graphene transistors in the literature---including MOSFETs, barristors, and tunneling FETs---have a heavily-doped Si back gate separated from the graphene channel by a conventional or high-K dielectric layer. The threshold voltage of individual transistors cannot be tuned easily in such designs, and have an additional problem with shorted back gates. In GJFETs, a Schottky junction is formed as graphene is placed

  15. Hierarchical ZnO Nanosheet-Nanorod Architectures for Fabrication of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Hybrid NO2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Xian; Xia, Yi; Komarneni, Sridhar; Chen, Haoyuan; Xu, Jianlong; Xiang, Lan; Xie, Dan

    2016-04-06

    A facile one-step solution method has been developed here to fabricate hierarchical ZnO nanosheet-nanorod architectures for compositing with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) for fabricating a hybrid NO2 sensor. The hierarchical ZnO nanosheet-nanorod architectures were controllably synthesized by aging the solutions containing 0.05 mol·L(-1) Zn(2+) and 0.33 mol·L(-1) OH(-) at 60 °C through a metastable phase-directed mechanism. The concentration of OH(-) played a huge role on the morphology evolution. When the [OH(-)] concentration was decreased from 0.5 to 0.3 mol·L(-1), the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures changed gradually from monodispersed nanorods (NR) to nanorod assemblies (NRA), and then to nanosheet-nanorod architectures (NS-NR) and nanosheet assemblies (NSA), depending on the formation of various metastable, intermediate phases. The formation of NS-NR included the initial formation of ZnO nanosheets/γ-Zn(OH)2 mixed intermediates, followed by the dissolution of Zn(OH)2, which served as soluble zinc source. Soluble Zn(OH)2 facilitated the dislocation-driven secondary growth of ZnO nanorod arrays on the primary defect-rich nanosheet substrates. Hybrid sensors based on composite films composed of P3HT and the as-prepared ZnO nanostructures were fabricated for the detection of NO2 at room temperature. The P3HT/ZnO NS-NR bilayer film exhibited not only the highest sensitivity but also good reproducibility and selectivity to NO2 at room temperature. The enhanced sensing performance was attributed to the formation of the P3HT/ZnO heterojunction in addition to the enhanced adsorption of NO2 by NS-NR ZnO rich in oxygen-vacancy defects.

  16. Organic phase synthesis of noble metal-zinc chalcogenide core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Diab, Mahmud; Flomin, Kobi; Rukenstein, Pazit; Mokari, Taleb

    2016-10-15

    Multi-component nanostructures have been attracting tremendous attention due to their ability to form novel materials with unique chemical, optical and physical properties. Development of hybrid nanostructures that are composed of metal-semiconductor components using a simple approach is of interest. Herein, we report a robust and general organic phase synthesis of metal (Au or Ag)-Zinc chalcogenide (ZnS or ZnSe) core-shell nanostructures. This synthetic protocol also enabled the growth of more compositionally complex nanostructures of Au-ZnSxSe1-x alloys and Au-ZnS-ZnSe core-shell-shell. The optical and structural properties of these hybrid nanostructures are also presented.

  17. Injection of majority carriers through InSe-GaSe heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakumenko, V.L.; Tagaev, V.G.

    1982-10-01

    Injection of majority carriers through heterojunction under intensive illumination conditions is discussed. Experimental results of injection of majority carriers through InSe-GaSe heterojunctions have been presented.

  18. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-09-07

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices.

  19. Highly efficient crystalline silicon/Zonyl fluorosurfactant-treated organic heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiming; Ono, Masahiro; Tang, Zeguo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a highly efficient hybrid crystalline silicon (c-Si) based photovoltaic devices with hole-transporting transparent conductive poly-(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesufonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) films, incorporating a Zonyl fluorosurfactant as an additive, compared to non additive devices. The usage of a 0.1% Zonly treated PEDOT:PSS improved the adhesion of precursor solution on hydrophobic c-Si wafer without any oxidation process. The average power conversion efficiency η value was 10.8%-11.3%, which was superior to those of non-treated devices. Consequently, c-Si/Zonyl-treated PEDOT:PSS heterojunction devices exhibited the highest η of 11.34%. The Zonyl-treated soluble PEDOT:PSS composite is promising as a hole-transporting transparent conducting layer for c-Si/organic photovoltaic applications.

  20. Rapid crystallization in ambient air for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Ryu, Sang Ouk; Moon, Taeho

    2016-12-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest because of rapid improvement of power-conversion efficiency and strong potential for low fabrication cost. The development of cost-effective routes producing high quality perovskite films has been continuously demanded. Here, it is shown that crystalline perovskite films with completely coated morphology can be formed using the precursors of MACl and PbI2 without post-annealing under atmosphere. The dense perovskite films composed of the closely packed islands are observed with the smooth surface. The planar cells with p-i-n heterojunction geometry are successfully demonstrated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM. Significantly, the outstanding electrical properties are observed, which demonstrates the good coverage and crystallinity of the perovskite layers.

  1. Heavy Dirac fermions in a graphene/topological insulator hetero-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wendong; Zhang, Rui-Xing; Tang, Peizhe; Yang, Gang; Sofo, Jorge; Duan, Wenhui; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The low energy physics of both graphene and surface states of three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) is described by gapless Dirac fermions with linear dispersion. In this work, we predict the emergence of a ‘heavy’ Dirac fermion in a graphene/TI hetero-junction, where the linear term almost vanishes and the corresponding energy dispersion becomes highly nonlinear. By combining ab initio calculations and an effective low-energy model, we show explicitly how strong hybridization between Dirac fermions in graphene and the surface states of TIs can reduce the Fermi velocity of Dirac fermions. Due to the negligible linear term, interaction effects will be greatly enhanced and can drive ‘heavy’ Dirac fermion states into the half quantum Hall state with non-zero Hall conductance.

  2. Rapid crystallization in ambient air for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gwang Su; Choi, Won-Gyu; Na, Sungjae; Ryu, Sang Ouk; Moon, Taeho

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have attracted great interest because of rapid improvement of power-conversion efficiency and strong potential for low fabrication cost. The development of cost-effective routes producing high quality perovskite films has been continuously demanded. Here, it is shown that crystalline perovskite films with completely coated morphology can be formed using the precursors of MACl and PbI2 without post-annealing under atmosphere. The dense perovskite films composed of the closely packed islands are observed with the smooth surface. The planar cells with p-i-n heterojunction geometry are successfully demonstrated using PEDOT:PSS and PCBM. Significantly, the outstanding electrical properties are observed, which demonstrates the good coverage and crystallinity of the perovskite layers. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Three-dimensional nano-heterojunction networks: a highly performing structure for fast visible-blind UV photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Noushin; Bo, Renheng; Fu, Lan; Tricoli, Antonio

    2017-02-02

    Visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors are a promising emerging technology for the development of wide bandgap optoelectronic devices with greatly reduced power consumption and size requirements. A standing challenge is to improve the slow response time of these nanostructured devices. Here, we present a three-dimensional nanoscale heterojunction architecture for fast-responsive visible-blind UV photodetectors. The device layout consists of p-type NiO clusters densely packed on the surface of an ultraporous network of electron-depleted n-type ZnO nanoparticles. This 3D structure can detect very low UV light densities while operating with a near-zero power consumption of ca. 4 × 10(-11) watts and a low bias of 0.2 mV. Most notably, heterojunction formation decreases the device rise and decay times by 26 and 20 times, respectively. These drastic enhancements in photoresponse dynamics are attributed to the stronger surface band bending and improved electron-hole separation of the nanoscale NiO/ZnO interface. These findings demonstrate a superior structural design and a simple, low-cost CMOS-compatible process for the engineering of high-performance wearable photodetectors.

  4. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for food packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available packaging application. Numerous hybrid inorganic-organic materials have been developed using low temperature sol-gel chemistry, which enables the tailoring of the nanostructure and the resulting material is often multifunctional, offering a wide range...

  5. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  7. Integration of CdSe/CdSexTe1−x Type-II Heterojunction Nanorods into Hierarchically Porous TiO2 Electrode for Efficient Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangheon; Flanagan, Joseph C.; Kang, Joonhyeon; Kim, Jinhyun; Shim, Moonsub; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor sensitized solar cells, a promising candidate for next-generation photovoltaics, have seen notable progress using 0-D quantum dots as light harvesting materials. Integration of higher-dimensional nanostructures and their multi-composition variants into sensitized solar cells is, however, still not fully investigated despite their unique features potentially beneficial for improving performance. Herein, CdSe/CdSexTe1−x type-II heterojunction nanorods are utilized as novel light harvesters for sensitized solar cells for the first time. The CdSe/CdSexTe1−x heterojunction-nanorod sensitized solar cell exhibits ~33% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to its single-component counterpart, resulting from superior optoelectronic properties of the type-II heterostructure and 1-octanethiol ligands aiding facile electron extraction at the heterojunction nanorod-TiO2 interface. Additional ~32% enhancement in power conversion efficiency is achieved by introducing percolation channels of large pores in the mesoporous TiO2 electrode, which allow 1-D sensitizers to infiltrate the entire depth of electrode. These strategies combined together lead to 3.02% power conversion efficiency, which is one of the highest values among sensitized solar cells utilizing 1-D nanostructures as sensitizer materials. PMID:26638994

  8. Catalyst- and template-free low-temperature in situ growth of n-type CdS nanowire on p-type CdTe film and p-n heterojunction properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ligang; Liu, Wenchao; Cai, Hongling; Zhang, Fengming; Wu, Xiaoshan

    2016-12-01

    CdS is an important semiconductor used in optoelectronic devices. Simple techniques for growing CdS nanostructures are thus essential at a low cost. This study presents a novel method for growing single-crystal n-type CdS nanowires on p-type CdTe films by thermal annealing in an H2S/N2 mixed gas flow, which does not require the help of a catalyst or template. The formation process and growth mechanism of the nanowires are investigated. Well-dispersed whiskerlike CdS nanostructures are obtained at an appropriate annealing temperature and duration. We suggest that the stress-driving mechanism of nanowire formation may contribute to the growth of CdS nanowires, and that the evaporation of Te through the boundaries of the CdS grain seeds plays an important role in the sustainable growth of nanowire. In addition, CdS/CdTe heterojunction device is fabricated on Mo glass. The I-V characteristic of the heterojunction in dark shows typical rectifying diode behavior. The turn-on voltage can be regulated by annealing conditions. Meanwhile, the obvious photovoltaic effect is obtained on the in situ growth heterojunction prepared at low annealing temperature. Hence, this is a new fabricated method for CdTe-based materials in the field of energy conversion.

  9. Nanostructures of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a unique material that exhibits semiconducting, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric multiple properties. Using a solid-vapor phase thermal sublimation technique, nanocombs, nanorings, nanohelixes/nanosprings, nanobows, nanobelts, nanowires, and nanocages of ZnO have been synthesized under specific growth conditions. These unique nanostructures unambiguously demonstrate that ZnO is probably the richest family of nanostructures among all materials, both in structures and properties. The nanostructures could have novel applications in optoelectronics, sensors, transducers, and biomedical science because it is bio-safe.

  10. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  12. High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redwing, Joan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering; Mallouk, Tom [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mayer, Theresa [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Dickey, Elizabeth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wronski, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-05-17

    The project focused on the development of high aspect ratio silicon heterojunction (HARSH) solar cells. The solar cells developed in this study consisted of high density vertical arrays of radial junction silicon microwires/pillars formed on Si substrates. Prior studies have demonstrated that vertical Si wire/pillar arrays enable reduced reflectivity and improved light trapping characteristics compared to planar solar cells. In addition, the radial junction structure offers the possibility of increased carrier collection in solar cells fabricated using material with short carrier diffusion lengths. However, the high junction and surface area of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices can be problematic and lead to increased diode leakage and enhanced surface recombination. This study investigated the use of amorphous hydrogenated Si in the form of a heterojunction-intrinsic-thin layer (HIT) structure as a junction formation method for these devices. The HIT layer structure has widely been employed to reduce surface recombination in planar crystalline Si solar cells. Consequently, it was anticipated that it would also provide significant benefits to the performance of radial junction Si wire/pillar array devices. The overall goals of the project were to demonstrate a HARSH cell with a HIT-type structure in the radial junction Si wire/pillar array configuration and to develop potentially low cost pathways to fabricate these devices. Our studies demonstrated that the HIT structure lead to significant improvements in the open circuit voltage (Voc>0.5) of radial junction Si pillar array devices compared to devices fabricated using junctions formed by thermal diffusion or low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). In addition, our work experimentally demonstrated that the radial junction structure lead to improvements in efficiency compared to comparable planar devices for devices fabricated using heavily doped Si that had reduced carrier diffusion

  13. Modeling the Impedance of Nanostructured PV in Simulink/matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Mohammad; Zandi, Mohammad. H.; Gorji, Nima E.

    2013-08-01

    Impedance measurement is a common method to study the electrical properties of thin film photovoltaics. For the first time, we use the MATLAB/Simulink environment to extract the complex impedance of the nanostructured heterojunction solar cells. The impedance magnitude, phase and Nyquist plot of the PV are simulated in LTI Viewer and Impedance versus Frequency analysis tools of SimPower GUI block of Simulink. We examined a variety of the equivalent circuits consisting of capacitance, series and shunt resistances representing the solar cell structure. The model uses the parameters with values reported in the literature at room temperature and zero bias. The effect of the additional capacitance and resistances in the equivalent circuits on the impedance components of the cells is considered by Simulink environment.

  14. Distorted asymmetric cubic nanostructure of soluble fullerene crystals in efficient polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngkyoo; Nelson, Jenny; Zhang, Tong; Cook, Steffan; Durrant, James R; Kim, Hwajeong; Park, Jiho; Shin, Minjung; Nam, Sungho; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Ha, Chang-Sik; Bradley, Donal D C

    2009-09-22

    We found that 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C(61) (PCBM) molecules make a distorted asymmetric body-centered cubic crystal nanostructure in the bulk heterojunction films of reigoregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM. The wider angle of distortion in the PCBM nanocrystals was approximately 96 degrees , which can be assigned to the influence of the attached side group to the fullerene ball of PCBM to bestow solubility. Atom concentration analysis showed that after thermal annealing the PCBM nanocrystals do preferentially distribute above the layer of P3HT nanocrystals inside devices.

  15. Investigation of the charge transport through disordered organic molecular heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Batistić, I.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2006-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional multiparticle Monte Carlo (3DMPMC) simulation of hopping transport in disordered organic molecular media. We used this approach in order to study the charge transport across an energetically disordered organic molecular heterojunction which is known to strongly influence the characteristics of the multilayer devices based on thin organic films. The role of the energetic disorder and its spatial correlations, which govern the transport in the bulk, are examined here for the bilayer homopolar system where the heterojunction represents the bottleneck for the transport. We study the effects of disorder on both sides of the heterojunction, including the effects of the spatial correlation within each material and among the layers. The 3DMPMC approach allowed us to correctly tackle the effects of the Coulomb interaction among carriers in the region where the charge accumulation in the device is particularly important and the Coulomb interaction most pronounced. The Coulomb interaction enhances the current by increasing the electric field at the heterojunction as well as by affecting the thermalization of the carriers in front of the barrier. In order to build a rather comprehensive picture of the hopping transport over the homopolar heterojunction, we supplemented the MC simulations by a master equation (ME) calculation.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  18. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Formation of different gold nanostructures by silk nanofibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guangqiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Yang, Yuhong [Research Centre for Analysis and Measurement, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: chenx@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Metal nanostructures that have unique size- and shape-dependent electronic, optical and chemical properties gain more and more attention in modern science and technology. In this article, we show the possibility that we are able to obtain different gold nanostructures simply with the help of silk nanofibrils. We demonstrate that only by varying the pH of the reaction solution, we get gold nanoparticles, nano-icosahedrons, nanocubes, and even microplates. Particularly, we develop a practical method for the preparation of gold microplates in acid condition in the presence of silk nanofibrils, which is impossible by using other forms of silk protein. We attribute the role of silk nanofibrils in the formation of gold nanostructure to their reduction ability from several specific amino acid residues, and the suitable structural anisotropic features to sustain the crystal growth after the reduction process. Although the main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that silk nanofibrils are able to mediate the formation of different gold nanostructure, we show the potential applications of these resulting gold nanostructures, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and photothermal transformation effect, as same as those produced by other methods. In conclusion, we present in this communication a facile and green synthesis route to prepare various gold nanostructures with silk nanofibrils by simply varying pH in the reaction system, which has remarkable advantages in future biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained by a facile and green protein reduction method. • Silk nanofibrils serve as both reductant and template in the formation of Au nanostructures. • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained simply by regulating the pH in the medium. • Large Au microplates can be obtained with a cheap, abundant, sustainable silk protein. • Silk/Au hybrid nanocomposites show potential application in SERS and

  20. Nanostructured CNx (0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongiorno, G; Blomqvist, M; Piseri, P; Milani, P; Lenardi, C; Ducati, C; Caruso, T; Rudolf, P; Wachtmeister, S; Csillag, S; Coronel, E

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured CNx thin films were prepared by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) and systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The incorporat

  1. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  2. Ordered arrays of multiferroic epitaxial nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Vrejoiu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial heterostructures combining ferroelectric (FE and ferromagnetic (FiM oxides are a possible route to explore coupling mechanisms between the two independent order parameters, polarization and magnetization of the component phases. We report on the fabrication and properties of arrays of hybrid epitaxial nanostructures of FiM NiFe2O4 (NFO and FE PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 or PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3, with large range order and lateral dimensions from 200 nm to 1 micron. Methods : The structures were fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the microstructure and the epitaxial growth of the structures. Room temperature ferroelectric and ferrimagnetic domains of the heterostructures were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM and magnetic force microscopy (MFM, respectively. Results : PFM and MFM investigations proved that the hybrid epitaxial nanostructures show ferroelectric and magnetic order at room temperature. Dielectric effects occurring after repeated switching of the polarization in large planar capacitors, comprising ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4 dots embedded in ferroelectric PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 matrix, were studied. Conclusion : These hybrid multiferroic structures with clean and well defined epitaxial interfaces hold promise for reliable investigations of magnetoelectric coupling between the ferrimagnetic / magnetostrictive and ferroelectric / piezoelectric phases.

  3. Material Profile Influences in Bulk-Heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehling, John D.; Rochester, Christopher W.; Ro, Hyun W.; Wang, Peng; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Batenburg, Kees J.; Arslan, Ilke; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Moule, Adam J.

    2014-10-01

    he morphology in mixed bulk-heterojunction films are compared using three different quantitative measurement techniques. We compare the vertical composition changes using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron tomography and neutron and x-ray reflectometry. The three measurement techniques yield qualita-tively comparable vertical concentration measurements. The presence of a metal cathode during thermal annealing is observed to alter the fullerene concentration throughout the thickness of the film for all measurements. However, the abso-lute vertical concentration of fullerene is quantitatively different for the three measurements. The origin of the quantitative measurement differences is discussed. The authors thank Luna Innovations, Inc. for donating the endohedral fullerenes used in this study and Plextronics for the P3HT. They are gratefully thank the National Science Foundation Energy for Sustainability Program, Award No. 0933435. This work benefited from the use of the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Los Alamos National Laboratory under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This research was also supported in part by Laboratory Directed Research & Development program at PNNL. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  4. Studies of bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Raquel; McIntyre, Max; Tzolov, Marian

    We are studying bulk heterojunction solar cells that were fabricated using a mixture of PCPDTBT and PCBM­C60. The impedance data of the cells in dark responded like a simple RC circuit. The value of the dielectric constant derived from these results is consistent with the values reported in the literature for these materials. We are showing that the parallel resistance in the equivalent circuit of linear lump elements can be interpreted using the DC current­voltage measurements. The impedance spectra under light illumination indicated the existence of additional polarization. This extra feature can be described by a model that includes a series RC circuit in parallel with the equivalent circuit for a device in dark. The physical interpretation of the additional polarization is based on photo­generated charges getting trapped in wells, which have a characteristic relaxation time corresponding to the observed break frequency in the impedance spectra. We have studied the influence of the anode and cathode interface on this phenomena, either by using different interface materials, or by depositing the metal electrode while the substate is heated.

  5. Performance of RF sputtered p-Si/n-ZnO nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diodes in high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra Kumar; Hazra, Purnima

    2017-04-01

    In this article, temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si nanoparticle thin film heterojunction diode grown by RF sputtering technique are analyzed in the temperature range of 300-433 k to investigate the performance of the device in high temperature environment. The microstructural, morphological, optical and temptrature dependent electrical properties of as-grown nanoparticle thin film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emmision scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), variable angle ellipsometer and semiconductor device analyzer. XRD spectra of as-grown ZnO films are exhibited that highly c-axis oriented ZnO nanostructures are grown on p- Si substrate whereas AFM and FESEM images confirm the homogeneous deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on surface of Si substratewith minimum roughness.The optical propertiesof as-grown ZnO nanoparticles have been measured in the spectral range of 300-800 nm using variable angle ellipsometer.To measure electrical parameters of the device prototype in the temperature range of room temperature (300 K) to 433 K, large area ohmic contacts were fabricated on both side of the ZnO/Si heterostructure. From the current-voltage charcteristics of ZnO/Si heterojunction device, it is observed that the device exhibits rectifing nature at room temperature. However, with increase in temperature, reverse saturation current and barrier height are found to increase, whereas ideality factor is started decreasing. This phenomenon confirms that barrier inhomogeneities are present at the interface of ZnO/Si heterojunction, as a result of lattice constant and thermal coefficient mismatch between Si and ZnO. Therefore, a modified value of Richardson constant [33.06 Acm-2K-2] has been extracted from the temperature-dependent electrical characteristics after assuming the Gaussian distribution of special barrier height inhomogeneities across

  6. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  7. Electro-photo modulation of the fermi level in WSe2/graphene van der Waals heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honghui; Yang, Hang; Fang, Liang; Zhang, Jiangwei; Wang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Tian

    2017-04-01

    We report an electro-photo double modulation of the fermi level in a WSe2/graphene heterojunction. The heterojunction exhibits high ION/IOFF ratio ( 103) in transfer characteristic in dark and distinct rectification behavior in output characteristic under light illumination, respectively. Time-dependent photoresponse reveals that the heterojunction has a considerable potential in the application of photodetection. Interestingly, an exotic current peak is observed in transfer characteristic under light illumination. This novel behavior is attributed to the tunable fermi level at the WSe2/graphene heterojunction by electro-photo double modulation. The results may be helpful to develop tunable photovoltaic optoelectronics based on van der Waals heterojunctions.

  8. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  9. Nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R V Ramanujan

    2003-02-01

    Research and development in nanostructured materials is one of the most intensely studied areas in science. As a result of concerted R & D efforts, nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials have achieved commercial success. Specific examples of novel industrially important nanostructured electronic and magnetic materials are provided. Advantages of nanocrystalline magnetic materials in the context of both materials and devices are discussed. Several high technology examples of the use of nanostructured magnetic materials are presented. Methods of processing nanostructured materials are described and the examples of sol gel, rapid solidification and powder injection moulding as potential processing methods for making nanostructured materials are outlined. Some opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  10. Si/Nanocrystalline Diamond Film Heterojunction Diodes Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With electron assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition technology, nanocrystalline diamond films were deposited on polished n-(100)Si wafer surface. The deposited films were characterized and observed by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction, semiconductor characterization system and Hall effective measurement system. The results show that with EA-HFCVD, not only an undoped nanocrystalline diamond films with high-conductivity (p-type semiconducting) but also a p-n heterojunction diode between the nanocrystalline diamond films and n-Si substrate is fabricated successfully. The p-n heterojunction has smaller forward resistance and bigger positive resistance. The p-n junction effective is evident.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of alpha- and beta-HgS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galain, Isabel; María, Pérez Barthaburu; Ivana, Aguiar; Laura, Fornaro

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized HgS nanostructures by the hydrothermal method in order to use them as electron acceptors in hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells. We employed different mercury sources (HgO and Hg(CH3COO)2) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hexadecanethiol (HDT) as stabilizing/capping agent for controlling size, crystallinity, morphology and stability of the obtained nanostructures. We also used thiourea as sulfur source, and a temperature of 180 °C during 6 h. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by powder X-Ray Diffraction, Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Transmission Electron Microscopy. When PVP acts as stabilizing agent, the mercury source has influence on the size -but not in morphology- of the beta-HgS obtained nansostructures. HDT has control over nanostructures' size and depending on the relation Hg:HDT, we obtained a mixture of alpha and beta HgS which can be advantageous in the application in solar cells, due their absorption in different spectral regions. The smallest nanostructures obtained have a mean diameter of 20 nm when using HDT as capping agent. Also, we deposited the aforementioned nanostructures onto flat glass substrates by the spin coating technique as a first approach of an active layer of a solar cell. The depositions were characterized by atomic force microscopy. We obtained smaller particle deposition and higher particle density -but a lower area coverage (5%) - in samples with HDT as capping agent. This work presents promising results on nanostructures for future application on hybrid solar cells. Further efforts will be focused on the deposition of organic-inorganic layers.

  12. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  13. Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C60 single heterojunction photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungkon; Liu, Jiwen; Carroll, David L.

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic (PV) devices by thermal annealing of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT)/C60 single heterojunction (HJ) PV devices at near the melting point of P3HT. The BHJ PV devices exhibited an increased efficiency of 12 times compared with single HJs. We found that the annealing of HJ devices produces an interpenetrated network of interfaces between the P3HT and C60 layers. This plays a major role in carrier separation and mobility enhancement. Also the formation of crystalline C60 domains, concurrent with polymer crystallinity, contributes to an increase in the overall external conversion efficiency. Surprisingly, the heterojunction morphology, as inferred through device performance, strongly depends on the thermal gradient across the film.

  14. Hybrid polymer solar cells from highly reactive diethylzinc : MDMO-PPV versus P3HT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moet, Date J.D.; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Boer, Bert de; Blom, Paul W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloetyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) during the processing of hybrid organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with zinc oxide (ZnO) from a molecular precursor as acceptor is reported. Upon addition of diethylzinc, the absorption spect

  15. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO hybrid pn junctions for microelectronics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsia, E.; Huby, N.; Tallarida, G.

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO devices are investigated as rectifying heterojunctions for microelectronics applications. A low-temperature atomic layer deposition of ZnO on top of poly(3-hexylthiophene) allows the fabrication of diodes featuring a rectification ratio of nearly 105 at ±4 V...

  16. Investigation of Organic Solar Cells Based on Donor——A ccepter Heterojunction%Investigation of Organic Solar Cells Based onDonor——A ccepter Heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinhao

    2008-01-01

    The single-l ayer structure and heterojunction structure organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc),3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and fullerene C60 were fabricated to study their photovoltaic (PV) properties. The PV performance of heterojunction structure solar cells was improved compared with the single layer structure cell.This is due to the introduction of donor-acceptor heterojunction that both expands the absorption range and offers efficient excit on dissociation site.In heterojunction structure solar cells,the PV performance of device with C60 as acceptor has highly improved because C60 has longer diffusion length o f excitons.

  17. Interplay of Nanoscale, Hybrid P3HT/ZTO Interface on Optoelectronics and Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-Jhong; Li, Yu-Hsun; Feng, Bo-Rui; Tang, Shiow-Jing; Jian, Wen-Bin; Fu, Chuan-Min; Chen, Jiun-Tai; Wang, Xu; Lee, Pooi-See

    2017-09-05

    Photovoltaic effects in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) attract much attention recently. Here natively p-type doped P3HT nanofibers and n-type doped zinc tin oxide (ZTO) nanowires are used for making not only field-effect transistors but also p-n nanoscale diodes. The hybrid P3HT/ZTO p-n heterojunction shows applications in many directions and it also facilitates the investigation of photoelectrons and photovoltaic effects at the nanoscale. As for applications, the heterojunction device shows simultaneously high on/off ratio of n- and p-type field-effect transistors, gatable p-n junction diodes, tri-state buffer device, gatable photodetectors, and gatable solar cells. On the other hand, P3HT nanofibers are taken as a photoactive layer and the role of p-n heterojunction playing on the photoelectric and photovoltaic effects is investigated. It is found that the hybrid P3HT/ZTO p-n heterojunction assists to increase photocurrents and to enhance photovoltaic effects. Through the controllable gating of the heterojunction, we can discuss the background mechanisms of photocurrent generation and photovoltaic energy harvest.

  18. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  19. Spatial Organization of Enzyme Cascade on a DNA Origami Nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinglin; Li, Tianran

    2017-01-01

    Self-assembled DNA nanostructures hold great promise to organize multi-enzyme systems with the precise control of the geometric arrangements. Enzymes modified with single-stranded DNA anchors are assembled onto the DNA origami tiles by hybridizing with the corresponding complementary strands displayed on the surface of the DNA nanostructures. Here, we describe a protocol of assembling a two-enzyme cascade on a discrete, rectangular DNA origami tile, where the distance between enzymes is precisely controlled for investigating the distance-dependent cascade activities.

  20. Synthesis and applications of graphene-based noble metal nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, are ideal platforms for constructing graphene-based nanostructures for various applications. Hybrid materials of noble metal nanocrystal-decorated GO or rGO with novel or enhanced properties and functions have been extensively explored recently. In this mini-review, various approaches for synthesis of graphene-templated noble metal nanomaterials are discussed. In particular, those novel synthetic strategies and interesting architectures are highlighted. Moreover, the applications of graphene-based noble metal nanostructures in fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS will be briefly introduced.

  1. Defect-assisted tuning of electroluminescence from p-GaN/n-ZnO nanorod heterojunction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence S Vikas; C K Sruthi; Madambi K Jayaraj

    2015-08-01

    Growth of nanostructured ZnO by solution process always lead to the formation of various kinds of defects. Defect states also can aid in improving different properties of the material. In the case of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), major research is focused on tuning the emission colour so as to achieve white emission without the use of any phosphors. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown over Mg:GaN substrate by hydrothermal process. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis confirms the epitaxial growth of nanorods over the substrate. The photoluminescence (PL) studies revealed a narrow near band edge emission and a broad defect-induced deep level emission. The intensity of deep level emissions related to Zni, Vo, Oi defects decreases on annealing. The - characteristics of the heterojunction showed excellent rectifying nature with electroluminescence emission on forward bias. Device fabricated by as-grown ZnO nanorods emits in the UV–blue region and broad emission in the visible region. While the annealed device emitted only in UV–blue region. The emission wavelengths closely matched with that of defect state emissions obtained in the PL studies. By annealing, various defect states density can be controlled, thereby emission colour tuned from white to blue.

  2. Understanding Solvent Manipulation of Morphology in Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxia; Zhan, Chuanlang; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-10-06

    Film morphology greatly influences the performance of bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)-structure-based solar cells. It is known that an interpenetrating bicontinuous network with nanoscale-separated donor and acceptor phases for charge transfer, an ordered molecular packing for exciton diffusion and charge transport, and a vertical compositionally graded structure for charge collection are prerequisites for achieving highly efficient BHJ organic solar cells (OSCs). Therefore, control of the morphology to obtain an ideal structure is a key problem. For this solution-processing BHJ system, the solvent participates fully in film processing. Its involvement is critical in modifying the nanostructure of BHJ films. In this review, we discuss the effects of solvent-related methods on the morphology of BHJ films, including selection of the casting solvent, solvent mixture, solvent vapor annealing, and solvent soaking. On the basis of a discussion on interaction strength and time between solvent and active materials, we believe that the solvent-morphology-performance relationship will be clearer and that solvent selection as a means to manipulate the morphology of BHJ films will be more rational.

  3. Selective Functionalization of Tailored Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingenbergh, Winand; Boer, Sanne K. de; Cordes, Thorben; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.; Hosson, Jeff Th.M. De; Dorp, Willem F. van

    2012-01-01

    The controlled positioning of nanostructures with active molecular components is of importance throughout nanoscience and nanotechnology. We present a novel three-step method to produce nanostructures that are selectively decorated with functional molecules. We use fluorophores and nanoparticles to

  4. Nanostructured materials in potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, Ali; Zelada-Guillén, Gustavo A; Crespo, Gastón A; Macho, Santiago; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Potentiometry is a very simple electrochemical technique with extraordinary analytical capabilities. It is also well known that nanostructured materials display properties which they do not show in the bulk phase. The combination of the two fields of potentiometry and nanomaterials is therefore a promising area of research and development. In this report, we explain the fundamentals of potentiometric devices that incorporate nanostructured materials and we highlight the advantages and drawbacks of combining nanomaterials and potentiometry. The paper provides an overview of the role of nanostructured materials in the two commonest potentiometric sensors: field-effect transistors and ion-selective electrodes. Additionally, we provide a few recent examples of new potentiometric sensors that are based on receptors immobilized directly onto the nanostructured material surface. Moreover, we summarize the use of potentiometry to analyze processes involving nanostructured materials and the prospects that the use of nanopores offer to potentiometry. Finally, we discuss several difficulties that currently hinder developments in the field and some future trends that will extend potentiometry into new analytical areas such as biology and medicine.

  5. III-nitrides, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, and their heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Pawan

    2017-04-01

    Group III-nitride materials have attracted great attention for applications in high efficiency electronic and optoelectronics devices such as high electron mobility transistors, light emitting diodes, and laser diodes. On the other hand, group VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) in the form of MX2 has recently emerged as a novel atomic layered material system with excellent thermoelectric, electronic and optoelectronic properties. Also, the recent investigations reveal that the dissimilar heterojunctions formed by TMDs and III-nitrides provide the route for novel devices in the area of optoelectronic, electronics, and water splitting applications. In addition, integration of III-nitrides and TMDs will enable high density integrated optoelectronic circuits and the development of hybrid integration technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated kinetically controlled growth processes in plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) for the III-nitrides and their engineered heterostructures. Techniques such as Ga irradiation and nitrogen plasma exposure has been utilized to implement bulk GaN, InGaN and their heterostructures in PAMBE. For the growth of III-nitride based heterostructures, the in-situ surface stoichiometry monitoring (i-SSM) technique was developed and used for implementing stepped and compositionally graded InGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs). Their optical and microstrain analysis in conjunction with theoretical studies confirmed improvement in the radiative recombination rate of the graded-MQWs as compared to that of stepped-MQWs, owing to the reduced strain in graded-MQWs. Our achievement also includes the realization of the p-type MoS2 by engineering pristine MoS2 layers in PAMBE. Mainly, Ga and nitrogen plasma irradiation on the pristine MoS2 in PAMBE has resulted in the realization of the p-type MoS2. Also, GaN epitaxial thin layers were deposited on MoS2/c-sapphire, WSe2/c-sapphire substrates by PAMBE to study the band

  6. Research progress on optimization of device structure and components of light-absorption layer in hybrid perovskite based heterojunction solar cells%杂化钙钛矿太阳能电池结构及光吸收层组成优化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔梦琴; 万丽; 李琴; 胡航; 张秋萍; 王世敏

    2015-01-01

    近年来,有机-无机杂化钙钛矿基异质结太阳能电池发展十分迅速,目前最高光电转换效率已突破20%。本文简要概述了杂化钙钛矿基太阳能电池的结构、原理以及常见的杂化钙钛矿薄膜的制备方法,详细总结了近年来器件结构和杂化钙钛矿材料不断优化的成果和相关研究进展,重点阐述了器件的结构和组成对杂化钙钛矿基太阳能电池光电转换效率的影响,并对有机-无机杂化钙钛矿基太阳能电池未来的研究前景进行了展望。%In recent years, the development of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells is very rapid, of which the highest efficiency has exceeded 20%. This article briefly intruduces the structures and the mechanism of the hybrid perovskite based solar cells and the fabrication methods of hybrid peroskite thin films, then summarizes recent research progress of structure and components optimization of light-absorption layer in hybrid perovskite based solar cells. Moreover, the impact of the device structure and composition on the photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells are discussed. Additionally, the future research prospects about organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-based solar cells are presented.

  7. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  8. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  9. Realistic molecular model of kerogen's nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousige, Colin; Ghimbeu, Camélia Matei; Vix-Guterl, Cathie; Pomerantz, Andrew E; Suleimenova, Assiya; Vaughan, Gavin; Garbarino, Gaston; Feygenson, Mikhail; Wildgruber, Christoph; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Coasne, Benoit

    2016-05-01

    Despite kerogen's importance as the organic backbone for hydrocarbon production from source rocks such as gas shale, the interplay between kerogen's chemistry, morphology and mechanics remains unexplored. As the environmental impact of shale gas rises, identifying functional relations between its geochemical, transport, elastic and fracture properties from realistic molecular models of kerogens becomes all the more important. Here, by using a hybrid experimental-simulation method, we propose a panel of realistic molecular models of mature and immature kerogens that provide a detailed picture of kerogen's nanostructure without considering the presence of clays and other minerals in shales. We probe the models' strengths and limitations, and show that they predict essential features amenable to experimental validation, including pore distribution, vibrational density of states and stiffness. We also show that kerogen's maturation, which manifests itself as an increase in the sp(2)/sp(3) hybridization ratio, entails a crossover from plastic-to-brittle rupture mechanisms.

  10. Doped Heterojunction Used in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporated foreign atoms into the quantum dots (QDs used in heterojunction have always been a challenge for solar energy conversion. A foreign atom indium atom was incorporated into PbS/CdS QDs to prepare In-PbS/In-CdS heterojunction by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method which is a chemical method. Experimental results indicate that PbS or CdS has been doped with In by SILAR method; the concentration of PbS and CdS which was doped In atoms has no significantly increase or decrease. In addition, incorporating of Indium atoms has resulted in the lattice distortions or changes of PbS or CdS and improved the light harvest of heterojunction. Using this heterojunction, Pt counter electrode and polysulfide electrolyte, to fabricate quantum dot sensitized solar cells, the short circuit current density ballooned to 27.01 mA/cm2 from 13.61 mA/cm2 and the open circuit voltage was improved to 0.43 V from 0.37 V at the same time.

  11. Early effect of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, He-Ming; Hu, Hui-Yong; Qu, Jiang-Tao

    2012-06-01

    The standard Early voltage of the SGP model is generalized for SiGe NPN heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). A new compact formulation of the Early voltage compatible with the SGP model is presented. The impact of the Ge profile on Early effect is shown and validated by experiments. The model can be applied to the SGP model for circuit simulation.

  12. Bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on merocyanine colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Nils M; Deppisch, Manuela; Würthner, Frank; Lademann, Hans W A; Deing, Kaja; Meerholz, Klaus

    2008-12-28

    Traditional low-molecular weight colorants that are widely applied in textile coloration, for printing purposes and nonlinear optics, now afford bulk heterojunction solar cells in combination with soluble C(60) fullerene derivative PCBM with power conversion efficiencies up to 1.7% under standard solar radiation.

  13. Origin of rectification in boron nitride heterojunctions to silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teii, Kungen; Hori, Takuro; Mizusako, Yusei; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2013-04-10

    Cubic and hexagonal boron nitride (cBN and hBN) heterojunctions to n-type Si are fabricated under low-energy ion bombardment by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using the chemistry of fluorine. The sp2-bonded BN/Si heterojunction shows no rectification, while the cBN/sp2BN/Si heterojunction has rectification properties analogue to typical p-n junction diodes despite a large thickness (∼130 nm) of the sp2BN interlayer. The current-voltage characteristics at temperatures up to 573 K are governed by thermal excitation of carriers, and mostly described with the ideal diode equation and the Frenkel-Poole emission model at low and high bias voltages, respectively. The rectification in the cBN/sp2BN/Si heterojunction is caused by a bias-dependent change in the barrier height for holes arising from stronger p-type conduction in the cBN layer and enhanced with the thick sp2BN interlayer for impeding the reverse current flow at defect levels mainly associated with grain boundaries.

  14. Electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.; Chu, Shirley S.; Ang, S. T.

    1988-08-01

    The electrical properties of n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunctions depend strongly on the cleanliness of the interface region. In this work, CdTe films were deposited on CdS/glass substrates by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) under various conditions. The dark current-voltage characteristics of the resulting heterojunctions were measured over a wide temperature range, and the capacitance-voltage characteristics were measured in the dark and under illumination. When the CdS surface is in situ cleaned prior to the deposition of the CdTe film, the current transport across the junction is controlled by a thermally activated process. Tunneling makes an important contribution to the interface recombination at temperatures below room temperature when the in situ cleaning of CdS is not used. The dark capacitance of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions prepared with in situ etching is essentially independent of the reverse bias due to intrinsic interface states. Under white light illumination, the 1/C 2 vs V relation is nearly linear. The CdS/CdTe heterojunctions without in situ cleaning showed different 1/C 2 vs V relations due to higher density of interface states. The in situ cleaning also has pronounced effects on the frequency dependence of dark and illuminated capacitances. Using the in situ cleaning technique, solar cells of about 1 cm2 area have achieved an AM 1.5 (global) efficiency of about 10.5%.

  15. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375268456; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  16. Transport properties of CNT/oligosilane/CNT heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J. [College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, G.L., E-mail: zglhrb@163.com [College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Shang, Y.; Wang, K.D.; Zhang, H.; Sun, M.; Liu, B.; Zeng, T. [College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2013-02-01

    Combining the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism with density functional theory, the transport properties of nine CNT/oligosilane/CNT heterojunctions were systematically studied. We have found that the incorporation of oligosilane linkage to the carbon nanotube mouth could significantly tune the transport properties compared with the pure oligosilane and pure CNT. The P- and B-dopings upon the oligosilane moiety could not only enhance the conductivity but also give rise to multiple negative differential resistance behavior for the CNT/oligosilane/CNT heterojunctions. The concentration of heteroatom plays an important role in the transport properties of the CNT/oligosilane/CNT heterojunctions, while the number of the oligosilane linkage exerts little effect on the conductivity. The B-doped CNT/oligosilane/CNT heterojunctions show higher conductivity than those of the P-doped ones. The p-n junction caused by B- and P-codopings exhibits a rectifying effect and the rectification ratio is up to 7.19.

  17. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  18. Charge Recombination Suppressed by Destructive Quantum Interference in Heterojunction Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Koster, L. Jan Anton; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Knoester, Jasper; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2016-01-01

    We show that charge recombination in ordered heterojunctions depends sensitively on the degree of coherent delocalization of charges at the donor acceptor interface. Depending on the relative sign of the electron and hole transfer integrals, such delocalization can dramatically suppress recombinatio

  19. Carrier tunneling in models of irradiated heterojunction bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Myers, Samuel Maxwell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    As part of Sandia's program to simulate the effect of displacement damage on operation of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs), we are examining the formulation in 1-D of band-to-band (bb) and band-to-trap (b-t) carrier tunneling.

  20. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  1. Photophysics of GaSe/InSe nanoparticle heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Bai; Kelley, David F

    2006-12-21

    The photophysics of mixed aggregates of GaSe/InSe nanoparticles have been studied using static and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The results indicate that the GaSe/InSe interfaces form heterojunctions and exhibit photoinduced direct charge transfer from the GaSe valence band to the InSe conduction band. This results in the electrons and holes being localized separately in these two types of nanoparticles. The energy diagram of the nanoparticle heterojunction can be constructed from the static spectra, known bulk band offsets, and quantum confinement effects. These considerations accurately predict the energy of the observed charge-transfer band. Photoexcitation also produces excitons in the aggregates, away from the heterojunctions. These excitons can undergo diffusion and quench upon reaching a heterojunction. Time-resolved fluorescence kinetics can be modeled to extract an exciton diffusion coefficient. A value of 2.0 nm2/ns is obtained, which is in good agreement with values obtained from previous fluorescence anisotropy decay measurements.

  2. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  3. Synthesis of porphyrin nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Bai, Feng

    2014-10-28

    The present disclosure generally relates to self-assembly methods for generating porphyrin nanostructures. For example, in one embodiment a method is provided that includes preparing a porphyrin solution and a surfactant solution. The porphyrin solution is then mixed with the surfactant solution at a concentration sufficient for confinement of the porphyrin molecules by the surfactant molecules. In some embodiments, the concentration of the surfactant is at or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), which allows the surfactant to template the growth of the nanostructure over time. The size and morphology of the nanostructures may be affected by the type of porphyrin molecules used, the type of surfactant used, the concentration of the porphyrin and surfactant the pH of the mixture of the solutions, and the order of adding the reagents to the mixture, to name a few variables.

  4. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...... index of the nanostructured surfaces was estimated from atomic force micrographs and the theoretical reflectance was calculated using the transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. The measured reflectance shows good agreement with the theory of graded index antireflective nanostructures...

  5. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  6. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  7. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  8. Efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from bismuth vanadate-decorated tungsten trioxide helix nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinjian; Choi, Il Yong; Zhang, Kan; Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Dong Yeong; Lee, Ja Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyu; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-09-01

    Tungsten trioxide/bismuth vanadate heterojunction is one of the best pairs for solar water splitting, but its photocurrent densities are insufficient. Here we investigate the advantages of using helical nanostructures in photoelectrochemical solar water splitting. A helical tungsten trioxide array is fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate, followed by subsequent coating with bismuth vanadate/catalyst. A maximum photocurrent density of ~5.35±0.15 mA cm-2 is achieved at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, and related hydrogen and oxygen evolution is also observed from this heterojunction. Theoretical simulations and analyses are performed to verify the advantages of this helical structure. The combination of effective light scattering, improved charge separation and transportation, and an enlarged contact surface area with electrolytes due to the use of the bismuth vanadate-decorated tungsten trioxide helical nanostructures leads to the highest reported photocurrent density to date at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode, to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Ion-beam assisted laser fabrication of sensing plasmonic nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Vitrik, Oleg; Kulchin, Yuri; Milichko, Valentin; Makarov, Sergey; Kudryashov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Simple high-performance two-stage hybrid technique was developed for fabrication of different plasmonic nanostructures, including nanorods, nanorings, as well as more complex structures on glass substrates. In this technique a thin noble metal film on a dielectric substrate is irradiated by a tightly focused single nanosecond laser pulse and then the modified region is slowly polished by an accelerated argon ion (Ar+) beam. As a result, each nanosecond laser pulse locally modifies the initial metal film through initiation of fast melting and subsequent hydrodynamic processes, while the following Ar+-ion polishing removes the rest of the film, revealing the hidden topography features and fabricating separate plasmonic structures on the glass substrate. We demonstrate that the shape and lateral size of the resulting functional plasmonic nanostructures depends on the laser pulse energy and metal film thickness, while subsequent Ar+-ion polishing enables to vary height of the resulting nanostructures. The plasmon...

  10. Metallic glass nanostructures of tunable shape and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Yanglin; Cha, Judy J; Schroers, Jan

    2015-04-22

    Metals of hybrid nano-/microstructures are of broad technological and fundamental interests. Manipulation of shape and composition on the nanoscale, however, is challenging, especially for multicomponent alloys such as metallic glasses. Although top-down approaches have demonstrated nanomoulding, they are limited to very few alloy systems. Here we report a facile method to synthesize metallic glass nanoarchitectures that can be applied to a broad range of glass-forming alloys. This strategy, using multitarget carousel oblique angle deposition, offers the opportunity to achieve control over size, shape and composition of complex alloys at the nanoscale. As a consequence, nanostructures of programmable three-dimensional shapes and tunable compositions are realized on wafer scale for metallic glasses including the marginal glass formers. Realizing nanostructures in a wide compositional range allows chemistry optimization for technological usage of metallic glass nanostructures, and also enables the fundamental study on size, composition and fabrication dependences of metallic glass properties.

  11. Hollow Nanostructured Anode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow nanostructured anode materials lie at the heart of research relating to Li-ion batteries, which require high capacity, high rate capability, and high safety. The higher capacity and higher rate capability for hollow nanostructured anode materials than that for the bulk counterparts can be attributed to their higher surface area, shorter path length for Li+ transport, and more freedom for volume change, which can reduce the overpotential and allow better reaction kinetics at the electrode surface. In this article, we review recent research activities on hollow nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries, including carbon materials, metals, metal oxides, and their hybrid materials. The major goal of this review is to highlight some recent progresses in using these hollow nanomaterials as anode materials to develop Li-ion batteries with high capacity, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.

  12. Lipid Self-Assemblies and Nanostructured Emulsions for Cosmetic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Kulkarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A majority of cosmetic products that we encounter on daily basis contain lipid constituents in solubilized or insolubilized forms. Due to their amphiphilic nature, the lipid molecules spontaneously self-assemble into a remarkable range of nanostructures when mixed with water. This review illustrates the formation and finely tunable properties of self-assembled lipid nanostructures and their hierarchically organized derivatives, as well as their relevance to the development of cosmetic formulations. These lipid systems can be modulated into various physical forms suitable for topical administration including fluids, gels, creams, pastes and dehydrated films. Moreover, they are capable of encapsulating hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as amphiphilic active ingredients owing to their special morphological characters. Nano-hybrid materials with more elegant properties can be designed by combining nanostructured lipid systems with other nanomaterials including a hydrogelator, silica nanoparticles, clays and carbon nanomaterials. The smart materials reviewed here may well be the future of innovative cosmetic applications.

  13. Dopamine-induced silica-polydopamine hybrids with controllable morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia-Che; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2014-04-01

    Novel silica-polydopamine hybrids, with controllable morphology, are facilely fabricated in an emulsion system consisting of tetraethyl orthosilicate, dopamine, water, and NaOH under weakly basic conditions (pH 8.5-10). An increase in initial pH favors the formation of nano-structured spherical silica-PDA hybrids from a flocculated structure.

  14. Surface plasmon polaritons in artificial metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jayson Lawrence

    Surface plasmon polaritons have been the focus of intense research due to their many unique properties such as high electromagnetic field localization, extreme sensitivity to surface conditions, and subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic waves. The area of potential impact is vast and includes promising advancements in photonic circuits, high speed photodetection, hyperspectral imaging, spectroscopy, enhanced solar cells, ultra-small scale lithography, and microscopy. My research has focused on utilizing these properties to design and demonstrate new phenomena and implement real-world applications using artificial metallic nanostructures. Artificial metallic nanostructures employed during my research begin as thin planar gold films which are then lithographically patterned according to previously determined dimensions. The result is a nanopatterned device which can excite surface plasmon polaritons on its surface under specific conditions. Through my research I characterized the optical properties of these devices for further insight into the interesting properties of surface plasmon polaritons. Exploration of these properties led to advancements in biosensing, development of artificial media to enhance and control light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, and hybrid plasmonic cavities. Demonstrations from these advancements include: label-free immunosensing of Plasmodium in a whole blood lysate, low part-per-trillion detection of microcystin-LR, enhanced refractive index sensitivity of novel resonant plasmonic devices, a defect-based plasmonic crystal, spontaneous emission modification of colloidal quantum dots, and coupling of plasmonic and optical Fabry-Perot resonant modes in a hybrid cavity.

  15. Nanostructured intense-laser cleaner

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiao Feng; Kong, Qing; Wang, Ping Xiao; Yu, Qin; Gu, Yan Jan; Qu, Jun Fan

    2016-01-01

    A nanostructured target is proposed to enhance an intense-laser contrast: when a laser prepulse is injected on a nanostructured solid target surface, the prepulse is absorbed effectively by the nanostructured surface. The nanostructure size should be less than the laser wavelength. After the prepulse absorption, the front part of the main pulse destroys the microstructure and makes the surface a flat plasma mirror. The body of the main pulse is reflected almost perfectly. Compared with the plasma mirrors, the nanostructured surface is effective for the absorption of the intense laser prepulse, higher than 10^14 W/cm2. By the nanostructured laser cleaner, the laser pulse contrast increases about a hundredfold. The nanostructured laser cleaner works well for near-future intense lasers.

  16. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of carbon nitride and sulfur-doped carbon nitride heterojunction nanosheets: An efficient heterojunction photocatalyst for photoelectrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hua Bing; Yang, Hong Bin; Chen, Jiazang; Miao, Jianwei; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    A biomolecule-assisted pyrolysis method has been developed to synthesize sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (CNS) nanosheets. During the synthesis, sulfur could be introduced as a dopant into the lattice of carbon nitride (CN). Sulfur doping changed the texture as well as relative band positions of CN. By growing CN on preformed sulfur-doped CN nanosheets, composite CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets were constructed, which significantly enhanced the photoelectrochemical performance as compared with various control counterparts including CN, CNS and physically mixed CN and CNS (CN+CNS). The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of CN/CNS heterojunction nanosheets could be ascribed to the efficient separation of photoexcited charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. The strategy of designing and preparing CN/CNS heterojunction photocatalysts in this work can open up new directions for the construction of all CN-based heterojunction photocatalysts.

  17. Magnetic Nano-structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永德

    2004-01-01

    Fabrication of magnetic nano-structures with dots array and wires has been paid attention recently due to the application of high-density magnetic recording. In this study, we fabricated the magnetic dots array and wires through several ways that ensure the arrangement of magnetic dots and wires to be the structures we designed. Their magnetic properties are studied experimentally.

  18. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  19. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  20. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting com