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Sample records for hybrid nanocomposites based

  1. Graphene based nanocomposite hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphale, Ashish N.

    There is an unmet need to develop high performance energy storage systems (ESS), capable of storing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources to meet the current energy crisis and depletion of non-renewable sources. Amongst many available ESS, supercapacitors (ECs) are the most promising because they exhibit a high charge/discharge rate and power density, along with a long cycle life. The possibility of exploring the use of atomically thin carbon allotropes like graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) such as polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied as a high performance conducting electrodes in supercapacitor application. A novel templated sustainable nanocomposite electrode has been fabricated using cellulose extracted from Cladophora c. aegagropila algae as component of the assembled supercapacitor device which later has been transitioned to a unique template-less freestanding nanocomposite supercapacitor electrode. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-cellulose nanocomposite as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 91.5 F g -1 at the scan rate 50 m Vs-1 in the presence of 1M NaCl electrolyte. The open circuit voltage of the device with polypyrrole -graphene-cellulose electrode was found to be around 225 m V and that of the polypyrrole -cellulose device is only 53 m V without the presence of graphene in the nanocomposite electrode. Understanding the fundamentals by fabricating template nanocomposite electrode, it led to fabricate a unique nanocomposite template-less freestanding film which comprises of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT hybrid. Various experiments have been performed using different electrolytes such ascorbic acid, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid in different scan rates. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% of graphene-CNT, as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 450 F g-1 at the scan rate 5 m V s-1. For the first time a nanofibrous membrane has

  2. Photonic structures based on hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Saima

    In this thesis, photonic structures embedded with two types of nanomaterials, (i) quantum dots and (ii) metal nanoparticles are studied. Both of these exhibit optical and electronic properties different from their bulk counterpart due to their nanoscale physical structure. By integrating these nanomaterials into photonic structures, in which the electromagnetic field can be confined and controlled via modification of geometry and composition, we can enhance their linear and nonlinear optical properties to realize functional photonic structures. Before embedding quantum dots into photonic structures, we study the effect of various host matrices and fabrication techniques on the optical properties of the colloidal quantum dots. The two host matrices of interest are SU8 and PMMA. It is shown that the emission properties of the quantum dots are significantly altered in these host matrices (especially SU8) and this is attributed to a high rate of nonradiative quenching of the dots. Furthermore, the effects of fabrication techniques on the optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. Finally a microdisk resonator embedded with quantum dots is fabricated using soft lithography and luminescence from the quantum dots in the disk is observed. We investigate the absorption and effective index properties of silver nanocomposite films. It is shown that by varying the fill factor of the metal nanoparticles and fabrication parameters such as heating time, we can manipulate the optical properties of the metal nanocomposite. Optimizing these parameters, a silver nanocomposite film with a 7% fill factor is prepared. A one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of the silver nanocomposite and a polymer (Polymethyl methacrylate) is fabricated using spin coating and its linear and nonlinear optical properties are investigated. Using reflectivity measurements we demonstrate that the one-dimensional silver-nanocomposite-dielectric photonic crystal

  3. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

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    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  4. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  5. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  6. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of graphene-based hybrid nanocomposite: assessment of antibacterial potential and biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Mahesh P; Patil, Mahendra D; Pandey, Abhijeet P; Patil, Pravin O; Deshmukh, Prashant K

    2017-12-01

    The present investigation deals with synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and fabrication of GO-based hybrid nanocomposites (Ncs). Synthesized GO and Ncs were primarily confirmed by UV visible and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fabricated Ncs showed potential antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Surface morphology, Elemental analysis, and FTIR imaging analysis were carried out to confirm Ncs formation. The Ncs were impregnated into the pullulan polymeric layer-by-layer (LbL) ultrathin film by using novel spin-coating approach. Mechanical properties were determined using Brookfield texture analyzer, and percentage moisture content confirmed the physicochemical stability of LbL film.

  8. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  9. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  10. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  11. Hybrid nanocomposites based on luminescent colloidal nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate): spectroscopical and morphological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborra, M; Striccoli, M; Curri, M L; Agostiano, A

    2008-02-01

    We report on preparation process and optical characterization of a nanocomposite material obtained dispersing colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), namely CdS and CdSe@ZnS core-shell system in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Such method allows a large flexibility on nanocrystal materials and on the choice of the polymer characteristics. Nanocomposite thin films were extensively investigated by means optical and morphological techniques. The effects on NC composition, concentration, size, and surface chemistry on the spectroscopical and structural behaviour of the nanocomposite properties were studied. The NC size dependent optical properties of the nanocomposites are mainly accounted by the NC composition and size, while the morphology of the films is explained on the base of the NC surface characteristics and their concentration in the nanocomposites.

  12. Multiscale Hybrid Micro-Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Fibers

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    Fawad Inam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT-NH2/carbon fiber (CF/epoxy hybrid micro-nanocomposite laminates were prepared by a resin infusion technique. DWCNT-NH2/epoxy nanocomposites and carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites were made for comparison. Morphological analysis of the hybrid composites was performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. A good dispersion at low loadings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in epoxy matrix was achieved by a bath ultrasonication method. Mechanical characterization of the hybrid micro-nanocomposites manufactured by a resin infusion process included three-point bending, mode I interlaminar toughness, dynamic mechanical analysis, and drop-weight impact testing. The addition of small amounts of CNTs (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 wt% to epoxy resins for the fabrication of multiscale carbon fiber composites resulted in a maximum enhancement in flexural modulus by 35%, a 5% improvement in flexural strength, a 6% improvement in absorbed impact energy, and 23% decrease in the mode I interlaminar toughness. Hybridization of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy using CNTs resulted in a reduction in and dampening characteristics, presumably as a result of the presence of micron-sized agglomerates.

  13. Detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides using an electronic tongue based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facure, Murilo H M; Mercante, Luiza A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Correa, Daniel S

    2017-05-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds impose significant strains on public health, environmental/food safety and homeland security, once they have been widely used as pesticides and insecticides and also display potential to be employed as chemical warfare agents by terrorists. In this context, the development of sensitive and reliable chemical sensors that would allow in-situ measurements of such contaminants is highly pursued. Here we report on a free-enzyme impedimetric electronic tongue (e-tongue) used in the analysis of organophosphate pesticides comprising four sensing units based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were prepared by reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS and polypyrrole) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were deposited by drop casting onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were collected in triplicate for each sample analyzed, and the electrical resistance data were treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing that the system was able to discriminate OPs at nanomolar concentrations. In addition, the electronic tongue system could detect OPs in real samples, where relations between the principal components and the variation of pesticides in a mixture were established, proving to be useful to analyze and monitor mixtures of OP pesticides. The materials employed provided sensing units with high specific surface area and high conductivity, yielding the development of a sensor with suitable stability, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity towards pesticide samples, being able to discriminate concentrations as low as 0.1nmolL-1. Our results indicate that the e-tongue system can be used as a rapid, simple and low cost alternative in the analyses of OPs pesticide solutions below the concentration range permitted by legislation of some countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I [' Materials-Technologies' Group, Departamento Ingenieria Quimica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad PaIs Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Plaza Europa 1, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.es

    2008-04-16

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO{sub 2}/SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO{sub 2}/SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO{sub 2}/PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy.

  15. Hybrid nanocomposites based on electroactive hydrogels and cellulose nanocrystals for high-sensitivity electro-mechanical underwater actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Migliorini, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Yan, Yunsong; Lenardi, Cristina; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Milani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and characterization of a hybrid hydrogel/cellulose nanocomposite, which exhibits high-performance electro-mechanical underwater actuation and high sensitivity in response to electrical stimuli below the standard potential of water electrolysis. The macromolecular structure of the material is constituted by an electroactive hydrogel, obtained through a photo-polymerization reaction with the use of three vinylic co-monomers: Na-4-vinylbenzenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile. Different amounts (from 0.1% to 1.4% w/w) of biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with sulfonate surface groups, obtained through the acidic hydrolysis of sulphite pulp lapsheets, are physically incorporated into the gel matrix during the synthesis step. Freestanding thin films of the nanocomposites are molded, and their swelling, mechanical and responsive properties are fully characterized. We observed that the embedding of the CNCs enhanced both the material Young’s modulus and its sensitivity to the applied electric field in the sub-volt regime (down to 5 mV cm-1). A demonstrator integrating multiple actuators that cooperatively bend together, mimicking the motion of an electro-valve, is also prototyped and tested. The presented nanocomposite is suitable for the development of soft smart components for bio-robotic applications and cells-based and bio-hybrid fluidic devices fabrication.

  16. An Indigo Carmine-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite with Supramolecular Control of Dye Aggregation and Photobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana L; Gomes, Ana C; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonçalves, Isabel S; de Melo, J Sérgio Seixas

    2015-08-17

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing solely indigo carmine (IC) or 1-hexanesulfonate (HS) anions, or a mixture of the two with different HS/IC molar ratios, were prepared by the direct synthesis method and characterized by various techniques. Hydrotalcite-type phases were obtained with basal spacings of 17.6 Å for the LDH intercalated by IC (IC-LDH) and 18.2-18.3 Å for the other materials containing HS. From the basal spacing for IC-LDH and UV/Vis spectroscopic data, it is proposed that the dye molecules assemble within the interlayer galleries to form a J-type stacking arrangement. A comprehensive electronic spectral and photophysical study was undertaken for IC in solution and all materials, aiming to obtain a detailed characterization of the host-guest and guest-guest interactions. In solution (the solvent surrounded "isolated" molecule), IC presents a fast excited state proton transfer with rate constants of ∼1.2-1.4×10(11)  s(-1) , which is linked to the very efficient radiationless deactivation channel. In the solid state it is shown that incorporation of IC within the LDH decreases the level of aggregation, and that further addition of HS induces the appearance of isolated IC units within the LDH galleries. The indigo carmine-based nanocomposites reported constitute a step forward in the design of hybrid materials with tunable properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

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    Kibret Mequanint

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA and bioactive glass (BG fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone.

  18. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic—inorganic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P.; Freitas, Vânia T.; André, Paulo S.; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er3+, Yb3+ codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er3+- and Yb3+-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  19. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    .... The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers...

  20. Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on PVDF Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titania Hybrid Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Al-Saygh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible nanocomposite pressure sensor with a tensile strength of about 47 MPa is fabricated in this work. Nanolayers of titanium dioxide (titania nanolayers, TNL synthesized by hydrothermal method are used to reinforce the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by simple solution mixing. A hybrid composite is prepared by incorporating the TNL (2.5 wt % with reduced graphene oxide (rGO (2.5 wt % synthesized by improved graphene oxide synthesis to form a PVDF/rGO-TNL composite. A comparison between PVDF, PVDF/rGO (5 wt %, PVDF/TNL (5 wt % and PVDF/rGO-TNL (total additives 5 wt % samples are analyzed for their sensing, thermal and dielectric characteristics. The new shape of additives (with sharp morphology, good interaction and well distributed hybrid additives in the matrix increased the sensitivity by 333.46% at 5 kPa, 200.7% at 10.7 kPa and 246.7% at 17.6 kPa compared to the individual PVDF composite of TNL, confirming its possible application in fabricating low cost and light weight pressure sensing devices and electronic devices with reduced quantity of metal oxides. Increase in the β crystallinity percentage and removal of α phase for PVDF was detected for the hybrid composite and linked to the improvement in the mechanical properties. Tensile strength for the hybrid composite (46.91 MPa was 115% higher than that of the neat polymer matrix. Improvement in the wettability and less roughness in the hybrid composites were observed, which can prevent fouling, a major disadvantage in many sensor applications.

  1. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxida- tion. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  2. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  3. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  4. Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Heveline D M; Naves, Alliny F; Araujo, Rafael A; Dubovoy, Viktor; Huang, Xiaoxi; Asefa, Tewodros; Silva, Rafael; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2017-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of hybrid and nanocomposite materials used as biomaterials in nanomedicine, focusing on applications in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors and theranostic systems. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of tuning the properties of nanocomposites, which can be achieved by choosing appropriate synthetic methods and seeking synergy among different types of materials, particularly exploiting their nanoscale nature. The challenges in fabrication for the nanocomposites are highlighted by classifying them as those comprising solely inorganic phases (inorganic/inorganic hybrids), organic phases (organic/organic hybrids) and both types of phases (organic/inorganic hybrids). A variety of examples are given for applications from the recent literature, from which one may infer that significant developments for effective use of hybrid materials require a delicate balance among structure, biocompatibility, and stability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Hybrid HPMC nanocomposites containing bacterial cellulose nanocrystals and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, Ranganathan; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Rajamanickam, Ramalingam; Abhishek, Virat; Nadanasabapathy, Shanmugam; Siddaramaiah

    2014-05-25

    Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based hybrid nanocomposites reinforced with bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNC) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been prepared and characterised. BCNC was capable of improving the tensile strength and modulus of HPMC, but they made the film more brittle. The addition of AgNPs along with BCNC, helped to regain some of the lost elongation properties without affecting other properties. Moisture sorption analysis proved that the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite decreased considerably by the addition of these nanomaterials. Several mathematical models were also used to fit the experimental sorption results. A unique combination of two nanomaterials was highly effective in overcoming certain limitations of nanocomposites which uses only one type of nanomaterial. This type of hybrid nanocomposites with superior properties is expected to be useful in eco-friendly food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel CuO-N-doped graphene nanocomposite-based hybrid electrode for the electrochemical detection of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sathiyanathan; Kollu, Pratap; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    We report a catalyst of N-doped graphene CuO nanocomposite, for the non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. The hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized by copper sulfate, cetyl ammonium bromide and graphite as starting materials. The synthesized composites were characterized with the techniques like X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope to study the crystalline phase and morphological structure. Based on this composite, a non-enzymatic glucose sensor was constructed. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods were done to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of glucose in alkaline medium. For glucose detection, the fabricated sensor showed a linear response over a wide range of concentration from 3 to 1000 µM, with sensitivity of 2365.7 µA mM-1 cm-2 and a fast response time of 5 s. The designed sensor exhibited negligible current response to the normal concentration of common interferents in the presence of glucose. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have good potential application in biological samples, food and other related areas.

  7. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Camarchia, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.camarchia@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pandolfi, Paolo [Politronica Inkjet Printing S.r.l., C/O i3p, Corso Castelfidardo 30/A, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pirri, Candido Fabrizio [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  8. Hybrid thiol-ene network nanocomposites based on multi(meth)acrylate POSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liguo; Liang, Rendong; Li, Yajie; Liu, Hongzhi; Feng, Shengyu

    2013-09-15

    First, multi(meth)acrylate functionalized POSS monomers were synthesized in this paper. Secondly, FTIR was used to evaluate the homopolymerization behaviors of multi(meth)acrylate POSS and their copolymerization behaviors in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS in the presence of photoinitiator. Results showed that the photopolymerization rate of multimethacrylate POSS was faster than that of multiacrylate POSS. The FTIR results also showed that the copolymerizations were dominant in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS, different from traditional (meth)acrylate-thiol system, in which homopolymerizations were predominant. Finally, the resulted hybrid networks based on POSS were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, DSC, and TGA. The characterization results showed that hybrid networks based on POSS were homogeneous and exhibited high thermal stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Luminescent/magnetic PLGA-based hybrid nanocomposites: a smart nanocarrier system for targeted codelivery and dual-modality imaging in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue; Li, Tingting; Chen, Zhongyuan; Geng, Yue; Xie, Xiaoxue; Li, Shun; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2017-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment represent an urgent medical need given the rising cancer incidence over the past few decades. Cancer theranostics, namely, the combination of diagnostics and therapeutics within a single agent, are being developed using various anticancer drug-, siRNA-, or inorganic materials-loaded nanocarriers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy of encapsulating quantum dots, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals, and doxorubicin (DOX) into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymeric nanocomposites using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method, followed by coupling to the amine group of polyethyleneimine premodified with polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PEI-PEG-FA [PPF]) segments and adsorption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted small hairpin RNA (shRNA). VEGF is important for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. These drug-loaded luminescent/magnetic PLGA-based hybrid nanocomposites (LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA) were fabricated for tumor-specific targeting, drug/gene delivery, and cancer imaging. The data showed that LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites can codeliver DOX and VEGF shRNA into tumor cells and effectively suppress VEGF expression, exhibiting remarkable synergistic antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. The cell viability waŝ14% when treated with LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites ([DOX] =25 μg/mL), and in vivo tumor growth data showed that the tumor volume decreased by 81% compared with the saline group at 21 days postinjection. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging data revealed that the luminescent/magnetic hybrid nanocomposites may also be used as an efficient nanoprobe for enhanced T2-weighted magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo. The present work validates the great potential of the developed multifunctional LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites as effective theranostic agents through the codelivery of drugs/genes and dual

  11. Investigation of the mechanical properties of GNP/MWCNT reinforced PA66 hybrid nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Søndergaard Jensen, Jacob

    The multifunctional characteristics of nanocomposites have introduced novel possibilities for different industrial sectors. However, the stable and optimized production of polymeric nanocomposite components is challenging. This research investigates the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic based...... nanocomposites reinforced with two prominent nanofillers namely Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene NanoPlatelets (GNP) manufactured through industrially viable methods. Three main groups of Polyamide (PA 66) based nano- and hybrid composite specimens namely PA 66/MWCNT, PA 66/GNP, and PA 66/MWCNT...... and rheological investigations. The research provides an insight to manufacture tailored hybrid nanocomposites with the optimized mechanical properties....

  12. Resistive Switching in All-Printed, Flexible and Hybrid MoS2-PVA Nanocomposite based Memristive Device Fabricated by Reverse Offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Gul, Jahan Zeb; Kim, Soo-Wan; Lim, Jong Hwan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28 × 102, 105 sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2 mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device.

  13. Ultra-sensitive determination of epinephrine based on TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters supported on reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianbo, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Luo, Chuannan, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net

    2016-07-01

    A highly efficient and sensitive electrochemical sensor for EP based on reduced graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites loaded TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. The surface nature and morphology of the nanocomposite film and the electrochemical properties of the sensor were characterized by Raman spectra, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Carbon nanomaterials were widely used in sensing due to its large electroactive surface area, fast electron transport and strong adsorption capacity. Meanwhile, TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters could accelerate the electron transfer, increase reactive site and extend electrochemical response window. The nanocomposite film could greatly enhance the response sensitivity and decrease the overpotential. The resulting sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward EP. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. pH 6.0, 0.1 M PBS, preconcentration for 110 s), Differential pulse voltammetry was employed to detect ultra-trace amounts of EP. The result of a wide linear range of 1.0–300 nM and limited of detection 0.34 nM (S/N = 3) were obtained. The constructed sensor exhibited excellent accuracy and precision, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%. The nanocomposite film sensor was successfully used to accurately detect the content of EP in practical samples, and the recoveries for the standards added are 97%–105%. - Highlights: • The three dimensional composite materials rGO/CNTs were successful synthesized. • High conductivity and catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters were synthesized. • The sensor displays a wide linear range, low detection limit and good stability.

  14. Antibacterial Nanocomposites Based on Fe3O4–Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles and Natural Rubber-Polyethylene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dung Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the vulcanized natural rubber (NR, incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs into the NR matrix did not exhibit the bactericidal property against Escherichia coli (E. coli. However, incorporation of AgNPs into polyethylene (PE matrix showed good antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present work, NR/PE (85/15 blends have been prepared by melt blending with presence of compatibilizer in an internal mixer. To possess antibacterial property, AgNPs (5–10 nm or Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FAgNPs, 8 nm/16 nm were added into PE matrix before its blending with NR component. The tensile test indicated that the presence of compatibilizer in NR/PE blend significantly enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break (up to 35% and 38% increases, resp.. The antibacterial activity test was performed by monitoring of the bacterial lag-log growth phases with the presence of nanocomposites in the E. coli cell culture reactor. The antibacterial test showed that the presence of FAgNPs in NR/PE blend had a better antibacterial activity than that obtained with the lone AgNPs. Two similar reasons were proposed: (i the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles due to the electron transfer from AgNP to Fe3O4 nanoparticle and (ii the fact that the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure might be accelerated by Fe3+ ions.

  15. Design, Manufacturing, and Characterization of High-Performance Lightweight Bipolar Plates Based on Carbon Nanotube-Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study on manufacturing and characterization of a platform material for high-performance lightweight bipolar plates for fuel cells based on nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs. The experiments were designed and performed in three steps. In the preexperimental stage, xGnP-epoxy composite samples were prepared at various xGnP weight percentages to determine the maximum processable nanofiller concentration. The main part of the experiment employed the statistics-based design of experiments (DOE methodology to identify improved processing conditions and CNT : xGnP ratio for minimized electrical resistivity. In the postexperimental stage, optimized combinations of material and processing parameters were investigated. With the aid of a reactive diluent, 20 wt.% was determined to the be maximum processable carbon nanomaterial content in the epoxy. The DOE analyses revealed that the CNT : xGnP ratio is the most dominant factor that governs the electrical properties, and its implications in relation to CNT-xGnP interactions and microstructure are elucidated. In addition, samples fabricated near the optimized condition revealed that there exists an optimal CNT : xGnP ratio at which the electrical performance can be maximized. The electrical and mechanical properties of optimal samples suggest that CNT-xGnP hybrid nanocomposites can serve as an alternative material platform for affordable, lightweight bipolar plates.

  16. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Infrared Photodetection by Intraband Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Kevin Richard

    Se CQDs embedded in the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of MEH-CN-PPV thin films was conducted to determine the dependence of polymer morphology on deposition method in order to identify a reliable device fabrication technique. Three different deposition methods were investigated: drop-casting and spin-casting, which are solution-based; and matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a vacuum-based method that gently evaporates polymers (or hybrid nanocomposites) and limits substrate exposure to solvents. It was found that MAPLE deposition provides repeatable control of the thin film morphology and thickness, which is important for nanocomposite device optimization. Ultra-fast PL spectroscopy of MEH-CN-PPV/CdSe thin films was investigated to determine the charge generation and relaxation dynamics in the hybrid nanocomposite thin films. The mathematical fitting of time-integrated and time-resolved PL provided a rigorous and unique model of the charge dynamics, which enabled calculation of the radiative and non-radiative decay lifetimes in the polymer and CQD. These results imply that long-lived electrons exist in the conduction band of the CQD, which demonstrate that it should be possible to generate a mid- to long-wave infrared photocurrent based on intraband transitions. In fact, room-temperature, intraband, mid-infrared absorption was measured in thin films of MEH-CN-PPV/CdSe hybrid nanocomposites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance spectroscopy. In addition, the hybrid nanocomposite confined energy levels and corresponding oscillator strengths were calculated in order to model the absorption spectrum. The calculated absorption peaks agree well with the measured peaks, demonstrating that the developed computer model provides a useful design tool for determining the impact of important materials system properties, such as CQD size, organic

  17. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  18. Chitosan-based nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bio-nanocomposites, where biopolymers are formulated with fillers with nanometric dimensions, have raised great research interest because of the increasing demand of environmental friendly products. Due to the nanometer size...

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  20. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  1. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  2. Hybride Nanocomposites aus Ruß, Nanoclay und NR/BR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapkota, Brahmananda; Poikelispää, M.; Das, A.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of partial replacement of carbon black (CB) by nanoclay on the curing kinetics of natural rubber/butadiene rubber-based hybrid nanocomposites was studied. The successive replacement of CB by organically modified nanoclays significantly influenced the curing behaviour of the compound:

  3. Chitosan-doped-hybrid/TiO2 nanocomposite based sol-gel coating for the corrosion resistance of aluminum metal in 3.5% NaCl medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Balaji; M G, Sethuraman

    2017-11-01

    The study outlines the role of chitosan, a biopolymer on corrosion behavior of Hy/nano-TiO2 based sol-gel coating over aluminum metal. In this study organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIP) in acidic solution. Chitosan was doped into sol-gel matrix and self-assembled over aluminum substrate. The resultant chitosan-doped-Hy/nano-TiO2 sol-gel coating was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The as-tailored aluminum substrate was evaluated for corrosion resistance in neutral medium. The protection ability of these coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) measurements in 3.5% NaCl medium. The EIS and PP results showed that chitosan-doped- Hy/nano-TiO2 sol-gel coating exhibited better protection from corrosion than the undoped Hy/TiO2 nanocomposite coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on Au-TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 plasmonic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Huili; Fan, Jiajie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Jing; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Novel double-layer films were prepared and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles as a bonding underlayer and noble metal (Au and Ag) nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires (NW) incorporated to hybrid TiO2 composites, consisting of 3 dimensional (3D) hierarchical microspheres, 3D hollow spheres, 2 dimensional (2D) nanosheets and commercial P25 nanoparticles, as multifunctional light scattering overlayer. The influence of Au NP, Ag NP, Au NW, and Ag NW on of microstructures of the film electrodes and the photovoltaic (PV) performances of DSSCs was investigated. The result revealed that the ranges and intensity of sunlight absorption, the photo capture ability for dye molecules of the hybrid nanocomposite film electrodes, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the cells were all significantly enhanced due to the plasmonic effect of the noble metal nanostructures. All composite DSSCs with noble metal nanostructures have higher PCE than the pure TiO2 solar cell. This is attributed the improved electron transport of the noble metal nanostructures, and the improvement of light absorption because of their local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. Under optical conditions, a PCE of 5.74% was obtained in the TiO2-AgNW DSSC, representing a 25.3% enhancement compared to a reference solar cell based on pure TiO2 film (4.58%). The main reason of the advancement is the improved electron transport of AgNW, the light absorption enhancement on account of the LSPR effect of AgNW, and increased light scattering due to the incorporation of the large one dimensional AgNWs within the photo-anode.

  5. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 3. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. S Nayar A K Pramanick A Guha B K Mahato M Gunjan A Sinha. Volume 31 Issue 3 June 2008 pp 429-432 ...

  6. Metallocene Based Polyolefin Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kaminsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient and versatile ways to synthesize polyolefin nanocomposites is the in-situ polymerization of olefins in the presence of nano particles by metallocene catalysts. Metallocene/methylaluminoxane (MAO catalysts are soluble in hydrocarbons and therefore they can be absorbed perfectly in solution onto the surface of particles or fibers and after addition of ethene or propene they can then catalyze a polyolefin film on the surface. Metallocene/MAO and other single site catalysts allow the synthesis of polymers with a precisely defined microstructure, tacticity, and stereoregularity as well as new copolymers with superior properties such as film clarity, high tensile strength and lower content of extractables. The polymer properties can be enlarged by the incorporation of nanofillers. The resulting polyethylene or polypropylene nanocomposites give a tremendous boost to the physical and chemical properties such as dramatically improved stiffness, high gas barrier properties, significant flame retardancy, and high crystallization rates.

  7. Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ approach was used to synthesize ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. • Spherical structure and stabilized ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized. • The synthesized ZnO particles have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. • The ZnO nanoparticles enhance the moisture content of cotton fabric. • ZnO/SiO{sub 2} loaded cotton fabrics presented a good antibacterial property. - Abstract: In this study, the antibacterial cotton fabric was prepared using zinc oxide/silicon dioxide (ZnO/SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized with an in situ approach using two different methods on the cotton fabric. One of the methods was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles into the prepared sol solution, and then coating on the cotton fabric. The other method was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide-coated cotton fabric. The morphological, structural, thermal, and antibacterial properties of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite-coated cotton fabric was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermo gravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide coated cotton fabric sample resulted in agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fiber, while the spherical nanoparticles structure was formed by synthesizing them into the sol solution of silicon dioxide. The EDS results indicated presence of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite on the surface of coated cotton fabric, and presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Graphene Oxide/ Polyurethane Hybrid Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Pashupati; Lee, Sang Hyub; Lee, Dai Soo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polyurethane (PU) were prepared by in-situ polymerization of 4,4'- diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) with mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) dispersed in a poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) (PTMEG). Effects of the fillers, GO and GNP, on the thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of the nanocomposites of PU were investigated. Sonication of the hybrid of GNP and GO with PTMEG enabled effective dispersion of the fillers in the solution than the sonication of GNP alone. The addition of PTMEG in the solution prevented the GNPs from the restacking during the drying process. It was observed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical property of the nanocomposites based on the hybrid of GO and GNP were superior to the nanocomposite based on GNP alone at the same loading of the filler. At the loading of the 3 wt% hybrid filler in PU, we observed the improvement of Young's modulus -200% and the surface resistivity of 10(9.5) ohm/sq without sacrificing the elongation at break.

  9. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  10. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites for theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2016-11-01

    Although Au-particle potential in nanobiotechnology has been recognized for the last 15 years, new insights into the unique properties of multifunctional nanostructures have just recently started to emerge. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites combine multiple modalities to improve the efficacy of the therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of cancer and other socially significant diseases. This review is focused on multifunctional gold-based theranostic nanocomposites, which can be fabricated by three main routes. The first route is to create composite (or hybrid) nanoparticles, whose components enable diagnostic and therapeutic functions. The second route is based on smart bioconjugation techniques to functionalize gold nanoparticles with a set of different molecules, enabling them to perform targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic functions in a single treatment procedure. Finally, the third route for multifunctionalized composite nanoparticles is a combination of the first two and involves additional functionalization of hybrid nanoparticles with several molecules possessing different theranostic modalities. This last class of multifunctionalized composites also includes fluorescent atomic clusters with multiple functionalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer based hybrid nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization via synergy effect between SWCNTs and graphene nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paszkiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoplatelets/single walled carbon nanotubes/poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer (GNP/SWCNT/PTT-PTMO hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ polymerization. A remarkable synergistic effect between GNPs and SWCNTs on improving thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites based on segmented block copolymers was observed. Heterogeneous structure of the PTT-PTMO allowed for a better and more uniform distribution of both types of nanoparticles and stabilized the structure in question. This enabled us to observe a so-called ‘synergistic effect’, caused by the use of mixture of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanopletelets, on the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the obtained polymer. In order to ascertain the influence of mentioned carbon nanostructures on the nano-phase-separated structure of the synthesized PTT-PTMO block copolymers, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis (DMTA measurements were performed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM images of the PTTPTMO nanocomposites displayed that hybrid nanofillers exhibited better distribution and compatibility than SWCNTs and GNPs did individually. The tensile modulus of 0.5SWCNT/0.1GNP/PTT-PTMO composites was 68% higher than that of the PTT-PTMO alone, compared to only a 10 and 28% increase in tensile modulus for 0.3GNP/PTT-PTMO and 0.3SWCNT/PTT-PTMO composites respectively (the highest concentration when single nanofiller was added.

  12. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-07-01

    Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 104 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 103 and 1.4 × 103, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 104 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  13. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  14. Stretchable Porous Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Hybrid Nanocomposite for Harvesting Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, You Jun; Meng, Xian Song; Li, Hua Yang; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ying; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2017-01-01

    A stretchable porous nanocomposite (PNC) is reported based on a hybrid of a multiwalled carbon nanotubes network and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix for harvesting energy from mechanical interactions. The deformation-enabled energy-generating process makes the PNC applicable to various mechanical interactions, including pressing, stretching, bending, and twisting. It can be potentially used as an energy solution for wearable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  16. Influence of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Concentration on Polymer Hole Transport in Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates hole transport in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV/CdSe colloidal quantum dot (CQD nanocomposites using a modified time-of-flight photoconductivity technique. The measured hole drift mobilities are analyzed in the context of Bässler’s Gaussian disorder model and the correlated disorder model in order to determine the polymer internal morphology of hybrid nanocomposite thin films. This work shows that increasing the CdSe CQD concentration decreases the polymer hole mobility from ~5.9 × 10−6 cm2/Vs in an MEH-PPV film to ~8.1 × 10−8 cm2/Vs in a 20:80 (wt% MEH-PPV:CdSe CQD nanocomposite film (measured at 25 °C and ~2 × 105 V/cm. The corresponding disorder parameters indicate increasing disruption of interchain interaction with increasing CQD concentration. This work quantifies polymer chain morphology in hybrid nanocomposite thin films and provides useful information regarding the optimal use of semiconductor nanocrystals in conjugated polymer-based optoelectronics.

  17. Comparative study on the mechanical and microstructural characterisation of AA 7075 nano and hybrid nanocomposites produced by stir and squeeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C; Ramanujam, R

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, a comparative evaluation on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of aluminium based single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites was carried out. The manufacture of a single reinforced nanocomposite was conducted with the distribution of 2 wt.% nano alumina particles (avg. particle size 30-50 nm) in the molten aluminium alloy of grade AA 7075; while the hybrid reinforced nanocomposites were produced with of 4 wt.% silicon carbide (avg. particle size 5-10 µm) and 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% nano alumina particles. Three numbers of single reinforced nanocomposites were manufactured through stir casting with reinforcements preheated to different temperatures viz. 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The stir cast procedure was extended to fabricate two hybrid reinforced nanocomposites with reinforcements preheated to 500 °C prior to their inclusion. A single reinforced nanocomposite was also developed by squeeze casting with a pressure of 101 MPa. Mechanical and physical properties such as density, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength were evaluated on all the developed composites. The microstructural observation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. On comparison with base alloy, an improvement of 63.7% and 81.1% in brinell hardness was observed for single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites respectively. About 16% higher ultimate tensile strength was noticed with the squeeze cast single reinforced nanocomposite over the stir cast.

  18. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  19. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future. Considering the non-biodegradable nature and potential long-term toxicity concerns of photothermal nanoagents, it is of great interest and importance to develop biodegradable and photothermal nanoparticles with an excellent biocompatibility for their future clinical applications. In our experiments, we fabricated porous silicon-based hybrid nanocomposites via surface initiated polymerization of aniline, which showed an excellent photothermal effect, aqueous dispersibility, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Furthermore, after an efficient loading of DOX molecules, polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites exhibited the remarkable synergistic anticancer

  20. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ε-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  1. Biomedical nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate hybridized with modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Sang Shin, Ueon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    Degradable polymer-based materials are attractive in orthopedics and dentistry as an alternative to metallic implants for use as bone fixatives. Herein, a degradable polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was combined with novel hybrid nanopowder of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-calcium phosphate (CP) for this application. In particular, CNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders (0.1 and 0.25% CNTs) were prepared from the solution of ionically modified CNTs (mCNTs), which was specifically synthesized to be well-dispersed and thus to effectively adsorb onto the CP nanoparticles. The mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders were then mixed with PLA (up to 50%) to produce mCNTs-CP-PLA nanocomposites. The mechanical tensile strength of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by the addition of mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders. Moreover, nanocomposites containing low concentration of mCNTs (0.1%) showed significantly stimulated biological responses including cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in terms of gene and protein expressions. Based on this study, the addition of novel mCNT-CP hybrid nanopowders to PLA biopolymer may be considered a new material choice for developing hard tissue implants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Silver Nanowire/MnO2 Nanowire Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites: Materials with High Dielectric Permittivity and Low Dielectric Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Ali Shayesteh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2017-04-26

    This study reports the fabrication of hybrid nanocomposites based on silver nanowire/manganese dioxide nanowire/poly(methyl methacrylate) (AgNW/MnO2NW/PMMA), using a solution casting technique, with outstanding dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss. AgNW was synthesized using the hard-template technique, and MnO2NW was synthesized employing a hydrothermal method. The prepared AgNW:MnO2NW (2.0:1.0 vol %) hybrid nanocomposite showed a high dielectric permittivity (64 at 8.2 GHz) and low dielectric loss (0.31 at 8.2 GHz), which are among the best reported values in the literature in the X-band frequency range (8.2-12.4 GHz). The superior dielectric properties of the hybrid nanocomposites were attributed to (i) dimensionality match between the nanofillers, which increased their synergy, (ii) better dispersion state of AgNW in the presence of MnO2NW, (iii) positioning of ferroelectric MnO2NW in between AgNWs, which increased the dielectric permittivity of nanodielectrics, thereby increasing dielectric permittivity of the hybrid nanocomposites, (iv) barrier role of MnO2NW, i.e., cutting off the contact spots of AgNWs and leading to lower dielectric loss, and (v) AgNW aligned structure, which increased the effective surface area of AgNWs, as nanoelectrodes. Comparison of the dielectric properties of the developed hybrid nanocomposites with the literature highlights their great potential for flexible capacitors.

  3. High ion conducting polymer nanocomposite electrolytes using hybrid nanofillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changyu; Hackenberg, Ken; Fu, Qiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ardebili, Haleh

    2012-03-14

    There is a growing shift from liquid electrolytes toward solid polymer electrolytes, in energy storage devices, due to the many advantages of the latter such as enhanced safety, flexibility, and manufacturability. The main issue with polymer electrolytes is their lower ionic conductivity compared to that of liquid electrolytes. Nanoscale fillers such as silica and alumina nanoparticles are known to enhance the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes. Although carbon nanotubes have been used as fillers for polymers in various applications, they have not yet been used in polymer electrolytes as they are conductive and can pose the risk of electrical shorting. In this study, we show that nanotubes can be packaged within insulating clay layers to form effective 3D nanofillers. We show that such hybrid nanofillers increase the lithium ion conductivity of PEO electrolyte by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, significant improvement in mechanical properties were observed where only 5 wt % addition of the filler led to 160% increase in the tensile strength of the polymer. This new approach of embedding conducting-insulating hybrid nanofillers could lead to the development of a new generation of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes with high ion conductivity and improved mechanical properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Facile Fabrication of MoS2-Modified SnO2 Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Sun, Yan'e; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-06-08

    An ultrasensitive humidity sensor based on molybdenum-disulfide- (MoS2)-modified tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposite has been demonstrated in this work. The nanostructural, morphological, and compositional properties of an as-prepared MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), nitrogen sorption analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed its successful preparation and rationality. The sensing characteristics of the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid film device against relative humidity (RH) were investigated at room temperature. The RH sensing results revealed an unprecedented response, ultrafast response/recovery behaviors, and outstanding repeatability. To our knowledge, the sensor response yielded in this work was tens of times higher than that of the existing humidity sensors. Moreover, the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite film sensor exhibited great enhancement in humidity sensing performances as compared to the pure MoS2, SnO2, and graphene counterparts. Furthermore, complex impedance spectroscopy and bode plots were employed to understand the underlying sensing mechanisms of the MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite toward humidity. The synthesized MoS2/SnO2 hybrid composite was proved to be an excellent candidate for constructing ultrahigh-performance humidity sensor toward various applications.

  5. Viscoelastic properties of polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiaxiang

    Polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites offer the potential for dramatically improved mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties while keeping the material density low. Understanding the linear and non-linear viscoelastic response for such materials is crucial because of the ability of such measurements to elucidate the mesoscale dispersion of layered-silicates and changes in such dispersion to applied flows as would be encountered in processing of these materials. A series of intercalated polystyrene (and derivatives of polystyrene) layered-silicate nanocomposites are studied to demonstrate the influence of mesoscale dispersion and organic---inorganic interactions on the linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties. A layered-silicate network structure is exhibited for the nanocomposites with strong polymer-silicate interaction such as montmorillonite (2C18M) and fluorohectorite (C18F) and the percolation threshold is ˜ 6 wt % for the 2C18M based hybrids. However, the nanocomposites based on hectorite (2C18H) with weak polymer-silicate interaction exhibit liquid-like terminal zone behavior. Furthermore, the enhanced terminal zone elastic modulus and viscosity of high brominated polystyrene and high molecular weight polystyrene based 2C18M nanocomposites suggest an improved delamination and dispersion of layered-silicates in the polymer matrix. The non-linear viscoelastic properties, specifically, the non-linear stress relaxation behavior and the applicability of time---strain separability, the effect of increasing strain amplitude on the oscillatory shear flow properties, and the shear rate dependence of the steady shear flow properties are examined. The silicate sheets (or collections of sheets) exhibit the ability to be oriented by the applied flow. Experimentally, the empirical Cox - Merz rule is demonstrated to be inapplicable for the hybrids. Furthermore, the K-BKZ constitutive model is used to model the steady shear properties. While being able to

  6. Elaboration and characterization of a multifunctional silane/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolay, A. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Lanzutti, A. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Poelman, M.; Ruelle, B. [Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Fedrizzi, L. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Dubois, Ph. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Olivier, M.-G., E-mail: marjorie.olivier@umons.ac.be [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite films. • Study of ZnO nanoparticle dispersion in the sol–gel matrix. • Highlighting barrier properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Highlighting UV-absorption properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Influence of ZnO nanofiller percentage on these properties. - Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the elaboration of a ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite coating, which can provide a number of properties such as UV-absorption, mechanical and barrier effects, etc. depending on targeted applications. The sol–gel coating formulation is an inorganic–organic hybrid based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). In order to ensure good dispersion in the sol–gel matrix, ZnO nanoparticles were surface-modified with a silane coupling agent. The functionalization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) characterization of the nanocomposite film reveals a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles throughout the film. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) analysis allows evaluating the thickness of coatings and getting a depth composition profile. Some properties such as UV-absorption and barrier effect are highlighted using a UV–visible spectrometer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The effect of ZnO concentration is also presented.

  7. Enhanced Capacitance of Hybrid Layered Graphene/Nickel Nanocomposite for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zaid, Norsaadatul Akmal; Idris, Nurul Hayati

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Ni nanoparticles were directly decorated on graphene (G) nanosheets via mechanical ball milling. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed and attached to the G nanosheet without any agglomerations. Electrochemical results showed that the capacitance of a G/Ni nanocomposite was 275 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, which is higher than the capacitance of bare G (145 F g-1) and bare Ni (3 F g-1). The G/Ni electrode also showed superior performance at a high current density, exhibiting a capacitance of 190 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1 and a capacitance of 144 F g-1 at a current density of 10 A g-1. The equivalent series resistance for G/Ni nanocomposites also decreased. The enhanced performance of this hybrid supercapacitor is best described by the synergistic effect, i.e. dual charge-storage mechanism, which is demonstrated by electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance materials. Moreover, a high specific surface area and electrical conductivity of the materials enhanced the capacitance. These results indicate that the G/Ni nanocomposite is a potential supercapacitor.

  8. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  9. Mechanical, thermal and decomposition behavior of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposites with clay-supported carbon nanotube hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzopoulou, Zoe; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Potsi, Georgia; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Rudolf, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites with hybrid clay-supported carbon nanotubes (Clay-CNT) in concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 wt% were prepared by melt mixing. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. All nanocomposites exhibited similar

  10. Au Based Nanocomposites Towards Plasmonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panniello, A.; Curri, M. L.; Placido, T.; Reboud, V.; Kehagias, N.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mecerreyes, D.; Agostiano, A.; Striccoli, M.

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of nano-sized metals in polymers can transfer their unique features to the host matrix, providing nanocomposite materials with improved optical, electric, magnetic and mechanical properties. In this work, colloidal Au nanorods have been incorporated into PMMA based random co-polymer, properly functionalized with amino groups and the optical and morphological properties of the resulting nanocomposite have been investigated by spectroscopic and AFM measurements. Au nanorods have demonstrated to preserve the plasmon absorption and to retain morphological features upon the incorporation, thus making the final metal modified polymer composite exploitable for the fabrication of plasmonic devices. The prepared nanocomposites have been then patterned by Nano Imprint Lithography technique in order to demonstrate the viability of the materials towards optical applications.

  11. Clay-based Nanocomposites Possibilities and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulis, Dimitris

    2011-09-01

    In the last decades, clay mineral based nanocomposites and polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNC) have been proposed as very useful materials for many uses including photocatalysis, medicinal uses as tissue engineering or modified drug delivery systems. Clay minerals and especially montmorillonite, kaolinite, halloysite palygorskite and sepiolite are the most used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, colloidal dimensions of their particles and other properties. This lecture aims at reporting on very recent developments in the use of clay minerals and PCNC as materials with photocatalytic and medical interest.

  12. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Honglin [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 (China); Ren, Kaijing [Department of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts.

  13. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Boron nitride-MWCNT/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites: Preparation and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulus, Hasan; Üstün, Tugay [Mechanical Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Eskizeybek, Volkan [Materials Science and Engineering, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale 17100 (Turkey); Şahin, Ömer Sinan; Avcı, Ahmet [Mechanical Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Ekrem, Mürsel, E-mail: mekrem@konya.edu.tr [Mechanical Engineering Department, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of BN nanoplatelets on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • We investigated the synergetic effects of BN nanoplatelets and MWCNTs on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • Fracture surfaces were examined by SEM analysis. - Abstract: In this study, production and mechanical properties of hybrid nanocomposites have been investigated. Hybrid nanocomposites are consisting of boron nitride nanoplatelets (BN) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) embedded in epoxy resin. The BN and MWCNT were mixed to epoxy resin in different weight fractions and mixtures were utilized for tensile test specimen production. The synthesized BN and produced hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA analyses. The elasticity modulus and tensile strength values were obtained via tensile tests. The fracture morphologies were investigated after tensile test by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Integrated Chemical Systems: The Simultaneous Formation of Hybrid Nanocomposites of Iron Oxide and Organo Silsesquioxanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L; Clapsaddle, B; Jr., J S; Schaefer, D; Shea, K

    2004-10-15

    A sol-gel approach for the synthesis of hybrid nanocomposites of iron oxide and bridged polysilsesquioxanes has been established. The procedures allow for the simultaneous formation of iron oxide and polysilsesquioxane networks in monolithic xerogels and aerogels. These hybrid nanocomposites are synthesized from FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and functionalized silsesquioxane monomers in a one-pot reaction using epoxides as a gelation agent. The porosity and microstructure of the materials has been determined by nitrogen porosimetry, electron microscopy and ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The hybrid nanocomposites exhibit a uniform dispersion of both components with no evidence for phase separation at length scales > 5 nm. At this limit of resolution it is not possible to distinguish between two independent interpenetrating networks integrated at molecular length scales or a random copolymer or mixtures of both.

  16. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-27

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  17. A highly sensitive NADH sensor based on a mycelium-like nanocomposite using graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes to co-immobilize poly(luminol) and poly(neutral red) hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Lin, Kuo; Yu Lai, Szu; Ming Chen, Shen

    2014-08-21

    Hybridization of poly(luminol) (PLM) and poly(neutral red) (PNR) has been successfully performed and further enhanced by a conductive and steric hybrid nanotemplate using graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The morphology of the PLM-PNR-MWCNT-GO mycelium-like nanocomposite is studied by SEM and AFM and it is found to be electroactive, pH-dependent, and stable in the electrochemical system. It shows electrocatalytic activity towards NADH with a high current response and low overpotential. Using amperometry, it has been shown to have a high sensitivity of 288.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to NADH (Eapp. = +0.1 V). Linearity is estimated in a concentration range of 1.33 × 10(-8) to 1.95 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.33 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Particularly, it also shows another linear range of 2.08 × 10(-4) to 5.81 × 10(-4) M with a sensitivity of 151.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The hybridization and activity of PLM and PNR can be effectively enhanced by MWCNTs and GO, resulting in an active hybrid nanocomposite for determination of NADH.

  18. Magnetic graphene based nanocomposite for uranium scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, Heba H. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelmaged, Shaimaa M. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt); Nada, Amr A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Zahran, Fouad, E-mail: f.zahran@quim.ucm.es [Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 11795, Cairo (Egypt); El-Wahab, Saad Abd; Yahea, Dena [Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Hussein, G.M.; Atrees, M.S. [Nuclear Materials Authority, 6530 P.O. Box Maadi, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphical representation of U{sup 6+} adsorption on Magnetic Ferberite-Graphene Nanocomposite. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new magnetic wolframite bimetallic nanostructure on graphene. • A promising adsorption capacity of 455 mg/g was recorded for FG-20 within 60 min at room temperature. • The uranium removal was followed pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm. - Abstract: Magnetic graphene based ferberite nanocomposite was tailored by simple, green, low cost and industrial effective method. The microstructure and morphology of the designed nanomaterials were examined via XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM, EDX and VSM. The prepared nanocomposites were introduced as a novel adsorbent for uranium ions scavenging from aqueous solution. Different operating conditions of time, pH, initial uranium concentration, adsorbent amount and temperature were investigated. The experimental data shows a promising adsorption capacity. In particular, a maximum value of 455 mg/g was obtained within 60 min at room temperature with adsorption efficiency of 90.5%. The kinetics and isotherms adsorption data were fitted with the pseudo-second order model and Langmuir equation, respectively. Finally, the designed nanocomposites were found to have a great degree of sustainability (above 5 times of profiteering) with a complete maintenance of their parental morphology and adsorption capacity.

  19. MoS2@VS2 Nanocomposite as a Superior Hybrid Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdus; Shin, Young-Han

    2017-09-06

    Using density functional theory, MoS2@VS2 nanocomposite is reported as a hybrid anode with upgraded electronic conductivity and Li/Na storage capacity. The chemically active monolayer VS2 can be stabilized in energy and phonon vibrations by using the monolayer MoS2 as a substrate. The stability of the chemically active monolayer VS2 is attributed to the interfacial charge accumulation between the monolayer MoS2 and VS2. The maximum specific capacity of the nanocomposite has been enhanced to 584 mAh/g both for Li and for Na storage. We attribute the high enhancement in the Li/Na storage capacity of MoS2@VS2 nanocomposite to the charge redistribution in the formation of the nanocomposite. The lithiation/sodiation open-circuit voltage range of the nanocomposite is quite feasible to be used as anode. Diffusion barriers of Li/Na ions on the surfaces of the nanocomposite are comparable to the barriers on corresponding monolayers, while at the interface the barriers are lower than that for bulk MoS2. This study utilizes different aspects of the two different materials in a hybrid anode with highly enhanced electrochemical performance.

  20. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  1. Polyimide nanocomposites based on cubic zirconium tungstate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian Sharma, Gayathri

    2009-12-01

    alter the thermal degradation and glass transition temperatures of the base PI. The addition of ZrW2O8 nanoparticles increased the Young's modulus of the polymer, indicating the stiffening of polyimide matrix. The modulus showed a steady increase with increase in filler loading. The increase was higher for nanocomposites with engineered interface due to the efficient load transfer achieved through the presence of linker groups. The strain at yield and the tensile strength decreased with the addition of ZrW2O8. The experimental results for the moduli of nanocomposites were compared with moduli predicted using theoretical models. The results for the nanocomposites with unmodified ZrW2O8 followed Hashin-Shtrikman (H-S) lower bound, which showed the presence of mechanical interactions between the polymer and filler. The moduli for nanocomposites with engineered interface fell between the H-S bounds, demonstrating the stiffening of PI matrix through efficient load transfer. The addition of ZrW2O8 reduced the in-plane CTE of the base PI at all loadings. The CTE of the nanocomposites decreased steadily with an increase in the filler loading. With the addition of 15 volume% APT-ZrW 2O8, the CTE of the base PI reduced from 64.3 +/- 1.3 ppm/°C to 51.9 +/- 0.9 ppm/°C. In other words, the CTE of the base PI was reduced by around 22% with the addition of ZrW2O 8 at 15 volume% loading. The CTE values were comparable for all samples at similar loadings irrespective of the interface groups. The experimental results for the CTEs of nanocomposites were compared with CTEs predicted using theoretical models. The data followed the Schapery upper bound, which was consistent with the results observed for the moduli data. The effect of ZrW2O8 particle size on the bulk properties of the polyimide was also investigated. The CTE of composites with micron particles at 5 volume% was comparable to that obtained for nanocomposites at the same filler loading. But, there were significant differences

  2. Nanostructured SnO2 encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Priya; Srivastava, Manish; Verma, Ranjana; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, D; Singh, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol-gel derived tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic-inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic-inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO2 nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO2 and SnO2-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV-Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO2 and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2-22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm(-2). Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO2-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO2-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  4. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanocomposites of polypyrrole filled with iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navale, S. T.; Khuspe, G. D.; Chougule, M. A.; Patil, V. B.

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid polypyrrole (PPy)/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite films were fabricated by spin coating on a glass substrate. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed the crystalline structure of α-Fe2O3 nanostructures and the nanocomposites. The broad PPy peak weakened in intensity as the α-Fe2O3 content increased in PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. Characteristic Fourier-transform IR peaks for pure PPy shifted to higher wavenumbers on addition of α-Fe2O3 to PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. This can be attributed to better conjugation and interactions between PPy and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy images of the nanocomposites reveal a uniform distribution of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the PPy matrix. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy revealed a blue shift from λmax= 441 nm for PPy to λmax= 392 nm for PPy/α-Fe2O3, reflecting strong interactions between PPy and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The room-temperature dc electrical conductivity increased from 4.33×10-9 to 1.81×10-8 S/cm as the α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle content increased from 10 to 50 wt.% in PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites.

  6. Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tai Le

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we successfully fabricate a hybrid polymer nanocomposite containing epoxy/polyester blend resin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs by a novel technique. A high intensity ultrasonicator is used to obtain a homogeneous mixture of epoxy/polyester resin and graphene nanoplatelets. This mixture is then mixed with a hardener using a high-speed mechanical stirrer. The trapped air and reaction volatiles are removed from the mixture using high vacuum. The hot press casting method is used to make the nanocomposite specimens. Tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA are performed on neat, 0.2 wt %, 0.5 wt %, 1 wt %, 1.5 wt % and 2 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester blend resin to investigate the reinforcement effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this research indicate that the tensile strength of the novel nanocomposite material increases to 86.8% with the addition of a ratio of graphene nanoplatelets as low as 0.2 wt %. DMA results indicate that the 1 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester nanocomposite possesses the highest storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg, as compared to neat epoxy/polyester or the other nanocomposite specimens. In addition, TGA results verify thethermal stability of the experimental specimens, regardless of the weight percentage of GNPs.

  7. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md. Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube–alumina (CNT–Al2O3) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT–Al2O3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al2O3 particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al2O3 particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT–Al2O3 hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K1C, compared to neat epoxy. PMID:28772663

  8. Dielectric properties of binary polyvinylidene fluoride/barium titanate nanocomposites and their nanographite doped hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary polyvinylidene fluoride/barium titanate (PVDF/BaTiO3 and its nanographite (GN doped ternary nanocomposites were fabricated using a simple solution casting process followed by compression molding. The dielectric behavior of such hybrids over a wide frequency range was studied. Additions of GN with contents close to the percolation threshold were found to be very effective to enhance dielectric permittivity of the PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites. In this regard, the electrical behavior of ternary PVDF/BaTiO3/GN hybrids can be explained in terms of the percolation theory. Furthermore, both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of hybrids were found to be strongly frequency and temperature dependent.

  9. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  10. Influence of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Concentration on Polymer Hole Transport in Hybrid Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Pate; Adrienne D. Stiff-Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates hole transport in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV)/CdSe colloidal quantum dot (CQD) nanocomposites using a modified time-of-flight photoconductivity technique. The measured hole drift mobilities are analyzed in the context of Bässler’s Gaussian disorder model and the correlated disorder model in order to determine the polymer internal morphology of hybrid nanocomposite thin films. This work shows that increasing the CdSe CQD...

  11. nanoparticles-decorated activated carbon nanocomposite based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K APARNA

    2018-02-07

    decorated activated carbon. (AC) nanocomposite for selective detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). The nanocomposite was prepared by a simple hydrothermal method and the ...

  12. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindraju, S; Ntholeng, N; Ranganathan, K; Moloto, M. J; Sikhwivhilu, L. M; Moloto, N

    2016-01-01

    ...) to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybrid solar cells. Nearly monodispersed 4 nm Cu2Se nanocrystals were synthesized using the conventional colloidal synthesis. Varying weight...

  13. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil® nanocomposites and combine high erosion resistance, low ice adhesion, and passive anti-icing...

  14. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this Phase I SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposites that combine high levels of erosion resistance and anti-icing...

  15. Biopolymer based nanocomposites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; Mistretta, M. C.; La Mantia, F. P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, UdR INSTM di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work, biopolymer based nanocomposites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) were prepared by melt compounding in a batch mixer. The polymer used as matrix was a commercial biodegradable polymer-blend of PLA and a copolyester (BioFlex®). The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of the GnP amount on the investigated properties was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnP increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix.

  16. Atomistic simulation of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Bačová, Petra; Harmandaris, Vagelis [Crete Center for Quantum Complexity and Nanotechnology (CQCN), Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-05-18

    Polymer/graphene nanostructured systems are hybrid materials which have attracted great attention the last years both for scientific and technological reasons. In the present work atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulations are performed for the study of graphene-based polymer nanocomposites composed of pristine, hydrogenated and carboxylated graphene sheets dispersed in polar (PEO) and nonpolar (PE) short polymer matrices (i.e., matrices containing chains of low molecular weight). Our focus is twofold; the one is the study of the structural and dynamical properties of short polymer chains and the way that they are affected by functionalized graphene sheets while the other is the effect of the polymer matrices on the behavior of graphene sheets.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  18. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  19. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Khan, M. A. M.; Khan, M. Naziruddin; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alhoshan, M.; Alsalhi, M. S., E-mail: aneesaansari@gmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, P. O. Box-2454 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-04-15

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO{sub 2} sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO{sub 2} powder (E{sub g} = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping. (semiconductor materials)

  20. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Khan, M. A. M.; Naziruddin Khan, M.; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alhoshan, M.; Alsalhi, M. S.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I—V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  1. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Jini, E-mail: jini.nano@gmail.com; Varghese, K.T., E-mail: ktvscs@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr <<< GCZ >> GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min{sup −1} corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  2. Nanoparticle-cored dendrimers: functional hybrid nanocomposites as a new platform for drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Veronica; Bouchet, Lydia María; Strumia, Miriam Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle-cored dendrimers (NCDs) are now offering themselves as versatile carriers because of their colloidal stability, tunable membrane properties and ability to encapsulate or integrate a broad range of drugs and molecules. This kind of hybrid nanocomposite aims to combine the advantages of stimuliresponsive dendritic coatings, in order to regulate the drug release behaviour under different conditions and improve the biocompatibility and in vivo half-time circulation of the inorgan...

  3. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamborova, Irena [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Zajicova, Veronika, E-mail: veronika.zajicova@tul.cz [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Karpiskova, Jana [Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 Degree-Sign C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  4. Ferromagnetic properties of hybrid cementite and diamond nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hui Kang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of cementite (Fe3C nanoparticles and diamond obtained via powder mixed dielectric-electrical discharge machining (PMD-EDM is investigated. The processed surface morphology exhibits various structures, including a white layer (machined surface and a heat-affected zone (HAZ. The concentration of the Fe element in the white layer is higher than that in the HAZ. The value of magnetization is about 0.1~0.5 mA/m2. Increasing the frequency of the pulse affects the ferromagnetic behavior of magnets fabricated using the PMD-EDM process.

  5. The MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce Hybrid Nanocomposite Material for Solution Processing Fabrication of Optoelectronic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Dinh Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and the property investigation of the hybrid nanocomposite material made of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV polymer and Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce with the relative weight ratio of 1 : 1 in order to apply for optoelectronic devices are reported. Thermal analysis showed the hybrid material’s deterioration or decomposition when the temperature exceeded 200°C under inert gas atmosphere. Rheological measurement concluded that the material solution can be used for spinning or soft moulding lithography making large- or flexible substrate surface. Optical properties of the hybrid material are investigated. The effect of thermal treatment on the optical properties showed that, at 180°C under inert gas environment, the optical properties were enhanced. An MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce hybrid nanocomposite converted LED lamp was fabricated showing that the hybrid material is suitable as conversion material for white LED fabrication.

  6. Structure-property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Li; Gao, Yu; Ban, Jinghao; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group]) and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups]) were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials.

  7. Bio-nanocomposites: Fabrication and characterization of layered silicate nanocomposites based on biocompatible/biodegradable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Vahik

    The feasibility of fabricating a polypeptide based layered silicate nanocomposite has been reported for the first time. Poly(l-lysine), a highly cationic polypeptide at neutral pH, was incorporated with unmodified Na+-Montmorillonite resulting in a predominantly intercalated nanocomposite with superior mechanical properties compared to the neat polypeptide matrix. In addition, the effect of organically modified montmorillonite clay incorporation on physical properties and crystallization behavior of a novel biocompatible polymer matrix have also been studied. Three types of commercially available organoclays with different extent of miscibility with a polymer matrix were employed, leading to fully exfoliated (high miscibility) and intercalated (low miscibility) nanocomposite morphologies, respectively. Both nanocomposite films and fibers were fabricated via the exfoliation-adsorption technique with the biodegradable polyester matrix polymer poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with fibers additionally produced via electrospinning. Bulk kinetics studies and radial spherulite growth rates in nanocomposite films indicate that when a high degree of filler-polymer matrix miscibility is present, nucleation properties of the organoclay are low relative to the less miscible organoclay. Therefore, the overall bulk crystallization rate was increased in the intercalated system and somewhat retarded in the exfoliated system. Surprisingly, spherulite growth rates were significantly increased relative to the bulk in the fully exfoliated nanocomposite. Based on real-time FTIR studies, in the case of neat PLLA, inter-chain interactions preceded intra-chain interactions during the crystallization. Conversely, the exfoliated nanocomposites exhibited the opposite behavior in that 10 3 helix formation and backbone reorientation was followed by the inter-chain interactions. These results explain the non-nucleating behavior of highly miscible and exfoliated nanocomposites. In addition to the

  8. Hybrid sols as intermediates to inorganic-organic nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Oliveira, Peter William de; Krug, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    For the preparation of inorganic-organic hybrid materials, synthesis processes have been developed to fabricate so-called hybrid sols, which contain an inorganic core (ceramic or glass) with nano-scale dimensions surface modified by organic groupings. These groupings have been reacted to the particle surface either by amino functional silanes (e.g. in case of iron oxide nanoparticles for amino group containing silanes) reacting with aliphatic acids to make surfaces ureactive and reduce the pa...

  9. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photo-sensing of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM blend-based photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Qayyum, E-mail: qayyumzafar@siswa.um.edu.my; Najeeb, Mansoor Ani, E-mail: animansoor@um.edu.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa [Qatar University, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering (Qatar); Sulaiman, Khaulah, E-mail: khaulah@um.edu.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    The sensing parameters of previously reported PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM ternary blend-based organic photodetector have been improved in the present study. Improvement has been successfully demonstrated by doping TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS thin film. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 250 nm diameters have initially been dispersed in PEDOT:PSS, and the resulting suspension has been spun coated on glass substrates and subjected to UV/vis and PL study. Thin film of PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2} (100 nm) has shown maximum quenching in PL spectra, along with fairly good visible-light absorption. For further studies, 5 wt% TiO{sub 2} (100 nm) nanoparticles dispersion in PEDOT:PSS has been utilized for the fabrication of ITO/PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2}/PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM/Al photodiode. The PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2} suspension has been spun coated onto the ITO substrates primarily and annealed to densify the film by vaporizing water contents in the film. A ternary blend of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM in optimized volumetric ratio has been sequentially spun-cast to serve as a photoactive film. Significantly improved values of the sensing parameters such as responsivity (4 mA/W) and photo-to-dark current ratio (∼6.4 × 10{sup 4}) have also been found. Response/recovery times of the fabricated sensor remain almost the same (<1 s) as previously reported for PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM ternary blend.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photo-sensing of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM blend-based photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Ahmad, Zubair; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2015-09-01

    The sensing parameters of previously reported PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM ternary blend-based organic photodetector have been improved in the present study. Improvement has been successfully demonstrated by doping TiO2 nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS thin film. TiO2 nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 250 nm diameters have initially been dispersed in PEDOT:PSS, and the resulting suspension has been spun coated on glass substrates and subjected to UV/vis and PL study. Thin film of PEDOT:PSS-TiO2 (100 nm) has shown maximum quenching in PL spectra, along with fairly good visible-light absorption. For further studies, 5 wt% TiO2 (100 nm) nanoparticles dispersion in PEDOT:PSS has been utilized for the fabrication of ITO/PEDOT:PSS-TiO2/PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM/Al photodiode. The PEDOT:PSS-TiO2 suspension has been spun coated onto the ITO substrates primarily and annealed to densify the film by vaporizing water contents in the film. A ternary blend of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM in optimized volumetric ratio has been sequentially spun-cast to serve as a photoactive film. Significantly improved values of the sensing parameters such as responsivity (4 mA/W) and photo-to-dark current ratio ( 6.4 × 104) have also been found. Response/recovery times of the fabricated sensor remain almost the same (<1 s) as previously reported for PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM ternary blend.

  11. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-07-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  12. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harekrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  13. Unveiling the hybrid interface in polymer nanocomposites enclosing silsesquioxanes with tunable molecular structure: Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, Massimiliano; Diré, Sandra; Redaelli, Matteo; Borovin, Evgeny; Callone, Emanuela; Di Credico, Barbara; Morazzoni, Franca; Pegoretti, Alessandro; Scotti, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    Organic-inorganic nanobuilding blocks (NBBs) based on silsesquioxanes (SSQs) have potential applications as nanofillers, thermal stabilizers, and rheological modifiers, which can improve thermomechanical properties of polymer hosts. The possibility to tune both siloxane structure and pendant groups can promote compatibilization and peculiar interactions with a plethora of polymers. However, the control on SSQs molecular architecture and functionalities is usually delicate and requires careful synthetic details. Moreover, investigating the influence of NBBs loading and structure on the hybrid interface and, in turn, on the polymer chains mobility and mechanical properties, may be challenging, especially for low-loaded materials. Herein, we describe the preparation and characterization of polybutadiene (PB) nanocomposites using as innovative fillers thiol-functionalized SSQs nanobuilding blocks (SH-NBBs), with both tailorable functionality and structure. Swelling experiments and, more clearly, solid-state NMR, enlightened a remarkable effect of SH-NBBs on the molecular structure and mobility of the polymeric chains, envisaging the occurrence of chemical interactions at the hybrid interface. Finally, thermal and DMTA analyses revealed that nanocomposites, even containing very low filler loadings (i.e. 1, 3 wt%), exhibited enhanced thermomechanical properties, which seem to be connected not only to the loading, but also to the peculiar cage or ladder-like architecture of SH-NBBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carboxylic acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3: A novel hybrid nanocomposite as highly efficient photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireesha, Pedaballi; Sasikumar, Ragu; Chen, Shen-Ming; Su, Chaochin; Ranganathan, Palraj; Rwei, Syang-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Herein, we are reporting carboxylic acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3 hybrid nanocomposite (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3) synthesis, phase structure and morphology studies with extended applications. FE-SEM, and TGA results shows that the hybrid nanocomposite having good thermal stability. This hybrid nanocomposite is utilized to prepare a photo-anode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Interestingly, the doped with TiO2 (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposite based photo-anode for DSSC reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.6% and it is about 6% higher than that of un-doped TiO2 photo-anode. The corresponding short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 18.30 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.71 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.66, and dye absorption amount is 0.16 × 10-6 mol cm-2 respectively. The obtained results suggest that the hybrid nanocomposite is a suitable photo-anodic material for DSSCs applications.

  15. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  16. Hybrid Polyamide/Silica Nanocomposites : Synthesis and Mechanical Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, W.E.; Garcia, M.; Schrauwen, B.A.G.; Kooi, B.J.; De Hosson, Jeff Th.M.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid inorganic-polymer composite was formed through nanosize silica filler particles (<30 nm) that were incorporated inside a nylon-6 matrix. The composite was microtomed and examined with TEM which revealed that the silica particles were well dispersed and non-aggregated. Optimization of the

  17. Bistable memory device based on DNA biopolymer nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Tzu; Lin, Ting-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2014-05-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), as one kind of biopolymer, has recently emerged as an attractive optical material, showing promise in making versatile optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we report the fabrication and characterization of DNA biopolymer nanocomposite with tunable conductivities and the application in bistable memory device. DNA nanocomposite consisting of DNA biopolymer and silver nanoparticles is synthesized using a phototriggered method. The nanocomposite exhibits tunable conductivities when exposed to UV light under different periods of time. The electrical conductivity is suggested to be dependent on the quantity and the distribution of silver nanoparticles formed in DNA biopolymer. In addition, a memory device based on DNA biopolymer nanocomposite is demonstrated. The operation of different conductivity states can be adjusted by the concentration of nanoparticles. The device shows bistability of current, and presents a stable write-read-erase cycle. Detailed performance of the DNA-based memory device will be presented and discussed.

  18. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) reinforced alginate based biodegradable nanocomposite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Tanzina; Salmieri, Stephane; Khan, Avik; Khan, Ruhul A; Le Tien, Canh; Riedl, Bernard; Fraschini, Carole; Bouchard, Jean; Uribe-Calderon, Jorge; Kamal, Musa R; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-11-06

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) reinforced alginate-based nanocomposite film was prepared by solution casting. The NCC content in the matrix was varied from 1 to 8% ((w/w) % dry matrix). It was found that the nanocomposite reinforced with 5 wt% NCC content exhibits the highest tensile strength which was increased by 37% compared to the control. Incorporation of NCC also significantly improved water vapor permeability (WVP) of the nanocomposite showing a 31% decrease due to 5 wt% NCC loading. Molecular interactions between alginate and NCC were supported by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies also confirmed the appearance of crystalline peaks due to the presence of NCC inside the films. Thermal stability of alginate-based nanocomposite films was improved after incorporation of NCC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Das G.; Yoon HH

    2015-01-01

    Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform...

  20. Piezoresistive Strain Sensors Made from Carbon Nanotubes Based Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nanocomposites based on various nano-scale carbon fillers, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs, are increasingly being thought of as a realistic alternative to conventional smart materials, largely due to their superior electrical properties. Great interest has been generated in building highly sensitive strain sensors with these new nanocomposites. This article reviews the recent significant developments in the field of highly sensitive strain sensors made from CNT/polymer nanocomposites. We focus on the following two topics: electrical conductivity and piezoresistivity of CNT/polymer nanocomposites, and the relationship between them by considering the internal conductive network formed by CNTs, tunneling effect, aspect ratio and piezoresistivity of CNTs themselves, etc. Many recent experimental, theoretical and numerical studies in this field are described in detail to uncover the working mechanisms of this new type of strain sensors and to demonstrate some possible key factors for improving the sensor sensitivity.

  1. Metal–carbon nanocomposites based on pyrolysed polyacrylonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zaporotskova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and geometry of metal−carbon nanocomposites based on pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile (PPAN with Cu, Si, Fe, Co and Ni atoms using the DFT method have been theoretically studied. The effect of nitrogen on the stability of PPAN and its conductivity has been determined. The electrophysical properties and structure of metal nanocomposites have been studied using the XFA method. The composites have been produced by IR heating. We suggest that metal−carbon nanocomposites form due to the special processing of the (PAN−MeR samples. Metal nanoparticles are regularly dispersed in the nanocrystalline matrix of PPAN. The conductivity of these metal−carbon nanocomposites has an activation character and varies from 10−1 to 103 Om/cm depending on synthesis temperature (T=600–900 °С. The results of theoretical and experimental research are in a good agreement.

  2. Chitosan nanocomposites based on distinct inorganic fillers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Duarte; Mano, João F; Paiva, Maria C; Alves, Natália M

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHI), a biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide with the ability to provide a non-protein matrix for tissue growth, is considered to be an ideal material in the biomedical field. However, the lack of good mechanical properties limits its applications. In order to overcome this drawback, CHI has been combined with different polymers and fillers, leading to a variety of chitosan-based nanocomposites. The extensive research on CHI nanocomposites as well as their main biomedical applications are reviewed in this paper. An overview of the different fillers and assembly techniques available to produce CHI nanocomposites is presented. Finally, the properties of such nanocomposites are discussed with particular focus on bone regeneration, drug delivery, wound healing and biosensing applications.

  3. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Rodrigues,A.L.; Ribeiro, D.C.; Nogueira, R; Machado, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  4. Dispersion characteristics of nanocomposites based on functionalized block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Linping

    The dispersion characteristics of organoclay nanocomposites based on functionalized block copolymers have been investigated. For the investigation, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene (SB diblock) copolymers synthesized via anionic polymerization were first hydroxylated via hydroboration/oxidation to obtain polystyrene-block-hydroxylated polybutadiene (SBOH diblock) copolymers. Then, the SBOH diblock copolymer was attached with pyridine, pyrimidine, terpyridine, or terpyridine-Ruthenium (Ru) complex functional groups to obtain SB-pyridine, SB-pyrimidine, SB-terpyridine (SB-Terpy), and SB-Terpy-Ru complex diblock copolymers. Subsequently, each of these functionalized block copolymers was used to prepare, via solution blending, organoclay nanocomposites, for which natural clay (montmorillonite, MMT) and two commercial organoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 15A) were employed. The dispersion characteristics of the organoclay nanocomposites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and oscillatory rheometry (OR). We have made the following observations. The SBOH/Cloisite 30B nanocomposite had a very high degree of dispersion of Cloisite 30B aggregates, whereas the SBOH/Cloisite 15A and SBOH/MMT nanocomposites had a very low degree of dispersion of the aggregates of Cloisite 15A or MMT. In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has revealed that hydrogen bonds were formed between the hydroxyl groups in the SBOH diblock copolymer and the surfactant residing at the surface of Cloisite 30B in the former nanocomposite, yielding a very high degree of dispersion of Cloisite 30B aggregates, while no hydrogen bonds were formed in the latter two nanocomposites. The (SB-pyridine)/Cloisite 30B nanocomposite had intercalation of aggregates of Cloisite 30B, while the (SB-pyridine)/Cloisite 15A and (SB-pyridine)/MMT nanocomposites had a very low degree of dispersion of the aggregates of Cloisite 15A or MMT in the SB

  5. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of hybrid nanfluids prepared with magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite material; preparation of nanofluids and estimation of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity has been explained experimentally in this paper. The nanocomposite material has been synthesized by using in-situ growth technique and chemical coprecipitation between cobalt chloride and sodium borohydrate. The various techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS and VSM have been used to confirm the ND and Co3O4 phase of synthesized nanocomposite. The hybrid nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing synthesized ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite in water, ethylene glycol/water mixtures. The thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured experimentally at different weight concentrations and temperatures. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity enhancements are about 16%, 9%, 14%, 11% and 10% for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Similarly the viscosity enhancements are about 1.45-times, 1.46-times, 1.15-times, 1.19-times, and 1.51-times for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Based on the experimental data new correlations for thermal conductivity and viscosity have been developed.

  6. Biosensor based on Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Aidong; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-07-13

    We demonstrate a facile procedure to efficiently prepare Prussian blue nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide (PBNCs/rGO) nanocomposite by directly mixing Fe3+ and [Fe(CN)6]3 in the presence of GO in polyethyleneimine aqueous solution, resulting in a novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The obtained nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis. It was clearly observed that the nanosheet has been decorated with cubic PB nanoparticles and nearly all the nanoparticles are distributed uniformly only on the surface of the reduced GO. No isolated PB nanoparticles were observed, indicating the strong interaction between PB nanocubes and the reduced GO and the formation of PBNCs/rGO nanocomposite. The obtained PBNCs/rGO based AChE biosensor make the peak potential shift negatively to 220 mV. The AChE biosensor shows rapid response and high sensitivity for detection of monocrotophos. These results suggest that the PBNCs/rGO hybrids nanocomposite exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of thiocholine, which lead to the sensitive detection of OP pesticides.

  7. Nanocomposites Based on Luminescent Colloidal Nanocrystals and Polymeric Ionic Liquids towards Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Panniello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric ionic liquids (PILs are an interesting class of polyelectrolytes, merging peculiar physical-chemical features of ionic liquids with the flexibility, mechanical stability and processability typical of polymers. The combination of PILs with colloidal semiconducting nanocrystals leads to novel nanocomposite materials with high potential for batteries and solar cells. We report the synthesis and properties of a hybrid nanocomposite made of colloidal luminescent CdSe nanocrystals incorporated in a novel ex situ synthesized imidazolium-based PIL, namely, either a poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate or a homologous PIL functionalized with a thiol end-group exhibiting a chemical affinity with the nanocrystal surface. A capping exchange procedure has been implemented for replacing the pristine organic capping molecules of the colloidal CdSe nanocrystals with inorganic chalcogenide ions, aiming to disperse the nano-objects in the PILs, by using a common polar solvent. The as-prepared nanocomposites have been studied by TEM investigation, UV-Vis, steady-state and time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy for elucidating the effects of the PIL functionalization on the morphological and optical properties of the nanocomposites.

  8. Shell thickness dependent photoinduced hole transfer in hybrid conjugated polymer/quantum dot nanocomposites: from ensemble to single hybrid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihua; Hine, Corey R; Maye, Mathew M; Meng, Qingping; Cotlet, Mircea

    2012-06-26

    Photoinduced hole transfer is investigated in inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposites of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and a cationic conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-bis(6-N,N,N-trimethylammoniumhexyl)fluorene-alt-phenylene, in solution and in solid thin film, and down to the single hybrid level and is assessed to be a dynamic quenching process. We demonstrate control of hole transfer rate in these quantum dot/conjugated polymer hybrids by using a series of core/shell quantum dots with varying shell thickness, for which a clear exponential dependency of the hole transfer rate vs shell thickness is observed, for both solution and thin-film situations. Furthermore, we observe an increase of hole-transfer rate from solution to film and correlate this with changes in quantum dot/polymer interfacial morphology affecting the hole transfer rate, namely, the donor-acceptor distance. Single particle spectroscopy experiments reveal fluctuating dynamics of hole transfer at the single conjugated polymer/quantum dot interface and an increased heterogeneity in the hole-transfer rate with the increase of the quantum dot's shell thickness. Although hole transfer quenches the photoluminescence intensity of quantum dots, it causes little or no effect on their blinking behavior over the time scales probed here.

  9. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination

  10. Properties and applications of polymer nanocomposites clay and carbon based polymer nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad Sahoo, Bibhu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present edited book is to furnish scientific information about manufacturing, properties, and application of clay and carbon based polymer nanocomposites. It can be used as handbook for undergraduate and post graduate courses (for example material science and engineering, polymer science and engineering, rubber technology, manufacturing engineering, etc.) as well as as reference book for research fellows and professionals. Polymer nanocomposites have received outstanding importance in the present decade because of their broad range of high-performance applications in various areas of engineering and technology due to their special material properties. A great interest is dedicated to nanofiller based polymeric materials, which exhibit excellent enhancement in macroscopic material properties (mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical, electrical and many more) at very low filler contents and can therefore be used for the development of next-generation composite materials.

  11. Biopolymer Nanocomposite-Based Electromagnetic Interference shielding (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0493 BIOPOLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE-BASED ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE SHIELDING (PREPRINT) Yu Zang, Charles Rogers...Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND...MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT DOCUMENTATION

  12. Graphene-polyethylenedioxythiophene conducting polymer nanocomposite based supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, Farah [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@mail.usf.edu [Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Basnayaka, Punya A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Goswami, Yogi [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States); Clean Energy Research center (CERC), University of South Florida, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620-5350 (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagrams of an electrochemical double layer type capacitor showing the charged (left) and discharged (right) states. Highlights: > The Graphene-PEDOT nanocomposite based smart coating has shown the excellent redox properties in acidic, organic electrolytes, which is promising for suprecapcitor application. > The electrochemical impedance studies have also been estimated which clearly indicates the high conductivity and less charge transfer resistance in the synthesized material. > The specific capacitance of 380F/g have been calculated for G-Pedot material, also it shows the columbic efficiency of 95% for 800 cycles, which tells the remarkable stability of synthesized material. - Abstract: We present here the synthesis, characterization and application of graphene (G)-polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor applications. The G-PEDOT nanocomposite was synthesized using a chemical oxidative polymerization technique, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. The electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics of G-PEDOT nanocomposites were investigated in different electrolytic media, and the specific discharge capacitance was estimated to be 374 Farad/gram (F/gm). This manuscript presents the capacitance studies on supercapacitor G-PEDOT electrode with respect to stability of material, specific capacitance, electrical conductivity and specific charge/discharge properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. Our study has revealed that the G-PEDOT nanocomposite could be a transformable and viable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  13. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  14. Acrylamide-based magnetic nanosponges: a new smart nanocomposite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Massimo; Lenz, Sebastian; Falletta, Ester; Ridi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Fratini, Emiliano; Wiedenmann, Albrecht; Baglioni, Piero

    2008-11-04

    Nanocomposite materials consisting of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles and a polyethylene glycol-acrylamide gel matrix have been synthesized. The structure of such materials was studied by means of small-angle scattering of X-rays and polarized neutrons, showing that the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were successfully and homogeneously embedded in the gel structure. Magnetic, viscoelastic, and water retention properties of the nanocomposite gel confirm that the properties of both nanoparticles and gel are combined in the resulting nanomagnetic gel. Scanning electron microscopy highlights the nanocomposite nature of the material, showing the presence of a gel structure with different pore size distributions (pores with micron and nano-size distributions) that can be used as active sponge-like nanomagnetic container for water-based formulations as oil-in-water microemulsions.

  15. Biodegradable Nanocomposite Films Based on Sodium Alginate and Cellulose Nanofibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF into alginate biopolymer using the solution casting method. The effects of CNF content (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 wt % on mechanical, biodegradability and swelling behavior of the nanocomposite films were determined. The results showed that the tensile modulus value of the nanocomposite films increased from 308 to 1403 MPa with increasing CNF content from 0% to 10%; however, it decreased with further increase of the filler content. Incorporation of CNF also significantly reduced the swelling percentage and water solubility of alginate-based films, with the lower values found for 10 wt % in CNF. Biodegradation studies of the films in soil confirmed that the biodegradation time of alginate/CNF films greatly depends on the CNF content. The results evidence that the stronger intermolecular interaction and molecular compatibility between alginate and CNF components was at 10 wt % in CNF alginate films.

  16. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based DNA detection in solution using gold-decorated superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Sarkar, Keka

    2014-11-15

    In the field of nucleic acid-based biosensor technology, DNA-conjugated nanocomposites have attracted much attention due to their unique properties and multimodal applicability. However, quantitative estimation of sequence-specific oligonucleotide in a simpler way is still a challenge. Precise positioning of DNA probes over the surface of the nanocomposite can overcome problems such as steric hindrance of the surface-bound molecules to enable further sensing as well as nonspecific folding of the DNA molecule over the surface of the gold (Au) nanolayer. Considering such objectives, we have developed glutathionated Fe3O4@Au core/shell nanocomposite, fabricated with DNA molecules and applied for sensing complementary oligo spectrophotometrically, using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of the synthesized nanocomposite. When hybridization experiments were performed with 10 to 100 fM complementary DNA and DNA-conjugated nanocomposite, a strong linear relationship was observed between DNA concentration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Discrimination even at the single-base level was also observed when further experiments were performed with complementary DNA, but with a sequential decrease of bases from the single level to the fifth level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Layer-by-layer fabrication of AgCl-PANI hybrid nanocomposite films for electronic tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; Shimizu, Flavio M; Mercante, Luiza A; Paris, Elaine C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Correa, Daniel S; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-11-28

    The fabrication of nanostructured films with tailored properties is essential for many applications, particularly with materials such as polyaniline (PANI) whose electrical characteristics may be easily tuned. In this study we report the one-step synthesis of AgCl-PANI nanocomposites that could form layer-by-layer (LbL) films with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and be used for electronic tongues (e-tongues). The first AgCl-PANI layer was adsorbed on a quartz substrate according to a nucleation-and-growth mechanism explained using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model, revealing a 3D film growth confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films. In contrast to conventional PANI-containing films, the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films deposited on interdigitated electrodes exhibited electrical resistance that was practically unaffected by changes in pH from 4 to 9, and therefore these films can be used in e-tongues for both acidic and basic media. With a sensor array made of AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films with different numbers of bilayers, we demonstrated the suitability of the AgCl-PANI nanocomposite for an e-tongue capable of clearly discriminating the basic tastes from salt, acid and umami solutions. Significantly, the hybrid AgCl-PANI nanocomposite is promising for any application in which PANI de-doping at high pH is to be avoided.

  18. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  19. Novel Nanocomposites Based on Polyurethane and Micro Fibrillated Cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Seydibeyoğlu, M. Özgür; Oksman, Kristiina

    2008-01-01

    Novel Nanocomposites Based on Polyurethane and Micro Fibrillated Cellulose correspondence: Corresponding author. (Oksman, Kristiina) (Oksman, Kristiina) Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Istanbul Technical University - Istanbul--> - TURKEY (Seydibeyo?lu, M. Ozgur) Division of Manufacturing and Design of Wood and Bionanocomposites, Lule? University of Technology - Skellefte?--> - SW...

  20. Modular-based multiscale modeling on viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zeliang; Jia, Zheng; Liu, Wing Kam; Aldousari, Saad M.; Hedia, Hassan S.; Asiri, Saeed A.

    2017-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have been envisioned as advanced materials for improving the mechanical performance of neat polymers used in aerospace, petrochemical, environment and energy industries. With the filler size approaching the nanoscale, composite materials tend to demonstrate remarkable thermomechanical properties, even with addition of a small amount of fillers. These observations confront the classical composite theories and are usually attributed to the high surface-area-to-volume-ratio of the fillers, which can introduce strong nanoscale interfacial effect and relevant long-range perturbation on polymer chain dynamics. Despite decades of research aimed at understanding interfacial effect and improving the mechanical performance of composite materials, it is not currently possible to accurately predict the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites directly from their molecular constituents. To overcome this challenge, different theoretical, experimental and computational schemes will be used to uncover the key physical mechanisms at the relevant spatial and temporal scales for predicting and tuning constitutive behaviors in silico, thereby establishing a bottom-up virtual design principle to achieve unprecedented mechanical performance of nanocomposites. A modular-based multiscale modeling approach for viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites has been proposed and discussed in this study, including four modules: (A) neat polymer toolbox; (B) interphase toolbox; (C) microstructural toolbox and (D) homogenization toolbox. Integrating these modules together, macroscopic viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites could be directly predicted from their molecular constituents. This will maximize the computational ability to design novel polymer composites with advanced performance. More importantly, elucidating the viscoelasticity of polymer nanocomposites through fundamental studies is a critical step to generate an integrated computational material

  1. Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; He, Fang; Zhu, Xi; Tang, Fu; Li, Lidong

    2014-03-01

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.

  2. Signatures of clustering in superparamagnetic colloidal nanocomposites of an inorganic and hybrid nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Aldo F; Fuertes, Antonio B; Gonzalez-Carreño, Teresita; Sevilla, Marta; Valdes-Solis, Teresa; Tartaj, Pedro

    2008-02-01

    The individual and co-operative properties of inorganic and hybrid superparamagnetic colloidal nanocomposites that satisfy all the requirements of magnetic carriers in the biosciences and/or catalysis fields are been studied. Essential to the success of this study is the selection of suitable synthetic routes (aerosol and nanocasting) that allow the preparation of materials with different matrix characteristics (carbon, silica, and polymers with controlled porosity). These materials present magnetic properties that depend on the average particle size and the degree of polydispersity. Finally, the analysis of the co-operative behavior of samples allows for the detection of signatures of clustering, which are closely related to the textural characteristics of samples and the methodology used to produce the magnetic carriers.

  3. Theoretical study of chitosan-graphene and other chitosan-based nanocomposites stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kossovich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of new smart materials in various areas including healthcare engineering and medicine became a very promising and urgent area of research. Chitosan has proved its uniqueness as a basis for multipurpose aims: wound dressing, tissue engineering, drug delivery, etc. Unfortunately, nowadays the smart materials are not being constructed fast enough due to complications connected with time and pricing costs of in vivo development with simultaneous constant control of desirable properties. In this paper, a simple approach is proposed for predictive, at the stage of very beginning, analysis of structure and stability of newly-developed materials, such as chitosan nanocomposites. This approach is based on molecular modeling methods, namely, on a new hybrid multiscale model of chitosan oligomers. This model has already proved its efficiency for evaluation of nanocomposites mechanical properties using only computer simulations and appropriate software. Applicability of such approach is shown here for four types of chitosan-based nanocomposites with different fillers—carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide and chitin nanoparticles. On using a simple method of predicting the stability of such composites, laws of interaction between the chitosan matrix and fillers are shown depending on the relative mass share of the fillers within the composite.

  4. Effect of hydrolysed cellulose nanowhiskers on properties of montmorillonite/polylactic acid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Haafiz, M K M; Zakaria, Zainoha; Islam, Md Saiful

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites reinforced with hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers [MMT/CNW(SO4)] were prepared by solution casting. The CNW(SO4) nanofiller was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose using acid hydrolysis treatment. PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of various amounts of CNW(SO4) [1-9 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr)] into PLA/MMT nanocomposite at 5 phr MMT content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported previously. The biodegradability, thermal, tensile, morphological, water absorption and transparency properties of PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The Biodegradability, thermal stability and crystallinity of hybrid nanocomposites increased compared to PLA/MMT nanocomposite and neat PLA. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained by incorporating 1 phr CNW(SO4) [∼ 36 MPa]. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 87% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW(SO4) content. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of nanofillers in the hybrid nanocomposites, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of some polar interactions. In addition, water resistance of the hybrid nanocomposites improved and the visual transparency of neat PLA film did not affect by addition of CNW(SO4). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of polymer nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipusic, J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanocomposites are commonly considered as systems composed of a polymeric matrix and - usually inorganic - filler. The types of nanofillers are indicated in Fig. 1. Beside wellknown layered silicate fillers, recent attention is attracted to layered double hydroxide fillers (LDH, mainly of synthetic origin. The structure of LDH is based on brucite, or magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH2 and is illustrated in Fig. 2. The modification of LDHs is commonly done by organic anions, to increase the original interlayer distance and to improve the organophilicity of the filler, keeping in mind their final application as fillers for, usually hydrophobic, polymer matrices. We have used the modified rehydration procedure for preparing organically modified LDH. The stoichiometric quantities of Ca33Al2O6, CaO and benzoic (B (or undecenoic (U acid were mixed with water and some acetone. After long and vigorous shaking, the precipitated fillers were washed, dried and characterized. X-ray diffraction method (XRD has shown the increase of the original interlayer distance for unmodified LDH (OH–-saturated of 0.76 nm to the 1.6 nm in LDH-B or LDH-U fillers (Fig. 3. Infrared spectroscopy method (FTIR has confirmed the incorporation of benzoic anion within the filler layers (Fig. 4. For the preparation of LDH-B and LDH-U composites with polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and copolymer (SMMA matrices, a two-step in situ bulk radical polymerization was selected (Table 1 for recipes, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, using conventional stirred tank reactor in the first step, and heated mold with the movable wall (Fig. 6 in the second step of polymerization. All the prepared composites with LDH-U fillers were macroscopically phase-separated, as was the PMMA/LDH-B composite.PS/LDH-B and SMMA/LDH-B samples were found to be transparent and were further examined for deduction of their structure (Fig. 5 and thermal properties. FTIR measurements showed that

  6. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Govindraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybrid solar cells. Nearly monodispersed 4 nm Cu2Se nanocrystals were synthesized using the conventional colloidal synthesis. Varying weight % of these nanocrystals was added to PVK to form polymer nanocomposites. The 10% polymer nanocomposite showed retention of the properties of the pure polymer whilst the 50% resulted in a complete breakdown of the polymeric structure as evident from the FTIR, TGA, and SEM. The lack of transport channels in the 50% polymer nanocomposite solar cell resulted in a device with no photoresponse whilst the 10% polymer nanocomposite resulted in a device with an open circuit voltage of 0.50 V, a short circuit current of 7.34 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 22.28% resulting in a PCE of 1.02%.

  7. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In Situ Synthesis of Poly(methyl methacrylate/SiO2 Hybrid Nanocomposites via “Grafting Onto” Strategy Based on UV Irradiation in the Presence of Iron Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate/SiO2 (PMMA/SiO2 hybrid composites were prepared via “grafting onto” strategy based on UV irradiation in the presence of iron aqueous solution. Two steps were used to graft polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica, anchoring 3-(methacryloxy propyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS onto the surface of nanosilica to modify it with double bonds, and then grafting PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica with FeCl3 as photoinitiator. The products were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, TEM, DLS, and XPS. The results showed that it is easy to graft PMMA onto the surface of nanosilica under UV irradiation, and the hybrid particles are monodisperse and have core-shell structure with nanosilica as the core and PMMA layers as the shell. Furthermore, the products initiated by FeCl3 have higher monomer conversion, percent grafting, and better monodispersion compared with the products initiated by traditional photoinitiator such as 2-hydroxy-4-(2-hydroxyethoxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (Irgacure 2959.

  9. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  10. Rare Earth-Activated Silica-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Armellini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of rare earth-activated glass-based nanocomposite photonic materials, which allow to tailor the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions: (i Er3+-activated SiO2-HfO2 waveguide glass ceramic, and (ii core-shell-like structures of Er3+-activated silica spheres obtained by a seed growth method, are presented.

  11. Influence of Miscibility Phenomenon on Crystalline Polymorph Transition in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Acrylic Rubber/Clay Nanocomposite Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules. PMID:24551141

  12. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  13. Titania based nanocomposites as a photocatalyst: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farha Modi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide or Titania is a semiconductor compound having remarkable dielectric, electronic and physico-chemical surface properties. It has excellent photocatalytic efficiency in presence of UV light. The curious grey matter of scientists has forced them to focus their attention to make Titania capable of utilizing the whole visible spectrum of light also. The hurdle that they faced was larger band gap of 3 eV and more, for this, efforts were directed towards adding other materials to Titania. The present article reviews the recent advances in the synthesis of different Titanium-based nanocomposite materials and their photocatalytic efficiency so as to apply them for several applications such as removal of dyes, other water pollutants, microbes and metals. A brief explanation of the photocatalytic process and the structural properties of TiO2 are also touched upon. Various past and recent approaches made in these directions of utilizing Titania based nanocomposites for photocatalytic activities are reviewed. It is suggested that there is a need to establish the kinetics of photo-corrosion and thermodynamic part of the photo-corrosion of various composites developed by different group across the globe, so that Titania based nanocomposites could be commercially utilized.

  14. Large-Scale Syntheses of Zinc Sulfide⋅(Diethylenetriamine)0.5 Hybrids as Precursors for Sulfur Nanocomposite Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Tian-Wen; Yao, Hong-Bin; Su, Ting-Yu; Yu, Zhi-Long; Li, Yi; Lu, Lei-Lei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-09-18

    Nanostructured metal sulfide-amine hybrid materials have attracted attention because of their unique properties and versatility as precursors for functional inorganic nanomaterials. However, large-scale synthesis of metal sulfide-amine hybrid nanomaterials is limited by hydrothermal and solvothermal preparative reaction conditions; consequently, incorporation of such materials into functional nanomaterials is hindered. An amine molecule-assisted refluxing method was used to synthesize highly uniform zinc sulfide⋅(diethylenetriamine)0.5 (ZnS⋅(DETA)0.5 ) hybrid nanosheets and nanobelts in a large scale. The obtained ZnS⋅(DETA)0.5 hybrid nanomaterials can be used as efficient precursors to fabricate functional ZnS nanomaterials and carbon encapsulated sulfur (S@C) nanocomposite cathodes for Li-S batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Magnetic graphene coated inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced preconcentration of selected pesticides in tomato and grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Nodeh, Hamid; Sereshti, Hassan; Gaikani, Hamid; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Afsharsaveh, Zahra

    2017-08-04

    The new magnetic graphene based hybrid silica-N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (MG@SiO 2 -TMSPED) nanocomposite was synthesized via sol-gel process, and used as an effective adsorbent in magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of three selected pesticides followed by gas chromatography micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) techniques. The analytical validity of the developed method was evaluated under optimized conditions and the following figures of merit were obtained: linearity, 1-20μgkg -1 with good determination coefficients (R 2 =0.995-0.999); limits of detection (LODs), 0.23-0.30μgkg -1 (3×SD/m, n=3); and limits of quantitation (LOQ), 0.76-1.0μgkg -1 (10×SD/m, n=3). The precision (RSD%) of the proposed MSPE method was studied based on intra-day (3.43-8.83%, n=3) and inter-day (6.68-8.37%, n=12) precisions. Finally, the adsorbent was applied to determination of pesticides in tomato and grape samples and good recoveries were obtained in the range from 82 to 113% (RSDs 5.1-8.1%, n=3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesoporous Hybrid Polypyrrole-Silica Nanocomposite Films with a Strata-Like Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2016-06-14

    Using a single-potential-step coelectrodeposition route, Ppy-SiO2 nanocomposite films characterized by a multimodal porous structure were cathodically deposited from ethanolic solutions on oxidizable and nonoxidizable substrates for the first time. The materials produced have an interesting and unique strata-like pore structure along their depth. With the exception of a silica-rich inner region, the nanocomposite films are homogeneous in composition. Because the region closest to the electrode surface is silica-rich, the fabrication of Ppy-SiO2 and Ppy free-standing films become possible using a multistep etching strategy. Such films can be captured on a variety of different supports depending on the application, and they maintain their conductivity when interfaced with an electrode surface. These mesoporous composite films form through a unique mechanism that involves the production of two catalysts, OH(-) and NO(+). Through the process of understanding the reaction mechanism, we highlighted the effect of two simultaneous competing redox reactions occurring at the electrode interface on the morphology of the electrodeposited Ppy nanocomposite films and how solvent can influence the Ppy electropolymerization reaction mechanism and hence control the morphology of the final material. In an ethanolic solvent system, the pyrrole monomers undergo a step-growth polymerization, and particulate-like nanostructured films were obtained even upon changing the monomer or acid concentration. In an aqueous-based system, nanowire-like structures were produced, which is consistent with a chain-growth mechanism. Such materials are promising candidates for a wide range of applications including electrochemical sensing, energy storage, and catalysis.

  17. Protein-based green resins and nanocomposites from waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Maksudur

    The main goal of the present research is to design and fabricate 'green' nanocomposites using eco-friendly and biodegradable polymers, an effort driven towards an alternative of conventional petroleum-derived polymers in structural applications considering environmental and economic concerns. The behavior of structure, composition and property relationships between the novel combinations of these materials has been analyzed and discussed. The materials used in this study, many of them from non-edible sources, are obtained, derived and/or synthesized using various wastes from agricultural and food industries, as much as possible, so as to utilize wastes that are discarded at present. At the same time, the use of waste sources reduces the dependency of edible source-based biopolymers in various structural applications and thus, reduces the cost of materials significantly. Overall, this study opens up new avenues in the fabrication of low-cost 'green' nanocomposite with facile and 'green' methodology using various agricultural and food wastes.

  18. Research Progress on Visible-light Responding ZnO-based Nanocomposite Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Yan-ru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, different types and properties, photocatalysis and functional mechanism of ZnO-based nanocomposite were summarized. Besides, the research advances were discussed in applications of visible-light responding ZnO-based nanocomposite in fields of degradation of organic pollutants,photocatalytic hydrogen production and antibacterial agents, and the way of thinking and suggestions for further research on ZnO-based nanocomposite photocatalyst were put forward. With the developing of basic research and application, ZnO-based nanocomposite photocatalyst will be widely used in the fields of high efficiency catalyst, environmental purification, solar energy conversion and so on.

  19. Dispersion of cellulose nanofibers in biopolymer based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei

    The focus of this work was to understand the fundamental dispersion mechanism of cellulose based nanofibers in bionanocomposites. The cellulose nanofibers were extracted from soybean pod and hemp fibers by chemo-mechanical treatments. These are bundles of cellulose nanofibers with a diameter ranging between 50 to 100 nm and lengths of thousands of nanometers which results in very high aspect ratio. In combination with a suitable matrix polymer, cellulose nanofiber networks show considerable potential as an effective reinforcement for high quality specialty applications of bio-based nanocomposites. Cellulose fibrils have a high density of --OH groups on the surface, which have a tendency to form hydrogen bonds with adjacent fibrils, reducing interaction with the surrounding matrix. The use of nanofibers has been mostly restricted to water soluble polymers. This thesis is focused on synthesizing the nanocomposite using a solid phase matrix polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE) by hot compression and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in an aqueous phase by film casting. The mechanical properties of nanofiber reinforced PVA film demonstrated a 4-5 fold increase in tensile strength, as compared to the untreated fiber-blend-PVA film. It is necessary to reduce the entanglement of the fibrils and improve their dispersion in the matrix by surface modification of fibers without deteriorating their reinforcing capability. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to explore how various surface treatments would change the dispersion component of surface energy and acid-base character of cellulose nanofibers and the effect of the incorporation of these modified nanofibers into a biopolymer matrix on the properties of their nano-composites. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) based nanocomposites using cellulose nanofibers were prepared by extrusion, injection molding and hot compression. The IGC results indicated that styrene maleic anhydride coated and ethylene

  20. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  1. Starch-based nanocomposites reinforced with flax cellulose nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cellulose crystals, prepared by acid hydrolysis of flax fiber, consisted of slender rods with lengths ranging from 100 to 500 nm and diameters ranging from 10 to 30 nm, respectively. After mixing the suspension of flax cellulose nanocrystals (FCNs and plasticized starch (PS, the nanocomposite films were obtained by the casting method. The effects of FCNs loading on the morphology, thermal behaviour, mechanical properties and water sensitivity of the films were investigated by means of wide-angle X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, and water absorption testing. Scanning electron microscopy photographs of the failure surfaces clearly demonstrated a homogeneous dispersion of FCNs within the PS matrix and strong interfacial adherence between matrix and fillers, which led to an increase of glass transition temperature ascribed to the starch molecular chains in the starch-rich phase. In particular, these nanocomposite films exhibited a significant increase in tensile strength and Young’s modulus from 3.9 to 11.9 MPa and from 31.9 to 498.2 MPa, respectively, with increasing FCNs content from 0 to 30 wt%. Also, with a loading of FCNs, the resulting nanocomposite films showed a higher water resistance. Therefore, FCNs played an important role in improving the mechanical properties and water resistance of the starch-based materials.

  2. In situ synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene terephthalate hybrid nanocomposites at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Xinyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Ding Enyong, E-mail: eyding@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Xue Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2012-06-15

    TiO{sub 2} nanoflowers were in situ grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabric by hydrolysis of TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution in the presence of nanocrystal cellulose grafted PET fabric (NCC-g-PET) at a low temperature of 70 Degree-Sign C. Nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) pre-grafted on PET fabric acted as hydrophilic substrate and morphology inducing agent to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of TiO{sub 2}. Detailed information on the synthetic process was presented. The resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, EDS, ATR-IR, Raman microscopy, XRD and TG analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of orange methyl under solar light. Characteristic results indicate that rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoflowers have grown abundantly on PET non-woven fabric, and the established hydrogen bonding strengthens the interfacial interaction between the inorganic particles and the polymeric substrates. The methyl orange decoloration test under natural solar light demonstrates that this TiO{sub 2}/PET hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent self-cleaning performance which is expected to have a good potential for commercialization.

  3. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-02-26

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influences of RCF/HNTs dispersion on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of these composites have been characterized in terms of flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, impact toughness, impact strength, and thermogravimetric analysis. The fracture surface morphology and toughness mechanisms were investigated by SEM. Results indicated that mechanical properties increased because of the addition of HNTs into the epoxy matrix. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact toughness increased by 20.8, 72.8, 56.5, and 25.0%, respectively, at 1 wt% HNTs load. The presence of RCF dramatically enhanced flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and impact toughness of the composites by 160%, 350%, 444%, and 263%, respectively. However, adding HNTs to RCF/epoxy showed only slight enhancements in flexural strength and fracture toughness. The inclusion of 5 wt% HNTs into RCF/epoxy ecocomposites increased the impact toughness by 27.6%. The presence of either HNTs or RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy. However, at high temperature, samples reinforced with RCF and HNTs displayed better thermal stability with increased char residue than neat resin. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  4. Nanocomposite/Hybrid Materials of Electroactive Polymers With Inorganic Oxides for Biosensor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yen

    2001-01-01

    As proposed, we have successfully synthesized new electroactive and electronically conductive polyaniline polymethacrylate-silica nanocomposites and fabricated biosensor devices, aimed for detecting...

  5. Predictive analysis of chitosan-based nanocomposite biopolymers elastic properties at nano- and microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossovich, Elena L; Safonov, Roman A

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan nanocomposites mechanical properties play a major role in usage of such materials for specific areas of application, mostly in medicine and development of ecologically-friendly production. Computer-based predictive modelling of such composites will reduce costs of their development. In this paper, a multiscale approach for structural characterization and evaluation of mechanical properties is proposed based on hybrid coarse-grained/all atom molecular dynamics. Chitosan films and fibers are constructed and studied in silico as well as chitosan composites with different types of randomly distributed reinforcing fillers (graphene nanoparticles, graphene oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, chitin nanoparticles). Young's moduli are found for such composites, degrees of improvement of mechanical properties and size effects within the framework of proposed methodology are discussed.

  6. Fine-tune optical absorption and light emitting behavior of the CdS/PVA hybridized film nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiba, Z. K.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Imam, N. G.

    2017-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles (NPs) nucleated at different temperatures were composited with PVA to control and fine-tune optical absorption and emission of the nano-hybrid composite by varying the sizes of the CdS NPs which in turn depends on the nucleation temperature. The implanting of CdS NPs into PVA matrix was confirmed by XRD hand in hand with absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. UV/VIS absorption spectra confirm the formation of hybridized film CdS/PVA nanocomposite with refractive index in the range of 2-4. UV/VIS measurements were also used in calculating different optical and dielectric parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, and optical conductivity. The optical parameters varied with the incorporation of CdS NPs within PVA matrix; accordingly, the optical constants of the nanocomposite films could be controlled by size of CdS content. Tauc's relation was used to determine the optical band gap and to determine the type of electronic transition. It is found that the direct allowed transition is more probable in CdS/PVA nanocomposite film of direct band gap around 3.8 eV. Blue and green light emissions from CdS/PVA nanocomposite film have been observed. Further, the PL studies indicated the emission peak observed at UV band represents band to band transition, while the blue and green emissions could be assigned to the optical transition of the first excitonic state of the CdS NPs and emission from interstitial sulfur respectively. The blue shift in the PL spectra was parallel to the shift observed in UV/VIS spectra. Because of its excellent fluorescence and highly transparent performance, the composite film of CdS nucleated at 200 °C was found to be suitable for bio-related applications such as bio-labeling, bio-imaging, drug delivery, and LEDs as well as a window layer in solar cell.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of PMMA/MMT nanocomposite as denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junping; Su, Qiang; Wang, Chen; Cheng, Gang; Zhu, Ran; Shi, Jin; Yao, Kangde

    2011-04-01

    Inorganic-polymer nanocomposites are of significant interest for emerging materials due to their improved properties and unique combination of properties. Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by in situ suspension polymerization with dodecylamine used as MMT-modifier. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structures of the nanocomposites. Cytotoxicity test, hemolysis test, acute systemic toxicity test, oral mucous membrane irritation test, guinea-pig maximization test and mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of PMMA/MMT nanocomposites. The results indicated that an exfoliated nanocomposite was achieved, and the resulting nanocomposites exhibited excellent biocompatibility as denture base material and had potential application in dental materials.

  8. Design of nanocomposite film-based plasmonic device for gas sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Design of nanocomposite film-based plasmonic device for gas sensing ... A theoretical simulation study incorporating the use of admittance loci design methodology in SPR-based sensing device using gold-tungsten trioxide (Au-WO3−) nanocomposite ...

  9. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials for super-capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouki, M.; Tran-Van, F.; Sarrazin, C.; Chevrot, C. [Cergy-Pontoise Univ., Lab. de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), EA 2528 95 (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d' Electrochimie Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, UMR 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); De, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    2004-07-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials chemically synthesized from colloid particles of iron oxide in aqueous solution have been processed to realize electrode materials for super-capacitor applications. The performances have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvano-static techniques in a three-electrode cell. The capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PPy hybrid nano-composite doped with para-toluene-sulfonate reaches 47 mAh/g in PC/NEt{sub 4}BF{sub 4} with a good stability during cycling (loss of 3% after 1000 cycles). Transmission Electronic Microscopy indicates a porous nano-structure with spherical particles in a range of 400-500 nm which ensures a good accessibility of the electrolyte in the bulk of the electro-active hybrid material. Preliminary studies with room temperature ionic liquid show promising results since the specific capacitance reaches 427 F/g in 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis((tri-fluoro-methyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI). (authors)

  10. Polylactic Acid Based Nanocomposites: Promising Safe and Biodegradable Materials in Biomedical Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is widely used in biological areas due to its excellent compatibility, bioabsorbability, and degradation behavior in human bodies. Pure polylactic acid has difficulty in meeting all the requirements that specific field may demand. Therefore, PLA based nanocomposites are extensively investigated over the past few decades. PLA based nanocomposites include PLA based copolymers in nanometer size and nanocomposites with PLA or PLA copolymers as matrix and nanofillers as annexing agent. The small scale effect and surface effect of nanomaterials help improve the properties of PLA and make PLA based nanocomposites more popular compared with pure PLA materials. This review mainly introduces different kinds of PLA based nanocomposites in recent researches that have great potential to be used in biomedical fields including bone substitute and repair, tissue engineering, and drug delivery system.

  11. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  12. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  13. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-03-01

    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is ˜0.010 μA h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (˜0.004 μA h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  14. The Effect of Oxygen-Plasma Treated Graphene Nanoplatelets upon the Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Polycarbonate Hybrid Nanocomposites Used for Electrostatic Dissipative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkachai Poosala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-plasma treated graphene nanoplatelet (OGNP, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT and polycarbonate (PC hybrid nanocomposites were prepared via a melting process using a twin-screw extruder. The contents of the OGNPs were in the range of 0.0 to 5.0 parts per hundred resin (phr, whilst the dosage of MWCNTs was kept at a constant of 2.0 wt%. Nanocomposites containing 2.0 wt% of MWCNTs and mixtures of 2.0 wt% of MWCNTs at 1.5 to 5.0 phr of OGNPs had tribocharged voltages, surface resistivities, and decay times, all within the electrostatic discharge (ESD specification. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results revealed that the OGNPs slightly intercalated and distributed also within the PC matrix. The glass transition temperature Tg and heat capacity jump, at the glass transition stages of nanocomposite, slightly changed, as the contents of the OGNPs increased. The melt flow index (MFI of nanocomposites significantly decreased when MWCNTs were added to the PC resin and slightly changed as the dosage of OGNPs was increased. Tensile Young’s modulus of nanocomposites tended to increase, as the elongation at break and impact strength decreased, when OGNP concentrations were increased. This research work exhibited that OGNP/MWCNT/PC hybrid nanocomposites do indeed have the potential to be used in ESD applications.

  15. Simulation insights into thermally conductive graphene-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konatham, D.; Bui, K. N. D.; Papavassiliou, D. V.; Striolo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Dispersing nanoparticles in a polymer can enhance both mechanical and transport properties. Nanocomposites with high thermal conductivity could be obtained by using thermally conductive nanoparticles. Carbon-based nanoparticles are extremely promising, although high resistances to heat transfer from the nanoparticles to the polymer matrix could cause significant limitations. This work focuses on graphene sheets (GS) dispersed within n-octane. Although pristine GS agglomerate, equilibrium molecular dynamic simulations suggest that when the GS are functionalized with short branched hydrocarbons along the GS edges, they remain well dispersed. Results are reported from equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to assess the effective interactions between dispersed GS, the self-assembly of GS, and the heat transfer through the GS-octane nanocomposite. Tools are designed to understand the effect of GS size, solvent molecular weight and molecular architecture on GS dispersability and GS-octane thermal conductivity. Evidence is provided for the formation of nematic phases when the GS volume fraction increases within octane. The atomic-level results are input for a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation that predicts anisotropic thermal conductivity for GS-based composites when the GS show nematic phases.

  16. Threshold energies for filamentation and spectral characteristics of supercontinuum generation in THEOS-based nanocomposite organosilicon media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul' chin, Yu N; Mayor, A Yu; Proschenko, D Yu; Chekhlenok, A A; Golik, S S [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Postnova, I V; Shchipunov, Yu A [Institute of Chemistry, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Bukin, O A [G.I. Nevelskoi Maritime State University, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We have experimentally determined the threshold energy for filamentation in THEOS-based hybrid silicate nanocomposite materials containing polysaccharides and hyperbranched polyglycidols and the conversion efficiency from the 800-nm femtosecond Ti : sapphire laser output to a supercontinuum in the range 420 – 700 nm. The addition of sodium hyaluronate (polysaccharide) and low concentrations of Au nanoparticles or CdS quantum dots with an average diameter of 3 – 5 nm has been shown to considerably reduce the threshold energy for filamentation and improve the laser output to supercontinuum conversion efficiency. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  17. Predictive Model of Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Electrical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Asimina; Gresil, Matthieu; Soutis, Constantinos

    2017-04-01

    In this computational work, a new simulation tool on the graphene/polymer nanocomposites electrical response is developed based on the finite element method (FEM). This approach is built on the multi-scale multi-physics format, consisting of a unit cell and a representative volume element (RVE). The FE methodology is proven to be a reliable and flexible tool on the simulation of the electrical response without inducing the complexity of raw programming codes, while it is able to model any geometry, thus the response of any component. This characteristic is supported by its ability in preliminary stage to predict accurately the percolation threshold of experimental material structures and its sensitivity on the effect of different manufacturing methodologies. Especially, the percolation threshold of two material structures of the same constituents (PVDF/Graphene) prepared with different methods was predicted highlighting the effect of the material preparation on the filler distribution, percolation probability and percolation threshold. The assumption of the random filler distribution was proven to be efficient on modelling material structures obtained by solution methods, while the through-the -thickness normal particle distribution was more appropriate for nanocomposites constructed by film hot-pressing. Moreover, the parametrical analysis examine the effect of each parameter on the variables of the percolation law. These graphs could be used as a preliminary design tool for more effective material system manufacturing.

  18. Biodegradable Nanocomposite Films Based on Sodium Alginate and Cellulose Nanofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    B. Deepa; Eldho Abraham; Pothan, Laly A; Nereida Cordeiro; Marisa Faria; Sabu Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporation of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into alginate biopolymer using the solution casting method. The effects of CNF content (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 wt %) on mechanical, biodegradability and swelling behavior of the nanocomposite films were determined. The results showed that the tensile modulus value of the nanocomposite films increased from 308 to 1403 MPa with increasing CNF content from 0% to 10%; however, it decreased with further...

  19. Effect of morphology and pore size of sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas in the preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based hybrid nanocomposite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Bum; Kim, Hoyoung; Kim, Dukjoon

    2009-07-23

    Sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas were introduced into a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer matrix to act as a barrier for methanol crossover, to prepare composite electrolyte membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Highly ordered 2D hexagonal mesoporous benzene-silicas were prepared using 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) organosilica precursor and two kinds of organic templates, such as an octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) and a Pluronic P123 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer, to investigate the effect of the morphology and the pore size on the methanol permeability and the proton conductivity of the membranes. The sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica and PVA were mixed with a sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) cross-linker to improve the membrane stability from mechanical and conductive viewpoints. The physical and chemical characterization of the hybrid electrolyte membranes was performed by varying the contents of sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silicas and SSA. All the hybrid membranes studied showed good performance in lowering the methanol crossover (i.e., approximately 68% reduction in comparison with the Nafion117 membrane), and mesoporous benzene-silica with smaller particle morphology and pores (2-3 nm) was observed to be a more effective additive.

  20. Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocellulose-Based Polyaniline Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Sun, Gang; He, Yongfeng; Fu, Runfang; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-05-17

    On the basis of nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rodlike nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film-forming properties, and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.0 s for coloring), higher optical contrast (62.9%), higher coloration efficiency (206.2 cm(2)/C), and more remarkable switching stability (over 500 cycles). These novel nanocellulose-based nanorod network films are promising novel electrochromic materials with excellent properties.

  1. Montmorillonite Clay-Based Polyurethane Nanocomposite As Local Triamcinolone Acetonide Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carmo Horta Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethane was synthesized by preparing aqueous polyurethane dispersion having poly(caprolactone and poly(ethylene glycol as soft segments. Montmorillonite particles were delaminated within the waterborne polyurethane to produce a nanocomposite. The triamcinolone acetonide (TA, an important corticoid drug, was dispersed into the nanocomposite followed by a drying step to produce an implantable drug delivery system. Infrared (FTIR results demonstrated that the original chemical structure of the TA was preserved after incorporation into the nanocomposite. Wide angle (WAXS and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS results suggested that TA and clay do not dramatically change the morphology phase of the polymer although they can interact with each other. The presence of montmorillonite particles in the nanocomposite reduced the rate of TA release as compared to the pure polyurethane and enhanced the mechanical properties of the polymer. The overall results indicate that montmorillonite clay-based polyurethane nanocomposite could be potentially applied as local TA delivery system.

  2. Biobased Epoxy Nanocomposites Derived from Lignin-Based Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shou; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2015-07-13

    Biobased epoxy nanocomposites were synthesized based on 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol (dihydroeugenol, DHE), a molecule that has been obtained from the lignin component of biomass. To increase the content of hydroxyl groups, DHE was o-demethylated using aqueous HBr to yield propylcatechol (DHEO), which was subsequently glycidylated to epoxy monomer. Optimal conditions in terms of yield and epoxy equivalent weight were found to be 60 °C with equal NaOH/phenolic hydroxyl molar ratio. The structural evolution from DHE to cured epoxy was followed by (1)H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nano-montmorillonite modified DHEO epoxy exhibited improved storage modulus and thermal stability as determined from dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. This study widens the synthesis routes of biobased epoxy thermosets from lignin-based molecules.

  3. Hybrid Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites for the Clarification of Water and Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources will not be able to meet all requirements and water should not be considered a self-renewable, low cost resource. Thus, the needs for increased amount of water imply adopting several approaches that include intercepting and transferring water, desalination and water re-use. In all three approaches removal of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) is a crucial step, as one of the essential parameters limiting water quality. This paper reviews a series of patents focusing on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites to obtain very fast and efficient turbidity and suspended solids removal in water and effluents. The rational beyond the use of nanoparticles based on an anchoring denser core (for example a clay mineral) to which chains of a polyelectrolyte with charge that opposes the colloidal charges, is that it induces fast formation of neutralized flocs, that are denser than organic colloids. In such a way all three colloidal stability factors (size, charge and density) are addressed achieving very fast clarification. This paper summarizes several applications and examples of the procedure: removal of algae or microbes in surface water, clarification of saline effluents or sea water before desalination, and almost complete removal of turbidity and suspended solids in several industrial very turbid effluents. In all cases, clarification is obtained in seconds by the formation of 20-500 μm flocs, and their further separation by sedimentation or filtration, within a very wide pH range (3-11). Clay polymer nanocomposites can offer very effective clarification yielding reduction of more than 90% of the turbidity and the suspended solids in water or effluents, including in some cases deactivation of microorganisms that could offer an environmentally oriented alternative to chlorination. The good performance observed is presumably due to the broad versatility that stems from the use of different polymers and clays, and even different clay

  4. Flexible piezoelectric PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiyou; Yeh, Yao-wen; Poirier, Gerald; McAlpine, Michael C; Register, Richard A; Yao, Nan

    2013-06-12

    Piezoelectric nanocomposites represent a unique class of materials that synergize the advantageous features of polymers and piezoelectric nanostructures and have attracted extensive attention for the applications of energy harvesting and self-powered sensing recently. Currently, most of the piezoelectric nanocomposites were synthesized using piezoelectric nanostructures with relatively low piezoelectric constants, resulting in lower output currents and lower output voltages. Here, we report a synthesis of piezoelectric (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) nanowire-based nanocomposite with significantly improved performances for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. With the high piezoelectric constant (d33) and the unique hierarchical structure of the PMN-PT nanowires, the PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite demonstrated an output voltage up to 7.8 V and an output current up to 2.29 μA (current density of 4.58 μA/cm(2)); this output voltage is more than double that of other reported piezoelectric nanocomposites, and the output current is at least 6 times greater. The PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite also showed a linear relationship of output voltage versus strain with a high sensitivity. The enhanced performance and the flexibility of the PMN-PT nanowire-based nanocomposite make it a promising building block for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing applications.

  5. Model-Based Prognostics of Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Bregon, Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Model-based prognostics has become a popular approach to solving the prognostics problem. However, almost all work has focused on prognostics of systems with continuous dynamics. In this paper, we extend the model-based prognostics framework to hybrid systems models that combine both continuous and discrete dynamics. In general, most systems are hybrid in nature, including those that combine physical processes with software. We generalize the model-based prognostics formulation to hybrid systems, and describe the challenges involved. We present a general approach for modeling hybrid systems, and overview methods for solving estimation and prediction in hybrid systems. As a case study, we consider the problem of conflict (i.e., loss of separation) prediction in the National Airspace System, in which the aircraft models are hybrid dynamical systems.

  6. Modeling and Optimization of NLDH/PVDF Ultrafiltration Nanocomposite Membrane Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi-Oskoui, Samira; Khataee, Alireza; Vatanpour, Vahid

    2017-07-10

    In this research, MgAl-CO32- nanolayered double hydroxide (NLDH) was synthesized through a facile coprecipitation method, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The prepared NLDHs were used as a hydrophilic nanofiller for improving the performance of the PVDF-based ultrafiltration membranes. The main objective of this research was to obtain the optimized formula of NLDH/PVDF nanocomposite membrane presenting the best performance using computational techniques as a cost-effective method. For this aim, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for modeling and expressing the relationship between the performance of the nanocomposite membrane (pure water flux, protein flux and flux recovery ratio) and the affecting parameters including the NLDH, PVP 29000 and polymer concentrations. The effects of the mentioned parameters and the interaction between the parameters were investigated using the contour plot predicted with the developed model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle techniques were applied to characterize the nanocomposite membranes and to interpret the predictions of the ANN model. The developed ANN model was introduced to genetic algorithm (GA) as a bioinspired optimizer to determine the optimum values of input parameters leading to high pure water flux, protein flux, and flux recovery ratio. The optimum values for NLDH, PVP 29000 and the PVDF concentration were determined to be 0.54, 1, and 18 wt %, respectively. The performance of the nanocomposite membrane prepared using the optimum values proposed by GA was investigated experimentally, in which the results were in good agreement with the values predicted by ANN model with error lower than 6%. This good agreement confirmed that the nanocomposite membranes prformance could be successfully modeled and optimized by ANN-GA system.

  7. Transparent and conducting graphene-RNA-based nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Faranak; Bauld, Reg; Ahmed, M Shafiq; Fanchini, Giovanni

    2012-03-12

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is proposed as a nonionic surfactant for the efficient exfoliation of graphite in thin flakes of few-layer graphene and the subsequent preparation of transparent and conducting thin films. Parameters such as the type of RNA used and the size of starting graphite flakes are demonstrated to be essential for obtaining RNA-graphene thin films of good quality. A model explaining the exfoliation of graphene by RNA in water is suggested. A number of post- and predeposition treatments (including thermal annealing, functionalization of the films, and the preoxidation of graphite) are critical to improve the performance of graphene-RNA nanocomposites as transparent conductors. The study establishes an ideal link between RNA and graphene, the fundamental building blocks for nanobiology and carbon-based nanotechnology. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Freely switchable impedimetric detection of target gene sequence based on synergistic effect of ERGNO/PANI nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Qianhe; Li, Xiao; Wang, Xiaohong; Du, Meng; Jiao, Kui

    2013-04-15

    An impedimetric and freely switchable DNA sensor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO) and polyaniline (PANI) film was presented, where ERGNO was prepared on PANI modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). When the probe DNA was noncovalently assembled on the surface of electrode through π-π* stacking between the ring of nucleobases and the rich-conjugated structure of the nanocomposite, the electron transfer resistance value of [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ increased. The negative ssDNA and the steric hindrance blocked the effective electron transfer channel of the [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻. After hybridization with the complementary DNA, the formation of helix induced dsDNA to release from the surface of conjugated nanocomposite, accompanied with the curtailment of the impedimetric value. The selectivity and sensitivity of this DNA sensing platform were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in detail. The fabricated biosensor exhibited excellent performance for the detection of specific DNA sequence with a wide linear range (1.0×10⁻¹⁵ to 1.0×10⁻⁸ mol/L) and a low detection limit of 2.5×10⁻¹⁶ mol/L due to the synergistic effect of ERGNO/PANI nanocomposites. The hosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene (PAT) was also detected to show the switchable ability of ERGNO/PANI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on PANI and carbon nanostructures prepared by electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovski, Aleksandar; Paunović, Perica [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Avolio, Roberto; Errico, Maria E.; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gentile, Gennaro [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy); Grozdanov, Anita, E-mail: anita.grozdanov@yahoo.com [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Avella, Maurizio [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy); Barton, John [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Dyke Parade, T12 R5CP, Cork (Ireland); Dimitrov, Aleksandar [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, SS Cyril and Methodius University, Rudjer Bošković, 16, 1000, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanostructures (CNSs) (graphene (G) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)) were prepared by in situ electrochemical polymerization. CNSs were inserted into the PANI matrix by dispersing them into the electrolyte before the electropolymerization. Electrochemical characterization by means of cyclic voltammetry and steady state polarization were performed in order to determine conditions for electro-polymerization. Electro-polymerization of the PANI based nanocomposites was carried out at 0.75 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) for 40 and 60 min. The morphology and structural characteristics of the obtained nanocomposites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, while thermal stability was determined using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). According to the morphological and structural study, fibrous and porous structure of PANI based nanocomposites was detected well embedding both G and MWCNTs. Also, strong interaction between quinoidal structure of PANI with carbon nanostructures via π–π stacking was detected by Raman spectroscopy. TGA showed the increased thermal stability of composites reinforced with CNSs, especially those reinforced with graphene. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites of PANI with carbon nanostructures were prepared for sensing application. • By cyclic voltammetry, conductive form of PANI (green colored emeraldine phase) is obtained 0.75 V • Using 4 Probe method, nanocomposite PANI/CNS tablet was tested for sensing application. • Micro-structural properties of nanocomposites were studied by SEM, TGA and Raman analysis.

  10. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  11. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D., E-mail: dalbanese@unisa.it; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  12. Mechanical and electrical properties of novel poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube/inorganic fullerene-like WS{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites: Experimental measurements and theoretical predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Pascual, Ana M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Naffakh, Mohammed, E-mail: mnaffakh@ictp.csic.es [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Fatou, Marian A. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} The mechanical properties of PEEK based hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed. {center_dot} The composites showed improved stiffness and strength than the neat polymer. {center_dot} Their Young's modulus was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models. {center_dot} The hybrids with high SWCNT content exhibited semiconducting behaviour. {center_dot} These multifunctional materials are suitable for industrial applications. - Abstract: The mechanical and electrical properties of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) based hybrid nanocomposites incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been extensively investigated from both experimental and theoretical point of views. Dynamic mechanical studies revealed a remarkable increase in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the matrix by the inclusion of both nanofillers. Moreover, tensile and flexural tests indicated significant enhancements in stiffness and strength, attributed to synergistic reinforcement effects combined with strong PEEK-SWCNT interfacial interactions. The Young's modulus of these nanocomposites was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models such as the rule of mixtures. The hybrids with SWCNT content equal or higher than 0.5 wt% exhibited semiconducting behaviour and the temperature dependence of their electrical conductivity followed a fluctuation-induced tunnelling model. Enhanced overall performance was found for composites prepared by a single-step melt-blending process compared to those manufactured in two stages. The addition of both nanoreinforcements opens up new opportunities for the development of high-performance multifunctional materials suitable for industrial applications.

  13. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  14. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Changjun, E-mail: houcj@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huo, Danqun [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fa, Huanbao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −14} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −15} M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high

  15. A silanol-based nanocomposite coating for protection of AA-2024 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.; Pavez, J.; Azocar, I.; Zagal, J.H. [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zhou, X. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Melo, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paez, M.A., E-mail: maritza.paez@usach.cl [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {center_dot} A new silanol-based hybrid coating has been synthesized. {center_dot} The incorporation of CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the coating greatly improves the corrosion resistance of the coated aluminium alloy. {center_dot} The effectiveness of the coating is increasingly evident for long term exposure to the sodium chloride solution. {center_dot} The silanol-based nanocomposite coatings have self-healing ability. - Abstract: A new hybrid sol-gel type film, composed of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetraocthylorthosilicate (TEOCS), and modified with different nanoparticle systems, has been investigated as a coating for protection of AA-2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The nanoparticle systems considered were either ZrO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2} or their combination{sub .} The zirconia nanoparticles were prepared from a Zr (IV) propoxide sol (TPOZ), using an organic stabilizer, and the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were developed spontaneously after adding cerium nitrate solution to the hybrid sol. The chemical composition and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The corrosion resistance of the coated AA-2024 alloy was examined by potentiodynamic polarization. The results revealed that, for short exposure times in the electrolyte, incorporation of ZrO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the hybrid film does not provide an increase in the corrosion resistance of the coated AA-2024 alloy. Further, the resistance was significantly reduced by increasing the nanoparticle content. Conversely, by incorporating both nanoparticles (ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}), the corrosion resistance of the resulting hybrid films increased slightly. The behavior changed significantly when the coated alloy was exposed to the electrolyte for 5 days. The corrosion resistance of the coatings, unmodified and modified with CeO{sub 2} or Zr

  16. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  17. Elastomeric Nanocomposite Based on Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Its Characteristics without Vulcanization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasser Abdullah Habib; Buong Woei Chieng; Norkhairunnisa Mazlan; Umer Rashid; Robiah Yunus; Suraya Abdul Rashid

    2017-01-01

    ...) and investigate the characteristics of GO/NBR nanocomposite without vulcanization. A suitable solvent was found to dissolve dry NBR while GO was exfoliated completely in an aqueous base solution using sonication...

  18. Self-Assembled Hybrid Materials Based on Organic Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazov-Elkan, Angelica; Weissman, Haim; Dutta, Sounak; Cohen, Sidney R; Iron, Mark A; Pinkas, Iddo; Bendikov, Tatyana; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2017-11-24

    Organic crystalline materials are used as dyes/pigments, pharmaceuticals, and active components of photonic and electronic devices. There is great interest in integrating organic crystals with inorganic and carbon nanomaterials to create nanocomposites with enhanced properties. Such efforts are hampered by the difficulties in interfacing organic crystals with dissimilar materials. Here, an approach that employs organic nanocrystallization is presented to fabricate solution-processed organic nanocrystal/carbon nanotube (ONC/CNT) hybrid materials based on readily available organic dyes (perylene diimides (PDIs)) and carbon nanotubes. The hybrids are prepared by self-assembly in aqueous media to afford free-standing films with tunable CNT content. These exhibit excellent conductivities (as high as 5.78 ± 0.56 S m-1 ), and high thermal stability that are superior to common polymer/CNT hybrids. The color of the hybrids can be tuned by adding various PDI derivatives. ONC/CNT hybrids represent a novel class of nanocomposites, applicable as optoelectronic and conductive colorant materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Recent Advances in Research on the Synthetic Fiber Based Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Ślosarczyk

    2017-01-01

    The presented paper contains a brief review on the synthesis and characterization of silica aerogels and its nanocomposites with nanofibers and fibers based on a literature study over the past twenty years and my own research. Particular attention is focused on carbon fiber-based silica aerogel nanocomposites. Silica aerogel is brittle in nature, therefore, it is necessary to improve this drawback, e.g., by polymer modification or fiber additives. Nevertheless, there are very few articles in ...

  20. Laser-induced photodynamic effects at silica nanocomposite based on cadmium sulphide quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskiy, S S; Sergeev, A A; Galkina, A N; Kulchin, Yu N; Shchipunov, Yu A; Postnova, I V

    2014-01-27

    In this paper we study the laser-induced modification of optical properties of nanocomposite based on cadmium sulphide quantum dots encapsulated into thiomalic acid shell which were embedded into a porous silica matrix. We found red shift of luminescence of the nanocomposite when exposed to laser radiation at λ = 405 nm. Using pump-probe method and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering technique it was found that laser radiation at λ = 405 nm also increases the absorption coefficient of the nanocomposite in 15 times due to agglomeration of quantum dots. The modification of absorption properties is fully reversible.

  1. Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shu-Ying; Jin, Sheng-Peng; Gao, Xie-Feng; Mu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Polylactide-based polyurethane shape memory nanocomposites (Fe3O4/PLAUs) with fast magnetic responsiveness are presented. For the purpose of fast response and homogeneous dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles, oleic acid was used to improve the dispersibility of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. A homogeneous distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was obtained for nanocomposites with low Fe3O4 loading content. A small agglomeration was observed for nanocomposites with 6 wt% and 9 wt% loading content, leading to a small decline in the mechanical properties. PLAU and its nanocomposites have glass transition around 52 °C, which can be used as the triggering temperature. PLAU and its nanocomposites have shape fixity ratios above 99%, shape recovery ratios above 82% for the first cycle and shape recovery ratios above 91% for the second cycle. PLAU and its nanocomposites also exhibit a fast water bath or magnetic responsiveness. The magnetic recovery time decreases with an increase in the loading content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles due to an improvement in heating performance for increased weight percentage of fillers. The nanocomposites have fast responses in an alternating magnetic field and have potential application in biomedical areas such as intravascular stent.

  2. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...

  3. Influence of expanded graphite (EG and graphene oxide (GO on physical properties of PET based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszkiewicz Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the continuation and refinement of already published communications based on PET/EG nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization1, 2. In this study, nanocomposites based on poly(ethylene terephthalate with expanded graphite were compared to those with functionalized graphite sheets (GO. The results suggest that the degree of dispersion of nanoparticles in the PET matrix has important effect on the structure and physical properties of the nanocomposites. The existence of graphene sheets nanoparticles enhances the crystallization rate of PET. It has been confirmed that in situ polymerization is the effective method for preparation nanocomposites which can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles in polymer matrices and improve the interfacial interaction between nanofiller and polymer matrix. The obtained results have shown also that due to the presence of functional groups on GO surface the interactions with PET matrix can be stronger than in the case of exfoliated graphene (EG and matrix.

  4. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunming, E-mail: su.chunming@epa.gov

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of engineered MNPs. • MNPs and their hybrids explored for use in energy, analytical chemistry, and catalysis. • Surface modification to MNPs allow biocompatible applications. • Adsorptive and separative removal of a wide range of contaminants from aquatic environments. • Active remediation and natural attenuation of contaminants in soil and groundwater using MNPs. - Abstract: This review focuses on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition and combustion, hydrothermal process, emulsion, microbial process, and green approaches. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for constructing chemical/biosensors and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are designed as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dyes, oil, arsenic, phosphate, molybdate, fluoride, selenium, Cr(VI), heavy metal cations, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or catalyze chemical oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization.

  5. Design and optimization of carbon nanotube based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Alborz

    Conductive nanocomposite materials for sensing applications are developed. The fabrication process proposed in this thesis allows for development of nanocomposite structures with SU-8/MWCNT that can be patterned using typical lithography techniques for fine features. In order to demonstrate the principle, different SU-8 structures were impregnated with carbon nanotubes and studied. It was observed that filler concentration strongly affected the response of the fabricated nanocomposite structures to strain with measured gauge factors ranging from 1 to more than 25. A simulator is developed to estimate the electrical conductivity of polymer/nanotube composite layers as well as the change in their resistances under strain. Experimental results agree with the performance trend that is predicted by the simulator as filler concentration and applied strains were varied independently. Our nanocomposite materials will be used for the design and fabrication of low-cost, all-polymer microsystems with embedded sensors and actuators.

  6. Nafion-based nanocomposite membranes for fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cele, NP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of nafion membrane for fuel cell applications. The results showed an improvement on the thermal behaviour of prepared nation nanocomposites compared to pure Nafion with an addition of only 1 wt% MWCNTs....

  7. Simple synthesis of clay-gold nanocomposites with tunable color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan

    2010-04-20

    Clay-based nanocomposites have been studied for several decades, mainly focusing on clay-polymer nanocomposites. Here, we report on a simple wet chemical method to synthesize clay-APTES-Au (CAAu) nanocomposites, where 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) acts as the linkage. The silane terminal of APTES formed bonds with the clay surface, while the other -NH(2) terminal bonds to gold nanoparticles. The color of clay changed when these CAAu nanocomposites were formed. By changing the size of the gold nanoparticles, the color of CAAu could be adjusted, simply by changing process parameters. TEM characterization of the synthesized nanocomposites showed an even distribution of gold nanoparticles on the clay surfaces. The nanocomposites were stable in strong acid and high concentration of salt conditions, while strong basic solution like NaOH could slightly influence the status of the gold nanoparticles due to the rupture of the Si-O-Si bonds between APTES and clay. To demonstrate the potential for label free sensing application of CAAu nanocomposites, we made hybrids of clay-APTES-Au-HD-Au (CAAuHAu), where hexamethylene diamine (HD) served as links between CAAu nanocomposites and the gold nanoparticles. The color of the composites changed from red to blue, when the hybrids were formed. Moreover, hemoglobin was loaded on the CAAu nanocomposites, which can potentially be used as a biosensor. These synthesized nanocomposites may combine the catalytic properties of clay and the well-known excellent properties of gold nanoparticles, such as the ability to anchor biological and chemical molecules. Furthermore, the color change of CAAu, when the CAAuHAu hybrids were observed, suggests the applications of these nanocomposites in biochemical and chemical sensing.

  8. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangari, Vijaya K; Mohammad, Ghouse M; Jeelani, Shaik [Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Singh, Shree Ram; Pillai, Shreekumar, E-mail: rangariv@tuskegee.edu [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States)

    2010-03-05

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of {approx} 80 {mu}m size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 {mu}g demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 {+-} 6.72 mm, 19.4 {+-} 3.64 mm, 21.9 {+-} 4.33 mm, and 24.1 {+-} 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 {+-} 2.13 mm, 28.6 {+-} 4.27 mm, 22.6 {+-} 1.27 mm, and 27.0 {+-} 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 {mu}g were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial

  9. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangari, Vijaya K.; Mohammad, Ghouse M.; Jeelani, Shaik; Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Ram Singh, Shree; Pillai, Shreekumar

    2010-03-01

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of ~ 80 µm size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 µg demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 ± 6.72 mm, 19.4 ± 3.64 mm, 21.9 ± 4.33 mm, and 24.1 ± 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 ± 2.13 mm, 28.6 ± 4.27 mm, 22.6 ± 1.27 mm, and 27.0 ± 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 µg were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial strains tested. Further, the

  10. Bioinspired Graphene-Based Nanocomposites and Their Application in Flexible Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Peng, Jingsong; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-09-01

    Graphene is the strongest and stiffest material ever identified and the best electrical conductor known to date, making it an ideal candidate for constructing nanocomposites used in flexible energy devices. However, it remains a great challenge to assemble graphene nanosheets into macro-sized high-performance nanocomposites in practical applications of flexible energy devices using traditional approaches. Nacre, the gold standard for biomimicry, provides an excellent example and guideline for assembling two-dimensional nanosheets into high-performance nanocomposites. This review summarizes recent research on the bioinspired graphene-based nanocomposites (BGBNs), and discusses different bioinspired assembly strategies for constructing integrated high-strength and -toughness graphene-based nanocomposites through various synergistic effects. Fundamental properties of graphene-based nanocomposites, such as strength, toughness, and electrical conductivities, are highlighted. Applications of the BGBNs in flexible energy devices, as well as potential challenges, are addressed. Inspired from the past work done by the community a roadmap for the future of the BGBNs in flexible energy device applications is depicted. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Physicochemical and antifungal properties of bio-nanocomposite film based on gelatin-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraee, Samar; Milani, Jafar M; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing chitin nanoparticles (N-chitin) with concentrations of 0, 3, 5 and 10% were prepared and their physical, thermal and anti-microbial properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that N-chitin size distribution was around 60-70nm which dispersed appropriately at low concentration in gelatin matrix. The results showed that incorporation of N-chitin significantly influenced apparent color and transparency of the gelatin films. The reduced water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility and higher surface hydrophobicity of the nanocomposite films were obtained by enhancing N-chitin concentration in film formulation. The use of N-chitin up to 5% concentration in the gelatin based nanocomposite film led to improved mechanical properties. Also, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed improved stability of nanocomposite films against melting and degradation at high temperatures in comparison to neat gelatin film. The well compatibility of chitin nanoparticles with gelatin polymer was concluded from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) plots. Finally, the gelatin based nanocomposite films had anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus niger in the contact surface zone. Increasing the concentration of N-chitin up to 5% enlarged inhibition zone diameter, but the nanocomposite film containing 10% N-chitin showed smaller inhibition zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid 2D-nanomaterials-based electrochemical immunosensing strategies for clinical biomarkers determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S; Pedrero, M; Nikoleli, G-P; Pingarrón, J M; Nikolelis, D P

    2017-03-15

    Owing to the outstanding conductivity and biocompatibility as well as numerous other fascinating properties of two-dimensional (2D)-nanomaterials, 2D-based nanohybrids have shown unparalleled superiorities in the field of electrochemical biosensors. This review highlights latest advances in electrochemical immunosensors for clinical biomarkers based on different hybrid 2D-nanomaterials. Particular attention will be given to hybrid nanostructures involving graphene and other graphene-like 2D-layered nanomaterials (GLNs). Several recent strategies for using such 2D-nanomaterial heterostructures in the development of modern immunosensors, both for tagging or modifying electrode transducers, are summarized and discussed. These hybrid nanocomposites, quite superior than their rival materials, will undoubtedly have an important impact within the near future and not only in clinical areas. Current challenges and future perspectives in this rapidly growing field are also outlined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Properties of casting solutions and ultrafiltration membranes based on fullerene-polyamide nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Sudareva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(phenylene isophtalamide (PA was modified by fullerene C60 using solid-phase method. Novel ultrafiltration membranes based on nanocomposites containing up to 10 wt% of fullerene and carbon black were prepared. Properties of PA/C60 composites in solutions were studied by light scattering and rheological methods. The relationship between characteristics of casting solutions and properties of nanocomposite membranes was studied. Scanning electron microscopy was used for structural characterization of the membranes. It was found that increase in fullerene content in nanocomposite enhances the membrane rigidity. All nanocomposite membranes were tested in dynamic (ultrafiltration and static sorption experiments using a solution of protein mixture, with the purpose of studying protein sorption. The membranes modified by fullerene demonstrate the best values of flux reduced recovery after contact with protein solution. It was found that addition of fullerene C60 to the polymer improves technological parameters of the obtained composite membranes.

  14. Mineralized agar-based nanocomposite films: Potential food packaging materials with antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagurski, Ivana; Levic, Steva; Nesic, Aleksandra; Mitric, Miodrag; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic-Brankovic, Suzana

    2017-11-01

    New mineralized, agar-based nanocomposite films (Zn-carbonate and Zn-phosphate/agar) were produced by a combination of in situ precipitation and a casting method. The presence of minerals significantly influenced the morphology, properties and functionality of the obtained nanocomposites. Reinforcement with the Zn-mineral phase improved the mechanical properties of the carbonate-mineralized films, but had a negligible effect on the phosphate-mineralized samples. Both nanocomposites showed improved optical and thermal properties, better Zn(II) release potential in a slightly acidic environment and exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. These results suggest that Zn-mineralized agar nanocomposite films could be potentially used as affordable, eco-friendly and active food packaging materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel alginate based nanocomposite hydrogels with incorporated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Bojana; Stojkovska, Jasmina; Jovanovic, Zeljka; Miskovic-Stankovic, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Alginate colloid solution containing electrochemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated regarding the nanoparticle stabilization and possibilities for production of alginate based nanocomposite hydrogels in different forms. AgNPs were shown to continue to grow in alginate solutions for additional 3 days after the synthesis by aggregative mechanism and Ostwald ripening. Thereafter, the colloid solution remains stable for 30 days and could be used alone or in mixtures with aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) while preserving AgNPs as verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy studies. We have optimized techniques for production of Ag/alginate microbeads and Ag/alginate/PVA beads, which were shown to efficiently release AgNPs decreasing the Escherichia coli concentration in suspensions for 99.9% over 24 h. Furthermore, Ag/hydrogel discs based on alginate, PVA and PVP were produced by freezing-thawing technique allowing adjustments of hydrogel composition and mechanical properties as demonstrated in compression studies performed in a biomimetic bioreactor.

  16. Sol-gel synthesis and characterizations of hybrid chitosan-PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposite modified with ZnO-NPs and (E102) for optical and antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Nahrawy, Amany M; Abou Hammad, Ali B

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid Chitosan/Poly ethylene glycol/calcium silicate (CS/PEG/calcium silicate) nanocomposite modified with different two types, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and tartrazine dye (E102) were prepared by sol gel method and the characterization of their structure and biological properties were carried out in order to evaluate the possible use in optical and biomedical fields. The hybrid CS/PEG/calcium silicate complex formations have been established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The spheres-like chitosan-PEG/calcium silicate and modified with both ZnO-NPs and (E102) were obtained with optimum concentration of 11% ZnO-NPs and 0.3gm (E102) dyes. Spheres-like particle shape of these nanocomposites from SEM images, higher UV absorption in the region of 200-300nm by UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer are recorded. The fabricate CS/PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposites and doped with ZnO-NPs and tetrazine were studied contrary to gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, fungi (Candidia albicans) and Aspargillus niger via the agar plate method. The obtained results indicated that the prepared CS-PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposites have good antibacterial properties agnist G(+ve), G(-ve) bacteria and fungi, so that it could be a promised candidate in various optical and in biological applications as well as packaging application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of polymer-based ZnS nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Khan, S A; Kher, R S; Dhoble, S J; Chandel, A L S

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured polymer-semiconductor hybrid materials such as ZnS-poly(vinyl alcohol) (ZnS-PVA), ZnS-starch and ZnS-hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (Zns-HPMC) are synthesized by a facile aqueous route. The obtained nanocomposites are characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD studies confirm the zinc blende phase of the nanocomposites and indicate the high purity of the samples. SEM studies indicate small nanoparticles clinging to the surface of a bigger particle. The Energy Dispersive Analysis by X-rays (EDAX) spectrum reveals that the elemental composition of the nanocomposites consists primarily of Zn:S. FTIR studies indicate that the polymer matrix is closely associated with ZnS nanoparticles. The large number of hydroxyl groups in the polymer matrix facilitates the complexation of metal ions. The absorption spectra of the specimens show a blue shift in the absorption edge. The spectrum reveals an absorption edge at 320, 310 and 325 nm, respectively. PL of nanocomposites shows broad peaks in the violet-blue region (420-450 nm). The emission intensity changes with the nature of capping agent. The PL intensity of ZnS-HPMC nanocomposites is found to be highest among the studied nanocomposites. The results clearly indicate that hydroxyl-functionalized HPMC is much more effective at nucleating and stabilizing colloidal ZnS nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions compared with PVA and starch. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Apple peel and carboxymethylcellulose-based nanocomposite films containing different nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Jin; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Park, Ki-Moon; Han, Jaejoon

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradable packaging films were developed from polymeric blends of apple peel powder (APP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), into which different nanoclays were incorporated to produce a nanocomposite film. After first estimating the barrier and mechanical properties of 4 different biopolymer films (CMC, methylcellulose, gelatin, and polylactide), CMC was chosen as the best film-forming solution. Three different nanoclays (Cloisite Na(+) , 30B, and 20A) were subsequently dispersed in a CMC film solution to improve the barrier and physical properties of the final CMC nanocomposite films. The structures of the exfoliated CMC nanocomposite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the most efficient nanoclay type, with Cloisite Na(+) addition being found to demonstrate the greatest improvement in the barrier and mechanical properties of the film. Finally, the CMC and Cloisite Na(+) solution were thoroughly blended with APP using a high-pressure homogenization (HPH) process to develop biopolymer nanocomposite films, which were then characterized using XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The HPH treatment significantly improved the film-forming ability by increasing the dispersity of APP in the CMC nanocomposites, as well as having various other effects on the physical properties. These nanocomposite films can be viewed as an alternative solution for the use of agricultural biomass in developing environmentally friendly packaging materials. Cloisite Na(+) nanoclay noticeably improved the barrier and elongation properties of a biopolymer film. High-pressure homogenization successfully blended apple peel powder with carboxymethylcellulose to develop a nanocomposite film. The apple peel and CMC-based nanocomposite films that were developed could be used as a novel biodegradable packaging material. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Effects of Chitin Whiskers on Physical Properties and Osteoblast Culture of Alginate Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Yao, Mengyu; Zheng, Xing; Liang, Xichao; Su, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Ang; Zhang, Lina

    2015-11-09

    Novel nanocomposite hydrogels composed of polyelectrolytes alginate and chitin whiskers with biocompatibility were successfully fabricated based on the pH-induced charge shifting behavior of chitin whiskers. The chitin whiskers with mean length and width of 300 and 20 nm were uniformly dispersed in negatively charged sodium alginate aqueous solution, leading to the formation of the homogeneous nanocomposite hydrogels. The experimental results indicated that their mechanical properties were significantly improved compared to alginate hydrogel and the swelling trends were inhibited as a result of the strong electrostatic interactions between the chitin whiskers and alginate. The nanocomposite hydrogels exhibited certain crystallinity and hierarchical structure with nanoscale chitin whiskers, similar to the structure of the native extracellular matrix. Moreover, the nanocomposite hydrogels were successfully applied as bone scaffolds for MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells, showing their excellent biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. The results of fluorescent micrographs and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images revealed that the addition of chitin whiskers into the nanocomposite hydrogels markedly promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation of the osteoblast cells. The biocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

  1. Elastomeric Nanocomposite Based on Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Its Characteristics without Vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abdullah Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber nanocomposites have emerged as one of the advanced materials in recent years. The aim of this work was to homogeneously disperse graphene oxide (GO sheets into Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR and investigate the characteristics of GO/NBR nanocomposite without vulcanization. A suitable solvent was found to dissolve dry NBR while GO was exfoliated completely in an aqueous base solution using sonication. GO was dispersed into NBR at different loadings by solution mixing to produce unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the samples. Furthermore, mechanical and electrical properties of unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposites were carried out to determine the influence of GO on the NBR properties. The results showed that the modulus of GO/NBR nanocomposite at 1 wt% of GO was enhanced by about 238% compared with unfilled NBR. These results provide insight into the properties of unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposite for application as coatings or adhesives.

  2. Synthesis and sensor applications of MoS2-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wensi; Zhang, Panpan; Su, Zhiqiang; Wei, Gang

    2015-11-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a typical layered transition-metal dichalcogenide material, which has aroused a great deal of interest in the past few years. Recently, more and more attention has been focused on the synthesis and applications of MoS2-based nanocomposites. In this review, we aimed to present a wider view of the synthesis of various MoS2-based nanocomposites for sensor and biosensor applications. We highlighted the potential methods like self-assembly, hydrothermal reaction, chemical vapour deposition, electrospinning, as well as microwave and laser beam treatments for the successful preparation of MoS2-based nanocomposites. On the other hand, three representative types of detection devices fabricated by the MoS2-based nanocomposites, field-effect transistor, optical, and electrochemical sensors, were introduced in detail and discussed fully. The relationships between the sensing performances and the special nanostructures within the MoS2-based nanocomposites were presented and discussed.

  3. Design and synthesis of ternary Co3O4/carbon coated TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Choi, Jaeho; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon

    2016-07-20

    Recently, attention has been focused on the synthesis and application of nanocomposites for supercapacitors, which can have superior electrochemical performance than single structured materials. Here, we report a carbon-coated TiO2/Co3O4 ternary hybrid nanocomposite (TiO2@C/Co) electrode for supercapacitors. A carbon layer was directly introduced onto the TiO2 surface via thermal vapor deposition. The carbon layer provides anchoring sites for the deposition of Co3O4, which was introduced onto the carbon-coated TiO2 surface by hydrazine and the thermal oxidation method. The TiO2@C/Co electrode exhibits much higher charge storage capacity relative to pristine TiO2, carbon-coated TiO2, and pristine Co3O4, showing a specific capacitance of 392.4 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with 76.2% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s(-1) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution electrolyte. This outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high conductivity and high pseudo-capacitive contributions of the nanoscale particles. To evaluate the capacitive performance of a supercapacitor device employing the TiO2@C/Co electrode, we have successfully assembled TiO2@C/Co//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized TiO2@C/Co//AC supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.5 V, and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 59.35 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with a specific capacitance loss of 15.4% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing high-capacitive energy storage devices for practical applications.

  4. Plasmonic-exciton coupling in synthesized metal/semiconductor hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A.; Hamad, D. A. [Physics Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, M. B. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced science (NIELS), Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been developed to grow plasmonic semiconductor nanocomposites of Au/CdSe and Ag/CdSe. Their chemical composition and crystal structure are determined by X-ray diffraction. The collective optical properties of the prepared semiconductor nanohybrid have been measured using spectrophotometer techniques and compared to those of the individual components. The electron transfer processes from CdSe to the gold are faster than that of the silver. Au/CdSe has a strong plasmonic-excitonic coupling, but Ag/CdSe has a weak plasmonic-excitonic coupling.

  5. UHMWPE-based nanocomposite as a material for damaged cartilage replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatov, F.S., E-mail: Senatov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, 119049, Leninskiy pr. 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kopylov, A.N.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevsky, M.V. [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, 115478, Kashirskoye sh. 23, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maksimkin, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, 119049, Leninskiy pr. 4, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    In the present work dispersion-strengthened nanocomposites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) after mechanical activation were studied. Mechanical activation was performed for hardening of the boundaries between the polymer particles, reducing the fusion defects and increasing of wear-resistance. Three types of samples were prepared: UHMWPE, UHMWPE/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite and UHMWPE/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite after mechanical activation. UHMWPE/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites prepared with mechanical activation show the best mechanical properties in compression and higher wear-resistance. UHMWPE/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites prepared with mechanical activation were chosen for in vivo study by orthotopical transplantation in rats. Animals' activity has been being monitored for 60 days after surgery. No signs of inflammation, cellular infiltration, destruction of material or bone–cartilage defect were found. Implanted sample has not changed its position of implantation, there were no any shifts. Obtained data shows that UHMWPE-based nanocomposite is a promising material for creating bioimplants for cartilage defect replacement. - Highlights: • Mechanical activation of UHMWPE composite leads to changing of fracture mechanism. • Mechanical activation leads to increasing of wear-resistance of UHMWPE composite. • The presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in grain boundaries of UHMWPE inhibits crack growth. • Complete integration of UHMWPE-based implant in cartilage defect of rat was shown. • UHMWPE/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite may be recommended for use in cartilage replacement.

  6. Recent Advancement in Cellulose based Nanocomposite for Addressing Environmental Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Wajid Ullah, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat; Kamal, Tahseen; Ul-Islam, Salman; Shah, Nasrullah; Park, Joong Kon

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose being the most abundant polymer has been widely utilized in multiple applications. Its impressive nanofibril arrangement has provoked its applications in numerous fields. Recent trends have been shifted to produce composites of nanocellulose for numerous applications among which the most important ones are its use in medical and environmental prospective. This review has basically focused the development of nanocellulose composites and its applications in resolving environmental hazards. We have reviewed large number of research and review articles from famous journals using a focused review question. The quality of retrieved papers was assessed through standard tools. The contents from reviewed articles were described in scientific way. We included 85 papers including research and review articles and patents in this review. 18 papers introduced the theme of current review. More than 10 papers were used to describe the approaches used for synthesizing cellullose nanocomposites. Composite synthesis strategies included the in situ addition, ex situ penetration, solution mixing, and solvent casting etc. Around 60 manuscripts including 6 patents were used to demonstrate various applications of nanocellulose composites. Nanocellulose based materials offer several applications in the development of antimicrobial filters, air and water filters, filters for removal of heavy metals, pollutant sensors as well as applications in catalysis and energy sectors. Such products are more efficient, robust, reliable, and environment-friendly. This review gives a comprehensive picture of ongoing research and development on environmental remediation by nanotechnology. We hope that the contents reviewed herein will catch the reader's interest and will provide interesting background to extend future research activities regarding cellulose based materials.

  7. HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE BASED NANOCOMPOSITE HYDROGELS WITH TUNABLE PORE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA based hydrogels have found increasing number of applications in areas such as chromatographic separations, controlled drug release, biosensing, and membrane separations. In all these applications, the pore size and pore interconnectivity are crucial for successful application of these materials as they determine the rate of diffusion through the matrix. 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate is a water soluble monomer but its polymer, polyHEMA, is not soluble in water. Therefore, during polymerization of HEMA in aqueous media, a porous structure is obtained as a result of phase separation. Pore size and interconnectivity in these hydrogels is a function of several variables such as monomer concentration, cross-linker concentration, temperature etc. In this study, we investigated the effect of monomer concentration, graphene oxide addition or clay addition on hydrogel pore size, pore interconnectivity, water uptake, and thermal properties. PolyHEMA hydrogels have been prepared by redox initiated free radical polymerization of the monomer using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. As a nanofiller, a synthetic hectorite Laponite® XLG and graphene oxide were used. Graphene oxide was prepared by the Tour Method. Pore morphology of the pristine HEMA based hydrogels and nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The formed hydrogels were found to be highly elastic and flexible. A dramatic change in the pore structure and size was observed in the range between 22 to 24 wt/vol monomer at 0.5 % of cross-linker. In this range, the hydrogel morphology changes from typical cauliflower architecture to continuous hydrogel with dispersed water droplets forming the pores where the pores are submicron in size and show an interconnected structure. Such controlled pore structure is highly important when these hydrogels are used for solute diffusion or when there’s flow through monolithic hydrogels

  8. Effect of Nanodiamonds on Structure and Durability of Polyethylene Oxide-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Arrigo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based nanocomposites containing nanodiamonds (NDs are attractive multifunctional materials with a growing range of applications. In this work, in the frame of developing completely biocompatible systems, nanocomposites based on polyethylene oxide (PEO and different amount of NDs have been formulated through melt mixing and fully characterized. In particular, the reinforcement effect of NDs in PEO has been probed through tensile tests, and the rheological response of PEO-based nanocomposites as a function of the nanoparticles amount has been investigated and discussed. The obtained results show that the presence of well-distributed NDs strengthens the mechanical performance of the nanocomposites and brings about an increase of the PEO crystallinity, suggesting a strong adhesion between NDs and polymer matrix. Furthermore, as a result of NDs adding, alterations of the rheological behaviour of neat PEO can be noticed, as NDs are able to significantly influence the long-range dynamics of PEO chains. Besides, accelerated aging tests demonstrate that NDs show a remarkable protective ability against PEO photodegradation, due to their ability to attenuate efficiently UV radiation. The latter opens up new avenues for the use of NDs as multifunctional nanofillers for polymer-based nanocomposites with enhanced photooxidative resistance.

  9. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on Nile blue A-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for carcinoembryonic antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Jing-Kun; Lu, Li-Min; Wang, Wen-Min; Yang, Tao-Tao; Xing, Hua-Kun; Yu, Yong-Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this article, a novel, label-free, and inherent electroactive redox immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and Nile blue A (NB) hybridized electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (NB-ERGO) is proposed. The composite of NB-graphene oxide (NB-GO) was prepared by π-π stacking interaction. Then, chronoamperometry was adopted to simultaneously reduce HAuCl4 and nanocomposites of NB-GO for synthesizing AuNPs/NB-ERGO. The immunosensor was fabricated by capturing CEA antibody (anti-CEA) at this nanocomposite modified electrode. The immunosensor determination was based on the fact that, due to the formation of antigen-antibody immunocomplex, the decreased response currents of NB were directly proportional to the concentrations of CEA. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor was estimated to be from 0.001 to 40 ng ml(-1) and the detection limit was estimated to be 0.00045 ng ml(-1). The proposed immunosensor was used to determine CEA in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method may provide promising potential application in clinical immunoassays with the properties of facile procedure, stability, high sensitivity, and selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Methods for the Preparation of Hybrid Nanocomposite Polymer Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Roberto F. A.; Bon, Stefan A. F.

    In this chapter, we will highlight conceptual physical approaches towards the fabrication of nanocomposite polymer latexes in which each individual latex particle contains one or more "hard" nanoparticles, such as clays, silicates, titanates, or other metal(oxides). By "physical approaches" we mean that the "hard" nanoparticles are added as pre-existing entities, and are not synthesized in situ as part of the nanocomposite polymer latex fabrication process. We will narrow our discussion to focus on physical methods that rely on the assembly of nanoparticles onto the latex particles after the latex particles have been formed, or its reciprocal analogue, the adhesion of polymer onto an inorganic nanoparticle. First, will discuss the phenomenon of heterocoagulation and its various driving forces, such as electrostatic interactions, the hydrophobic effect, and secondary molecular interactions. We will then address methods that involve assembly of nanoparticles onto or around the more liquid precursors (i.e., swollen/growing latex particles or monomer droplets). We will focus on the phenomenon of Pickering stabilization. We will then discuss features of particle interaction with soft interfaces, and see how the adhesion of particles onto emulsion droplets can be applied in suspension, miniemulsion, and emulsion polymerization. Finally, we will very briefly mention some interesting methods that make use of interface-driven templating for making well-defined assembled clusters and supracolloidal structures.

  11. Synthesis of Polyimides in Molecular-Scale Confinement for Low-Density Hybrid Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Scott G; Fostvedt, Jade I; Koerner, Hilmar; Baur, Jeffery W; Lionti, Krystelle; Volksen, Willi; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we exploit a confinement-induced molecular synthesis and a resulting bridging mechanism to create confined polyimide thermoset nanocomposites that couple molecular confinement-enhanced toughening with an unprecedented combination of high-temperature properties at low density. We describe a synthesis strategy that involves the infiltration of individual polymer chains through a nanoscale porous network while simultaneous imidization reactions increase the molecular backbone stiffness. In the extreme limit where the confinement length scale is much smaller than the polymer's molecular size, confinement-induced molecular mechanisms give rise to exceptional mechanical properties. We find that polyimide oligomers can undergo cross-linking reactions even in such molecular-scale confinement, increasing the molecular weight of the organic phase and toughening the nanocomposite through a confinement-induced energy dissipation mechanism. This work demonstrates that the confinement-induced molecular bridging mechanism can be extended to thermoset polymers with multifunctional properties, such as excellent thermo-oxidative stability and high service temperatures (>350 °C).

  12. Influence of metal nanoparticle decorated CNTs on polyurethane based electro active shape memory nanocomposite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Mohan, E-mail: mohanraja27@yahoo.com [King Abdullah Institute of Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451 (Saudi Arabia); Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun [College of Engineering and Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Liaison Research Institute, Green Energy Center, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Kyunggi-Do 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Subha, J. [Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (CIPET), ' G' Sector, J.K.Road, Govindpura, Industrial Area, Bhopal -462023 (India)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Polyurethane based on pristine and metal (Ag and Cu) nanoparticle decorated CNTs nanocomposites are prepared through melt blending process. {yields} The electrical, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, thermal conductivity and electro active shape memory properties of the PU nanocomposites were investigated. {yields} The influence of metal nanoparticle decorated CNTs showed significant improvement in their all properties to compare to pristine CNTs. {yields} Electro active shape memory studies of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites reveal extraordinary recoverability of its shape at lower applied dc voltages. - Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites based on thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) elastomer and metal nanoparticle (Ag and Cu) decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs) were prepared through melt mixing process and investigated for its mechanical, dynamic mechanical and electro active shape memory properties. Structural characterization and morphological characterization of the PU nanocomposites were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological characterization revealed better dispersion of M-CNTs in the polyurethane, which is attributed to the improved interaction between the M-CNTs and polyurethane. Loading of the metal nanoparticle coated carbon nanotubes resulted in the significant improvement on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength of the PU composites in comparison to the pristine carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs). Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyurethane increases slightly with increasing loading of both pristine and metal nanoparticle functionalized carbon nanotubes. The metal nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes also showed significant improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites. Shape memory studies of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites exhibit remarkable recoverability of its shape at lower

  13. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite using melt extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-biodegradable and non-renewable nature of plastic packaging has led to a renewed interest in packaging materials based on bio-nanocomposites (biopolymer matrix reinforced with nanoparticles such as layered silicates). Bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and montmorillo...

  14. Advanced Bio-Based Nanocomposites and Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Stephen Matthew

    The aim of the PhD thesis concerns with the modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via esterification or a radical grafting "from" approach to achieve polymeric nanocomposites of exceptional properties (Chapters 1 to 4). In addition to CNCs modification, other green routes have been introduced in this thesis in order to environmentally friendly polyester-based materials, i.e. Chapters five and six. The second chapter focuses on expanding on a one-pot cellulose acid hydrolysis/Fischer esterification to produce highly compatible CNCs without any organic solvent. It consists of modifying CNCs with acetic- and lactic- acid and exploring how such surface chemistry has an effect of dispersion in the case of polylactide (PLA)-based nanocomposites. The degree of substitution for AA-CNCs and LA-CNCs, determined by FTIR, are 0.12 and 0.13, respectively. PLA-based materials represent the best bioplastics relating to its high stiffness and biodegradability, but suffer from its poor thermal performances, namely its Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT). To improve the HDT of PLA, nanocomposites have been therefore prepared with modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by melt blending. After blending at 5 wt-% loading of CNCs, LA-CNCs gives superior reinforcement below and above the glass temperature of PLA. An increase in PLA's heat deflection temperature by 10°C and 20°C is achieved by melt-blending PLA with 5 and 20 wt-% LA-CNCs, respectively. Chapter three concerns with expanding this process to a series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic acids yielding functional CNCs for electronic and biomedical applications. Hydrophilic acids include citric-, malonic- and malic acid. Modification with the abovementioned organic acids allows for the introduction of free acids onto the surface of CNCs. Modification with citric-, malonic- and malic- acid is verified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and 13C solid state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR experiments. The degree of

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric properties in bulk nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites through minority carrier blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Day, Tristan; Mohammed, Amr M S; Snyder, G Jeffrey; Shakouri, Ali; Wu, Yue

    2015-02-11

    To design superior thermoelectric materials the minority carrier blocking effect in which the unwanted bipolar transport is prevented by the interfacial energy barriers in the heterogeneous nanostructures has been theoretically proposed recently. The theory predicts an enhanced power factor and a reduced bipolar thermal conductivity for materials with a relatively low doping level, which could lead to an improvement in the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Here we show the first experimental demonstration of the minority carrier blocking in lead telluride-silver telluride (PbTe-Ag2Te) nanowire heterostructure-based nanocomposites. The nanocomposites are made by sintering PbTe-Ag2Te nanowire heterostructures produced in a highly scalable solution-phase synthesis. Compared with Ag2Te nanowire-based nanocomposite produced in similar method, the PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite containing ∼5 atomic % PbTe exhibits enhanced Seebeck coefficient, reduced thermal conductivity, and ∼40% improved ZT, which can be well explained by the theoretical modeling based on the Boltzmann transport equations when energy barriers for both electrons and holes at the heterostructure interfaces are considered in the calculations. For this p-type PbTe-Ag2Te nanocomposite, the barriers for electrons, that is, minority carriers, are primarily responsible for the ZT enhancement. By extending this approach to other nanostructured systems, it represents a key step toward low-cost solution-processable nanomaterials without heavy doping level for high-performance thermoelectric energy harvesting.

  16. Water vapor adsorption isotherms of agar-based nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2011-10-01

    Adsorption isotherms of agar and agar/clay nanocomposite films prepared with different types of nanoclays, that is, a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite Na(+) ) and 2 organically modified montmorillonites (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A), were determined at 3 different temperatures (10, 25, and 40 °C). The water vapor adsorption behavior of the nanocomposite films was found to be greatly influenced with the type of clay. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) isotherm model parameters were estimated by using both polynomial regression and nonlinear regression methods and it was found that the GAB model fitted adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the film samples. The monolayer moisture content (m(o) ) of the film samples was also greatly affected by the type of nanoclay used, that is, m(o) of nanocomposite films was significantly lower than that of the neat agar film. Nanocomposite films prepared with hydrophobic nanoclays (Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 20A) exhibited lower m(o) values than those prepared with hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+) ). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Beads for Drinking Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheane, ML; Nthunya, LN; Sambaza, SS; Malinga, SP; Nxumalo, EN; Mamba, BB; Mhlanga, SD

    2017-05-01

    Potable drinking water is essential for the good health of humans and it is a critical feedstock in a variety of industries such as food and pharmaceutical industries. For the first time, chitosan-alumina/functionalised multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) nanocomposite beads were developed and investigated for the reduction of various physico-chemical parameters from water samples collected from open wells used for drinking purposes by a rural community in South Africa. The water samples were analysed before and after the reduction of the identified contaminants by the nanocomposite beads. The nanocomposite beads were effective in the removal of nitrate, chromium and other physico-chemical parameters. Although, the water samples contained these contaminants within the WHO and SANS241 limits for no risk, the long-term exposure and accumulation is an environmental and health concern. The reduction of these contaminants was dependent on pH levels. At lower pH, the reduction was significantly higher, up to 99.2% (SPC), 91.0% (DOC), 92.2% (DO), 92.2% (turbidity), 96.5% (nitrate) and 97.7% (chromium). Generally, the chitosan-alumina/f-MWCNT nanocomposite beads offer a promising alternative material for reduction and removal of various physico-chemical parameters for production portable water.

  18. Hybrid Nanocomposite Films Comprising Dispersed VO2 Nanocrystals: A Scalable Aqueous-Phase Route to Thermochromic Fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Nathan A; Pelcher, Kate E; Zou, Jian; Nieto, Kelly; Douglas, Lacey D; Sellers, Diane G; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-11-08

    Buildings consume an inordinate amount of energy, accounting for 30-40% of worldwide energy consumption. A major portion of solar radiation is transmitted directly to building interiors through windows, skylights, and glazed doors where the resulting solar heat gain necessitates increased use of air conditioning. Current technologies aimed at addressing this problem suffer from major drawbacks, including a reduction in the transmission of visible light, thereby resulting in increased use of artificial lighting. Since currently used coatings are temperature-invariant in terms of their solar heat gain modulation, they are unable to offset cold-weather heating costs that would otherwise have resulted from solar heat gain. There is considerable interest in the development of plastic fenestration elements that can dynamically modulate solar heat gain based on the external climate and are retrofittable onto existing structures. The metal-insulator transition of VO2 is accompanied by a pronounced modulation of near-infrared transmittance as a function of temperature and can potentially be harnessed for this purpose. Here, we demonstrate that a nanocomposite thin film embedded with well dispersed sub-100-nm diameter VO2 nanocrystals exhibits a combination of high visible light transmittance, effective near-infrared suppression, and onset of NIR modulation at wavelengths <800 nm. In our approach, hydrothermally grown VO2 nanocrystals with <100 nm diameters are dispersed within a methacrylic acid/ethyl acrylate copolymer after either (i) grafting of silanes to constitute an amorphous SiO2 shell or (ii) surface functionalization with perfluorinated silanes and the use of a perfluorooctanesulfonate surfactant. Homogeneous and high optical quality thin films are cast from aqueous dispersions of the pH-sensitive nanocomposites onto glass. An entirely aqueous-phase process for preparation of nanocrystals and their effective dispersion within polymeric nanocomposites allows for

  19. Complementary characterization data in support of uniaxially aligned electrospun nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Karimi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents complementary data corresponding to characterization tests done for our research article entitled “Uniaxially aligned electrospun fibers for advanced nanocomposites based on a model PVOH-epoxy system” (Karimi et al., 2016 [1]. Poly(vinyl alcohol and epoxy resin were selected as a model system and the effect of electrospun fiber loading on polymer properties was examined in conjunction with two manufacturing methods. A novel electrospinning technology for production of uniaxially aligned nanofiber arrays was used. A conventional wet lay-up fabrication method is compared against a novel, hybrid electrospinning–electrospraying approach. The structure and thermomechanical properties of resulting composite materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile testing. For discussion of obtained results please refer to the research paper (Karimi et al., 2016 [1].

  20. Carbon nanodots-based nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance and photothermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Tang, Y. L.; Hu, G.; Gao, B. L.; Gan, Z. X.; Chu, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Carbon nanomaterials with variable bandgaps exhibit wide spectral absorption, and photoluminescent nanodots have attracted much interest. In this work, carbon nanodots (CNDs) are grafted onto the surface of TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the photocatalytic properties. The CNDs increase light absorption, trap and shuttle photo-generated electrons, and enhance the pollutant adsorptivity. In addition, the synergistic photothermal effect of the CNDs-based nanocomposite facilitates photocatalysis. The CNDs-based nanocomposites with improved photothermal performance and efficient photocatalytic characteristics have large potential in environment and energy applications.

  1. Optimizing Properties of Aluminum-Based Nanocomposites by Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Dashtbayazi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulation results, a model was developed for determining elastic properties of aluminum nanocomposites reinforced with silicon carbide particles. Also, two models for prediction of density and price of nanocomposites were suggested. Then, optimal volume fraction of reinforcement was obtained by genetic algorithm method for the least density and price, and the highest elastic properties. Based on optimization results, the optimum volume fraction of reinforcement was obtained equal to 0.44. For this optimum volume fraction, optimum Young’s modulus, shear modulus, the price and the density of the nanocomposite were obtained 165.89 GPa, 111.37 GPa, 8.75 $/lb and 2.92 gr/cm3, respectively.

  2. Computational analysis of metallic nanowire-elastomer nanocomposite based strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangryun; Amjadi, Morteza; Pugno, Nicola; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Seunghwa

    2015-11-01

    Possessing a strong piezoresistivity, nanocomposites of metal nanowires and elastomer have been studied extensively for its use in highly flexible, stretchable, and sensitive sensors. In this work, we analyze the working mechanism and performance of a nanocomposite based stretchable strain sensor by calculating the conductivity of the nanowire percolation network as a function of strain. We reveal that the nonlinear piezoresistivity is attributed to the topological change of percolation network, which leads to a bottleneck in the electric path. We find that, due to enhanced percolation, the linearity of the sensor improves with increasing aspect ratio or volume fraction of the nanowires at the expense of decreasing gauge factor. In addition, we show that a wide range of gauge factors (from negative to positive) can be obtained by changing the orientation distribution of nanowires. Our study suggests a way to intelligently design nanocomposite-based piezoresistive sensors for flexible and wearable devices.

  3. Recent Advances in Research on the Synthetic Fiber Based Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślosarczyk, Agnieszka

    2017-02-16

    The presented paper contains a brief review on the synthesis and characterization of silica aerogels and its nanocomposites with nanofibers and fibers based on a literature study over the past twenty years and my own research. Particular attention is focused on carbon fiber-based silica aerogel nanocomposites. Silica aerogel is brittle in nature, therefore, it is necessary to improve this drawback, e.g., by polymer modification or fiber additives. Nevertheless, there are very few articles in the literature devoted to the synthesis of silica aerogel/fiber nanocomposites, especially those focusing on carbon fibers and nanofibers. Carbon fibers are very interesting materials, namely due to their special properties: high conductivity, high mechanical properties in relation to very low bulk densities, high thermal stability, and chemical resistance in the silica aerogel matrix, which can help enhance silica aerogel applications in the future.

  4. Recent Advances in Research on the Synthetic Fiber Based Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ślosarczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper contains a brief review on the synthesis and characterization of silica aerogels and its nanocomposites with nanofibers and fibers based on a literature study over the past twenty years and my own research. Particular attention is focused on carbon fiber-based silica aerogel nanocomposites. Silica aerogel is brittle in nature, therefore, it is necessary to improve this drawback, e.g., by polymer modification or fiber additives. Nevertheless, there are very few articles in the literature devoted to the synthesis of silica aerogel/fiber nanocomposites, especially those focusing on carbon fibers and nanofibers. Carbon fibers are very interesting materials, namely due to their special properties: high conductivity, high mechanical properties in relation to very low bulk densities, high thermal stability, and chemical resistance in the silica aerogel matrix, which can help enhance silica aerogel applications in the future.

  5. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Mesoporous TiO2 Nanocomposite Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gill Sang; Song, Young Hyun; Jin, Young Un; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kang, Bong Kyun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Cho, In Sun; Yoon, Dae Ho; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-28

    We report on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/mesoporous (mp)-TiO2 nanocomposite based mesostructured perovskite solar cells that show an improved electron transport property owing to the reduced interfacial resistance. The amount of rGO added to the TiO2 nanoparticles electron transport layer was optimized, and their impacts on film resistivity, electron diffusion, recombination time, and photovoltaic performance were investigated. The rGO/mp-TiO2 nanocomposite film reduces interfacial resistance when compared to the mp-TiO2 film, and hence, it improves charge collection efficiency. This effect significantly increases the short circuit current density and open circuit voltage. The rGO/mp-TiO2 nanocomposite film with an optimal rGO content of 0.4 vol % shows 18% higher photon conversion efficiency compared with the TiO2 nanoparticles based perovskite solar cells.

  6. Computational analysis of metallic nanowire-elastomer nanocomposite based strain sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangryun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Possessing a strong piezoresistivity, nanocomposites of metal nanowires and elastomer have been studied extensively for its use in highly flexible, stretchable, and sensitive sensors. In this work, we analyze the working mechanism and performance of a nanocomposite based stretchable strain sensor by calculating the conductivity of the nanowire percolation network as a function of strain. We reveal that the nonlinear piezoresistivity is attributed to the topological change of percolation network, which leads to a bottleneck in the electric path. We find that, due to enhanced percolation, the linearity of the sensor improves with increasing aspect ratio or volume fraction of the nanowires at the expense of decreasing gauge factor. In addition, we show that a wide range of gauge factors (from negative to positive can be obtained by changing the orientation distribution of nanowires. Our study suggests a way to intelligently design nanocomposite-based piezoresistive sensors for flexible and wearable devices.

  7. Effects of pHs on properties of bio-nanocomposite based on tilapia skin gelatin and Cloisite Na+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Muralidharan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2015-04-01

    Effects of various pHs (4-8) of film forming suspensions (FFS) on the properties of nanocomposite film based on tilapia skin gelatin and hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+)) were investigated. Intercalated/exfoliated structure of nanocomposite films was revealed by WAXD analysis. Young's Modulus (YM) and tensile strength (TS) of nanocomposite films increased up to pH 6 (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the further increases in pH levels resulted in the decreases in both YM and TS (P<0.05). The highest water vapour barrier property of the film was observed when the pH of FFS was 6 (P<0.05). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of nanocomposite films generally increased with increasing pH levels. Transparency of nanocomposite films was affected to some extent by pHs. Homogeneity and smoothness of film surface were obtained for nanocomposite films with pH 6 as confirmed by SEM micrographs. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses indicated that thermal stability of nanocomposite films varied with different pH levels. In general, mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of nanocomposite films were improved when FFS having pH 6 was used. Thus, the pH of FFS directly affected the properties of nanocomposite gelatin films incorporated with hydrophilic nanoclay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced clay nanocomposites based on in situ photopolymerization utilizing novel polymerizable organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki

    Polymer nanocomposite technology has had significant impact on material design. With the environmental advantages of photopolymerization, a research has recently focused on producing nanocomposites utilizing inexpensive clay particles based on in situ photopolymerization. In this research, novel polymerizable organoclays and thiol-ene photopolymerization have been utilized to develop advanced photopolymer clay nanocomposites and to overcome several limitations in conventional free radical photopolymers. To this end, factors important in nanocomposite processes such as monomer composition, clay dispersion, and photopolymerization behavior in combination with the evolution of ultimate nanocomposite properties have been investigated. For monomer-organoclay compositions, higher chemical compatibility of components induces enhanced clay exfoliation, resulting in photopolymerization rate increases due to an amplified clay template effect. Additionally, by affecting the stoichiometric ratio between thiol and acrylate double bond in the clay gallery, thiolated organoclays enhance thiol-ene copolymerization with increased final thiol conversion while acrylated organoclays encourage acrylate homopolymerization. In accordance with the reaction behavior, incorporation of thiolated organoclays makes polymer chains more flexible with decreased glass transition temperature due to higher formation of thio-ether linkages while adding acrylated organoclays significantly increases the modulus. Photopolymer nanocomposites also help overcome two major drawbacks in conventional free radical photopolymerization, namely severe polymerization shrinkage and oxygen inhibition during polymerization. With addition of a low level of thiol monomers, the oxygen inhibition in various acrylate systems can be overcome by addition of only 5wt% thiolated organoclay. The same amount of polymerizable organoclay also induces up to 90% decreases in the shrinkage stress for acrylate or thiol

  9. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticle/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, Anju, E-mail: atoor@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); So, Hongyun, E-mail: hyso@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Pisano, Albert P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ligand-modified gold NP/SU-8 nanocomposites were synthesized and demonstrated. • Particle agglomeration and dispersion were characterized with different NPs concentration. • Nanocomposites showed higher average dielectric permittivity compared to SU-8 only. • Relatively lower dielectric loss (average 0.09 at 1 kHz) was achieved with 10 % w/w NPs. - Abstract: This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable polymer nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on the particle concentration, and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  10. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  11. Ru-N-C Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ammonia Dehydrogenation: Influence of N-doping on Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Bich Hien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For application to ammonia dehydrogenation, novel Ru-based heterogeneous catalysts, Ru-N-C and Ru-C, were synthesized via simple pyrolysis of a mixture of RuCl3·6H2O and carbon black with or without dicyandiamide as a nitrogen-containing precursor at 550 °C. Characterization of the prepared Ru-N-C and Ru-C catalysts via scanning transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated the formation of hollow nanocomposites in which the average sizes of the Ru nanoparticles were 1.3 nm and 5.1 nm, respectively. Compared to Ru-C, the Ru-N-C nanocomposites not only proved to be highly active for ammonia dehydrogenation, giving rise to a NH3 conversion of >99% at 550 °C, but also exhibited high durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the Ru active sites in Ru-N-C were electronically perturbed by the incorporated nitrogen atoms, which increased the Ru electron density and ultimately enhanced the catalyst activity.

  12. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni3N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong; Huang, Keke; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Novel nickel nitride (Ni3N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni3N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni3N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni3N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni3N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni3N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni3N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  13. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-11-01

    In this article, Cr(OH)3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

  14. A bisphenol A sensor based on novel self-assembly of zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Keyu [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Institute of Research for Functional Materials, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Huang, Lei; Qi, Yongbo [Institute of Research for Functional Materials, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Huang, Caixia [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Institute of Research for Functional Materials, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Pan, Haibo, E-mail: hbpan@fzu.edu.cn [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Institute of Research for Functional Materials, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Du, Min [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a novel zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnTsPc)-functionalized graphene nanocomposites (f-GN) was synthesized by a simple and efficient electrostatic self-assembly method, where the positive charged GN decorated by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) was self-assemblied with ZnTsPc, a two dimensional (2-D) molecules. It not only enhanced its stability for the hybrid structure, but also avoided the reaggregation of ZnTsPc or f-GN themselves. Based on layered ZnTsPc/f-GN nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode, a rapid and sensitive sensor was developed for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA). Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current increased linearly with the concentration of BPA in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 4.0 × 10{sup −6} M with correlation coefficient 0.998 and limits of detection 2.0 × 10{sup −8} M. Due to high absorption nature for BPA and electron deficiency on ZnTsPc/f-GN, it presented the unique electron pathway arising from π–π stackable interaction during redox process for detecting BPA. The sensor exhibited remarkable long-term stability, good anti-interference and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards BPA detection. - Graphical abstract: 2-D ZnTsPc/f-GN architecture with high BPA absorption efficiency and excellent catalysis of central metal in ZnTsPc was highly promising for BPA sensor. - Highlights: • 2-D ZnTsPc/f-GN architecture was synthesized by electrostatic self-assembly method. • ZnTsPc/f-GN nanocomposites avoided the reaggregation of ZnTsPc and f-GN themselves. • An electrochemical BPA sensor was developed based on ZnTsPc/f-GN nanocomposites. • High absorption for BPA and electron deficiency on the surface of ZnTsPc/f-GN • The proposed sensor could be applied for detection of BPA in real samples.

  15. Epoxy nanocomposites based on high temperature pyridinium-modified clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxin; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qi, Ben; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Polymer/clay nanocomposites are generally fabricated by thermal curing or melt compounding at elevated temperatures, however the thermal stability of common alkyl ammonium treated clays is poor and decomposition occurs inevitably during high temperature processing. In this study, we modified clays with an aromatic pyridinium salt. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the onset degradation temperature (Td(onset)) and maximum decomposition temperature (Td(max)) of the pyridinium treatment clays was up to 310 and 457 degrees C respectively implying high thermal stability. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the pyridinium modified clays was discussed. A series of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA). The morphology of epoxy/clay nanocomposites was characterized with wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and intercalated structures were observed. The storage modulus of epoxy was increased but glass transition temperature was decreased with clay incorporation. The effects of clays on glass transition temperature (Tg) of epoxy were also discussed.

  16. Chitosan-based nanocomposites for de-nitrification of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheane, Monaheng L.; Nthunya, Lebea N.; Malinga, Soraya P.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mhlanga, Sabelo D.

    2017-08-01

    Novel chitosan (CTs) nanocomposite beads containing alumina (Al2O3, denoted as Al in the nanocomposites) and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) (CTsAl/f-MWCNTs) were prepared using an environmentally benign phase inversion method and subsequently used for the removal of nitrates (NO3-) in water. The ellipsoidal beads with an average size of 3 mm were readily formed at room temperature and contained a small amount of Al (20 wt%) and f-MWCNTs (5%). The beads were found to adsorb nitrates effectively over a wide range of pH (pH 2 - pH 6) and showed maximum nitrates removal of 96.8% from a 50 mg/L nitrate water solution. Pure CTs beads on the other hand removed only 23% at pH 4. Kinetic studies suggested that the particle diffusion was rate controlling step for the adsorption of nitrates on CTsAl/f-MWCNT nanocomposite beads. Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms revealed that the adsorption of nitrates was on the heterogeneous surface of CTsAl/f-MWCNT beads. The Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm further revealed that the adsorption of nitrates was by electrostatic interaction. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. More than 70% recovery was achieved for 5 cycles of desorption-degeneration studies. Al and f-MWCNTs have shown to improve swelling and solubility of CTs.

  17. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticles/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-04-15

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable nanocomposite material containing sub–10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on particle concentration and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  18. Dielectric properties of ligand-modified gold nanoparticle/SU-8 photopolymer based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-08-01

    This article reports the enhanced dielectric properties of a photodefinable polymer nanocomposite material containing sub-10 nm coated metal nanoparticles (NPs). The surface morphology of the synthesized dodecanethiol-functionalized gold NPs was characterized using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the particle agglomeration and dispersion during the various stages of the nanocomposite synthesis using TEM. Physical properties such as dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss were measured experimentally. The dependence of the dielectric permittivity and loss tangent on the particle concentration, and frequency was studied. Nanocomposite films showed an approximately three times enhancement in average dielectric constant over the polymer base value and an average dielectric loss of 0.09 at 1 kHz, at a filler loading of 10% w/w.

  19. Assembly of PbTe/Pb-based nanocomposite and photoelectric property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhaocun; Wang, Hongxia; Kong, Lingmin

    2013-04-24

    PbTe/Pb-based nanocomposite was assembled by combining the regular PbTe/Pb nanostructure and the ZnxMn1-xS nanoparticles; the photoelectric property of the nanocomposite was measured in situ. The results showed that the through current of the nanocomposite had an obvious increase compared to that of the individual PbTe/Pb nanomaterial under the same irradiation conditions. The improvement of photoelectric performance would be attributed to the synergistic effect brought by the incident light and exciting light of the ZnxMn1-xS nanoparticles. The result implied that the underlying mechanism could be used to improve the performance of nano-optoelectronic devices and the light-use efficiency of solar devices.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of graphene-based nanocomposites with potential use for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvoli, Daniele; Alzari, Valeria; Sanna, Roberta; Scognamillo, Sergio [Universita di Sassari, Local INSTM Unit, Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia (Italy); Alongi, Jenny; Malucelli, Giulio, E-mail: giulio.malucelli@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, sede di Alessandria, Local INSTM Unit, Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia (Italy); Mariani, Alberto, E-mail: mariani@uniss.it [Universita di Sassari, Local INSTM Unit, Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    In the present study, graphene-based nanocomposites containing different amounts of nanofiller dispersed into Bis-GMA/tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate (Bis-GMA/TEGDA) polymer matrix have been prepared. In particular, the graphene dispersions, produced at high concentration (up to 6 mg/ml) by simple sonication of graphite in TEGDA monomer, have been used for the direct preparation of nanocomposite copolymers with Bis-GMA. The morphology of the obtained nanocomposites has been investigated as well as their thermal and mechanical properties. SEM analyses have clearly shown that graphene deeply interacts with the polymer matrix, thus resulting in a reinforcing effect on the material as proved by compression and hardness tests; at variance, graphene does not seem to affect the glass transition temperature of the obtained polymer networks.

  1. Hybrid nano-composites made of ss-DNA/wrapped carbon nanotubes and titania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romio, Martina; Mesa, Camillo La

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs, are stabilized thanks to the surface wrapping of single-strand DNA, ss-DNA; the resulting adducts are kinetically and thermodynamically stable Such entities build up nano-hybrids with titania, TiO2, nano-particles, in presence of surfactant as an adjuvant. The conditions leading to TiO2 adsorption onto ss-DNA/CNTs were investigated, by optimizing the concentration of adducts, nano-particles (NPs), and of the cationic surfactant (CTAB). Controlling the working conditions makes possible to get homogeneously organized hybrids. Characterization by DLS, electro-phoretic mobility, SEM and AFM clarified the surfactant-assisted association modes between adducts and CTAB-functionalized TiO2. Nano-particles' clustering onto DNA-wrapped adducts gives hybrids trough electrostatic interactions. Surface coverage by TiO2 is significant and homogeneous. It is expected that the reported hybrids can be useful for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pulsed DC sputtered DLC based nanocomposite films : controlling growth dynamics, microstructure and frictional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaha, K.P.; Pei, Y.T.; Chen, C.Q.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    Surface smoothness of diamond-like carbon based thin films becomes a crucial property for developing nearly frictionless protective coatings. Surface roughness and the dynamic growth behaviour of TiC/a-C nanocomposite films, deposited by non-reactive pulsed DC (p-DC) sputtering of graphite targets,

  3. Dynamic melt flow of nanocomposites based on poly-epsilon-caprolactam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utracki, Leszek; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic flow behavior of polyamide-6 (PA-6) and a nanocomposite (PNC) based on it was studied. The latter resin contained 2 wt% of organoclay. The two materials were blended in proportions of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 wt% PNC. The dynamic shear rheological properties of well-dried specimens were...

  4. Effects of nanoclay type on the physical and antimicrobial properties of PVOH-based nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyvinyl alcohols-based nanocomposite films were fabricated with four types of montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay, including 18-amino stearic acid (I.24TL), methyl, bis hydroxyethyl, octadecyl ammonium (I.34TCN), di-methyl, di-hydrogenated tallow ammonium/siloxane (I.44PSS) organically modified MMT, an...

  5. Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubacka, A.; Suarez Diez, M.; Rojo, D.; Bargiela, R.; Ciordia, S.; Zapico, I.; Albar, J.P.; Barbas, C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Fernández-García, M.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Titania (TiO2)-based nanocomposites subjected to light excitation are remarkably effective in eliciting microbial death. However, the mechanism by which these materials induce microbial death and the effects that they have on microbes are poorly understood. Here, we assess the low dose

  6. A nanoceria-platinum-graphene nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P; Vanegas, D C; Taguchi, M; Burrs, S L; Sharma, P; McLamore, E S

    2014-08-15

    Most graphene-metal nanocomposites for biosensing are formed using noble metals. Recently, development of nanocomposites using rare earth metals has gained much attention. This paper reports on the development of a nanoceria-nanoplatinum-graphene hybrid nanocomposite as a base transducing layer for mediator-free enzymatic biosensors. The hybrid nanocomposite was shown to improve detection of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide when compared to other carbon-metal hybrid nanocomposites. Based on this finding, the nanocomposite was applied for biosensing by adding either a peroxide-producing oxidase (glucose oxidase), or a superoxide-producing oxidase (xanthine oxidase). Material analysis indicated that nanoceria and nanoplatinum were equally distributed along the surface of the hybrid material, ensuring detection of either superoxide or hydrogen peroxide produced by oxidase activity. Glucose biosensors demonstrated a sensitivity (66.2±2.6μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), response time (6.3±3.4s), and limit of detection (1.3±0.6μM) that were comparable to other graphene-mediated electrodes in the current literature. Remarkably, XOD biosensor sensitivity (1164±332μAmM(-1)), response time (5.0±1.5s), and limit of detection (0.2±0.1μM) were higher than any reported biosensors using similar metal-decorated carbon nanomaterials. This material is the first demonstration of a highly efficient, diverse nanoceria/nanoplatinum/graphene hybrid nanocomposite for biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polylactide based nanocomposites: Processing, structure and performance relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Shahir

    The application of biodegradable polymers has been offered to the packing industry wishing to overcome the environmental consequence of employing the petroleum-based polymers. Furthermore, the unstable oil market urged the industry to look for the substitution of the renewable resources. Polylactide is known as the most popular biodegradable polymer developed on a large scale. Nevertheless, the growing contribution of polylactide to packing industry is somewhat restricted owing to its inherent brittleness and weak barrier properties. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis was defined to build a fundamental relationship between processing parameters and solid-state microstructure to improve the performance of polylactide. Polylactide nanocomposites were prepared through a multi-step melt compounding process. Dispersion of organically modified layered nanoparticles was detected by the WAXS and TEM characterizations, demonstrating the formation of intercalated nanocomposites. Relaxation spectrum exhibited the restricted dynamics of fraction of amorphous phase confined in polymer-particle interphase through dynamic rheological measurements. The fraction of rigid amorphous chains was estimated using TMDSC and DMA. This increased with nanoparticle content, levelling off upon the aggregation of nanoparticles. The annealing-induced molecular ordering was detected by FR-IR, increasing the rigid amorphous fraction. Cold crystallization was investigated during non-isothermal process using TMDSC. Crystallization kinetic was studied through the evaluation of Avrami parameters in isothermal process at the temperature range of Tg+30°C to Tg+70°C. The crystallization rate depressed with the nanoparticle content due to the enhanced fraction of rigid amorphous chains, as well as, the topological constraints derived from the formation of network structure. Nevertheless, the nanoparticles acted as heterogeneous nucleating sites upon devitrification of the rigid amorphous

  8. Highly sensitive and selective chemiresistor gas/vapor sensors based on polyaniline nanocomposite: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanand Pandey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review article directs particular attention to some current breakthrough developments in the area of gas sensors based on polyaniline (PANI nanocomposite. Conducting polymers symbolize a paramount class of organic materials that boost the resistivity towards external stimuli. Nevertheless, PANI-based sensor experiences some disadvantages of relatively low reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. In order to overcome these restrictions, PANI was functionalised or incorporated with nanoparticles (NPs (metallic or bimetallic NPs, metal oxide NPs, carbon compounds (like CNT or graphene, chalcogenides, polymers, showing improved gas sensing characteristics. It has been suggested that host–guest chemistry combined with the utilization of organic and inorganic analog in nanocomposite may allow for improvement of the sensor performance due to synergetic/complementary effects. Herein, we summarize recent advantages in PANI nanocomposite preparation, sensor construction, and sensing properties of various PANI nanocomposite-based gas/vapor sensors, such as NH3, H2, HCl, NO2, H2S, CO, CO2, SO2, LPG, vapor of volatile organic compounds (VOCs as well as chemical warfare agents (CWAs. The sensing mechanisms are discussed. Existing problems that may hinder practical applications of the sensors are also discussed.

  9. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Huang, Keke [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO catalysts are synthesized by using a two-step method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: Novel nickel nitride (Ni{sub 3}N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni{sub 3}N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  10. Mixed colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide and layered metal oxide nanosheets: useful precursors for the porous nanocomposites and hybrid films of graphene/metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ri; Kim, In Young; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Jang Mee; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2012-02-20

    Homogeneously mixed colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide, or RGO, and layered manganate nanosheets have been synthesized by a simple addition of the exfoliated colloid of RGO into that of layered MnO(2). The obtained mixed colloidal suspensions with the RGO/MnO(2) ratio of ≤0.3 show good colloidal stability without any phase separation and a negatively charged state with a zeta (ζ) potential of -30 to -40 mV. The flocculation of these mixed colloidal suspensions with lithium cations yields porous nanocomposites of Li/RGO-layered MnO(2) with high electrochemical activity and a markedly expanded surface area of around 70-100 m(2)  g(-1). Relative to the Li/RGO and Li/layered MnO(2) nanocomposites (≈116 and ≈167 F g(-1)), the obtained Li/RGO-layered MnO(2) nanocomposites deliver a larger capacitance of approximately 210 F g(-1) with good cyclability of around 95-97 % up to the 1000th cycle, thus indicating the positive effect of hybridization on the electrode performances of RGO and lithium manganate. Also, an electrophoretic deposition of the mixed colloidal suspensions makes it possible to easily fabricate uniform hybrid films composed of graphene and manganese oxide. The obtained films show a distinct electrochemical activity and a homogeneous distribution of RGO and MnO(2). The present experimental findings clearly demonstrate that the utilization of the mixed colloidal suspensions as precursors provides a facile and universal methodology to synthesize various types of graphene/metal oxide hybrid materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Functional energy nanocomposites surfaces based on mesoscopic microspheres, polymers and graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, S. A.; Dmitriev, A. S.; Dmitriev, A. A.; Makarov, P. G.; Mikhailova, I. A.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in the development and creation of new functional energy materials, including for improving the energy efficiency of power equipment and for effectively removing heat from energy devices, microelectronics and optoelectronics (power micro electronics, supercapacitors, cooling of processors, servers and Data centers). In this paper, the technology of obtaining a new nanocomposite based on mesoscopic microspheres, polymers and graphene flakes is considered. The methods of sequential production of functional materials from graphite flakes of different volumetric concentration using polymers based on epoxy resins and polyimide, as well as the addition of a mesoscopic medium in the form of monodisperse microspheres are described. The data of optical and electron microscopy of such nanocomposites are presented, the main problems in the appearance of defects in such materials are described, the possibilities of their elimination by the selection of different concentrations and sizes of the components. Data are given on the measurement of the hysteresis of the contact angle and the evaporation of droplets on similar substrates. The results of studying the mechanical, electrophysical and thermal properties of such nanocomposites are presented. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of the thermal conductivity of these nanocomposites with respect to the creation of thermal interface materials for cooling devices of electronics, optoelectronics and power engineering.

  12. Study of ink paper sensor based on aluminum/carbon nanotubes agglomerated nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Marcos A L; Saraiva, Augusto F; Vieira, Manuel F G; Del Nero, Jordan

    2012-09-01

    Agglomerated nanocomposites based on Aluminum/Carbon Nanotubes (AI/CNT) were produced by an arc discharge technique under argon/acetone atmosphere and ultrasonically dispersed in distilled water to form an ink-like composite. This ink was spread onto commercial paper to produce a conductive thick film. Experimental results show that the electrical resistance of Al/CNT nanocomposite on paper changes when a mechanical stress and/or heat is applied. The multi-sensory properties obtained are the following: (i) piezoresistive effect, electrical resistance shows linear dependence with pressure intensity at room temperature; (ii) polynomial relationship between electrical resistance and temperature; and (iii) high accuracy thermal sensor compared to a K type thermocouple at 25 degrees C. The nanocomposite and paper morphology was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and a favorable surface for physisorption was observed. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was utilized for Al/CNT agglomerated indicating that the ink paper based on nanocomposite shows good performance as a thermo-piezoresistive sensor.

  13. Improving specificity of DNA hybridization-based methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaya, Tatyana; Gogvadze, Elena; Buzdin, Anton; Kovalskaya, Elena; Sverdlov, Eugene D.

    2004-01-01

    Methods based on DNA reassociation in solution with the subsequent PCR amplification of certain hybrid molecules, such as coincidence cloning and subtractive hybridization, all suffer from a common imperfection: cross-hybridization between various types of paralogous repetitive DNA fragments. Although the situation can be slightly improved by the addition of repeat-specific competitor DNA into the hybridization mixture, the cross-hybridization outcome is a significant number of background chi...

  14. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    Polyesters are a class of polymers widely used in organic coatings applications. In this work, four types of organic coatings based on polyester polyols were prepared: UV-curable polyester/poly(meth)acrylate coatings, thermal curable polyester polyurethane-urea coatings, thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings, and UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Polyester/poly(meth)acrylate block copolymers are synthesized using a combination of polycondensation and Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). All block copolymers are characterized by means of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). In the case of unsaturated-polyester-based block copolymers the main chain double bond in the polyester backbone remains almost unaffected during ATRP. The unsaturated block copolymers are crosslinkable and can form networks upon photo-irradiation in the presence of a suitable photoinitiator. These copolymers might be interesting candidates for coatings with better overall properties than those based on neat polyesters. Thermal curable polyester polyol based Polyurethane-Urea (PUU) coatings were formulated using Partially Blocked HDI isocyanurate (PBH), Isophorone Diamine (IPDA), and polyester polyol. As a comparison, the polyurethane coatings (PU) without adding IPDA were also prepared. The mechanical and viscoelastic properties of the PUU and PU coating were investigated by using tensile test and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analyzer (DMTA). It was found that PUU coating exhibited higher crosslink density, Tg, tensile modulus and strength than the corresponding PU coating. Thermal curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were prepared by using polyamine and cyclic carbonate terminated polyester. Cyclic carbonate terminated polyester was synthesized from the reaction of the carbon dioxide and epoxidized polyester which was prepared from the polyester polyol. The properties of the epoxidized and cyclic carbonate

  15. Synthesis, structure, and physical properties of hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, I; Costela, A; Cuesta, A; García, O; del Agua, D; Sastre, R

    2005-11-24

    We report on the synthesis, structural characterization, physical properties, and lasing action of two organic dyes, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and Pyrromethene 597 (PM597), incorporated into new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, where the organic component was either poly(2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate) (PHEMA) or copolymers of HEMA with methyl methacrylate (MMA), and the inorganic counterpart consisted of silica derived from hydrolysis-condensation of methyltriethoxysilane (TRIEOS) in weight proportion of up to 30%. Lasing efficiencies of up 23% and high photostabilities, with no sign of degradation in the initial laser output after 100 000 pump pulses at 10 Hz, were demonstrated when pumping the samples transversely at 534 nm with 5.5 mJ/pulse. A direct relationship could be established between the structure of the hybrid materials, analyzed by solid-state NMR, and their laser behavior. An inorganic network dominated by di-/tri- substituted silicates in a proportion approximately 35:65, corresponding to samples of HEMA with 15 and 20 wt % proportion of TRIEOS, optimizes the lasing photostability. The thermal properties of these materials, together with the high homogeneity revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, even in compounds with high silica content, indicate their microstructure to be a continuous phase, corresponding to the polymer matrix, which "traps" the silica components at molecular level via covalent bonding, with few or no silica islands.

  16. One-pot synthesis of silica-hybridized Ag{sub 2}S–CuS nanocomposites with tunable nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann Mary, K.A. [School of Pure & Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Unnikrishnan, N.V., E-mail: nvu100@yahoo.com [School of Pure & Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Silica modified QDs of CuS and Ag{sub 2}S is developed at room temperature. • Formation of Ag{sub 2}S/CuS nanocomposites is confirmed from XRD and FFT of HRTEM images. • The concentration dependent growth of silica modified QDs is discussed. • Nonlinear absorption observed in ns excitations is dominated by SA and ESA. • Tuning of optical limiting efficiency is achieved with relative Ag{sub 2}S content. - Abstract: In the present work we report a simple, facile route developed for preparing silica hybridized copper sulfide and silver sulfide quantum dots at room temperature. By adjusting the concentration of the precursors, Ag{sub 2}S can form Ag{sub 2}S–CuS nanocomposites which are self regulated in one pot. Their crystalline, structural and optical properties have been investigated in detail, and the optical limiting nature is studied from fluence-dependent transmittance measurements employing short (5 ns) laser pulses at 532 nm. Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles are found to have large third order nonlinear optical coefficients with a relatively lower optical limiting threshold of 1.7 J cm{sup −2}, while the nonlinearity of the nanocomposites is found to lie in between that of Ag{sub 2}S and CuS nanoparticles. These results suggest pathways for designing good quality optical limiters with tunable optical limiting efficiencies by varying the constituent nanocrystal compositions.

  17. A new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) incorporating hypergrafted nano-silica

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xian-Lei

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) incorporating hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (HBPAE) grafted nano-silica (denoted as SiO2-g-HBPAE) have been prepared and investigated. Through surface pretreatment of nanoparticles, followed by Michael-addition and a self-condensation process, hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) was directly polymerized from the surface of nano-silica. Then the hypergrafted nanoparticles were added to PVA matrix, and blended with lithium perchlorate via mold casting method to fabricate nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. By introducing hypergrafted nanoparticles, ionic conductivity of solid composite is improved significantly at the testing temperature. Hypergrafted nano-silica may act as solid plasticizer, promoting lithium salt dissociation in the matrix as well as improving segmental motion of matrix. In addition, tensile testing shows that such materials are soft and tough even at room temperature. From the dielectric spectra of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte as the function of temperature, it can be deduced that Arrhenius behavior appears depending on the content of hypergrafted nano-silica and concentration of lithium perchlorate. At a loading of 15 wt% hypergrafted nano-silica and 54 wt% lithium perchlorate, promising ionic conductivities of PVA nanocomposite polymer electrolyte are achieved, about 1.51 × 10 -4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and 1.36 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 100 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Theory of electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of highly aligned graphene-based nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaodong; Hao, Jia; Wang, Yang; Zhong, Zheng; Weng, George J

    2017-05-24

    Highly aligned graphene-based nanocomposites are of great interest due to their excellent electrical properties along the aligned direction. Graphene fillers in these composites are not necessarily perfectly aligned, but their orientations are highly confined to a certain angle, [Formula: see text] with 90° giving rise to the randomly oriented state and 0° to the perfectly aligned one. Recent experiments have shown that electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of highly aligned graphene-polymer nanocomposites are strongly dependent on this distribution angle, but at present no theory seems to exist to address this issue. In this work we present a new effective-medium theory that is derived from the underlying physical process including the effects of graphene orientation, filler loading, aspect ratio, percolation threshold, interfacial tunneling, and Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization, to determine these two properties. The theory is formulated in the context of preferred orientational average. We highlight this new theory with an application to rGO/epoxy nanocomposites, and demonstrate that the calculated in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity and permittivity are in agreement with the experimental data as the range of graphene orientations changes from the randomly oriented to the highly aligned state. We also show that the percolation thresholds of highly aligned graphene nanocomposites are in general different along the planar and the normal directions, but they converge into a single one when the statistical distribution of graphene fillers is spherically symmetric.

  19. Development of multifunctional fluoroelastomers based on nanocomposites; Desenvolvimento de elastomeros fluorados multifuncionais baseados em nanocompositos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zen, Heloisa Augusto

    2015-07-01

    The fluoropolymers are known for their great mechanical properties, high thermal stability and resistance to aggressive chemical environment, and because of those properties they are widely used in industries, such as automobile, petroleum, chemistry, manufacturing, among others. To improve the thermal properties and gases barrier of the polymeric matrix, the incorporation of nanoparticle is used, this process permits the polymer to maintain their own characteristics and acquire new properties of nanoparticle. Because of those properties, the structural and morphological modification of fluoropolymers are very hard to be obtained through traditional techniques, in order to surmount this difficulty, the ionizing radiation is a well-known and effective method to modify fluoropolymers structures. In this thesis a nanocomposite polymeric based on fluoroelastomer (FKM) was developed and incorporated with four different configurations of nanoparticles: clay Cloisite 15A, POSS 1159, POSS 1160 and POSS 1163. After the nanocomposites films were obtained, a radiation induced grafting process was carried out, followed by sulfonation in order to obtain a ionic exchanged membrane. The effect of nanoparticle incorporation and the ionizing radiation onto films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal and mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy and swelling; and the membranes were evaluated by degree of grafting, ionic exchange capacity and swelling. After the films were characterized, the crosslinking effect was observed to be predominant for the nanocomposites irradiated before the vulcanization, whereas the degradation was the predominant effect in the nanocomposites irradiated after vulcanization. (author)

  20. Alginate-based nanocomposites for efficient removal of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Mohamed; Farghali, Ahmed A; Khedr, Mohamed H; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2017-09-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CF), titanate nanotubes (T), alginate (G) and their nanocomposite microparticles (CF/G and T/G) were prepared and used for efficient removal of Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and As(3+) ions from water. The nanocomposites were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FTIR and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). In addition, the effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent weight and heavy metal ion concentration on the removal efficiency were investigated. Our results revealed a successful preparation of the nanocomposite particles. The optimized batch experiment conditions were found to be pH of 6.5, contact time of 2h and adsorbent weight of 0.15g. The removal efficiencies for Cu(2+) using G, CF, T, CF/G and T/G were found to be 91%, 100%, 99.9%, 95% and 98%, respectively. While that of Fe(3+) removal was 60%, 100%, 100%, 60% and 82%, respectively. Efficient removal of As(3+) ions was also attained (98% upon using T nanoadsorbents). The current study demonstrated that the developed nanomaterials (CF and T) and their corresponding alginate-based nanocomposite microparticles could be further tailored and used as efficient adsorbents for the uptake of different heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iota-Carrageenan-based biodegradable Ag0 nanocomposite hydrogels for the inactivation of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, we report the synthesis and characterization of Iota-Carrageenan based on a novel biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels. The aim of study was to investigate whether these hydrogels have the potential to be used in bacterial inactivation applications. Biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared by a green process using acrylamide (AM) with I-Carrageenan (IC). The silver nanoparticles were prepared as silver colloid by reducing AgNO3 with leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem leaf) that (Ag(0)) formed the hydrogel network. The formation of biodegradable silver nanoparticles in the hydrogels was characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, thermo gravimetrical analysis, X-ray diffractometry studies, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, swelling behavior and degradation properties were systematically investigated. Furthermore, the biodegradable silver nanoparticle composite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity of the biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels was studied by inhibition zone method against Bacillus and Escherichia coli, which suggested that the silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were effective as potential candidates for antimicrobial applications. Therefore, the inorganic biodegradable hydrogels developed can be used effectively for biomedical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aligned bioinspired cellulose nanocrystal-based nanocomposites with synergetic mechanical properties and improved hygromechanical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baochun; Torres-Rendon, Jose Guillermo; Yu, Jinchao; Zhang, Yumei; Walther, Andreas

    2015-03-04

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced supramolecular interactions. Such biomimetic design principles remain difficult to realize for bulk nanocomposites. Herein, we establish an effective drawing procedure that induces a high orientation of crystalline cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) in a matrix of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) at high level of reinforcements (50 vol %). We show such alignment in rather thick bulk films and report synergetic improvement with a simultaneous increase of stiffness, strength, and work-to-fracture as a function of the degree of alignment. Scanning electron microscopy and two-dimensional X-ray diffraction quantify the alignment of the cylindrical nanoparticles and link it to the extent of drawing and improvements in mechanical properties. We further show that the decline in mechanical properties of such waterborne all biobased nanocomposites at high relative humidity can be balanced using supramolecular modulation of the ionic interactions by exchanging the monovalent Na(+) counterion, present in CMC and CNC with di- or trivalent Cu(2+) and Fe(3+). This contribution demonstrates the importance of aligning one-dimensional reinforcements to achieve synergetic improvement in mechanical properties in sustainable bioinspired nanocomposites and suggests pathways to prepare water-stable materials based on a waterborne processing route.

  3. In vitro study of a new biodegradable nanocomposite based on poly propylene fumarate as bone glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, S; Moztarzadeh, F; Sadeghi, G Mir Mohamad; Jafari, Y

    2016-12-01

    A novel poly propylene fumarate (PPF)-based glue which is reinforced by nanobioactive glass (NBG) particles and promoted by hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as crosslinker agent, was developed and investigated for bone-to-bone bonding applications. In-vitro bioactivity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bone adhesion were tested and the results have verified that it can be used as bone glue. In an in-vitro condition, the prepared nanocomposite (PPF/HEMA/NBG) showed improved adhesion to wet bone surfaces. The combined tension and shear resistance between two wet bone surfaces was measured, and its maximum value was 9±59MPa. To investigate the bioactivity and biodegradability of the nanocomposite, it has been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). After 14days exposure to SBF, a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer formed on the surface of the composite confirms the bioactivity of this material. In the XRD pattern of the nanocomposite surface, the HA characteristic diffraction peak at θ=26 and 31.8 were observed. Also, by monitoring the weight change after 8weeks immersion in SBF, the mass loss was about 16.46wt%. It has been confirmed that this nanocomposite is a biodegradable material. Also, bioactivity and biodegradability of nanocomposite have been proved by SEM images. It has been showed that by using NBG particles and HEMA precursor, mechanical properties increased significantly. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of nanocomposite which contains 20% NBG and the ratio of 70/30wt% PPF/HEMA (PHB.732) was approximately 62MPa, while the UTS in the pure PPF/HEMA was about 32MPa. High cell viability in this nanocomposite (MTT assays, 85-95%) can be attributed to the NBG nature which contains calcium phosphate and is similar to physiological environment. Furthermore, it possesses biomineralization and biodegradation which significantly affected by impregnation of hydrophilic HEMA in the PPF-based polymeric matrix. The results indicated that the new synthesized

  4. An Insilico Design of Nanoclay Based Nanocomposites and Scaffolds in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag

    A multiscale in silico approach to design polymer nanocomposites and scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications is described in this study. This study focuses on the role of biomaterials design and selection, structural integrity and mechanical properties evolution during degradation and tissue regeneration in the successful design of polymer nanocomposite scaffolds. Polymer nanocomposite scaffolds are synthesized using aminoacid modified montmorillonite nanoclay with biomineralized hydroxyapatite and polycaprolactone (PCL/in situ HAPclay). Representative molecular models of polymer nanocomposite system are systematically developed using molecular dynamics (MD) technique and successfully validated using material characterization techniques. The constant force steered molecular dynamics (fSMD) simulation results indicate a two-phase nanomechanical behavior of the polymer nanocomposite. The MD and fSMD simulations results provide quantitative contributions of molecular interactions between different constituents of representative models and their effect on nanomechanical responses of nanoclay based polymer nanocomposite system. A finite element (FE) model of PCL/in situ HAPclay scaffold is built using micro-computed tomography images and bridging the nanomechanical properties obtained from fSMD simulations into the FE model. A new reduction factor, K is introduced into modeling results to consider the effect of wall porosity of the polymer scaffold. The effect of accelerated degradation under alkaline conditions and human osteoblast cells culture on the evolution of mechanical properties of scaffolds are studied and the damage mechanics based analytical models are developed. Finally, the novel multiscale models are developed that incorporate the complex molecular and microstructural properties, mechanical properties at nanoscale and structural levels and mechanical properties evolution during degradation and tissue formation in the polymer nanocomposite

  5. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, A. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo, Italy and STEBICEF, Section of Biology and Chemistry, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans (Italy); Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace, Materials Engineering, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M. [STEBICEF, Section of Biology and Chemistry, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans II, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and KMnO{sub 4} based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  6. Graphene oxide-silica nanohybrids as fillers for PA6 based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, A.; Fucarino, R.; Khatibi, R.; Botta, L.; Rosselli, S.; Bruno, M.; Scaffaro, R.

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by oxidation of graphite flakes by a mixture of H2SO4/H3PO4 and KMnO4 based on Marcano's method. Two different masterbatches containing GO (33.3%) and polyamide-6 (PA6) (66.7%) were prepared both via solvent casting in formic acid and by melt mixing in a mini-extruder (Haake). The two masterbatches were then used to prepare PA6-based nanocomposites with a content of 2% in GO. For comparison, a nanocomposite by direct mixing of PA6 and GO (2%) and PA6/graphite nanocomposites were prepared, too. The oxidation of graphite into GO was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. All these techniques demonstrated the effectiveness of the graphite modification, since the results put into evidence that, after the acid treatment, interlayer distance, oxygen content and defects increased. SEM micrographs carried out on the nanocomposites, showed GO layers totally surrounded by polyamide-6, this feature is likely due to the strong interaction between the hydrophilic moieties located both on GO and on PA6. On the contrary, no interactions were observed when graphite was used as filler. Mechanical characterization, carried out by tensile and dynamic-mechanical tests, marked an improvement of the mechanical properties observed. Photoluminescence and EPR measurements were carried out onto nanoparticles and nanocomposites to study the nature of the interactions and to assess the possibility to use this class of materials as semiconductors or optical sensors.

  7. Tuning plasmonic and chemical enhancement for SERS detection on graphene-based Au hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiu; Liang, Benliang; Pan, Zhenghui; Lang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Yuegang; Wang, Guangsheng; Yin, Penggang; Guo, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Various graphene-based Au nanocomposites have been developed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates recently. However, efficient use of SERS has been impeded by the difficulty of tuning SERS enhancement effects induced from chemical and plasmonic enhancement by different preparation methods of graphene. Herein, we developed graphene-based Au hybrids through physical sputtering gold NPs on monolayer graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as a CVD-G/Au hybrid, as well as graphene oxide-gold (GO/Au) and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO/Au) hybrids prepared using the chemical in situ crystallization growth method. Plasmonic and chemical enhancements were tuned effectively by simple methods in these as-prepared graphene-based Au systems. SERS performances of CVD-G/Au, rGO/Au and GO/Au showed a gradually monotonic increasing tendency of enhancement factors (EFs) for adsorbed Rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, which show clear dependence on chemical bonds between graphene and Au, indicating that the chemical enhancement can be steadily controlled by chemical groups in a graphene-based Au hybrid system. Most notably, we demonstrate that the optimized GO/Au was able to detect biomolecules of adenine, which displayed high sensitivity with a detection limit of 10-7 M as well as good reproducibility and uniformity.Various graphene-based Au nanocomposites have been developed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates recently. However, efficient use of SERS has been impeded by the difficulty of tuning SERS enhancement effects induced from chemical and plasmonic enhancement by different preparation methods of graphene. Herein, we developed graphene-based Au hybrids through physical sputtering gold NPs on monolayer graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as a CVD-G/Au hybrid, as well as graphene oxide-gold (GO/Au) and reduced-graphene oxide (rGO/Au) hybrids prepared using the chemical in situ crystallization growth method. Plasmonic

  8. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Xiuyu [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250114 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ranged from 0.5 μg L{sup −1} to 30 μg L{sup −1}. The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Pb{sup 2+} and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Cd{sup 2+} in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions in real electroplating

  9. Fabrication of an electrochemical platform based on the self-assembly of graphene oxide-multiwall carbon nanotube nanocomposite and horseradish peroxidase: direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Shaojun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ling; Kang, Pingli; Li, Jinghong; Xu, Jingwei; Zhou, Hua; Song, Xi-Ming

    2011-12-01

    A novel hybrid nanomaterial (GO-MWNTs) was explored based on the self-assembly of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and graphene oxide (GO). Compared with pristine MWNTs, such a nanocomposite could be well dispersed in aqueous solution and exhibit a negative charge. Driven by the electrostatic interaction, positively charged horseradish peroxidase (HRP) could then be immobilized onto GO-MWNTs at the surface of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode to form a HRP/GO-MWNT/GC electrode under mild conditions. TEM was used to characterize the morphology of the GO-MWNT nanocomposite. UV-vis and FTIR spectra suggested that HRP was immobilized onto the hybrid matrix without denaturation. Furthermore, the immobilized HRP showed enhanced direct electron transfer for the HRP-Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox center. Based on the direct electron transfer of the immobilized HRP, the HRP/GO-MWNT/GC electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic behavior to the reduction of H2O2 and NaNO2, respectively. Therefore, GO-MWNTs could provide a novel and efficient platform for the immobilization and biosensing of redox enzymes, and thus may find wide potential applications in the fabrication of biosensors, biomedical devices, and bioelectronics.

  10. Hydrogen sensor based on a graphene - palladium nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.lange@chemie.uni-r.d [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Hirsch, Thomas [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Mirsky, Vladimir M. [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Lausitz University of Applied Sciences, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Wolfbeis, Otto S. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    A composite material was prepared from graphene and palladium nanoparticles (PdNP) by layer-by-layer deposition on gold electrodes. The material was characterized by absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrated the presence of electrocatalytic centers in the palladium decorated graphene. This material can serve as a sensor material for hydrogen at levels from 0.5 to 1% in synthetic air. Pure graphene is poorly sensitive to hydrogen, but incorporation of PdNPs increases its sensitivity by more than an order of magnitude. The effects of hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide and humidity were studied. Sensor regeneration is accelerated in humid air. The sensitivity of the nanocomposite depends on the number of bilayers of graphene-PdNPs.

  11. Multilevel structures of Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon nanocomposites derived from hybrid V-MOFs for long-life and cheap lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Chuanjiang; Fang, Leyong

    2017-10-01

    The Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon (LVP/P-C) nanocomposites with multilevel structures (such as spheroidal, foam, prism and flower-like structures) are synthesized via one-pot in-situ synthesis using hybrid vanadium metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the LVP/P-C nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and element mapping. The results show that the multilevel structures are generated from the assemblies of the hybrid surfactant templates in the glass fiber drawing wastewater (GFDW) and the hybrid V-MOFs. The structure of LVP/P-C nanocomposite is controlled by V-MOFs. The nanocomposites exhibit a long service life, a discharge capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at 10 C with 90% capacity retention after 1100 cycles. The high cycling stability is attributed to the multilevel structures, which is ideal for making rechargeable lithium ion batteries. More importantly, our results have demonstrated that GFDW can be transformed into treasure of multilevel structure nanocomposites for cheap Li ion batteries.

  12. Highly sensitive and selective chemiresistor gas/vapor sensors based on polyaniline nanocomposite: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Sadanand

    2016-01-01

    This review article directs particular attention to some current breakthrough developments in the area of gas sensors based on polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite. Conducting polymers symbolize a paramount class of organic materials that boost the resistivity towards external stimuli. Nevertheless, PANI-based sensor experiences some disadvantages of relatively low reproducibility, selectivity, and stability. In order to overcome these restrictions, PANI was functionalised or incorporated with na...

  13. BisGMA-polyvinylpyrrolidone blend based nanocomposites reinforced with chitosan grafted f-multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Praharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, initially a non-destroyable surface grafting of acid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs with biopolymer chitosan (CS was carried out using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent via the controlled covalent deposition method which was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Then, BisGMA (bisphenol-A glycidyldimethacrylate-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP blend was prepared (50:50 wt% by a simple sonication method. The CS grafted f-MWCNTs (CS/f-MWCNTs were finally dispersed in BisGMA-PVP blend (BGP50 system in different compositions i.e. 0, 2, 5 and 7 wt% and pressed into molds for the fabrication of reinforced nanocomposites which were characterized by SEM. Nanocomposites reinforced with 2 wt% raw MWCNTs and acid f-MWCNTs were also fabricated and their properties were studied in detail. The results of comparative study report lower values of the investigated properties in nanocomposites with 2 wt% raw and f-MWCNTs than the one with 2 wt% CS/f-MWCNTs proving it to be a better reinforcing nanofiller. Further, the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites with various CS/f-MWCNTs content showed a dramatic increase in Young’s Modulus, tensile strength, impact strength and hardness along with improved dynamic mechanical, thermal and electrical properties at 5 wt% content of CS/f-MWCNTs. The addition of CS/f-MWCNTs also resulted in reduced corrosion and swelling properties. Thus, the fabricated nanocomposites with optimum nanofiller content could serve as low cost and light weight structural, thermal and electrical materials compatible in various corrosive and solvent based environments.

  14. Modeling the oxygen diffusion of nanocomposite-based food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Kanishka; Dhawan, Sumeet; Sablani, Shyam S

    2012-07-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have been shown to improve the gas barrier properties of food packaging polymers. This study developed a computer simulation model using the commercial software, COMSOL Multiphysics to analyze changes in oxygen barrier properties in terms of relative diffusivity, as influenced by configuration and structural parameters that include volume fraction (φ), aspect ratio (α), intercalation width (W), and orientation angle (θ) of nanoparticles. The simulation was performed at different φ (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%), α (50, 100, 500, and 1000), and W (1, 3, 5, and 7 nm). The θ value was varied from 0° to 85°. Results show that diffusivity decreases with increasing volume fraction, but beyond φ = 5% and α = 500, diffusivity remained almost constant at W values of 1 and 3 nm. Higher relative diffusivity coincided with increasing W and decreasing α value for the same volume fraction of nanoparticles. Diffusivity increased as the rotational angle increased, gradually diminishing the influence of nanoparticles. Diffusivity increased drastically as θ changed from 15° to 30° (relative increment in relative diffusivity was almost 3.5 times). Nanoparticles with exfoliation configuration exhibited better oxygen barrier properties compared to intercalation. The finite element model developed in this study provides insight into oxygen barrier properties for nanocomposite with a wide range of structural parameters. This model can be used to design and manufacture an ideal nanocomposite-based food packaging film with improved gas barrier properties for industrial applications. The model will assist in designing nanocomposite polymeric structures of desired gas barrier properties for food packaging applications. In addition, this study will be helpful in formulating a combination of nanoparticle structural parameters for designing nanocomposite membranes with selective permeability for the industrial applications including membrane

  15. IPN hydrogel nanocomposites based on agarose and ZnO with antifouling and bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Hu, Hongkai; Yang, Zhonglin; Wei, Jun; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate modified ZnO (ZnO-PEGMA) and 4-azidobenzoic agarose (AG-N{sub 3}) were prepared by a one-pot strategy under UV irradiation. The hydrogels exhibited a highly macroporous spongelike structure, and the pore size decreased with the increase of the ZnO-PEGMA content. Due to the entanglement and favorable interactions between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum compressive and tensile strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa respectively. The transparent IPN hydrogels transmitted more than 85% of visible light at all wavelengths (400–800 nm). The IPN hydrogels exhibited anti-adhesive property towards Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and the bactericidal activity increased with the ZnO-PEGMA content. The incorporation of ZnO-PEGMA did not reduce the biocompatibility of the IPN hydrogels and all the IPN nanocomposites showed negligible cytotoxicity. The present study not only provided a facile method for preparing hydrogel nanocomposites with IPN structure but also developed a new hydrogel material which might be an excellent candidate for wound dressings. - Highlights: • IPN hydrogel nanocomposites were prepared by a one-pot strategy. • The maximum compressive and tensile strengths reached 24.8 and 1.98 MPa. • IPN hydrogels displayed excellent antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility. • This study provided a facile method for preparing IPN hydrogel nanocomposites.

  16. Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205 mg g(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Au/CdS Hybrid Nanocomposites Stabilized by Branched Polymer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor (Au/CdS nanocomposites were synthesized in the solution of branched D-g-PAA polymer. TEM and DLS of Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites revealed complicated nanocomposite structure consisting of the Au nanoparticles (NPs of 6 nm in size surrounded by small CdS NPs with size of 3 nm. These nanocomposites formed the aggregates-clusters with average size of 50–800 nm. Absorption spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites consist of the bands of excitons in CdS NPs and surface plasmons in Au ones. The surface plasmon band of gold NPs is red shifted and broadened in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites comparing to the one of Au NPs in Au/D-g-PAA proving the fact of close location of CdS and Au NPs in the synthesized Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites. The PL spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites originate from the radiative transitions in excitons in CdS NPs. The 4-fold increase of intensity of free exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA that is due to PL enhancement by local field of surface plasmons of Au NPs. Also, the 12-fold decrease of intensity of localized exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA. Most probably, it is due to passivation of the surface of CdS NPs carried out by the Au ones.

  18. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  19. Rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 hybrid nanocomposite-supported Au nanocatalysts for tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunje; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sungkyun; Park, Kang Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A facile synthesis of rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocomposites via controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 and reduction of Pd(OAc)2, followed by the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the Pd-Fe3O4 supports, is reported. The morphology of these hybrid nanostructures could be easily controlled by varying the amount of Fe(CO)5 and the reaction temperature. Moreover, the synthesized Au/Pd-Fe3O4 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for the tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles and demonstrated magnetic recyclability.A facile synthesis of rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocomposites via controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 and reduction of Pd(OAc)2, followed by the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the Pd-Fe3O4 supports, is reported. The morphology of these hybrid nanostructures could be easily controlled by varying the amount of Fe(CO)5 and the reaction temperature. Moreover, the synthesized Au/Pd-Fe3O4 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for the tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles and demonstrated magnetic recyclability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01441g

  20. Epoxy Resin Composite Based on Functional Hybrid Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Oleksy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out involving the filling of epoxy resin (EP with bentonites and silica modified with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. The method of homogenization and the type of filler affect the functional and canceling properties of the composites was determined. The filler content ranged from 1.5% to 4.5% by mass. The basic mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were found to improve, and, in particular, there was an increase in tensile strength by 44%, and in Charpy impact strength by 93%. The developed hybrid composites had characteristics typical of polymer nanocomposites modified by clays, with a fine plate morphology of brittle fractures observed by SEM, absence of a plate separation peak in Wide Angles X-ray Scattering (WAXS curves, and an exfoliated structure observed by TEM.

  1. Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Synergistic Strategy for Neurodegenerative Disorders Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Albani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel-based materials are widely employed in the biomedical field. With regard to central nervous system (CNS neurodegenerative disorders, the design of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels for in situ drug or cell release represents an interesting and minimally invasive solution that might play a key role in the development of successful treatments. In particular, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels can be designed as specific injectable tools and loaded with nanoparticles (NPs, to improve and to tailor their viscoelastic properties upon injection and release profile. An intriguing application is hydrogel loading with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that are a very promising therapeutic tool for neurodegenerative or traumatic disorders of the CNS. This multidisciplinary review will focus on the basic concepts to design acellular and cell-loaded materials with specific and tunable rheological and functional properties. The use of hydrogel-based nanocomposites and mesenchymal stem cells as a synergistic strategy for nervous tissue applications will be then discussed.

  2. Real time polymer nanocomposites-based physical nanosensors: theory and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Shunin, Yuri; Gopeyenko, Victor; Lobanova-Shunina, Tamara; Burlutskaya, Nataly; Zhukovskii, Yuri

    2017-09-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons nanostructures, serving as the basis for the creation of physical pressure and temperature nanosensors, are considered as tools for ecological monitoring and medical applications. Fragments of nanocarbon inclusions with different morphologies, presenting a disordered system, are regarded as models for nanocomposite materials based on carbon nanoсluster suspension in dielectric polymer environments (e.g., epoxy resins). We have formulated the approach of conductivity calculations for carbon-based polymer nanocomposites using the effective media cluster approach, disordered systems theory and conductivity mechanisms analysis, and obtained the calibration dependences. Providing a proper description of electric responses in nanosensoring systems, we demonstrate the implementation of advanced simulation models suitable for real time control nanosystems. We also consider the prospects and prototypes of the proposed physical nanosensor models providing the comparisons with experimental calibration dependences.

  3. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb

    2015-06-11

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  4. pH modulated graphene based tin oxide heterovalent heterojunction nanocomposites with photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanakkal, A. R.; Alexander, L. K.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of introducing pH during synthesis as a modulating variable to develop different combinations of heterovalent cum heterojunction tin oxides on 2D scaffold graphene material is explored. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy characteristic studies confirm successful implementation of the design. The Photocatalytic activity of the graphene based nanocomposites aimed at water purification in visible light also determined as a vindicate application.

  5. Conducting nanocomposites based on Polyamide 66 and Carbon Nanofibers prepared by cryogenic grinding

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nanocomposites based on polyamide 6,6 and carbon nanofiber have been obtained following a new procedure. It consists of the physical mixing of the polymer matrix, in the form of powder, and the corresponding amount of additive. Then, samples were prepared by compression moulding and their structural characteristics, as well as their thermal and electrical properties were determined. The materials present good electrical conductivity at lower percolation thresholds than tho...

  6. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier ...

  7. Multifunctional polymer nano-composite based superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Asthana, Ashish; Buchel, Robert; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces become desirable in plethora of applications in engineering fields, automobile industry, construction industries to name a few. Typical fabrication of superhydrophobic surface consists of two steps: first is to create rough morphology on the substrate of interest, followed by coating of low energy molecules. However, typical exception of the above fabrication technique would be direct coating of functional polymer nanocomposites on substrate where superhydrophobicity is needed. Also in this case, the use of different nanoparticles in the polymer matrix can be exploited to impart multi-functional properties to the superhydrophobic coatings. Herein, different carbon nanoparticles like graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB) are used in fluropolymer matrix to prepare superhydrophobic coatings. The multi-functional properties of coatings are enhanced by combining two different carbon fillers in the matrix. The aforementioned superhydrophobic coatings have shown high electrical conductivity and excellent droplet meniscus impalement resistance. Simultaneous superhydrophobic and oleophillic character of the above coating is used to separate mineral oil and water through filtration of their mixture. Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) Grant 200021_135479.

  8. Multifunctional Electroactive Nanocomposites Based on Piezoelectric Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Sauti, Godfrey; Park, Cheol; Yamakov, Vesselin I.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Fay, Catharine C.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Space exploration missions require sensors and devices capable of stable operation in harsh environments such as those that include high thermal fluctuation, atomic oxygen, and high-energy ionizing radiation. However, conventional or state-of-the-art electroactive materials like lead zirconate titanate, poly(vinylidene fluoride), and carbon nanotube (CNT)-doped polyimides have limitations on use in those extreme applications. Theoretical studies have shown that boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have strength-to-weight ratios comparable to those of CNTs, excellent high-temperature stability (to 800 C in air), large electroactive characteristics, and excellent neutron radiation shielding capability. In this study, we demonstrated the experimental electroactive characteristics of BNNTs in novel multifunctional electroactive nanocomposites. Upon application of an external electric field, the 2 wt % BNNT/polyimide composite was found to exhibit electroactive strain composed of a superposition of linear piezoelectric and nonlinear electrostrictive components. When the BNNTs were aligned by stretching the 2 wt % BNNT/polyimide composite, electroactive characteristics increased by about 460% compared to the nonstretched sample. An all-nanotube actuator consisting of a BNNT buckypaper layer between two single-walled carbon nanotube buck-paper electrode layers was found to have much larger electroactive properties. The additional neutron radiation shielding properties and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared optical properties of the BNNT composites make them excellent candidates for use in the extreme environments of space missions. utilizing the unique characteristics of BNNTs.

  9. Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor Based on In Situ Reduction of Ni/NiO-Graphene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ni/NiO nanoflower modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO nanocomposite (Ni/NiO-rGO was introduced to screen printed electrode (SPE for the construction of a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose biosensor. The Ni/NiO-rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by an in situ reduction process. Graphene oxide (GO hybrid Nafion sheets first chemical adsorbed Ni ions and assembled on the SPE. Subsequently, GO and Ni ions were reduced by hydrazine hydrate. The electrochemical properties of such a Ni/NiO-rGO modified SPE were carefully investigated. It showed a high activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline medium. The proposed nonenzymatic sensor can be utilized for quantification of glucose with a wide linear range from 29.9 μM to 6.44 mM (R = 0.9937 with a low detection limit of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3 and a high sensitivity of 1997 μA/mM∙cm−2. It also exhibited good reproducibility as well as high selectivity.

  10. Nanocomposites Based on Thermoplastic Polymers and Functional Nanofiller for Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Coiai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polymers like polyolefins, polyesters, polyamide, and styrene polymers are the most representative commodity plastics thanks to their cost-efficient manufacturing processes, excellent thermomechanical properties and their good environmental compatibility, including easy recycling. In the last few decades much effort has been devoted worldwide to extend the applications of such materials by conferring on them new properties through mixing and blending with different additives. In this latter context, nanocomposites have recently offered new exciting possibilities. This review discusses the successful use of nanostructured dispersed substrates in designing new stimuli-responsive nanocomposites; in particular, it provides an updated description of the synthetic routes to prepare nanostructured systems having the typical properties of thermoplastic polymers (continuous matrix, but showing enhanced optical, conductive, and thermal features dependent on the dispersion topology. The controlled nanodispersion of functional labeled clays, noble metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes is here evidenced to play a key role in producing hybrid thermoplastic materials that have been used in the design of devices, such as NLO devices, chemiresistors, temperature and deformation sensors.

  11. In vitro biostability of poly(dimethyl siloxane/hexamethylene oxide)-based polyurethane/layered silicate nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Yosephine; Morrow, Isabel C; Taran, Elena; Edwards, Grant A; Schiller, Tara L; Osman, Azlin F; Martin, Darren J

    2013-09-01

    We have prepared a number of silicone-based thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites and demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro biostability against metal-ion-induced oxidation for potential use in long-term implantable medical devices. Organoclays based on both low-aspect-ratio hectorites and high-aspect-ratio fluoromicas were evaluated after being dual-modified with two quaternary alkyl ammonium salts with differing degrees of polarity. The resultant nanocomposites were tested for in vitro biostability using physiologically relevant oxidizing conditions. Subsequently, the effects of oxidative treatment on the surface degradation and bulk mechanical integrity of the nanocomposites were investigated and compared with the parent TPUs to identify nanocomposites with the most desirable features for long-term implantation. Here, we demonstrate that the low-aspect-ratio organohectorite was delaminated and well dispersed in the nanocomposites. Importantly, these factors gave rise to the enhanced oxidative stability. In addition, the mechanical properties of all nanocomposites were less adversely affected by the oxidative treatment compared to their parent TPUs. These results suggest the potential for improved mechanical integrity and biostability when suitable dual modified organoclays are incorporated in a silicone-based TPU. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on montmorillonite/insulin/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite as a new oral drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, Younes; Ghiaci, Payam; Ghiaci, Mehran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted in two main stages. In the first stage, drug-loaded montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by intercalation of insulin into the montmorillonite layers in acidic deionized (DI) water. In the second stage, to increase the release of insulin from the prepared nanocomposites they were coated with TiO2, an inorganic porous coating, by using titanium (IV) butoxide, as precursor. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, BET, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. After investigating the release behaviour of the nanocomposites by UV-Vis absorbance technique, the results revealed that incorporation of porous TiO2 coating increased the drug entrapment noticeably, and decreased the amount of drug release, so that nanocomposites without and with TiO2 coating released the drug after 60min and 22h in pH7.4, respectively. These results could be used in converting the insulin utilization from injection to oral. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quadruple-responsive nanocomposite based on dextran-PMAA-PNIPAM, iron oxide nanoparticles, and gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Lv, Weipeng; Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    A quadruple-responsive nanocomposite that responds to temperature, pH, magnetic field, and NIR is obtained by incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) into a dextran-based smart copolymer network. The dual-sensitive copolymer is prepared by sequential RAFT polymerization of methacrylic acid and N-isopropylacrylamide from trithiocarbonate groups linked to dextran in one pot. These functionalized nanocomposites with superior stability can respond to the four stimuli mentioned above well. As evidenced by UV-vis and TEM measurements, the temperature-induced unusual blue-shift in the longitudinal plasmon band is possibly due to the side-to-side assembly of AuNRs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Rapid magnetic hardening by rapid thermal annealing in NdFeB-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, K.-T.; Jin, Z Q; Chakka, Vamsi M; Liu, J P [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2005-11-21

    A systematic study of heat treatments and magnetic hardening of NdFeB-based melt-spun nanocomposite ribbons have been carried out. Comparison was made between samples treated by rapid thermal annealing and by conventional furnace annealing. Heating rates up to 200 K s{sup -1} were adopted in the rapid thermal processing. It was observed that magnetic hardening can be realized in an annealing time as short as 1 s. Coercivity of 10.2 kOe in the nanocomposites has been obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 1 s, and prolonged annealing did not give any increase in coercivity. Detailed results on the effects of annealing time, temperature and heating rate have been obtained. The dependence of magnetic properties on the annealing parameters has been investigated. Structural characterization revealed that there is a close correlation between magnetic hardening and nanostructured morphology. The coercivity mechanism was also studied by analysing the magnetization minor loops.

  15. Tribo-evaluation of iron based metal matrix nanocomposites for heavy duty applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pallav; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Jha, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    The present paper reports dry sliding wear behavior of Iron based Metal Matrix Nanocomposites (MMNCs). Specimens were synthesized by ball milling followed by compaction and sintering in an argon atmosphere. Dry sliding wear behavior of undoped and doped Fe-Al2O3 metal matrix nanocomposite system was evaluated respectively. It was found that due to the reactive sintering between iron and alumina particles a nano iron aluminate phase (FeAl2O4) forms as a result of which the various structural and mechanical properties were found to improve. The results so obtained are critically analyzed and discussed to illustrate the interaction of various process parameters involved. It is expected that the results of the present work will be beneficial in developing quality MMNC products for heavy duty applications.

  16. Synthesis of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotube/smart copolymer with nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousani, Abbas; Motiei, Hamideh; Najafimoghadam, Peyman; Hasanzade, Reza

    2017-05-01

    In this study new nanocompoites based on polyglycidylmethacrylate grafted 4-[(4-methoxyphenyl) diazenyl] phenol (Azo-PGMA) and Carboxylicacid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) were prepared. The nanocomposites structure was characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM. The Z-scan technique was applied for measuring the nonlinear parameters of nanocomposites. The samples after solving in AWM solution (equal ratio of acetone, deionized water and methanol) were investigated by using closed aperture Z-scan technique and a diode-pumped laser at the line 532 nm. All the nonlinear refractive index of the samples at three concentrations of carbon nanotubes in three different intensities of the laser beam were investigated and the nonlinear optical response of them are compared under the same condition. Because of high order of nonlinear refractive coefficient and good nonlinearity, these compounds are suitable candidate for optical switching, optical limiting and electro-optical devices.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of agar-based silver nanoparticles and nanocomposite film with antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mahendra K; Singh, Ravindra Pal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles and nanocomposite material using agar extracted from the red alga Gracilaria dura. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was carried out based on UV-Vis spectroscopy (421 nm), transmission electron microscopy, EDX, SAED and XRD analysis. The thermal stability of agar/silver nanocomposite film determined by TGA and DSC analysis showed distinct patterns when compared with their raw material (agar and AgNO(3)). The TEM findings revealed that the silver nanoparticles synthesized were spherical in shape, 6 nm in size with uniform dispersal. The synthesized nanoparticles had the great bactericidal activity with reduction of 99.9% of bacteria over the control value. The time required for synthesis of silver nanoparticles was found to be temperature dependent and higher the temperature less the time for nanoparticles formation. DSC and XRD showed approximately the same crystalline index (CI(DSC) 0.73). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal and mechanical properties of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-based polyurethane/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanocomposites plasticized with DOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kwon, Younghwan; Kim, Chang Kee

    2013-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical properties of PU/POSS nanocomposites plasticized with DOA were investigated. These hybrid materials were prepared using one-step method through the incorporation of flexible HTPB prepolymer, reactive or non-reactive POSS nanoparticle, and DOA plasticizer under IPDI curative system. The plasticizer added into PU/POSS composites decreased glass transition temperature, mechanical strength and modulus, while the change of thermal stability was modest. Thermal stability of these hybrid composites was found to depend preferably on characteristics of POSS molecules incorporated.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetoresponsive Electrospun Nanocomposite Membranes Based on Methacrylic Random Copolymers and Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Savva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresponsive polymer-based fibrous nanocomposites belonging to the broad category of stimuli-responsive materials, is a relatively new class of “soft” composite materials, consisting of magnetic nanoparticles embedded within a polymeric fibrous matrix. The presence of an externally applied magnetic field influences the properties of these materials rendering them useful in numerous technological and biomedical applications including sensing, magnetic separation, catalysis and magnetic drug delivery. This study deals with the fabrication and characterization of magnetoresponsive nanocomposite fibrous membranes consisting of methacrylic random copolymers based on methyl methacrylate (MMA and 2-(acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AEMA (MMA-co-AEMA and oleic acid-coated magnetite (OA·Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The AEMA moieties containing β-ketoester side-chain functionalities were introduced for the first time in this type of materials, because of their inherent ability to bind effectively onto inorganic surfaces providing an improved stabilization. For membrane fabrication the electrospinning technique was employed and a series of nanocomposite membranes was prepared in which the polymer content was kept constant and only the inorganic (OA·Fe3O4 content varied. Further to the characterization of these materials in regards to their morphology, composition and thermal properties, assessment of their magnetic characteristics disclosed tunable superparamagnetic behaviour at ambient temperature.

  20. Temperature Effect on Electrical Treeing and Partial Discharge Characteristics of Silicone Rubber-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizi Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated electrical treeing and its associated phase-resolved partial discharge (PD activities in room-temperature, vulcanized silicone rubber/organomontmorillonite nanocomposite sample materials over a range of temperatures in order to assess the effect of temperature on different filler concentrations under AC voltage. The samples were prepared with three levels of nanofiller content: 0% by weight (wt, 1% by wt, and 3% by wt. The electrical treeing and PD activities of these samples were investigated at temperatures of 20°C, 40°C, and 60°C. The results show that the characteristics of the electrical tree changed with increasing temperature. The tree inception times decreased at 20°C due to space charge dynamics, and the tree growth time increased at 40°C due to the increase in the number of cross-link network structures caused by the vulcanization process. At 60°C, more enhanced and reinforced properties of the silicone rubber-based nanocomposite samples occurred. This led to an increase in electrical tree inception time and electrical tree growth time. However, the PD characteristics, particularly the mean phase angle of occurrence of the positive and negative discharge distributions, were insensitive to variations in temperature. This reflects an enhanced stability in the nanocomposite electrical properties compared with the base polymer.

  1. An organic indicator functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite-based colorimetric assay for the detection of sarcosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhonghua; Yin, Bo; Wang, Hui; Li, Mengqian; Rao, Honghong; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Xinbin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-03-01

    Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS functionalized GO nanocomposite through π-π stacking has been demonstrated to be useful as a highly efficient catalyst system for the selective and sensitive colorimetric determination of sarcosine by providing a nanocomposite-amplified colorimetric response. Meanwhile, the strategy offered excellent selectivity toward sarcosine species against other amino acids as well as a satisfying detection limit of 0.73 μM. More importantly, by using an electrochemical method, a credible sensing mechanism of GO nanocomposite-based colorimetric platform for a special analyte determination can be easily verified and elucidated, which also provides an attractive alternative to conventional characterization strategies.Rapid detection of sarcosine is a key requirement for both diagnosis and treatment of disease. We report here a simple yet sensitive colorimetric nanocomposite platform for rapid detection of sarcosine in alkaline media. The approach exploited the benefits of a rapid color-producing reaction between an organic indicator, 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonic acid sodium salt (NQS), and the analyte of sarcosine species as well as the good catalytic ability of graphene oxide (GO) to the formation of highly colored products due to its good water dispersibility, extremely large surface area and facile surface modification. As a result, a NQS

  2. Sol-gel silica-based nanocomposites containing a high PEG amount: Chemical characterization and study of biological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Gloria, Antonio [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials - National Research Council of Italy, V.le J. F. Kennedy 54 - Mostra d’Oltremare Pad. 20, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    The objective of the present study was to synthesize and to characterize Silica/polyethylene glycol (SiO{sub 2}/PEG) organic-inorganic hybrid materials containing a high polymer amount (60 and 70 wt%) for biomedical applications. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the samples are homogeneous on the nanometer scale, confirming that they are nanocomposites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) proved that the materials are class I hybrids because the two phases (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) interact by hydrogen bonds. To evaluate the possibility of using them in the biomedical field, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the synthesized hybrids have been ascertained. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, their biocompatibility was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity assay in vitro.

  3. The difference nanocomposite hardness level using LED photoactivation based on curing period variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasiana Tatian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polimerizatian is the critical stage to determine the quality of composites resin, this involves isolated monomer carbon double bonds being converted to an extended network of single bonds. Physical and mechanical properties of composites are influenced by the level of conversion attained during polymerization. An adequate light intensity and light curing time are important to obtain the degree of polymerization. The objective of this study is to evaluate the difference of the hardness nanocomposites which activated by LED LCU based on the variation of curing times. This study is a true experimental research. The samples were made from nanocomposites material with cylinder form of 4 mm in depth, 6 mm in diameter. This samples divided into 3 groups of curing times. Group, I was cured for 20's curing time as a control due to manufactory recommended; Group II was cured for 30's, and Group III was cured for 40's and the hardness (Rebound hardness tester was determined using Rebound scale (RS and converted by Mohs scale (MS. There was a very significant level of hardness rate from each group using ANOVA test. The result of the study concludes that there were the differences on the nanocomposites hardness level cured under different curing times 20, 30 and 40 sec. The longer of curing times, the higher level of hardness.

  4. Structure and properties of organically modified poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyida, A.; Fukushima, K.; Yang, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending PBAT with 5 wt.% of modified or unmodified montmorillonites (MMT). The effect of the presence of organic modifiers in MMT on the morphological, crystalline, thermal, and mechanical properties of PBAT nanocomposites was evaluated. The dispersion and distribution of the clays were studied by using wide angle X-ray analysis (WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Materials characterization techniques included: contact angle measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA) and surface hardness analysis. As general results, nanocomposites exhibited different level of clay dispersion depending on the clay/organic modifier’s chemical affinity with the polymer. Contact angle measurements show increases in the hydrophobicity level of PBAT based CLO30B, this could depict its high potential for packaging applications. In addition, Thermal analysis showed that clays partially hindered kinetics and extent of PBAT crystallization on cooling. In general, thermal properties of PBAT were improved by addition of clays, for a barrier effect of the nanoparticle towards polymer decomposition products ablation. In parallel, addition of clays led to enhancements in polymer hardness. These properties were found to be apparently influenced by clay dispersion level and chemical compatibility between the organic modifier and polymer matrix.

  5. Mechanical and barrier properties of guar gum based nano-composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K; Gupta, Sumit; Bahadur, Jitendra; Mazumder, S; Variyar, Prasad S; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-25

    Guar gum based nano-composite films were prepared using organically modified (cloisite 20A) and unmodified (nanofil 116) nanoclays. Effect of nanoclay incorporation on mechanical strength, water vapor barrier property, chromatic characteristics and opacity of films was evaluated. Nano-composites were characterized using X-ray scattering, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. A nanoclay concentration dependent increase in mechanical strength and reduction in water vapor transmission rate was observed. Films containing nanofil 116 (2.5% w/w guar gum) and closite 20A (10% w/w guar gum) demonstrated a 102% and 41% higher tensile strength, respectively, as compared to the control. Lower tensile strength of cloisite 20A films as compared to nanofil 116 films was due to its incompatibility with guar gum. X-ray scattering analysis revealed that interstitial spacing between nanofil 116 and cloisite 20A sheets increased due to intercalation by guar gum polymer. This resulted in improved mechanical and barrier properties of nano-composites compared to control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermally Sprayable Anti-corrosion Marine Coatings Based on MAH-g-LDPE/UHMWPE Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva Jothi, K.; Santhoskumar, A. U.; Amanulla, Syed; Palanivelu, K.

    2014-12-01

    Polymer composite coatings based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) blends were prepared for marine coatings. The incorporation of carboxyl moiety in the polymer blends of LDPE/UHMWPE was carried out by grafting with maleic anhydride (MAH) at varying concentrations of 1-8 wt.% using reactive extrusion process. An optimum percentage of grafting of 2.1% was achieved with 5 wt.% of maleic anhydride. Further, the nanocomposites of MAH-grafted-LDPE/UHMWPE blends were prepared by incorporating cloisite 15A nanoclay at varying concentrations of 1-4 wt.%. The polymer nanocomposites were converted into fine powders suitable for thermal spray having ≤200 μ particle size using cryogenic grinding. The effect of the intact coatings applied on grit-blasted mild steel by thermal spray technique was evaluated for abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, and corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of the polymer nanocomposites was studied by salt spray technique and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy The abrasion resistance of coatings increases with increasing UHMWPE content in the blends. However, blends with higher concentration of UHMWPE resulted in coarse coatings with poor adhesion. The coatings with 90:10 MAH-grafted-LDPE/UHMWPE having 3 wt.% of nanoclay showed good abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, and better corrosion resistance.

  7. Microwave absorption behaviour of MWCNT based nanocomposites in X-band region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Das

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT based nanocomposites were prepared by a two-step process. Firstly, titanium dioxide (TiO2 coated MWCNT was prepared via sol-gel technique. In the second step, the acid modified MWCNTs were dispersed in the thermoplastic polyurethane matrix by solution blending process. Characterizations of the nanocomposites were done by X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Microwave absorption studies of the nanocomposites were carried out in X-band region. The microwave absorption result was discussed with the help of complex permittivity and permeability of the prepared radar absorbing material (RAM. The result showed superior microwave absorption property of the composite containing both TiO2 coated MWCNT and magnetite (Fe3O4. This result is due to the effective absorption of both electrical and magnetic components of the microwave. RAM-MW, RAM-Ti, RAM-Ti@MW and RAMTi@ MW/Fe and showed the maximum reflection loss of –16.03 dB at 10.99 GHz, –8.4 dB at 12.4 GHz, –36.44 dB at 12.05 GHz and –42.53 dB at 10.98 GHz respectively. Incorporation of MWCNT enhanced the thermal stability of the composite which has been confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis.

  8. Preparation of Novel Fluorescent Nanocomposites Based on Au Nanoclusters and Their Application in Targeted Detection of Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Xia, Junhan; Wang, Chun; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Shuxian; Feng, Wei; Li, Lidong

    2017-12-04

    Fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have drawn considerable research interests owing to their unique emission properties. However, the environment surrounding the nanocluster greatly influences its luminous behavior. In this work, a novel nanocomposite based on AuNCs with bright fluorescence and high biocompatibility was prepared. In the nanocomposite, mesoporous silica (mSiO2) nanospheres provided a mesoporous framework, which helped to template the formation of ultra-small AuNCs and also prevented their aggregation in different solutions. These nanocomposites emitted stable fluorescence even in complex biological environments. After self-assembly of folic acid-conjugated poly(L-lysine), the presence of folic acid on the nanocomposites guaranteed a good recognition in folate receptor (FR)-positive cells, improving detection selectivity. Cellular experiments demonstrated that the nanocomposites had good dispersity in physiological environment and could be internalized by FR-positive cancer cells, resulting in bright fluorescence. We believe that this research provides a simple approach to the fabrication of stable fluorescent AuNCs nanocomposite, which show good compatibility with complex biological systems and great potential for applications in biological imaging and cell detection.

  9. Highly sensitive electrochemical thrombin aptasensor based on peptide-enhanced electrocatalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex and nanocomposite as nanocarrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongmei; Zou, Lina; Lei, Sheng; Yu, Qian; Ye, Baoxian

    2017-11-15

    In this work, we first conjugated a short peptide to thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and bond hemin to the hybrid, effectively rendering hemin/G4-peptide more active over the original hemin/G4, so that a highly sensitive electrochemical thrombin (TB) aptasensor was developed based on it and PtNTs@rGO nanocomposite. It was the first report on the application of hemin/G4-peptide in electrochemical aptasensor. PtNTs@rGO with large surface area served as excellent nanocarrier for high loading of hemin/G4-peptide hybrids, resulting in the formation of hemin/G4-peptide-PtNTs@rGO bioconjugate as the secondary aptamer and further signal enhancement. The specific affinity of aptamer for target TB made the secondary aptamer go into the sensing interface, and then a noticeable current signal was obtained from hemin without additional redox mediators. Due to the collaborative electrocatalysis of hemin/G4-peptide and PtNTs toward H2O2, which was formed in situ during the process of hemin/G4-peptide-catalyzed oxidation of NADH with dissolved O2, the current intensity increased dramatically. Such an electrochemical aptasensing system could be used to detect TB with a linear range of 0.05 pM-60nM and very lower detection limit of 15fM. Notably, this method exhibited a higher sensitivity than that of many hemin/G4-based electrochemical strategies for TB detection due to the improvement of the catalytic activity of hemin/G4-peptide. The present works opened a new way for expanding the application of hemin/G4 in biological detection. With the mediator-free, proteinous enzyme-free yet high-sensitivity advantages, this electrochemical aptasensor held great promise for other biomarker detections in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters...

  11. Hybrid materials based on polymethylsilsesquioxanes containing Fe, Pt, and Fe-Pt metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'kov, A. Yu.; Migulin, D. A.; Naumkin, A. V.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Budnikov, A. V.; Ellert, O. G.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Muzafarov, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    New hybrid materials based on Pt, Fe, and Pt-Fe nanoparticles stabilized in a matrix of polymethylsilsesquioxane nanogel and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were prepared. Metal vapor synthesis was used to produce mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles. It was shown that organosilicon nanogel effectively stabilizes Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 0.9 nm. Using the nanogel results in the formation of superparamagnetic Fe particles 3-5 nm in size that consist of ferromagnetic Fe0 core and antiferromagnetic shells of Fe oxides. It is established that using an organosilicon matrix in the formation of Pt-Fe/UHMWPE systems helps reduce the average particle size of Fe in the material from 6.5 to 4.5 nm and narrow their particle size distribution. The composition, magnetic and electronic characteristics of the nanocomposites are studied via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy, XANES, and EXAFS.

  12. Low cost nanomechanical surfaces stress based sensors fabricated by hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, P.; Yeste, J.; Villa, R.; Alvarez, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present the fabrication of nanomechanical surface stress based transducers by using the nowadays knowns as smart materials, to achieve a power-free array of sensors that change their reflective color depending on the surface stress change induced on each sensor. Nanocomposite materials of elastomeric polymers and ordered nanoparticles embedded inside the polymer were chosen for the fabrication process. These composite materials, besides being cheap and easily fabricated in mass production, present a mechanochromic behavior producing a color change of the material when applying a deformation process mainly due to the change in the distance between nanoparticles. We have fabricated arrays of mechanochromic membranes by infiltrating colloidal photonic crystals of polystyrene nanoparticles with Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Hybrids PDMS and 3D or 2D colloidal photonic crystals were prepared, and compared its sensitivity to strain changes. The color, due to the Bragg diffraction (3D) or light scattering (2D), was analyzed by UV-visible spectrometry.

  13. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  14. Investigating the potential of multiwalled carbon nanotubes based zinc nanocomposite as a recognition interface towards plant pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Ali; Hameed, Sadaf; Munawar, Anam; Amin, Imran; Mansoor, Shahid; Khan, Waheed S; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar

    2017-11-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology has opened new horizons for constructing efficient recognition interfaces. This is the first report where the potential of a multiwalled carbon nanotube based zinc nanocomposite (MWCNTs-Zn NPs) investigated for the detection of an agricultural pathogen i.e. Chili leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB). Atomic force microscope analyses revealed the presence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having a diameter of 50-100nm with zinc nanoparticles (Zn-NPs) of 25-500nm. In this system, these bunches of Zn-NPs anchored along the whole lengths of MWCNTs were used for the immobilization of probe DNA strands. The electrochemical performance of DNA biosensor was assessed in the absence and presence of the complementary DNA during cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry scans. Target binding events occurring on the interface surface patterned with single-stranded DNA was quantitatively translated into electrochemical signals due to hybridization process. In the presence of complementary target DNA, as the result of duplex formation, there was a decrease in the peak current from 1.89×10-04 to 5.84×10-05A. The specificity of this electrochemical DNA biosensor was found to be three times as compared to non-complementary DNA. This material structuring technique can be extended to design interfaces for the recognition of the other plant viruses and biomolecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic graphene oxide based nano-composites for removal of radionuclides and metals from contaminated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujanienė, G; Šemčuk, S; Lečinskytė, A; Kulakauskaitė, I; Mažeika, K; Valiulis, D; Pakštas, V; Skapas, M; Tumėnas, S

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic graphene oxide based composites of the nano-particle size of nano-composites was studied in a wide range of initial concentrations and analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the effects of pH and coexisting ions on the adsorption of Cs to Prussian blue based composites were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacities of studied elements varied from 29 to 641 mg g(-1). The obtained Langmuir and Freundlich constants indicated the dominating physisorption mechanism and favorable adsorption conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid Nanocomposite Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop an innovative solar cell design that combines nanotechnology with conducting polymer...

  17. Polylactide-based bionanocomposites: a promising class of hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Ray, Suprakas

    2012-10-16

    Polylactide (PLA) is the oldest and potentially one of the most interesting and useful biodegradable man-made polymers because of its renewable origin, controlled synthesis, good mechanical properties, and inherent biocompatibility. The blending of PLA with functional nanoparticles can yield a new class of hybrid materials, commonly known as bionanocomposites, where 1-5% nanoparticles by volume are molecularly dispersed within the PLA matrix. The dispersed nanoparticles with their large surface areas and low percolation thresholds both can improve the properties significantly in comparison with neat PLA and can introduce new value-added properties. Recently, researchers have made extraordinary progress in the practical processing and development of products from PLA bionanocomposites. The variation of the nanofillers with different functionalities can lead to many bionanocomposite applications including environmentally friendly packaging, materials for construction, automobiles, and tissue regeneration, and load-bearing scaffolds for bone reconstruction. This Account focuses on these recent research efforts, processing techniques, and key research challenges in the development of PLA-based bionanocomposites for use in applications from green plastics to biomedical applications. Growing concerns over environmental issues and high demand for advanced polymeric materials with balanced properties have led to the development of bionanocomposites of PLA and natural origin fillers, such as nanoclays. The combination of nanoclays with the PLA matrix allows us to develop green nanocomposites that possess several superior properties. For example, adding ∼5 vol % clay to PLA improved the storage modulus, tensile strength, break elongation, crystallization rate, and other mechanical properties. More importantly, the addition of clay decreases the gas and water vapor permeation, increases the heat distortion temperature and scratch resistance, and controls the biodegradation

  18. Effect of type and content of modified montmorillonite on the structure and properties of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-biodegradable and non-renewable nature of plastic packaging has led to a renewed interest in packaging materials based on bio-nanocomposites (biopolymer matrix reinforced with nanoparticles such as layered silicates). Bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and modified mo...

  19. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  20. Hybrid phosphorene/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for Na-ion batteries: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linxia; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wei; Gu, Xiao; Huang, Li

    2017-04-01

    The potential application of the hybrid phosphorene/graphene (P/G) composites as an anode material in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) has been explored based on first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants reveal that the P/G has an ultrahigh stiffness, which can effectively suppress the undesirable structural deformation during the sodiation and desodiation cycles. Na atoms can strongly bind with the phosphorene single-layer (SP), double-layer (DP), and their composites with graphene (SP/G, DP/G, G/DP/G), and can even cause a sliding between the layers when the DP/G accommodate more Na atoms. The migration of Na in P/G is anisotropic with the minimum energy path along the zigzag channel. The low diffusion barriers of only about several tens of meV ensure the high mobility of Na within the layers, and thus lead to rapid charge/discharge capacity of P/G. The electronic structures show that the hybrid P/G becomes metallic with the Na incorporation, which contributes to the good electric conductivity in P/G. We further demonstrate that the average open circuit voltage (OCV) of DP/G is 0.53 V, which is comparable to other anode materials. These results suggest that P/G composites hold great potential to be a good anode material in NIBs.

  1. Development and characterization of fast dissolving tablets of oxaprozin based on hybrid systems of the drug with cyclodextrins and nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Francesca; Mura, Paola; Cirri, Marzia; Mennini, Natascia; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2017-10-15

    Previous studies highlighted an increase of the randomly-methylated-ß-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) solubilizing power towards oxaprozin when used in combination with L-arginine (ARG) or sepiolite nanoclay (SV). Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of maximising the RAMEB solubilizing efficacy by a joined approach based on the entrapment in SV of the drug-RAMEB-ARG complex. The quaternary nanocomposite was prepared by different techniques and characterized for solid state and dissolution properties, compared to ternary drug combinations with RAMEB-ARG, RAMEB-SV or ARG-SV. The dissolution rank order was drug-RAMEB-ARG-SV>drug-RAMEB-ARG≈drug-RAMEB-SV>drug-ARG-SV. The new hybrid nanocomposite enabled an increase from 60 up to 90% of oxaprozin dissolution parameters compared to the ternary systems with RAMEB-ARG and RAMEB-SV. Moreover, the lowest solubilizing efficacy of ternary systems with ARG-SV evidenced the specific synergic effect of both ARG and SV with RAMEB in enhancing oxaprozin dissolution properties. The superior performance of the quaternary nanocomposite was maintained after incorporation in a tablet formulation. In vivo studies on rats proved that the developed fast-dissolving tablet formulation, containing oxaprozin as cofused system with RAMEB, ARG and SV was more effective than the marketed tablet in terms of faster and more intense pain relieving effect in the treatment of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High performance bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/carbon dot-silver nanocomposite: a rapid self-expandable stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, Rituparna; Singh, Yogendra P; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B; Karak, Niranjan

    2016-10-27

    Development of a bio-based smart implantable material with multifaceted attributes of high performance, potent biocompatibility and inherent antibacterial property, particularly against drug resistant bacteria, is a challenging task in biomedical domain. Addressing these aspects at the bio-nano interface, we report the in situ fabrication of starch modified hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU) nanocomposites by incorporating different weight percentages of carbon dot-silver nanohybrid during polymerization process. This nanohybrid and its individual nanomaterials (Ag and CD) were prepared by facile hydrothermal approaches and characterized by various instrumental techniques. The structural insight of the nanohybrid, as well as its nanocomposites was evaluated by TEM, XRD, FTIR, EDX and thermal studies. The significant improvement in the performance in terms of tensile strength (1.7 fold), toughness (1.5 fold) and thermal stability (20 °C) of the pristine HPU was observed by the formation of nanocomposite with 5 wt.% of nanohybrid. They also showed notable shape recovery (99.6%) and nearly complete self-expansion (>99%) just within 20s at (37 ± 1) °C. Biological assessment established in vitro cytocompatibility of the HPU nanocomposites. The fabricated nanocomposites not only assisted the growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that exhibited reduced platelet adhesion but also displayed in vitro hemocompatibility of mammalian RBCs. Significantly, the antibacterial potency of the nanocomposites against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160 bacterial strains vouched for their application to countercheck bacterial growth, often responsible for biofilm formation. Thus, the present work forwards the nanocomposites as potential tough infection-resistant rapid self-expandable stents for possible endoscopic surgeries.

  4. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Govindraju, S.; Ntholeng, N.; K Ranganathan; M.J. Moloto; L. M. Sikhwivhilu; Moloto, N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybri...

  5. Recent Advances in Upconversion Nanoparticles-Based Multifunctional Nanocomposites for Combined Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gan; Zhang, Xiao; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-12-16

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have the ability to generate ultraviolet or visible emissions under continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) excitation. Utilizing this special luminescence property, UCNPs are approved as a new generation of contrast agents in optical imaging with deep tissue-penetration ability and high signal-to-noise ratio. The integration of UCNPs with other functional moieties can endow them with highly enriched functionalities for imaging-guided cancer therapy, which makes composites based on UCNPs emerge as a new class of theranostic agents in biomedicine. Here, recent progress in combined cancer therapy using functional nanocomposites based on UCNPs is reviewed. Combined therapy referring to the co-delivery of two or more therapeutic agents or a combination of different treatments is becoming more popular in clinical treatment of cancer because it generates synergistic anti-cancer effects, reduces individual drug-related toxicity and suppresses multi-drug resistance through different mechanisms of action. Here, the recent advances of combined therapy contributed by UCNPs-based nanocomposites on two main branches are reviewed: i) photodynamic therapy and ii) chemotherapy, which are the two most widely adopted therapies of UCNPs-based composites. The future prospects and challenges in this emerging field will be also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Preparation of novel nano-adsorbent based on organic-inorganic hybrid and their adsorption for heavy metals and organic pollutants presented in water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xinliang; Yu, Cui; Li, Yanfeng; Qi, Yongxin; Yang, Liuqing; Zhao, Guanghui; Hu, Huaiyuan

    2011-02-28

    The nanocomposites based on organic-inorganic hybrid have been attracting much attention due to their potential applications used as new type of functional materials, such as colloidal stabilizers, electro-optical devices, and nanocomposites materials. The organic-inorganic hybrid of poly(acrylic acid-acrylonitrile)/attapulgite, P(A-N)/AT nanocomposites, were prepared by using in situ polymerization and composition of acrylic acid (AA) and acrylonitrile (AN) onto modified attapulgite (AT) nanoparticles. The resulting P(A-N)/AT nanocomposites were transformed into novel nano-adsorbent of poly(acrylic acid-acryloamidoxime)/attapulgite by further functionalization, i.e. P(A-O)/AT nano-adsorbent. The adsorption properties of P(A-O)/AT toward metal ions were determined, and the results indicated that the adsorbents with nanocomposite structure held a good of selectivity to Pb(2+) among numerous metal ions. The maximum removal capacity of Pb(2+) was up to 109.9 mg/g and it is notable to see that the adsorption removal of P(A-O)/AT nano-adsorbent for Pb(2+) could achieve more than 96.6% when the initial concentration of Pb(2+) was 120.0 mg/l. The kinetics, isotherm models, and conductivity were introduced to study the adsorption mechanism of P(A-O)/AT for Pb(2+) and it was concluded that it could be chemisorptions process and the best coordination form took place when AO:AA:Pb(2+) = 1:1:1. In addition, after simply treated with CTAB, P(A-O)/AT nano-adsorbent showed better adsorption properties for phenol than the same kinds of materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  8. Flexible photovoltaic cells based on a graphene-CdSe quantum dot nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Xu, Feng; Wu, Jun; Qasim, Khan; Zhou, Yidan; Lei, Wei; Sun, Li-Tao; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated the flexible photoelectrode by loading graphene sheets modified with CdSe QDs. A power conversion efficiency of ~0.6% and an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 17% have been achieved for this flexible photovoltaic cell based on a graphene-CdSe nanocomposite.We have fabricated the flexible photoelectrode by loading graphene sheets modified with CdSe QDs. A power conversion efficiency of ~0.6% and an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of 17% have been achieved for this flexible photovoltaic cell based on a graphene-CdSe nanocomposite. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedure, Raman spectra of graphene, CdSe QD and G-CdSe film, AFM images of graphene, PDDA modified graphene and G-CdSe film, electron transfer rate constant analysis for films based on 2.7 nm, 3.3 nm and 4.1 nm CdSe QDs. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11656a

  9. Degradation and biocompatibility of a poly(propylene fumarate)-based/alumoxane nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistry, A.S.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of a novel poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF)-based/alumoxane nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering applications. The incorporation of functionalized alumoxane nanoparticles into the PPF-based polymer was previously

  10. Preparation, characterisation, and in vitro evaluation of electrically conducting poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-based nanocomposite scaffolds using PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Janarthanan; Quigley, Anita F; Bhattacharyya, Amitava; Padhye, Rajiv; Kapsa, Robert M I; Nayak, Rajkishore; Shanks, Robert A; Houshyar, Shadi

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, we describe the synthesis, material characteristics, and cytocompatibility of conducting poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL)-based nano-composite films. Electrically conducting carbon nano-fillers (carbon nano-fiber (CNF), nano-graphite (NG), and liquid exfoliated graphite (G)) were used to prepare porous film type scaffolds using modified solvent casting methods. The electrical conductivity of the nano-composite films was increased when carbon nano-fillers were incorporated in the PCL matrix. CNF-based nano-composite films showed the highest increase in electrical conductivity. The presence of an ionic solution significantly improved the conductivity of some of the polymers, however at least 24 h was required to absorb the simulated ion solutions. CNF-based nano-composite films were found to have good thermo-mechanical properties compared to other conducting polymer films due to better dispersion and alignment in the critical direction. Increased nano-filler content increased the crystallisation temperature. Analysis of cell viability revealed no increase in cell death on any of the polymers compared to tissue culture plastic controls, or compared to PCL polymer without nano-composites. The scaffolds showed some variation when tested for PC12 cell attachment and proliferation, however all the polymers supported PC12 attachment and differentiation in the absence of cell adhesion molecules. In general, CNF-based nano-composite films with highest electrical conductivity and moderate roughness showed highest cell attachment and proliferation. These polymers are promising candidates for use in neural applications in the area of bionics and tissue engineering due to their unique properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Carrageenan-based semi-IPN nanocomposite hydrogels: Swelling kinetic and slow release of sequestrene Fe 138 fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Bahrami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite hydrogels based on kappa-carrageenan were synthesized by incorporating natural sodium montmorillonite (Cloisite nanoclay. Acrylamide (AAm and methylenebisacrylamide (MBA were used as a monomer and a crosslinker, respectively. Effects of reaction variables on the swelling kinetics were studied. The results revealed that the rate of swelling for nanocomposites with high content of MBA was higher than those of nanocomposites consisting of low content of MBA. Similar to the effect of MBA, the rate of swelling enhanced as the carrageenan content was decreased. The influence of clay content on swelling rate was not remarkable. The experimental swelling data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The swelling data described well by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Sequestrene Fe 138 (Sq as an agrochemical was loaded into nanocomposites and releasing of this active agent from nanocomposites was studied. The clay-free hydrogel released the whole loaded Sq; whereas the presence of clay restricted the release of Sq.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghaffari-Moghaddam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel nanocomposite based on polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol/Ag (PANI/PVA/Ag has been successfully synthesized. The chemical reduction method was used to produce Ag nanoparticle colloidal solution from Ag+ ions. The polymerization of aniline occurred in situ for the preparation of polyaniline (PANI in the presence of ammonium persulfate. With exposure to Ag nanoparticles on the PANI/PVA composite, a new nanocomposite was obtained. The morphology and particle size of the novel nanocomposite was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analyses. According to XRD analysis, the size of nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 10–17 nm. SEM images showed the favored shape of nanoparticles as triangle which is a benign shape for antibacterial analysis. The antibacterial activity of the obtained nanocomposite was also evaluated against Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli using the paper disk diffusion method. The antibacterial study showed that the PANI/PVA composite did not have a very good antibacterial activity but PANI/PVA/Ag nanocomposites were found to be effective against two bacteria.

  13. Preparation and characterization of polymer nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC doped with graphene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Elashmawi

    Full Text Available Novel nanocomposites based on PVDF/PVC blend containing graphene oxide nanoparticles (GO were prepare using sonicator. IR analysis revealed that the addition of GO prompts a crystal transformation of α-phase of PVDF. The change of the structural before and after adding GO to PVDF/PVC were studied by X-ray diffraction. A decrease in activation energy gap from UV data was observed with increasing GO content, implying a variation of reactivity as a result of reaction extent. The variation of ε′ with frequency is nearly the same as that of ε″. At higher frequencies, the decrease of both ε′ and ε″ becomes nearly constant. The dispersion at lower frequencies ε′ of ε′ polarization is of Maxwell–Wagner interfacial polarization but at higher frequencies, it levels off. The behavior of conductivity (σAC tends to acquire constant values approaching it DC values. The values of σAC was increased after doped GO with exponential increase after the critical value of frequency. All nanocomposites behaved the same fashion revealing that a higher number of polarons were getting added to conducting pool in composites as graphene content was increased. Conduction mechanism appeared to be getting expedited with increasing frequency due to fact that increase in frequency enhances polaron hopping frequency. Keywords: Nanocomposites, Graphene oxide, FT-IR, X-ray, AC conductivity

  14. Degradation studies on biodegradable nanocomposite based on polycaprolactone/polycarbonate (80:20%) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Joanne; Georgiou, George; Armitage, David; Nazhat, Showan N; Sales, Kevin M; Butler, Peter E; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2009-12-01

    The development of biocompatible polymers has greatly advanced the field of tissue engineering. Some tissues can be propagated on a nondegradable scaffold. Tissue such as cartilage, however, is a complex tissue in which the chondrocytes require their own synthesized extracellular matrix (ECM) to function. Suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering cartilage should provide mechanical strength and degrade at a similar rate to that of cell growth and ECM production. We have developed a biodegradable nanocomposite based on polycaprolactone and polycarbonate polyurethane (PCU) with an incorporated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) (POSS modified Poly(caprolactone/carbonate) urethane/urea). Previous work on POSS incorporated into PCU (POSS-PCU) has been shown to possess good mechanical strength, elasticity and resistance to degradation. This series of experiments involved exposing this polymer to a selection of accelerated degradative solutions for up to 8 weeks. The samples were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, contact angle analysis, and stress-strain mechanical analysis. Degradation of hard and soft segments of the nanocomposite was evident by infra-red spectroscopy in all conditioned samples. POSS nanocage degradation was evident in some oxidative/peroxidative systems accompanied by gross changes in surface topography and significant changes in mechanical properties. The hydrophobic polymer became more hydrophilic in all conditions. This biodegradable nanocomposite demonstrated steady degradation with protection of mechanical properties when exposed to hydrolytic enzymes and plasma protein fractions and exhibited more dramatic degradation by oxidation.This pattern may be potentially employed in tissue engineering scaffolds where controlled degradation and retained structural stability of the scaffold is required. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Tunable green graphene-silk biomaterials: Mechanism of protein-based nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Jyothirmayee Aravind, S S; Wu, Hao; Forys, Joseph; Venkataraman, Venkat; Ramanujachary, Kandalam; Hu, Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Green graphene materials prepared by photoreduction of graphite oxide were first time blended with aqueous-based silk fibroin proteins to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of silk biomaterials, and their nanocomposite interaction mechanism was illustrated. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the complete exfoliation of graphite oxide to graphene in presence of focused pulses of solar radiation. By varying the concentration of graphene (0.1wt% to 10wt%), a series of free standing graphene-silk films were prepared and were systematically characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation measurements. The homogeneity of graphene in silk as well as the thermal stability of the composite films was demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). Surprisingly, silk composite film containing only 0.5wt% of graphene gives the highest Young's modulus of 1.65GPa (about 5.8 times higher than the pure silk's modulus), indicating a nano-composite to micro-composite transition of silk-graphene structure occurred around this mixing ratio. This finding provided an easy approach to improve the elastic modulus and other physical properties of silk materials by adding a tiny amount of graphene sheets. Fibroblast cells studies also proved that these graphene-silk materials can significantly improve cell adhesion, growth and proliferation. This protein nanocomposite study provided a useful model to understand how to manipulate the hydrophobic-hydrophobic and polar-polar interactions between high-surface-area inorganic nanomaterials and amphiphilic protein materials, which has many emerging applications in the material science and engineering, such as bio-device fabrication, drug storage and release, and tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon nanotube based hybrid nanocarbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrizan Jamal, M.; Zhang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) based nanocarbon foams (NFs) and the hybrid nanocarbon foams (HNFs) are fabricated in this work. The NFs are formed by using poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres as a template to create micro-scaled pores. The cell walls are made of CNT networks with nano-scaled pores. The interconnections among CNTs are secured using graphene and nanographite generated via carbonization of polyacrylonitrile. The resulting NFs are ultra-lightweight, highly elastic, electrically and thermally conductive, and robust in structure. The HNFs are made by infiltrating thermoplastic polymer into the NFs in a controllable procedure. Compared to NFs, the HNFs have much higher strength, same electrical conductivity, and limited increase in density. The compressive strength of the HNF increased more than 50 times while the density was changed less than 10 times due to the polymer infiltration. It is found that the deformed HNFs can recover in both structure and property when they are heated over the glass transition temperature of the infiltrated polymer. Such remarkable healing capability could broaden the applications of the HNFs.

  17. CdS-graphene Nanocomposite for Efficient Visible-light-driven Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ehtisham; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports cadmium sulphide nanoparticles-(CdS NPs)-graphene nanocomposite (CdS-Graphene), prepared by a simple method, in which CdS NPs were anchored/decorated successfully onto graphene sheets. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using standard characterization techniques. A combination of CdS NPs with the optimal amount of two-dimensional graphene sheets had a profound influence on the properties of the resulting hybrid nanocomposite, such as enhanced optical, photocatalytic, and photo-electronic properties. The photocatalytic degradation ability of the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite was evaluated by degrading different types of dyes in the dark and under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the photoelectrode performance of the nanocomposite was evaluated by different electrochemical techniques. The results showed that the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite can serve as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst as well as photoelectrochemical performance for optoelectronic applications. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite was attributed to the synergistic effects of the enhanced light absorption behaviour and high electron conductivity of the CdS NPs and graphene sheets, which facilitates charge separation and lengthens the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs by reducing the recombination rate. The as-synthesized narrow band gap CdS-Graphene nanocomposite can be used for wide range of visible light-induced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical based applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  20. Synthesis and Examination of Nanocomposites Based on Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate for Medicinal Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena S. Kukolevska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preparation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA based nanocomposites using different approaches such as synthesis with water as the porogen, filling of polymer matrix by silica and formation of interpenetrating polymer networks with polyurethane was demonstrated. Incorporation of various biologically active compounds (BAC such as metronidazole, decamethoxin, zinc sulphate, silver nitrate or amino acids glycine and tryptophan into nanocomposites was achieved. BAC were introduced into the polymer matrix either (1 directly, or (2 with a solution of colloidal silica, or (3 through immobilization on silica (sol-densil. Morphology of prepared materials was investigated by laser scanning microscopy and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. In vacuum freeze-drying, prior imaging was proposed for improving visualization of the porous structure of composites. The interaction between PHEMA matrix and silica filler was investigated by IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and BAC from aqueous solution on the silica surface was also examined. Phase composition and thermal stability of composites were studied by the differential thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. Release of BAC into water medium from prepared composites were shown to depend on the synthetic method and differed significantly. Obtained PHEMA-base materials which are characterized by controlled release of BAC have a strong potential for application in manufacturing of different surgical devices like implants, catheters and drainages.

  1. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON POLYAMIDE 12 MODIFIED BY Cr2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shapoval

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ polymerization method is used for obtaining polymeric composites based on polyamide12 matrix (PA 12, filled with Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The carried out researches result in synthesis method development for polymeric nanocomposites based on PA 12 matrix filled with nano-sized Cr2O3magnetic particles providing uniform embedding of the filler into polymeric matrix without formation of nanoparticles agglomerates. Mechanical tests on samples compression are carried out. It is shown that mechanical properties of polymeric composites (Young’s modulus, durability limit are decreased for 20-30 % as compared with not modified PA 12 synthesized by means of the chosen method. The influence of the filler on crystallization morphology and kinetics of polymeric nanocomposites is determined by electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of crystallization degree, crystallization rate constant for different supercooling intervals and parameters of Avrami equation are obtained. The initial nucleation is shown to be going on according to non-thermal mechanism, and nanoparticles are not the germs of crystallization. It is stated that nanoparticles are embedded into polymeric matrix and uniformly allocated in crystallites. Research results can find their application at creation of electric and magnetic fields, micro-sized mechanical devices, and at development of new materials for 3D printers.

  2. An Internship Program for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Polymer-Based Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebe,P.; Cherdack, D.; Guertin, R.; Haas, T.; S. Ince, B.; Valluzzi, R.

    2006-01-01

    We report on our summer internship program in Polymer-Based Nanocomposites, for deaf and hard of hearing undergraduates who engage in classroom and laboratory research work in polymer physics. The unique attributes of this program are its emphasis on: 1. Teamwork; 2. Performance of a start-to-finish research project; 3. Physics of materials approach; and 4. Diversity. Students of all disability levels have participated in this program, including students who neither hear nor voice. The classroom and laboratory components address the materials chemistry and physics of polymer-based nanocomposites, crystallization and melting of polymers, the interaction of X-rays and light with polymers, mechanical properties of polymers, and the connection between thermal processing, structure, and ultimate properties of polymers. A set of Best Practices is developed for accommodating deaf and hard of hearing students into the laboratory setting. The goal is to bring deaf and hard of hearing students into the larger scientific community as professionals, by providing positive scientific experiences at a formative time in their educational lives.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Mucoadhesive Nanocomposites as Intravesical Gene Delivery Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as scaffolds for intravesical gene delivery to the urothelium. Hydrogels were prepared by chemically crosslinking gelatin A or B with glutaraldehyde. Physicochemical and delivery properties including hydration ratio, viscosity, size, yield, thermosensitivity, and enzymatic degradation were studied, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out. The optimal hydrogels (H, composed of 15% gelatin A175, displayed an 81.5% yield rate, 87.1% hydration ratio, 42.9 Pa·s viscosity, and 125.8 nm particle size. The crosslinking density of the hydrogels was determined by performing pronase degradation and ninhydrin assays. In vitro lentivirus (LV release studies involving p24 capsid protein analysis in 293T cells revealed that hydrogels containing lentivirus (H-LV had a higher cumulative release than that observed for LV alone (3.7-, 2.3-, and 2.3-fold at days 1, 3, and 5, resp.. Lentivirus from lentivector constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP was then entrapped in hydrogels (H-LV-GFP. H-LV-GFP showed enhanced gene delivery in AY-27 cells in vitro and to rat urothelium by intravesical instillation in vivo. Cystometrogram showed mucoadhesive H-LV reduced peak micturition and threshold pressure and increased bladder compliance. In this study, we successfully developed first optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds.

  4. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  5. Synthesis and Examination of Nanocomposites Based on Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for Medicinal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolevska, Olena S.; Gerashchenko, Igor I.; Borysenko, Mykola V.; Pakhlov, Evgenii M.; Machovsky, Michal; Yushchenko, Tetyana I.

    2017-02-01

    Preparation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based nanocomposites using different approaches such as synthesis with water as the porogen, filling of polymer matrix by silica and formation of interpenetrating polymer networks with polyurethane was demonstrated. Incorporation of various biologically active compounds (BAC) such as metronidazole, decamethoxin, zinc sulphate, silver nitrate or amino acids glycine and tryptophan into nanocomposites was achieved. BAC were introduced into the polymer matrix either (1) directly, or (2) with a solution of colloidal silica, or (3) through immobilization on silica (sol-densil). Morphology of prepared materials was investigated by laser scanning microscopy and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy. In vacuum freeze-drying, prior imaging was proposed for improving visualization of the porous structure of composites. The interaction between PHEMA matrix and silica filler was investigated by IR spectroscopy. Adsorption of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and BAC from aqueous solution on the silica surface was also examined. Phase composition and thermal stability of composites were studied by the differential thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis. Release of BAC into water medium from prepared composites were shown to depend on the synthetic method and differed significantly. Obtained PHEMA-base materials which are characterized by controlled release of BAC have a strong potential for application in manufacturing of different surgical devices like implants, catheters and drainages.

  6. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V.; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-08-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed.

  7. A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the detection of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Limin; Zhang Li [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Zhang Xiaobing, E-mail: xbzhang@hnu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Huan Shuangyan; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-04-30

    A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA)-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of phenolic compounds. The uniform and size controlled nano-HA was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and its morphological characterization was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tyrosinase was then immobilized on a nano-HA-chitosan nanocomposite-modified gold electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the sensing film. The prepared biosensor was applied to determine phenolic compounds by monitoring the reduction signal of the biocatalytically produced quinone species at -0.2 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The effects of the pH, temperature and applied potential on the biosensor performance were investigated, and experimental conditions were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to catechol over a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 7 {mu}M, with a high sensitivity of 2.11 x 10{sup 3} {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, and a limit of detection down to 5 nM (based on S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme electrode were estimated to be 3.16, 1.31 and 3.52 {mu}M for catechol, phenol and m-cresol, respectively. Moreover, the stability and reproducibility of this biosensor were evaluated with satisfactory results.

  8. Fullerene and dendrimer based nano-composite gas separation membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Sterescu, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of new materials for membrane based gas separation processes. Long-term stable, loosely packed (high free volume) amorphous polymer films were prepared by introduction of super-molecular pendant groups, which possess hardsphere properties to avoid dense molecular scale packing of adjacent polymer chains during membrane preparation.

  9. Fullerene and dendrimer based nano-composite gas separation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of new materials for membrane based gas separation processes. Long-term stable, loosely packed (high free volume) amorphous polymer films were prepared by introduction of super-molecular pendant groups, which possess hardsphere properties to avoid dense

  10. Rheology-Morphology Interrelationships for Nanocomposites based on Polymer Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichikhin, V.; Semakov, A.; Karbushev, V.; Makarova, V.; Mendes, E.; Fisher, H.; Picken, S.

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this Chapter was targeted on novel approaches to compatibility of particles with polymer matrices and detail analysis of rheology-morphology interrelationships. Rather attractive method of mixing based on knowledge of rheological behavior of polymers at high shear rates was

  11. Lead-free BaTiO3 nanowires-based flexible nanocomposite generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Bae, Soo Bin; Yang, Seong Ho; Lee, Hyung Ik; Lee, Kisu; Lee, Seung Jun

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance.We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PDF materials involve the linear superposition test results (Fig. S1) and the durability test results (Fig. S2) of BaTiO3 NWs-based NCG device. A video file (Video S1) shows the power up of an LCD screen by the NCG device without any external energy source. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr

  12. Production and characterization of a new biodegradable fenugreek seed gum based active nanocomposite film reinforced with nanoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiş, Saliha; Tornuk, Fatih; Bozkurt, Fatih; Durak, M Zeki

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, fenugreek seed gum (FSG)/clay nanocomposite films were prepared with nanoclays (Na+ montmorillonite [MMT], halloysite [HNT] and Nanomer® I.44 P [NM]) at different amounts (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5g clay/100g FSG) by solution casting method and characterized. Increasing amount of nanoclay significantly (Pnanoclay incorporation up to 5% provided higher (Pnanoclay reinforcements provided a homogeneous and smooth film structure. In conclusion, FSG based nanocomposite films reinforced with nanoclays up to 5% showed a precious potential to be used in antimicrobial food packaging applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. S-Layer-Based Nanocomposites for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Johannes; Matys, Sabine; Suhr, Matthias; Vogel, Manja; Günther, Tobias; Pollmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental aspects of bacterial S-layers: what are S-layers, what is known about them, and what are their main features that makes them so interesting for the production of nanostructures. After a detailed introduction of the paracrystalline protein lattices formed by S-layer systems in nature the chapter explores the engineering of S-layer-based materials. How can S-layers be used to produce "industry-ready" nanoscale bio-composite materials, and which kinds of nanomaterials are possible (e.g., nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle immobilization, and multifunctional coatings)? What are the advantages and disadvantages of S-layer-based composite materials? Finally, the chapter highlights the potential of these innovative bacterial biomolecules for future technologies in the fields of metal filtration, catalysis, and bio-functionalization.

  14. Development of nanocomposites based on potato starch; Desenvolvimento de nanocompositos a base de amido de batata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Luciana Macedo; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-07-01

    Nanocomposites of potato starch were prepared by the solution intercalation method with the addition of organically modified montmorillonite clay (Viscogel B and unmodified sodic clay (NT25) as well as modified and unmodified silica (R972 and A200, respectively), using water as the solvent. The nanocomposites were characterized by conventional techniques of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. They were also characterized using the non-conventional low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, which is an effective alternative technique for characterizing nanocomposites. This technique allows one to investigate dispersion of nanofillers by the degree of intercalation and/or exfoliation, in addition to determine the distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and modifications of the molecular mobility of these fillers. The nanostructured materials obtained with the clays presented good dispersion and formation of mixed nanomaterials, with different degrees of intercalation and exfoliation. The mobility of the material decreased upon adding silica in the starch matrix, which applied to both types of silica. From the TGA technique, a slight increase in thermal stability of the nanocomposite was noted in relation to the starch matrix. (author)

  15. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  16. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2-CNTs Hybrid Nanocomposites with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuisheng; Dai, Weili

    2017-03-03

    SnO2 nanoparticles coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared via a simple microwave-hydrothermal route. The as-obtained SnO2-CNTs composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2-CNTs for degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2-CNTs nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 due to the rapid transferring of electrons and the effective separation of holes and electrons on SnO2-CNTs.

  17. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-02-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  18. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-11-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  19. Photoluminescent nanocomposite materials based on SBMA copolymer and CdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovu, M.; Enachescu, M.; Culeac, I.; Verlan, V.; Robu, S.; Bojin, D.; Nistor, Iu.; Cojocaru, I.

    2015-02-01

    We present experimental results on copolymer-based nanocomposite made of styrene with butyl methacrylate (SBMA) (1:1) and inorganic semiconductor CdS. Thin film composite samples have been characterized by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy, as well as by transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination confirms a relatively narrow distribution of CdS nanoclusters in the SBMA matrix, which covers the range 2-10 nm. On the other side, the average CdS particles size estimated from the position of first excitonic peak in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum was found to be 2.8 nm and 4.4 nm for two samples with different duration of thermal treatment, which is in good agreement with photoluminescence (PL) experimental data. The PL spectrum for CdS nanocrystals is dominated by near-band-edge emission. The relatively narrow line width (40-45 nm) of the main PL band suggests the nanoparticles having narrow size distribution. On the other side, relatively low PL emission from surface trap states at longer wavelengths were observed in the region 500-750 nm indicating on recombination on defects. Key words: nanocomposite, polymer matrix, photoluminescence,

  20. Electrochemical immunosensor for detection of topoisomerase based on graphene-gold nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guang-Xian; Wang, Peng; Fu, Fei-Huan; Weng, Shao-Huang; Chen, Wei; Li, Shao-Guang; Liu, Ai-Lin; Wu, Zhao-Yang; Zhu, Xia; Lin, Xin-Hua; Lin, Jian-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2014-07-01

    A facile electrochemical immunosensor based on graphene-three dimensional nanostructure gold nanocomposites (G-3D Au) using simple and rapid one-step electrochemical co-reduction technique was developed for sensitive detection of topoisomerase. The resultant G-3D Au nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and then were used as a substrate for construction of the "sandwich-type" immunosensor. Amperometric current-time curve was employed to monitor the immunoreaction on the protein modified electrode. The proposed method could respond to topoisomerase with a linear calibration range from 0.5 ng mL(-1) to 50 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 pg mL(-1). This new biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response, high sensitivity and selectivity, and was successfully used in determining the topoisomerase which was added in human serum with a relative standard deviation (n=5)immunosensor served as a significant step toward the practical application of the immunosensor in clinical diagnosis and prognosis monitor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradability and swelling capacity of kaolin based chitosan-g-PHEMA nanocomposite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arun Kumar; Rana, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan, a natural biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, exhibits excellent biological properties such as biodegradability, immunological and antibacterial activity. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the chemical modification of chitosan in order to widen its applications. The chemical modification of chitosan has been achieved via grafting of monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of the initiator, ammonium persulfate (APS) and kaolin was added to improve the mechanical strength of the newly developed nanocomposites hydrogel. The so prepared grafted nanocomposites hydrogel was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA. The equilibrium water content (EWC) of the samples were measured at different pH ranges 6.5-8.0 and found optimum at pH 7.5 for biomedical applications. Further, the biodegradability of the samples was studied at different time intervals from 15 days to 1 year but, the kaolin based nanohydrogels exhibited good biodegradability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite based electrochemical aptasensor for determination of malathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal, E-mail: nirmalprabhakar@gmail.com; Thakur, Himkusha; Bharti, Anu; Kaur, Navpreet

    2016-10-05

    An electrochemical aptasensor based on chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (CHIT-IO) film deposited on fluorine tin Oxide (FTO) was developed for the detection of malathion. Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy and UV–Visible spectroscopy. The biotinylated DNA aptamer sequence specific to the malathion was immobilized onto the iron oxide doped-chitosan/FTO electrode by using streptavidin as linking molecule. Various characterization studies like Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Electrochemical studies were performed to attest the successful fabrication of bioelectrodes. Experimental parameters like aptamer concentration, response time, stability of electrode and reusability studies were optimized. Aptamer immobilized chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (APT/SA/CHIT-IO/FTO) bioelectrodes exhibited LOD of about 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min and spike-in studies revealed about 80–92% recovery of malathion from the lettuce leaves and soil sample. - Highlights: • An electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of Malathion has been developed. • Chitosan-iron oxide NP deposited FTO sheets provides platform for aptamer immobilization. • Aptasensor has efficiency to detect malathion upto 0.001 ng/mL within 15 min.

  3. 3D printable highly conductive and mechanically strong thermoplastic-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabiai, Ilyass; Therriault, Daniel

    Highly conductive 3D printable inks can be used to design electrical devices with various functionalities and geometries. We use the solvent evaporation assisted 3D-printing method to create high resolution structures made of poly(lactid) acid (PLA) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs). We characterize fibers with diameters ranging between 100 μm to 330 μm and reinforced with MWCNTs from 0.5 up to 40wt% here. Tensile test, shrinkage ratio, density and electrical conductivity measurements of the printed nanocomposite are presented. The material's electrical conductivity is strongly improved by adding MWCNTs (up to 3000S/m), this value was found to be higher than any 3D-printable carbon based material available in the literature. It is observed that MWCNTs significantly increase the material's strength and stiffness while reducing its ductility. The ink's density was also higher while still being in the range of polymers' densities. The presented nanocomposite is light weight, highly conductive, has good mechanical properties and can be printed in a freeform fashion at the micro scale. A myriad of low power consumption with less resistive heating sensors and devices can potentially be designed using it and integrated into other 3D printable products.

  4. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for α-fetoprotein based on graphene/SnO2/Au nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junfeng; Lin, Guanhua; Xiao, Can; Xue, Ying; Yang, Ankang; Ren, Hongxuan; Lu, Wensheng; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiangjun; Yuan, Zhuobin

    2015-09-15

    A label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) was developed based on graphene/SnO2/Au nanocomposite. The graphene/SnO2/Au nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was used to immobilize α-fetoprotein antibody (anti-AFP) and to construct the immunosensor. Results demonstrated that the peak currents of [Ru(NH3)6](3+) decreased due to the interaction between antibody and antigen on the modified electrode. Thus, a label-free immunosensor for the detection of AFP was realized by monitoring the peak current change of [Ru(NH3)6](3+). The factors influencing the performance of the immunosensor were investigated in details. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents obtained by DPV decreased linearly with the increasing AFP concentrations in the range from 0.02 to 50 ng mL(-1) with a linear coefficient of 0.9959. This electrochemical immunoassay has a low detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3) and was successfully applied to the determination of AFP in serum samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fabrication and electrical characterizations of graphene nanocomposite thin film based heterojunction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ishrat; Shah, Mutabar; Iqbal, Mahmood; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Shah Haider

    2017-11-01

    The use of graphene in electronic devices is becoming attractive due to its inherent scalability and is thus well suited for flexible electronic devices. Here we present the electrical characterization of heterojunction diode, based on the nanocomposite of graphene (G) with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), at room temperature. The diode was fabricated by depositing nanocomposite on the n-Si substrate. The current - voltage (I - V) characteristic of the fabricated junction shows rectifying behavior similar to a Schottky junction. The junction parameters such as ideality factor (n), series resistance (Rs), and barrier height (ϕb) has been extracted, using various methods, from the experimentally obtained I - V data. The measured values of n, Rs and ϕb are 3.86, 45 Ω and 0.367 eV, respectively, as calculated from the I - V curve. The numerical values of these parameters calculated by different methods are in good agreement with each other showing the consistency of the applied calculating techniques. The conduction mechanism of the fabricated diode seems to have been dominated by the Trap Charge Limited Conduction (TCLC) behavior. The energy distribution of interface states density determined from forward bias I - V characteristic shows an exponential decrease with bias from 27 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 at (Ec - 0.345) eV to 3 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1at (Ec - 0.398) eV.

  6. Novel paper-based cholesterol biosensor using graphene/polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Rangkupan, Ratthapol; Rodthongkum, Nadnudda; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2014-02-15

    A novel nanocomposite of graphene (G), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyaniline (PANI) has been successfully prepared and used for the modification of paper-based biosensors via electrospraying. The droplet-like nanostructures of G/PVP/PANI-modified electrodes are obtained with an average size of 160 ± 1.02 nm. Interestingly, the presence of small amount of PVP (2 mg mL(-1)) in the nanocomposites can substantially improve the dispersibility of G and increase the electrochemical conductivity of electrodes, leading to enhanced sensitivity of the biosensor. The well-defined cyclic voltammogram of standard ferri/ferrocyanide is achieved on a G/PVP/PANI-modified electrode with a 3-fold increase in the current signal compared to an unmodified electrode. This modified electrode also exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) is attached to G/PVP/PANI-modified electrode for the amperometric determination of cholesterol. Under optimum conditions, a linear range of 50 μM to 10mM is achieved and the limit of detection is found to be 1 μM for cholesterol. Finally, the proposed system can be applied for the determination of cholesterol in a complex biological fluid (i.e. human serum). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsia Yu; Cheng, Chung Liang; Lin, Yu Shen; Hung, Yann; Mou, Chung Yuan; Chen, Yang Fang

    2011-08-01

    Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH)3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH)3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  8. Integrated nanophotonic hubs based on ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optical integration is essential for practical application, but it remains unexplored for nanoscale devices. A newly designed nanocomposite based on ZnO semiconductor nanowires and Tb(OH3/SiO2 core/shell nanospheres has been synthesized and studied. The unique sea urchin-type morphology, bright and sharply visible emission bands of lanthanide, and large aspect ratio of ZnO crystalline nanotips make this novel composite an excellent signal receiver, waveguide, and emitter. The multifunctional composite of ZnO nanotips and Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanoparticles therefore can serve as an integrated nanophotonics hub. Moreover, the composite of ZnO nanotips deposited on a Tb(OH3/SiO2 photonic crystal can act as a directional light fountain, in which the confined radiation from Tb ions inside the photonic crystal can be well guided and escape through the ZnO nanotips. Therefore, the output emission arising from Tb ions is truly directional, and its intensity can be greatly enhanced. With highly enhanced lasing emissions in ZnO-Tb(OH3/SiO2 as well as SnO2-Tb(OH3/SiO2 nanocomposites, we demonstrate that our approach is extremely beneficial for the creation of low threshold and high-power nanolaser.

  9. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of polyanaline based ceramic nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, M.; Khan, M. S.; Khattak, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    Micro/nanohybrid materials have vast applications due to their great potentialities in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein we report an investigation on the fabrication and physicochemical characterization of ceramic (Fe0.01La0.01Al0.5Zn0.98O) and hybrid ceramic-polyaniline nano-composits. Ceramic nano-particles were prepared by sol-gel technique while optimizing the molar ratios of the constituent's metal nitrates. The prepared inorganic particles were then embedded in the polymer matrix via one-pot blending method. The prepared ceramic particles and their composites with polyaniline were analysed under FT- IR, SEM and TGA. The presence of some chemical species was observed at the interface of the compositing materials. TGA analysis showed the thermal stability of the composite material. Frequency dependent dielectric properties were analysed and it was found that conducting polyaniline has an additional effect on the electrical behaviour of the composite. Rheology study showed enhanced mechanical properties of composite material as compared to their constituting counterparts.

  10. Synthesis of nanocomposite based on Semnan natural zeolite for photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Saadati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the photocatalytic behaviors for the nanocomposite of TiO2 P25 and Semnan natural zeolite in the decomposition of tetracycline under visible light in an aqueous solution. The structural features of the composite were investigated by a series of complementary techniques that included X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, surface area (BET measurement, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The surface area measurement disclosed an enhancement of surface area by ~2 times for the synthesized TiO2/Semnan natural zeolite than that of commercial TiO2 P25. The as-prepared photocatalyst (TiO2/Semnan natural zeolite showed pH dependence and more than 87% of the tetracycline could be degraded from the solution under visible irradiation within 90 min at a pH of 6. This excellent catalytic ability was mainly attributed to the hybrid effect of the photocatalyst and adsorbent. The results provided new insight into the performance of active photocatalysts on the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater. In addition, the immobilization of TiO2 onto Semnan natural zeolite permitted easier separation of the adsorbent from the treated water.

  11. Fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based polymer/alumoxane nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistry, A.S.; Cheng, S.H.; Yeh, T.; Christenson, E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the fabrication and in vitro degradation of porous fumarate-based/alumoxane nanocomposites were evaluated for their potential as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate)/propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF/PF-DA), a macrocomposite composed

  12. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  13. A super highly sensitive glucose biosensor based on Au nanoparticles-AgCl@polyaniline hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Feng, Xiaomiao; Chen, Xiaojun; Hou, Wenhua; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2008-02-28

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with an average diameter of 5nm were assembled on the surface of silver chloride@polyaniline (PANI) core-shell nanocomposites (AgCl@PANI). Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) suggested that AuNPs were incorporated on AgCl@PANI through coordination bonds instead of electrostatic interaction. The resulting AuNPs-AgCl@PANI hybrid material exhibited good electroactivity at a neutral pH environment. An amperometric glucose biosensor was developed by adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx) on an AuNPs-AgCl@PANI modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. AuNPs-AgCl@PANI could provide a biocompatible surface for high enzyme loading. Due to size effect, the AuNPs in the hybrid material could act as a good catalyst for both oxidation and reduction of H(2)O(2). As the measurement of glucose was based on the electrochemical detection of H(2)O(2) generated by enzyme-catalyzed-oxidation of glucose, the biosensor exhibited a super highly sensitive response to the analyte with a detection limit of 4 pM. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility and operation stability. The effects of some factors, such as temperature and pH value, were also studied.

  14. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    dielectric strength, to produce two-dimensional nanosheets with atomic thickness that can be used as macromolecular building blocks in the assembly of nanocomposites. We describe how these advantageous properties turn LDHs into excellent vehicles for the preparation of multifunctional materials with increasing levels of complexity. For clarity, the reader will first find a succinct description of the most relevant aspects controlling the magnetism of LDHs followed by their use in the preparation of magnetic hybrids from a molecular perspective. This includes the intercalation anionic species of increasing nuclearity like paramagnetic mononuclear complexes, stimulus-responsive molecular guests, one- and two-dimensional coordination polymers, or even preassembled 2D networks. This approach allows us to evolve from "dual-function" materials with coexistence, for example, of magnetism and superconductivity, to smart materials in which the magnetic or structural properties of the LDH layers can be tuned by applying an external stimulus like light or temperature. We will conclude with a brief look into the promising features offered by magnetic nanocomposites based on LDHs and our views on the most promising directions to be pursued in this context.

  15. A potential bioactive wound dressing based on carboxymethyl cellulose/ZnO impregnated MCM-41 nanocomposite hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshaei, Rasul; Namazi, Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Lack of antibacterial activity, deficient water vapor and oxygen permeability, and insufficient mechanical properties are disadvantages of existing wound dressings. Hydrogels could absorb wound exudates due to their strong swelling ratio and give a cooling sensation and a wet environment. To overcome these shortcomings, flexible nanocomposite hydrogel films was prepared through combination of zinc oxide impregnated mesoporous silica (ZnO-MCM-41) as a nano drug carrier with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel. Citric acid was used as cross linker to avoid the cytotoxicity of conventional cross linkers. The prepared nanocomposite hydrogel was characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Zeta potential and UV-vis spectroscopy. Results of swelling and erosion tests showed CMC/ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel disintegrated during the first hours of the test. Using MCM-41 as a substrate for ZnO nanoparticles solved this problem and the CMC/ZnO-MCM-41 showed a great improvement in tensile strength (12%), swelling (100%), erosion (53%) and gas permeability (500%) properties. Drug delivery and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel films studied using tetracycline (TC) as a broad spectrum antibiotic and showed a sustained TC release. This could efficiently decrease bandage exchange. Cytocompatibility of the nanocomposite hydrogel films has been analyzed in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and results showed cytocompatibility of CMC/ZnO-MCM-41. Based on these results the prepared CMC nanocomposite hydrogel containing ZnO impregnated MCM-41, could serve as a kind of promising wound dressing with sustained drug delivery properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymer/organosilica nanocomposites based on polyimide with benzimidazole linkages and reactive organoclay containing isoleucine amino acid: Synthesis, characterization and morphology properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinari, Mohammad [Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A reactive organoclay was formed using L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent. ► Polyimide was synthesized from benzimidazole diamine and pyromellitic dianhydride. ► Imide and benzimidazole groups assured the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. ► Nanocomposite films were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. ► The TEM micrographs of nanocomposites revealed well-exfoliated structures. -- Abstract: Polyimide–silica nanocomposites are attractive hybrid architectures that possess excellent mechanical, thermal and chemical properties. But, the dispersion of inorganic domains in the polymer matrix and the compatibility between the organic and inorganic phases are critical factors in these hybrid systems. In this investigation, a reactive organoclay was prepared via ion exchange reaction between protonated form of difunctional L-isoleucine amino acid as a swelling agent and Cloisite Na{sup +} montmorillonite. Amine functional groups of this swelling agent formed an ionic bond with the negatively charged silicates, whereas the remaining acid functional groups were available for further interaction with polymer chains. Then organo-soluble polyimide (PI) have been successfully synthesized from the reaction of 2-(3,5-diaminophenyl)-benzimidazole and pyromellitic dianhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide. Finally, PI/organoclay nanocomposite films enclosing 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% of synthesized organoclay were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction through thermal imidization. The synthesized hybrid materials were subsequently characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. The PI/organoclay nanocomposite films have good optical transparencies and the mechanical properties were substantially improved by the incorporation of the reactive organoclay.

  17. Rheological and Mechanical Characterization of Renewable Resource Based High Molecular Weight PLA Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Jandas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses structural aspects of nanocomposites and the ability of layered nanosilicates to alter the flow behaviour of poly(lactic acid (PLA melts. In addition, dynamic and static mechanical properties of PLA nanocomposites prepared from melt mixing method have been also discussed. A comparative study of nanocomposite properties has been conducted using two different nanoclays, natural montmorillonite modified with alkyl ammonium surfactant (OMMT, and commercially available organosilicate, Cloisite 30B, as reinforcements within the PLA matrix. Since OMMT has undergone better intercalation within the matrix, the corresponding nanocomposite showed superior mechanical and rheological characteristics than its C30B counterpart.

  18. Enhancing performances of a resistivity-type hydrogen sensor based on Pd/SnO2/RGO nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yitian; Zheng, Lulu; Zou, Kun; Li, Cong

    2017-05-26

    Palladium/tin oxide/reduced graphene oxide (Pd/SnO2/RGO) nanocomposites with Pd and SnO2 crystalline nanoparticles of high density and uniformity coated on RGO have been synthesized by a two-step reduction process. A novel hydrogen (H2) sensor based on Pd/SnO2/RGO nanocomposites was fabricated by placing Pd/SnO2/RGO nanocomposites onto a pair of gold electrodes. The Pd/SnO2/RGO nanocomposite-based sensor exhibited higher responses than Pd/RGO to H2 because the introduction of SnO2 nanoparticles enhances H2 adsorption and forms a P-N junction with RGO. The sensor shows a high response of 55% to 10 000 ppm H2, and a low detection limit, fast response, good selectivity and repeatability due to a combination effect of the Pd and SnO2 nanoparticles. The studies provide a novel strategy for great potential applications of graphene-based gas sensors.

  19. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, CH Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2013-08-01

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems.

  20. GR-2 Hybrid Knowledge-Based System Using General Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe , Ma.; Harrison, R F; Kennedy, R. Lee.

    1995-01-01

    GR-2 is a hybrid knowledge-based system consisting of a Multilayer Perceptron and a rule based system for hybrid knowledge representations and reasoning.\\ud Knowledge embedded in the trained Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) is extracted in the form of general (production) rules-- a natural format of abstract knowledge representation. The rule extraction method integrates Black-box and Open-box techniques on the MLP, obtaining feature salient and statistical properties of the training pattern set.\\...

  1. Facile one-step synthesis of nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes and Nickel-Aluminum layered double hydroxides with high cycling stability for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Caihui; Sun, Shiguo; Xu, Yongqian; Yu, Ruijin; Li, Hongjuan

    2016-10-15

    Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) and nanocomposite of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and NiAl-LDH (CNTs/NiAl-LDH) were prepared by using a facile one-step homogeneous precipitation approach. The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite were then systematically studied. According to the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite exhibited a high specific capacitance of 694Fg(-1) at the 1Ag(-1). Furthermore, the specific capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite still retained 87% when the current density was increased from 1 to 10Ag(-1). These results indicated that the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite displayed a higher specific capacitance and rate capability than pure NiAl-LDH. And the participation of CNTs in the NiAl-LDH composite improved the electrochemical properties. Additionally, the capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite kept at least 92% after 3000cycles at 20Ag(-1), suggesting that the nanocomposite exhibited excellent cycling durability. This strategy provided a facile and effective approach for the synthesis of nanocomposite based on CNTs and NiAl-LDH with enhanced supercapacitor behaviors, which can be potentially applied in energy storage conversion devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Effective Way to Optimize the Functionality of Graphene-Based Nanocomposite: Use of the Colloidal Mixture of Graphene and Inorganic Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaoyan; Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Young Kim, In; Mi Oh, Seung; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The best electrode performance of metal oxide–graphene nanocomposite material for lithium secondary batteries can be achieved by using the colloidal mixture of layered CoO2 and graphene nanosheets as a precursor. The intervention of layered CoO2 nanosheets in-between graphene nanosheets is fairly effective in optimizing the pore and composite structures of the Co3O4–graphene nanocomposite and also in enhancing its electrochemical activity via the depression of interaction between graphene nanosheets. The resulting CoO2 nanosheet-incorporated nanocomposites show much greater discharge capacity of ~1750 mAhg−1 with better cyclability and rate characteristics than does CoO2-free Co3O4–graphene nanocomposite (~1100 mAhg−1). The huge discharge capacity of the present nanocomposite is the largest one among the reported data of cobalt oxide–graphene nanocomposite. Such a remarkable enhancement of electrode performance upon the addition of inorganic nanosheet is also observed for Mn3O4–graphene nanocomposite. The improvement of electrode performance upon the incorporation of inorganic nanosheet is attributable to an improved Li+ ion diffusion, an enhanced mixing between metal oxide and graphene, and the prevention of electrode agglomeration. The present experimental findings underscore an efficient and universal role of the colloidal mixture of graphene and redoxable metal oxide nanosheets as a precursor for improving the electrode functionality of graphene-based nanocomposites. PMID:26053331

  3. CD (compact disc)-based DNA hybridization and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guangyao; Ma, Kuo-Sheng; Kim, Jitae; Zoval, Jim V.; Madou, Marc J.; Deo, Sapna K.; Daunert, Sylvia; Peytavi, Regis; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2004-08-01

    A DNA hybridization and detection unit was developed for a compact disc (CD) platform. The compact disc was used as the fluidic platform for sample and reagent manipulation using centrifugal force. Chambers for reagent storage and conduits for fluidic functions were replicated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using an SU-8 master mold fabricated with a 2-level lithography process we developed specially for the microfluidic structures used in this work. For capture probes, we used self-assembled DNA oligonucleotide monolayers (SAMs) on gold pads patterned on glass slides. The PDMS flow cells were aligned with and sealed against glass slides to form the DNA hybridization detection units. Both an enzymatic-labeled fluorescence technique and a bioluminescent approach were used for hybridization detection. An analytical model was introduced to quantitatively predict the accumulation of hybridized targets. The flow-through hybridization units were tested using DNA samples (25-mers) of different concentrations down to 1 pM and passive assays (no flow), using samples of the same concentrations, were performed as controls. At low concentrations, with the same hybridization time, a significantly higher relative fluorescence intensity was observed in both enzymatic and bioluminescent flow-through assays compared to the corresponding passive hybridization assays. Besides the fast hybridization rate, the CD-based method has the potential for enabling highly automated, multiple and self-contained assays for DNA detection.

  4. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jovanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %, was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency after the water rinsing procedure.

  5. Phase Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposites from Gravity-based Combinatorial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Kumar, Sanat

    2012-02-01

    The phase behavior of polymers mixed with nanoparticles, termed nanocomposites, has been of great current interest. Holding the promise of improved engineering properties, the property improvement is critically dependent on the spatial dispersion of nanoparticles, which is controlled by polymer-nanoparticle phase behavior. Enumerating the appropriate phase diagrams, however, still remain outside the realm of most simulation-based methods. The difficulty arises since inserting a large particle into a dense sea of small particles, critically for establishing phase equilibrium, is prohibitively difficult. Here we extend a gravity-based combinatorial method, first devise by Biben et al., and used primarily in the context of pure fluids to circumvent this insertion issue. Our results are validated against available simulations for colloid mixtures, but provide new insight into the phase behavior of polymers and nanoparticles.

  6. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    and X-ray diffraction and physico-mechanical properties. Due to polarity match, hydrophilic unmodified montmorillonite clay showed enhanced properties in resulting fluoroelastomer nanocomposites, while hydro- phobic organo-clay showed best results in SEBS nanocomposites. Keywords. Nanocomposites; nanoclays ...

  7. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie

    2017-10-01

    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  8. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  9. Nanocomposite hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering: mesoporous silica nanofibers interlinked with siloxane derived polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtová, Nela; Réthoré, Gildas; Boyer, Cécile; Guicheux, Jérôme; Rambaud, Frédéric; Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Sanchez, Clément; Chauvet, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre; Le Bideau, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Injectable materials for mini-invasive surgery of cartilage are synthesized and thoroughly studied. The concept of these hybrid materials is based on providing high enough mechanical performances along with a good medium for chondrocytes proliferation. The unusual nanocomposite hydrogels presented herein are based on siloxane derived hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Si-HPMC) interlinked with mesoporous silica nanofibers. The mandatory homogeneity of the nanocomposites is checked by fluorescent methods, which show that the silica nanofibres dispersion is realized down to nanometric scale, suggesting an efficient immobilization of the silica nanofibres onto the Si-HPMC scaffold. Such dispersion and immobilization are reached thanks to the chemical affinity between the hydrophilic silica nanofibers and the pendant silanolate groups of the Si-HPMC chains. Tuning the amount of nanocharges allows tuning the resulting mechanical features of these injectable biocompatible hybrid hydrogels. hASC stem cells and SW1353 chondrocytic cells viability is checked within the nanocomposite hydrogels up to 3 wt% of silica nanofibers.

  10. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scaffaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biopolymer-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties were prepared via melt-compounding. In particular, graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs as fillers and an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX, as biocide were incorporated in a commercial biodegradable polymer blend of poly(lactic acid (PLA and a copolyester (BioFlex®. The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of GnPs on the antimicrobial properties and release kinetics of CFX was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnPs increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix and allowed for the tuning of the release of CFX without hindering the antimicrobial activity of the obtained materials.

  12. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-04-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions.

  13. Organophilic bentonites based on Argentinean and Brazilian bentonites: part 2: potential evaluation to obtain nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of composites of polypropylene and organophilic bentonites based on Brazilian and Argentinean bentonites. During the processing of the samples in a twin screw microextruder, torque and pressures of the extruder were accompanied and the viscosity values were calculated. No significant changes in the torque, pressure and viscosity were found for composites prepared with different bentonites. The samples were characterized by XRD and TEM to evaluate the structure and dispersion of the organophilic bentonites. Composites with exfoliated, partially exfoliated and intercalated structures were obtained and correlations between the intrinsic properties of the sodium clays and organophilic bentonites and their influence on the composites were studied. The cation exchange capacity of the sodium bentonites and the swelling capacity of the organophilic bentonites were the most important properties to obtain exfoliated structures in composites. All bentonites showed the potential to obtain polymer nanocomposites, but the ones from Argentina displayed the best results.

  14. New bio-nanocomposites based on iron oxides and polysaccharides applied to oxidation and alkylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daily Rodríguez-Padrón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from natural sources and iron precursors were applied to develop new bio-nanocomposites by mechanochemical milling processes. The proposed methodology was demonstrated to be advantageous in comparison with other protocols for the synthesis of iron oxide based nanostructures. Additionally, mechanochemistry has enormous potential from an environmental point-of-view since it is able to reduce solvent issues in chemical syntheses. The catalytic activity of the obtained nanocatalysts was investigated in both the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride. The microwave-assisted oxidation of benzyl alcohol reached 45% conversion after 10 min. The conversion of the alkylation of toluene in both microwave-assisted and conventional heating methods was higher than 99% after 3 min and 30 min, respectively. The transformation of benzyl alcohol and toluene into valuable product in both the oxidation and alkylation reaction reveals a potential method for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  15. New bio-nanocomposites based on iron oxides and polysaccharides applied to oxidation and alkylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Padrón, Daily; Balu, Alina M; Romero, Antonio A; Luque, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharides from natural sources and iron precursors were applied to develop new bio-nanocomposites by mechanochemical milling processes. The proposed methodology was demonstrated to be advantageous in comparison with other protocols for the synthesis of iron oxide based nanostructures. Additionally, mechanochemistry has enormous potential from an environmental point-of-view since it is able to reduce solvent issues in chemical syntheses. The catalytic activity of the obtained nanocatalysts was investigated in both the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride. The microwave-assisted oxidation of benzyl alcohol reached 45% conversion after 10 min. The conversion of the alkylation of toluene in both microwave-assisted and conventional heating methods was higher than 99% after 3 min and 30 min, respectively. The transformation of benzyl alcohol and toluene into valuable product in both the oxidation and alkylation reaction reveals a potential method for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Influence of ionic liquids on the dielectric relaxation behavior of CNT based elastomer nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Das

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an imidazolium type ionic liquid (IL on the relaxation behavior of carbon-nanotube (CNT based polychloroprene nanocomposites prepared by melt mixing has been investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the presence of the ionic liquid modifies the relaxation behavior of the pure rubber matrix and leads to a significant increase of the conductivity for the CNT/rubber composites. For the unfilled rubber, a distinct glass transition of the IL is observed for high concentrations demonstrating that the IL forms a separate phase. The increased conductivity of the CNT-filled rubber composites is related to a physical coupling between CNTs and rubber matrix mediated by IL leading to a better dispersion of the CNTs.

  17. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punitha, N., E-mail: punithasan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Saravanan, P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Surya College of Engineering and Technology, Villupuram (India); Ramesh, P.S. [Department of Physics (DDE), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Simple, novel and cost effective. • Functionalized Ag nanocomposites exhibit enhanced biological activity. • The SNCs were crystalline nature and shows good stability. - Abstract: Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV–visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  18. Mechanical and thermomechanical properties of polycarbonate-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Poręba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work aliphatic polycarbonate-based polyurethane-silica nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. The influence of the type and of the concentration of nanofiller differing in average particle size (7 nm for Aerosil 380 and 40 nm for Nanosilica 999 on mechanical and thermomechanical properties was investigated. DMTA measurements showed that Nanosilica 999, irrespective of its concentration, slightly increased the value of the storage shear modulus G’ but Aerosil 380 brings about a nearly opposite effect, the shear modulus in the rubber region decreases with increasing filler content. Very high elongations at break ranging from 800% to more than 1000%, as well as high tensile strengths illustrate excellent ultimate tensile properties of the prepared samples. The best mechanical and thermomechanical properties were found for the sample filled with 0.5 wt.% of Nanosilica 999.

  19. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  20. Flexible thermoelectric nanogenerator based on the MoS2/graphene nanocomposite and its application for a self-powered temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yannan; Chou, Ting-Mao; Yang, Weifeng; He, Minghui; Zhao, Yingru; Li, Ning; Lin, Zong-Hong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report on a flexible thermoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on the MoS2/graphene nanocomposite. The nanocomposite thermoelectric nanogenerator shows enhanced thermoelectric performance, compared with that based solely on MoS2 nanomaterials, which may be due to the enhanced electrical conductivity resulting from the graphene acting as a charge transfer channel in the composites. The NG can be further applied as a self-powered sensor for temperature measurement. This work indicates that the MoS2/graphene nanocomposite is a promising thermoelectric material for harvesting environmental thermal energy.

  1. High oxygen nanocomposite barrier films based on xylan and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Jeffrey Kenvin; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce nanocomposite film with low oxygen permeability by casting an aqueous solution containing xylan, sorbitol and nanocrystalline cellulose. The morphology of the resulting nanocomposite films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which showed that control films containing xylan and sorbitol had a more...

  2. Self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell particulate nanocomposites through DNA-DNA hybridization and magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapudi Sreenivasulu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are of importance for studies on mechanical strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric subsystems. This work is on DNA-assisted self-assembly of superstructures of such composites with nanometer periodicity. The synthesis involved oligomeric DNA-functionalized ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles, 600 nm BaTiO3 (BTO and 200 nm NiFe2O4 (NFO, respectively. Mixing BTO and NFO particles, possessing complementary DNA sequences, resulted in the formation of ordered core-shell heteronanocomposites held together by DNA hybridization. The composites were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy. The presence of heteroassemblies along with core-shell architecture is clearly observed. The reversible nature of the DNA hybridization allows for restructuring the composites into mm-long linear chains and 2D-arrays in the presence of a static magnetic field and ring-like structures in a rotating-magnetic field. Strong magneto-electric (ME coupling in as-assembled composites is evident from static magnetic field H induced polarization and low-frequency magnetoelectric voltage coefficient measurements. Upon annealing the nanocomposites at high temperatures, evidence for the formation of bulk composites with excellent cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems is obtained by H-induced polarization and low-frequency ME voltage coefficient. The ME coupling strength in the self-assembled composites is measured to be much stronger than in bulk composites with randomly distributed NFO and BTO prepared by direct mixing and sintering.

  3. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  4. Cyanoethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite dielectric for low-voltage, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Sheida; Danesh, Ehsan; Tate, Daniel J.; Turner, Michael L.; Majewski, Leszek A.

    2016-05-01

    Low voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using solution-processed cyanoethyl cellulose (CEC) and CEC-based nanocomposites as the gate dielectric are demonstrated. Barium strontium titanate (BST) nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in CEC to form the high-k (18.0  ±  0.2 at 1 kHz) nanocomposite insulator layer. The optimised p-channel DPPTTT OFETs with BST-CEC nanocomposite as the gate dielectric operate with minimal hysteresis, display field-effect mobilities in excess of 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 3 V, possess low subthreshold swings (132  ±  8 mV dec-1), and have on/off ratios greater than 103. Addition of a 40-50 nm layer of cross-linked poly(vinyl phenol) (PVP) on the surface of the nanocomposite layer significantly decreases the gate leakage current (<10-7 A cm-2 at  ±3 V) and the threshold voltage (<  -0.7 V) enabling operation of the OFETs at 1.5 V. The presented bilayer BST-CEC/PVP dielectrics are a promising alternative for the fabrication of low voltage, solution-processed OFETs that are suitable for use in low power, portable electronics.

  5. Fire and Gas Barrier Properties of Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile Nanocomposites Using Polycaprolactone/Clay Nanohybrid Based-Masterbatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated nanocomposites are prepared by dispersion of poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL grafted montmorillonite nanohybrids used as masterbatches in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN. The PCL-grafted clay nanohybrids with high inorganic content are synthesized by in situ intercalative ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone between silicate layers organomodified by alkylammonium cations bearing two hydroxyl functions. The polymerization is initiated by tin alcoholate species derived from the exchange reaction of tin(II bis(2-ethylhexanoate with the hydroxyl groups borne by the ammonium cations that organomodified the clay. These highly filled PCL nanocomposites (25 wt% in inorganics are dispersed as masterbatches in commercial poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile by melt blending. SAN-based nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of inorganics are accordingly prepared. The direct blend of SAN/organomodified clay is also prepared for sake of comparison. The clay dispersion is characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and solid state NMR spectroscopy measurements. The thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The flame retardancy and gas barrier resistance properties of nanocomposites are discussed both as a function of the clay dispersion and of the matrix/clay interaction.

  6. Graphene-Based Transparent Electrodes for Hybrid Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pengfei eLi; Caiyun eChen; Jie eZhang; Shaojuan eLi; Baoquan eSun; Qiaoliang eBao

    2014-01-01

    The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene elect...

  7. Fabrication of a novel glucose biosensor based on a highly electroactive polystyrene/polyaniline/Au nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuge; Feng, Xiaomiao; Shen, Jianmin; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Hou, Wenhua

    2008-07-31

    A novel nanocomposite with a core-shell structure containing polystyrene (PS), polyaniline (PANI), and Au nanoparticles (NPs) was synthesized. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cyclic voltammetric experiments indicated that the nanocomposite had excellent redox ability in a wide range of pH values. The existence of Au NPs resulted in a higher electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite. As a model, glucose oxidase (GOD) was entrapped onto the nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and applied to construct a sensor. The immobilized GOD showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks and high catalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose.

  8. Metal-Polymer Nanocomposites: (Co-Evaporation/(CoSputtering Approaches and Electrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanna Torrisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the basic concepts related to (co-evaporation and (cosputtering based fabrication methods and the electrical properties of polymer-metal nanocomposite films. Within the organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites research framework, the field related to metal-polymer nanocomposites is attracting much interest. In fact, it is opening pathways for engineering flexible composites that exhibit advantageous electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. The metal-polymer nanocomposites research field is, now, a wide, complex, and important part of the nanotechnology revolution. So, with this review we aim, starting from the discussion of specific cases, to focus our attention on the basic microscopic mechanisms and processes and the general concepts suitable for the interpretation of material properties and structure–property correlations. The review aims, in addition, to provide a comprehensive schematization of the main technological applications currently in development worldwide.

  9. A label-free fluorescent assay for deoxyribonuclease I activity based on DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Ki Soo; Jung, Yun Kyung; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2017-07-15

    A novel label-free system for the sensitive fluorescent detection of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) activity has been developed by utilizing DNA-templated silver nanocluster/graphene oxide (DNA-AgNC/GO) nanocomposite. AgNC is first synthesized around C-rich template DNA and the resulting DNA-AgNC binds to GO through the interaction between the extension DNA and GO. The resulting DNA-AgNC/GO would show quite reduced fluorescence signal because the fluorescence from DNA-AgNCs is quenched by GO. In the presence of DNase I, however, it degrades the DNA strand within DNA/RNA hybrid duplex probe employed in this study, consequently releasing RNA which is complementary to the extension DNA. The released free RNA then extracts DNA-AgNC from GO by hybridizing with the extension DNA bound to GO. This process would restore the quenched fluorescence, emitting highly enhanced fluorescence signal. By employing this assay principle, DNase I activity was reliably identified with a detection limit of 0.10U/ml which is lower than those from previous fluorescence-based methods. Finally, the practical capability of this assay system was successfully demonstrated by its use to determine DNase I activity in bovine urine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel amino-acid-based polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube bio-nanocomposites: highly water dispersible carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Bund, Andreas; Cho, Byung Gwon; Lim, Kwon Taek; Jeong, Yeon Tae

    2009-06-03

    A well-reproducible and completely green route towards highly water dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) is achieved by a non-invasive, polymer wrapping technique, where the polymer is adsorbed on the MWNT's surface. Simply mixing an amino-acid-based polymer derivative, namely poly methacryloyl beta-alanine (PMBA) with purified MWNTs in distilled water resulted in the formation of PMBA-MWNT nanocomposite hybrids. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were further anchored on the polymer-wrapped MWNTs, which were previously sonicated in distilled water, via the hydrogen bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid functional groups present in the polymer-modified MWNTs and the citrate-capped AuNPs. The surface morphologies and chemistries of the hybrids decorated with nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, the composites were also prepared by the in situ free radical polymerization of the monomer, methacryloyl beta-alanine (MBA), with MWNTs. Thus functionalized MWNTs were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and TEM. Both methods were effective in the nanotube functionalization and ensured good dispersion and high stability in water over three months. Due to the presence of the high densities of carboxylic acid functionalities on the surface of CNTs, various colloidal nanocrystals can be attached to MWNTs.

  11. Bone-like nanocomposites based on self-assembled protein-based matrices with Ca2+ capturing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Lin; Huang, Jie; Luo, Dongmei; Chen, Zhenhua; Li, Xudong

    2010-09-01

    In the present work, bone-like nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized based on the mineralization of self-assembled protein-based microgels. Such mircogels were achieved by the in vitro reconstitution of collagen monomeric solutions in the presence of alginate in a microemulsion system. Microstructural observations revealed that the collagen-alginate composite beads possessed a nanofibrous three dimensional (3D) interconnected porous microstructure. The obtained microgels were pre-incubated in calcium-containing solution to capture Ca(2+) ions, and subsequently immersed in phosphate-containing solution to initiate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) by an alternative incubating procedure. It was observed that a substantial amount of bone-like apatite nanocrystals were orderly and homogeneously deposited throughout the porous fibrillar networks. Herein, the collagen-alginate composite microgels served as a mineralization template for the synthesis of HA-polymer nanocomposites, which could be ideal vehicles potentially for cell carriers, bone repair and proteins and drugs delivery in tissue regeneration.

  12. Queries to Hybrid MKNF Knowledge Bases through Oracular Tabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferes, José Júlio; Knorr, Matthias; Swift, Terrance

    An important issue for the Semantic Web is how to combine open-world ontology languages with closed-world (non-monotonic) rule paradigms. Several proposals for hybrid languages allow concepts to be simultaneously defined by an ontology and rules, where rules may refer to concepts in the ontology and the ontology may also refer to predicates defined by the rules. Hybrid MKNF knowledge bases are one such proposal, for which both a stable and a well-founded semantics have been defined. The definition of Hybrid MKNF knowledge bases is parametric on the ontology language, in the sense that non-monotonic rules can extend any decidable ontology language. In this paper we define a query-driven procedure for Hybrid MKNF knowledge bases that is sound with respect to the original stable model-based semantics, and is correct with respect to the well-founded semantics. This procedure is able to answer conjunctive queries, and is parametric on an inference engine for reasoning in the on- tology language. Our procedure is based on an extension of a tabled rule evaluation to capture reasoning within an ontology by modeling it as an interaction with an external oracle and, with some assumptions on the complexity of the oracle compared to the complexity of the ontology language, maintains the data complexity of the well-founded semantics for hybrid MKNF knowledge bases.

  13. Tribology of Nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides recent information on nanocomposites tribology. Chapter 1 provides information on tribology of bulk polymer nanocomposites and nanocomposite coatings. Chapter 2 is dedicated to nano and micro PTFE for surface lubrication of carbon fabric reinforced polyethersulphone composites. Chapter 3 describes Tribology of MoS2 -based nanocomposites. Chapter 4 contains information on friction and wear of Al2O2 -based composites with dispersed and agglomerated nanoparticles. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to wear of multi-scale phase reinforced composites. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

  14. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Acero, José F.; Martínez-Lauranchet, Jaime; Probst, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize...

  15. Titanium nano-composites synthesis by laser pyrolysis; Synthese de nanocomposites a base de titane par pyrolyse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskrot, H. [CEA Saclay, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Lab. Francis Perrin (CEA-CNRS URA 2453), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, Ti/C/O nano-powders have been obtained by using a titanium iso-prop-oxide aerosol as precursor and a hydrocarbon gas as a sensitizer. A production velocity in the range of 10-20 g/h and a titanium yield superior to 80% have been obtained. The main TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase was always the anatase. The measured specific surface areas are in the range 65-115 m{sup 2}/g with grain sizes of 12 to 40 nm. These sizes are inferior to those of the Degussa powder P25 (45 m{sup 2}/g) which is often cited as reference in catalysis. According to the sensitizer concentration and the laser power, the colours of the powders have changed from light grey to black, corresponding to the different free carbon amounts (3{>=}C{>=}12 % weight). Metal/Ti/C/O nano-composites have been obtained in adding a metal precursor (for instance platinum acetylacetonate) in the liquid precursor. The preliminary catalytic tests lead to an encouraging catalytic activity. Ti/Si/C/O nano-particles have been prepared too with a production rate near 20 g/h. The Si/Ti ratio in the powder (0.1{<=}Si/Ti{<=}0.9) is controlled in adjusting the mixture of the precursors. A substoichiometric secondary phase of titanium oxide leading to SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2-x} composites has been identified in these powders. In conclusion, the laser pyrolysis allows to synthesize titanium nano-powders with production rates and sizes at least also attracting than those found in the literature. A quantification of the catalytic activity of the different obtained materials is in study. (O.M.)

  16. Synthesis and utilization of poly (methylmethacrylate nanocomposites based on modified montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Youssef

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly (methylmethacrylate nanocomposite was prepared via in-situ emulsion polymerization (PMMA/Mt-CTA. The modified montmorillonite (Mt-CTA is used as hosts for the preparation of poly (methylmethacrylate nanocomposites with basal distance 1.95 nm. Moreover, exfoliated nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The fashioned nanocomposites exhibited better thermal stability than pristine PMMA which make it suitable for packaging applications. Furthermore, this nanocomposite reveals tremendous affinity for removing pesticides from aquatic solutions. The data obtained from GC/ECD gas liquid chromatography illustrated that the removal efficiency of PMMA/Mt-CTA nanocomposites for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs varied from 73.65% to 99.36% that make it as a new method for water treatment. Also, the antimicrobial activity of the Mt-CTA and PMMA/Mt-CTA nanocomposites was evaluated by the inhibitory zone tests and revealed good activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, which makes it suitable materials for packaging applications.

  17. Processing and characterization of polystyrene nanocomposites based on CoAl layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelothu Suresh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of polystyrene (PS nanocomposites through solvent blending technique with diverse contents of modified CoAl layered double hydroxide (LDH. The prepared PS as well as PS/CoAl LDH (1–7 wt.% nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, rheological analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The XRD results suggested the formation of exfoliated structure, while TEM images clearly indicated the intercalated morphology of PS nanocomposites at higher loading. The presence of various functional groups in the CoAl LDH and PS/CoAl LDH nanocomposites was verified by FTIR analysis. TGA data confirmed that the thermal stability of PS composites was enhanced significantly as compared to pristine PS. While considering 15% weight loss as a reference point, it was found that the thermal degradation (Td temperature increased up to 28.5 °C for PS nanocomposites prepared with 7 wt.% CoAl LDH loading over pristine PS. All the nanocomposite samples displayed superior glass transition temperature (Tg, in which PS nanocomposites containing 7 wt.% LDH showed about 5.5 °C higher Tg over pristine PS. In addition, the kinetics for thermal degradation of the composites was studied using Coats-Redfern method. The Criado method was ultimately used to evaluate the decomposition reaction mechanism of the nanocomposites. The complex viscosity and rheological muduli of nanocomposites were found to be higher than that of pristine PS when the frequency increased from 0.01 to 100 s−1.

  18. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Radiation Processing, Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum 1111 (Sudan); Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd [Polycomposite Sdn Bhd, No.75-2, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Tajau, Rida [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Nuclear Malaysia, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi [No. 107, Jalan 2, Taman Kajang Baru, Sg Jelok, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000, Sungai Besi Camp, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Å, while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  19. Adsorption and photocatalysis for methyl orange and Cd removal from wastewater using TiO2/sewage sludge-based activated carbon nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. Nageeb; Eltaher, M. A.; Abdou, A. N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Nanocomposite TiO2/ASS (TiO2 nanoparticle coated sewage sludge-based activated carbon) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The changes in surface properties of the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence. The prepared TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was applied for simultaneous removal of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution. The factors influencing photocatalysis (TiO2 : ASS ratios, initial pollutant concentrations, solution pH, nanocomposite dosage and UV irradiation time) were investigated. The results revealed that high removal efficiency of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution was achieved with TiO2/ASS at a ratio (1 : 2). The obtained results revealed that degradation of MO dye on the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was facilitated by surface adsorption and photocatalytic processes. The coupled photocatalysis and adsorption shown by TiO2/ASS nanocomposite resulted in faster and higher degradation of MO as compared to MO removal by ASS adsorbent. The removal efficiency of MO by ASS adsorbent and TiO2/ASS (1 : 2) nanocomposite at optimum pH value 7 were 74.14 and 94.28%, respectively, while for Cd2+ it was more than 90%. The experimental results fitted well with the second-order kinetic reaction.

  20. Electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-05

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  1. A neurocomputer based on an analog-digital hybrid architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.; Duong, T.; Khanna, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    A novel analog-digital hybrid architecture based on the utilization of high density digital random access memories for the storage of the synaptic weights of a neural network, and high speed analog hardware to perform neural computation is described. An electronic neurocomputer based on such an architecture is ideally suited for investigating the dynamics, associative recall properties, and computational capabilities of neural networks and provides significant speed improvement in comparison to conventional software based neural network simulations. As a demonstration of the feasibility of the hybrid architectural concept, a prototype breadboard hybrid neurocomputer system with 32 neurons has been designed and fabricated with off-the-shelf hardware components. The performance of the breadboard system has been tested for variety of applications including associative memory and combinatorial problem solving such as Graph Coloring, and is discussed in this paper.

  2. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition....... An analytical model, previously established for conventional fibre composites, is used for the analysis of the volumetric composition. For the aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites, based on the established linear relationship between the porosity content and the fibre volume content, the fibre correlated...

  3. Signal amplification strategies for DNA and protein detection based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shaohong; Yuan, Liang; Hua, Xin; Xu, Lingling; Liu, Songqin, E-mail: liusq@seu.edu.cn

    2015-06-02

    Highlights: • We review the innovative advances in polymer-based signal amplification. • Conceptual connectivity between different amplified methodologies is illustrated. • Examples explain the mechanisms of polymers/polymerizations-based amplification. • Several elegant applications are summarized that illustrate underlying concept. - Abstract: Demand is increasing for ultrasensitive bioassays for disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring and other research areas. This requires novel signal amplification strategies to maximize the signal output. In this review, we focus on a series of significant signal amplification strategies based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization. Some common polymers are used as carriers to increase the local concentration of signal probes and/or biomolecules on their surfaces or in their interiors. Some polymers with special fluorescence and optical properties can efficiently transfer the excitation energy from a single site to the whole polymer backbone. This results in superior fluorescence signal amplification due to the resulting collective effort (integration of signal). Recent polymerization-based signal amplification strategies that employ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and photo-initiated polymerization are also summarized. Several distinctive applications of polymers in ultrasensitive bioanalysis are highlighted.

  4. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  5. Nano and hybrid aluminum based metal matrix composites: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs are potential light weight engineering materials with excellent properties. AMCs find application in many areas including automobile, mining, aerospace and defence, etc. Due to technological advancements, it is possible to use nano sized reinforcement in Al matrix. Nano sized reinforcements enhance the properties of Al matrix compared to micro sized reinforcements. Hybrid reinforcement imbibe superior properties to aluminium matrix composites as compared with Al composites having single reinforcement. This paper is focused on overview of development in the field of Al based metal matrix with nano and hybrid aluminium based composites.

  6. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D) Hierarchical MoS2/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dahou; Tayebi, Mahnoush; Huang, Yinxi; Yang, Hui Ying; Ai, Ye

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS2/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection. PMID:27854247

  7. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D Hierarchical MoS2/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahou Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS2/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS2/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection.

  8. A Microfluidic DNA Sensor Based on Three-Dimensional (3D) Hierarchical MoS₂/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dahou; Tayebi, Mahnoush; Huang, Yinxi; Yang, Hui Ying; Ai, Ye

    2016-11-14

    In this work, we present a novel microfluidic biosensor for sensitive fluorescence detection of DNA based on 3D architectural MoS₂/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites. The proposed platform exhibits a high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability with a visible manner and operation simplicity. The excellent fluorescence quenching stability of a MoS₂/MWCNT aqueous solution coupled with microfluidics will greatly simplify experimental steps and reduce time for large-scale DNA detection.

  9. P(3HB) based magnetic nanocomposites: smart materials for bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akaraonye, E.; Filip, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Salih, V.; Keshavarz, T.; Knowles, J.C.; Roy, I.

    -, č. 2016 (2016), č. článku 3897592. ISSN 1687-4110 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : composite films * dispersions * elastic moduli * intelligent materials * nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2016

  10. Microwave absorption behaviour of MWCNT based nanocomposites in X-band region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, P; Sahoo, S; Das, C. K

    2013-01-01

    .... Microwave absorption studies of the nanocomposites were carried out in X-band region. The microwave absorption result was discussed with the help of complex permittivity and permeability of the prepared radar absorbing material (RAM...

  11. Physicomechanical properties of nanocomposites based on cellulose nanofibre and natural rubber latex

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abraham, E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available films. The effect of CNF loading on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical (DMA) properties of NR/CNF nanocomposite was studied. The morphological, crystallographic and spectroscopic changes were also analyzed. Significant improvement of Young’s modulus...

  12. Gum karaya based hydrogel nanocomposites for the effective removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittala, H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable hydrogel nanocomposites (HNC) of gum karaya (GK) grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) incorporated silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NPs) were synthesized using the in situ graft copolymerization method and tested for the adsorption...

  13. Model-based Dynamic Control Allocation in a Hybrid Neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Nicholas A; Bao, Xuefeng; Alibeji, Naji A; Dicianno, Brad E; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-09-22

    A hybrid neuroprosthesis that combines human muscle power, elicited through functional electrical stimulation (FES), with a powered orthosis may be advantageous over a sole FES or a powered exoskeleton-based rehabilitation system. The hybrid system can conceivably overcome torque reduction due to FESinduced muscle fatigue by complementarily using torque from the powered exoskeleton. The second advantage of the hybrid system is that the use of human muscle power can supplement the powered exoskeleton's power (motor torque) requirements; thus, potentially reducing the size and weight of a walking restoration system. To realize these advantages, however, it is unknown how to concurrently optimize desired control performance and allocation of control inputs between FES and electric motor. In this paper, a model predictive control-based dynamic control allocation (DCA) is used to allocate control between FES and the electric motor that simultaneously maintain a desired knee angle. The experimental results, depicting the performance of the DCA method while the muscle fatigues, are presented for an able-bodied participant and a participant with spinal cord injury. The experimental results showed that the motor torque recruited by the hybrid system was less than that recruited by the motor-only system, the algorithm can be easily used to allocate more control input to the electric motor as the muscle fatigues, and the muscle fatigue induced by the hybrid system was found to be less than the fatigue induced by sole FES. These results validate the aforementioned advantages of the hybrid system; thus implying the hybrid technology's potential use in walking rehabilitation.

  14. Water-Mediated Melt Compounding to Produce Thermoplastic Polymer-Based Nanocomposites: Structure-Property Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Siengchin, Suchart

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is now recognized as one of the most promising areas for technological development in the 21st century. In materials research, the development of polymer nanocomposites is rapidly emerging as a multidisciplinary research activity whose results could widen the applications of polymers to the benefit of many different industries. Nanocomposites are a new class of composites that are particle-filled polymers for which at least one dimension of the dispersed particle...

  15. Development of a nanocomposite ultrafiltration membrane based on polyphenylsulfone blended with graphene oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Shukla; Javed Alam; Mansour Alhoshan; Lawrence Arockiasamy Dass; M. R. Muthumareeswaran

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, graphene oxide (GO) was incorporated as a nanoadditive into a polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) to develop a PPSU/GO nanocomposite membrane with enhanced antifouling properties. A series of membranes containing different concentrations (0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.%) of GO were fabricated via the phase inversion method, using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as the solvent, deionized water as the non-solvent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a pore forming agent. The prepared nanocomposite me...

  16. Natural polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanocomposite based biosensor for detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phukon, Pinkee [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Radhapyari, Keisham [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India); Konwar, Bolin Kumar [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Nagaland University (Central), Lumami, Zunheboto, Nagaland 798627 (India); Khan, Raju, E-mail: khan.raju@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785006, Assam (India)

    2014-04-01

    The worrisome trend of antimalarial resistance has already highlighted the importance of artemisinin as a potent antimalarial agent. The current investigation aimed at fabricating a biosensor based on natural polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle composite mounting on an indium-tin oxide glass plate for the analysis of artemisinin. The biosensor was fabricated using an adsorbing horse-radish peroxidase enzyme on the electrode surface for which cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor the electro-catalytic reduction of artemisinin under diffusion controlled conditions. Electrochemical interfacial properties and immobilization of enzyme onto a polyhydroxyalkanoate–gold nanoparticle film were evaluated, and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The differential pulse voltammetric peak current for artemisinin was increased linearly (concentration range of 0.01–0.08 μg mL{sup −1}) with sensitivity of 0.26 μA μg mL{sup −1}. The greater sensitivity of the fabricated biosensor to artemisinin (optimum limits of detection were 0.0035 μg mL{sup −1} and 0.0036 μg mL{sup −1} in bulk and spiked human serum, respectively) could be of much aid in medical diagnosis. - Highlights: • Extraction of PHA from indigenously isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa BPC2 • Developed PHA/AuNPs/HRP/ITO based biosensor without the use of chemical cross linker • Detection of antimalarial drug artemisinin using the nanocomposite based biosensor.

  17. Influence of using nanoobjects as filler on functionality-based energy use of nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roes, A. L., E-mail: a.l.roes@uu.nl; Tabak, L. B.; Shen, L.; Nieuwlaar, E.; Patel, M. K. [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute, Department of Science, Technology and Society (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    The goal of our study was to investigate the potential benefits of reinforcing polymer matrices with nanoobjects for structural applications by looking at both the mechanical properties and environmental impacts. For determining the mechanical properties, we applied the material indices defined by Ashby for stiffness and strength. For the calculation of environmental impacts, we applied the life cycle assessment methodology, focusing on non-renewable energy use (NREU). NREU has shown to be a good indicator also for other environmental impacts. We then divided the NREU by the appropriate Ashby index to obtain the 'functionality-based NREU'. We studied 23 different nanocomposites, based on thermoplastic and thermosetting polymer matrices and organophilic montmorillonite, silica, carbon nanotubes (single-walled and multiwalled) and calcium carbonate as filler. For 17 of these, we saw a decrease of the functionality-based NREU with increasing filler content. We draw the conclusion that the use of nanoobjects as filler can have benefits from both an environmental point of view and with respect to mechanical properties.

  18. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  19. A Survey on Evolutionary Algorithm Based Hybrid Intelligence in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other types of omics technologies during the past decades, a tremendous amount of data related to molecular biology has been produced. It is becoming a big challenge for the bioinformatists to analyze and interpret these data with conventional intelligent techniques, for example, support vector machines. Recently, the hybrid intelligent methods, which integrate several standard intelligent approaches, are becoming more and more popular due to their robustness and efficiency. Specifically, the hybrid intelligent approaches based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs are widely used in various fields due to the efficiency and robustness of EAs. In this review, we give an introduction about the applications of hybrid intelligent methods, in particular those based on evolutionary algorithm, in bioinformatics. In particular, we focus on their applications to three common problems that arise in bioinformatics, that is, feature selection, parameter estimation, and reconstruction of biological networks.

  20. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  1. Development of a stimuli-responsive polymer nanocomposite toward biologically optimized, MEMS-based neural probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A. E.; Capadona, J. R.; Shanmuganathan, K.; Hsu, L.; Rowan, S. J.; Weder, C.; Tyler, D. J.; Zorman, C. A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the development of micromachining processes and mechanical evaluation of a stimuli-responsive, mechanically dynamic polymer nanocomposite for biomedical microsystems. This nanocomposite consists of a cellulose nanofiber network encased in a polyvinyl acetate matrix. Micromachined tensile testing structures fabricated from the nanocomposite displayed a reversible and switchable stiffness comparable to bulk samples, with a Young's modulus of 3420 MPa when dry, reducing to ~20 MPa when wet, and a stiff-to-flexible transition time of ~300 s. This mechanically dynamic behavior is particularly attractive for the development of adaptive intracortical probes that are sufficiently stiff to insert into the brain without buckling, but become highly compliant upon insertion. Along these lines, a micromachined neural probe incorporating parylene insulating/moisture barrier layers and Ti/Au electrodes was fabricated from the nanocomposite using a fabrication process designed specifically for this chemical- and temperature-sensitive material. It was found that the parylene layers only slightly increased the stiffness of the probe in the wet state in spite of its much higher Young's modulus. Furthermore, the Ti/Au electrodes exhibited impedance comparable to Au electrodes on conventional substrates. Swelling of the nanocomposite was highly anisotropic favoring the thickness dimension by a factor of 8 to 12, leading to excellent adhesion between the nanocomposite and parylene layers and no discernable deformation of the probes when deployed in deionized water.

  2. Thermoset nanocomposites from waterborne bio-based epoxy resin and cellulose nanowhiskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-min; Liu, Di; Liu, Gui-feng; Chen, Jian; Huo, Shu-ping; Kong, Zhen-wu

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset nanocomposites were prepared from a waterborne terpene-maleic ester type epoxy resin (WTME) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs). The curing behaviors of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were measured with rotational rheometer. The results show that the storage modulus (G') of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites increased with the increase of CNWs content. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate that the incorporation of CNWs in WTME matrix caused microphase separation and destroyed the compactness of the matrix. This effect leads to the glass transition temperatures (Tg) of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites slightly decrease with the increase of CNWs content, which were confirmed by both DSC and DMA tests. The mechanical properties of WTME/CNWs nanocomposites were investigated by tensile testing. The Yong's modulus (E) and tensile strength (σb) of the nanocomposites were significantly reinforced by the addition of CNWs. These results indicate that CNWs exhibit excellent reinforcement effect on WTME matrix, due to the formation and increase of interfacial interaction by hydrogen bonds between CNWs nano-filler and the WTME matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Ying; Wang, Liying; Zhu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the core/shell Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites modified with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were prepared and applied in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. And the detailed investigation of Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites was separately performed by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. As the magnetic property and exceptional optical properties, the Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites were used as the solid support for the goat anti-human IgM, which could be immobilized on the surface of SPR biosensor chip by a magnetic pillar. This novel method of immobilizing goat anti-human IgM simplified experimental procedures and facilitated the regeneration of the sensing membrane. In addition, the different diameter of Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites could be obtained with the different amount of MPA in the solution. And the effect of Fe3O4/Au nanocomposites with different diameters on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor was also explored. As a result, the SPR biosensor exhibits a satisfactory response for human IgM in the concentration range of 0.30-20.00 μg ml(-1) and the increasing nanocomposite diameter is in favor of the sensitivity enhancement of SPR biosensor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of gas sensing properties of PANI based graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaikwad, Ganesh [Department of Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India); Patil, Pritam [SVMIT, College of Engineering, Bharuch 392001, Gujarat (India); Patil, Devidas [Bulk and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Rani Laxmibai Mahavidyalaya Parola, Jalgaon 425111, Maharashtra (India); Naik, Jitendra, E-mail: jbnaik@nmu.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, University Institute of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425001, Maharashtra (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Developed GO, ZnO, PANI nanocomposites. • Evaluated for effect of GO addition on gas sensing performance. • Performed ammonia gas sensing at room temperature. • Obtained excellent recovery time of gas sensor. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers and Polyaniline/Graphene Oxide (PANI/GO), Polyaniline/Graphene Oxide/Zinc Oxide (PANI/GO/ZnO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by nanoemulsion method. The synthesized nanofibers and nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), has showed the evidence of interaction between PANI nanofibers, GO nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively. PANI nanofibers and nanocomposites were used for the sensing of NH{sub 3,} LPG, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S gases respectively at room temperature. It was observed that the PANI nanofibers and PANI/GO, PANI/GO/ZnO nanocomposites with different weight ratios of ZnO and GO had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH{sub 3} at room temperature. Best performance was shown by PANI/GO/ZnO nanocomposite response of 5.706 (10.3 times better response than PANI sensor) for 1000 ppm NH{sub 3} at 80 ± 1 °C with the recovery time of 1 min 30 s only.

  5. Elaboration and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite fibers by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, Sara [Universite Montpellier 2, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR CNRS 5253, Laboratoire des Agregats, Interfaces et Materiaux pour l' Energie (France); Salles, Vincent; Brioude, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.brioude@univ-lyon1.f [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS-Universite Lyon 1 (France); Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire BioMoCeTi UMR 7033, CNRS-Universite Paris 13 (France); Monod, Philippe [ESPCI ParisTech, Laboratoire de Physique du Solide (France); Cornu, David; Miele, Philippe [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS-Universite Lyon 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    We describe a simple method based on the electrospinning process to prepare heterogeneous hybrid submicronic fibers with magnetic behavior, consisting of Co nanoparticles embedded in a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer. Quantity and anisotropy of magnetic nanoparticles are key parameters to improve the specific magnetic properties of fibers. We notably show that for higher Co nanoparticles concentration, their lower dispersity into the resulting fibers lead to dipolar interactions that become demagnetizing. The structural and morphological properties of Co nanodisks and of the resulting nanocomposite fibers are investigated by SEM, TEM, and EDX. The magnetic properties of the hybrid electrospun fibers have been evaluated with a SQUID magnetometer.

  6. Photocatalytic removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by magnetically separable flower-like BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 hybrid nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengwang; Guo, Changsheng; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Jianfeng; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2017-06-05

    A novel flower-like three-dimensional BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized using a simple in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The hybrid composites were characterized by a couple of techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, photoluminescence technique, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were perfectly loaded on the surface of BiOBr/BiOI microspheres. The recyclable magnetic BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 was employed to degrade TBBPA under visible light irradiation. The optimal removal efficiency of the ternary BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 (2:2:0.5) nanocomposite reached up to 98.5% for TBBPA in aqueous solution. The superior photocatalytic activity of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 was mainly ascribed to large surface area and appropriate energy gaps, resulting in the effective adsorption and separation of electrons-hole pairs. The photogenerated reactive species determined by free radicals trapping experiments revealed that the excellent catalytic activity was primarily driven by O2(-) radical. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics and a detailed mechanism were also proposed. Result demonstrated that the BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 can be magnetically recycled, and maintain high photocatalytic activity after reuse over five cycles. It suggested that the synthesized material had a potentially promising application for TBBPA removal by photocatalytic degradation from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High pressure synthesis of novel, zeolite based nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Meso/micro-porous solids such as zeolites are complex materials exhibiting an impressive range of applications, including molecular sieve, gas storage, catalysis, electronics and photonics. We used these materials, particularly non catalytic zeolites in an entirely different fashion. In fact, we performed high pressure (0.5-30 GPa) chemical reactions of simple molecules on a sub-nanometer scale in the channels of a pure SiO2 zeolite, silicalite to obtain unique nano-composite materials with drastically modified physical and chemical properties. Our material investigations are based on a combination of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques in the diamond anvil cell. I will first briefly show how silicalite can be easily filled by simple molecules such as Ar, CO2 and C2H4 among others from the fluid phase at high pressures, and how this efficient filling removes the well known pressure induced amorphization of the silica framework (Haines et al., JACS 2010). I will then present on a silicon carbonate crystalline phase synthesized by reacting silicalite and molecular CO2 that fills the nano-pores, at 18-26 GPa and 600-980 K; after the synthesis the compound is temperature quenched and it results to be slightly metastable at room conditions (Santoro et al., PNAS 2011). On the other hand, a stable at room condition spectacular crystalline nano-composite is obtained by photo-polymerizing ethylene at 0.5-1.5 GPa under UV (351-364 nm) irradiation in the channels of silicalite (Santoro et al., Nat. Commun, in press 2013). For this composite we obtained a structure with single polyethylene chains adapting very well to the confining channels, which results in significant increases in bulk modulus and density, and the thermal expansion coefficient changes sign from negative to positive with respect to the original silicalite host. Mechanical properties may thus be tuned by varying the amount of polymerized ethylene. We then think our findings could allow the

  8. A novel magnetic poly(aniline-naphthylamine)-based nanocomposite for micro solid phase extraction of rhodamine B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib, E-mail: bagheri@sharif.edu; Daliri, Rasoul; Roostaie, Ali

    2013-09-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–aniline-naphthylamine nanocomposite was prepared via a simple route. •The magnetic nanocomposite was applied for isolation of RhB from water. •The nanocomposite applicability was compared with other pristine polymers. •The method was applied for the determination of RhB in different samples. -- Abstract: A novel Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–poly(aniline-naphthylamine)-based nanocomposite was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization process as a magnetic sorbent for micro solid phase extraction. The scanning electron microscopy images of the synthesized nanocomposite revealed that the copolymer posses a porous structure with diameters less than 50 nm. The extraction efficiency of this sorbent was examined by isolation of rhodamine B, a mutagenic and carcinogenic dye, from aquatic media in dispersion mode. Among different synthesized polymers, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(aniline-naphthylamine) nanocomposite showed a prominent efficiency. Parameters including the desorption solvent, amount of sorbent, desorption time, sample pH, ionic strength, extraction time and stirring rate were optimized. Under the optimum condition, a linear spiked calibration curve in the range of 0.35–5.00 μg L{sup −1} with R{sup 2} = 0.9991 was obtained. The limits of detection (3S{sub b}) and limits of quantification (10S{sub b}) of the method were 0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.35 μg L{sup −1} (n = 3), respectively. The relative standard deviation for water sample with 0.5 μg L{sup −1} of RhB was 4.2% (n = 5) and the absolute recovery was 92%. The method was applied for the determination of rhodamine B in dishwashing foam, dishwashing liquid, shampoo, pencil, matches tips and eye shadows samples and the relative recovery percentage were in the range of 94–99%.

  9. Electrochemical immunosensor based on Pd-Au nanoparticles supported on functionalized PDDA-MWCNT nanocomposites for aflatoxin B1 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songbai; Shen, Youming; Shen, Guangyu; Wang, Sha; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which is based on a gold electrode modified by a biocompatible film of carbon nanotubes/poly(diallyldimethylammoniumchloride)/Pd-Au nanoparticles (CNTs/PDDA/Pd-Au). The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the electrochemical behavior of modified electrodes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The CNTs/PDDA/Pd-Au nanocomposites film showed good electron transfer ability, which ensured high sensitivity to detect AFB1 in a range from 0.05 to 25 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 ng mL(-1) obtained at 3σ (where σ is the standard deviation of the blank solution, n = 10). The proposed immunosensor provides a simple tool for AFB1 detection. This strategy can be extended to any other antigen detection by using the corresponding antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication of Amino Acid Based Silver Nanocomposite Hydrogels from PVA-Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acryloyl phenylalanine) and Their Antimicrobial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyeongrae; Babu, V. Ramesh; Rao, K. S. V. Krishna; Kim, Yonghyun; Mei, Surong; Lee, Yongill; Joo, Woo Hong [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    New silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-loaded amino acid based hydrogels were synthesized successfully from poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acryl amide-co-acryloyl phenyl alanine) (PAA) by redox polymerization. The formation of AgNP in hydrogels was confirmed by using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and XRD. The structure and morphology of silver nanocomposite hydrogels were studied by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which demonstrated scattered nanoparticles, ca. 10-20 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed large differences of weight loss (i. e., 48%) between the prestine hydrogel and silver nanocomposite. The antibacterial studies of AgNP-loaded PAA (Ag-PAA) hydrogels was evaluated against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria. These Ag-PAA hydrogels showed significant activities against all the test bacteria. Newly developed hydrogels could be used for medical applications, such as artificial burn dressings.

  11. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  12. Fe-based hybrid electrocatalysts for nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seun; Lee, Gwang-Hee; Lee, Hack Jun; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2017-08-25

    Lithium-oxygen batteries promise high energy densities, but are confronted with challenges, such as high overpotentials and sudden death during discharge-charge cycling, because the oxygen electrode is covered with the insulating discharge product, Li2O2. Here, we synthesized low-cost Fe-based nanocomposites via an electrical wire pulse process, as a hybrid electrocatalyst for the oxygen electrode of Li-O2 batteries. Fe3O4-Fe nanohybrids-containing electrodes exhibited a high discharge capacity (13,890 mA h gc(-1) at a current density of 500 mA gc(-1)), long cycle stability (100 cycles at a current rate of 500 mA gc(-1) and fixed capacity regime of 1,000 mA h gc(-1)), and low overpotential (1.39 V at 40 cycles). This superior performance resulted from the good electrical conductivity of the Fe metal nanoparticles during discharge-charge cycling, which could enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction activities. We have demonstrated the increased electrical conductivity of the Fe3O4-Fe nanohybrids using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Theoretical investigation on multilayer nanocomposite-based fiber optic SPR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Ehsan; Madanipour, Khosro; Gharibzadeh, Azadeh; Abbasi, Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a multilayer nanocomposite based fiber optic SPR sensor is considered and especially designed for CO2 gas detection. This proposed fiber sensor consists of fiber core, gold-silver alloy and the absorber layers. The investigation is based on the evaluation of the transmitted-power derived under the transfer matrix method and the multiple-reflection in the sensing area. In terms of sensitivity, the sensor performance is studied theoretically under various conditions related to the metal layer and its gold and silver nanoparticles to form a single alloy film. Effect of additional parameters such as the ratio of the alloy composition and the thickness of the alloy film on the performance of the SPR sensor is studied, as well. Finally, a four-layer structure is introduced to detect carbon dioxide gas. It contains core fiber, gold-silver alloy layer, an absorbent layer of carbon dioxide gas (KOH) and measurement environment. Lower price and size are the main advantages of using such a sensor in compare with commercial (NDIR) gas sensor. Theoretical results show by increasing the metal layer thickness the sensitivity of sensor is increased, and by increasing the ratio of the gold in alloy the sensitivity is decreased.

  14. Theoretical Study of Wood Microwave Pretreatment in Rectangular Cavity for Fabricating Wood-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modifying wood by high intensive microwave pretreatment method is widely researched for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites, but the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency of microwave pretreatment have not reached the ideal state. In this study, the pretreated wood in rectangular cavity by high intensive microwave is theoretically studied by the finite element method based on the Maxwell electromagnetic field equations and the heat and mass transfer theory. The results show that the temperature uniformity and energy efficiency are related to the microwave feeding modes. Compared with the single-port and the two-port feeding mode, the four-port feeding mode is the best case on temperature uniformity and energy efficiency. The optimized parameters of cavity to pretreatment wood are achieved, which are that the height of cavities is between 0.08 m and 0.11 m in the four-port feeding mode when the thickness of wood is 0.06 m.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of poly (lactic acid)/chitosan nanocomposites based on renewable resources as biobased-material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Rihayat, T.; Salisah, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Biobased becomes one of the new breakthrough in the smart engineering, especially in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering that serves as a supporting physical structure to trigger the growth of skin tissue. From various studies which had been done, it was known that the optimal Biobased healed wounds or injuries in a relatively short time. In this study, a Biobased natural polymer based e.g Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)/Chitosan Nanocomposites was made. PLA was synthesized from saba banana (Musa acuminata) as raw material using Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) method. PLA was mixed with Chitosan with Chitosan concentration variations of 1%, 3%, and 5% to form a nanocomposites. The analysis result showed that Chitosan concentration in PLA/Chitosan Nanocomposites sample affected the value of tensile strength. The highest value of tensile strength was obtained on a sample of 100 ml volume with a concentration of 3%, which was 120.396 MPa. The highest percentage of elongation was obtained in 100 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 26.3686%. In the hydrophilicity test, the highest percentage of water absorption was obtained in a 200 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 44.615%. The addition of Chitosan to the sample affected the functional group bonding, where there was a functional group of NH2 at the wave number of 2923.92 cm-1. The sample characteristics based on water absorption indicated that the sample was potentially to be used as Biobased construction material.

  16. Two hybrids based on Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 10. Two hybrids based on Keggin polyoxometalates and dinuclear copper(II) complexes: syntheses, structures and electrocatalytic properties. YAN HOU YING NIU CHUNJING ZHANG HAIJUN PANG HUIYUAN MA. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue ...

  17. Patterned hybrid, multilayer nanostructures based on multivalent supramolecular interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo biel, O.; Dordi, B.; Maury, P.A.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2006-01-01

    Various patterning strategies have been developed to create hybrid nanostructures of dendrimers and gold nanoparticles on cyclodextrin self-assembled monolayers (CD SAMs) based on multiple supramolecular interactions using a layer-by-layer (LBL) approach. A lack of specificity of the adsorption of

  18. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  19. A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Yang, Qing-Hui; Chen, Zhi; Long, Yang; Jing, Yu-Lan; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Pei-Xin

    2012-06-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber (MA) in the microwave band was designed, fabricated and characterized. The hybrid MA was realized by incorporating a VO2 film into the conventional resonant MA. By thermally triggering the insulator-metal phase transition of the VO2 film, the impedance match condition was broken and a deep amplitude modulation of about 63.3% to the electromagnetic wave absorption was achieved. A moderate blue-shift of the resonance frequency was observed which is promising for practical applications. This VO2-based MA exhibits many advantages such as strong tunability, frequency agility, simple fabrication and ease of scaling to the terahertz band.

  20. Photonic applications based on biological/inorganic nano hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Biological Retinal is an effective and efficient photochromic compounds and one of the best candidates for photon conversion, transmission and storage, from the view of bionics and natural selection. We observed large optical nonlinearity by using new fabricated films of photoactive Retinol hybrid materials. Based on reversible photoinduced anisotropy and transient optical characteristics, the Retinol hybrids can be used to design novel photonic devices, such as holographic elements, all-optical switch and spatial light modulator. Also, the study is important for further understanding the photochemical mechanism of vision process.

  1. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybrid...... haracteristics of microgrids, an event-triggered hybrid control, including three kinds of switching controls, is designed to intelligently reconstruct operation mode when the security stability assessment indexes or the constraint conditions are violated. The validity of proposed control scheme is demonstrated...

  2. Progress on lanthanide-based organic-inorganic hybrid phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Luís D; Ferreira, Rute A S; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; Julián-López, Beatriz; Escribano, Purificación

    2011-02-01

    Research on organic-inorganic hybrid materials containing trivalent lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)) is a very active field that has rapidly shifted in the last couple of years to the development of eco-friendly, versatile and multifunctional systems, stimulated by the challenging requirements of technological applications spanning domains as diverse as optics, environment, energy, and biomedicine. This tutorial review offers a general overview of the myriad of advanced Ln(3+)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials recently synthesised, which may be viewed as a major innovation in areas of phosphors, lighting, integrated optics and optical telecommunications, solar cells, and biomedicine.

  3. Synthesis and Complete Antimicrobial Characterization of CEOBACTER, an Ag-Based Nanocomposite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O E Jaime-Acuña

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs is currently used as an alternative disinfectant with diverse applications, ranging from decontamination of aquatic environments to disinfection of medical devices and instrumentation. However, incorporation of AgNPs to the environment causes collateral damage that should be avoided. In this work, a novel Ag-based nanocomposite (CEOBACTER was successfully synthetized. It showed excellent antimicrobial properties without the spread of AgNPs into the environment. The complete CEOBACTER antimicrobial characterization protocol is presented herein. It is straightforward and reproducible and could be considered for the systematic characterization of antimicrobial nanomaterials. CEOBACTER showed minimal bactericidal concentration of 3 μg/ml, bactericidal action time of 2 hours and re-use capacity of at least five times against E. coli cultures. The bactericidal mechanism is the release of Ag ions. CEOBACTER displays potent bactericidal properties, long lifetime, high stability and re-use capacity, and it does not dissolve in the solution. These characteristics point to its potential use as a bactericidal agent for decontamination of aqueous environments.

  4. Synthesis and optical properties of TiO2-based magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Fleaca, C.-T.; Morjan, I. P.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Dutu, E.; Badoi, A.; Birjega, R.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Danciu, V.; Filoti, G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic titania nanoparticles covered/embedded in SiO2 shell/matrix were simultaneously manufactured by the single-step laser pyrolysis. The present study is a continuation of our previous investigations on the TiO2/Fe and TiO2/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) derived-systems. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis by IR (Infrared) laser pyrolysis of magnetic TiO2 based nanocomposites which implies many concurrent processes induced in the gas phase by the laser radiation. The dependence between characteristic properties and the synthesis parameters was determined by many analytical and complementary methods: XRD (X-ray diffraction) structural analysis, UV-vis (ultraviolet-visible) and EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy, TEM and HRTEM (transmission electron microscopy at low and high resolution) analysis and magnetic measurements. The results of analysis indicate the presence of disordered silica, Fe, α-Fe2O3 and mixtures of anatase and rutile phases with mean crystallite dimensions (in the 14-34 nm range) with typical character of diluted magnetic oxide systems and a lower bandgap energy (Eg = 1.85 eV) as compared with TiO2 P25 Degussa sample.

  5. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  6. Flexible conductive polypyrrole nanocomposite membranes based on bacterial cellulose with amphiphobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lian; Han, Jinlu; Jiang, Zhenlin; Chen, Shiyan; Wang, Huaping

    2015-03-06

    Flexible conductive polypyrrole nanocomposite membranes based on bacterial cellulose (BC) with amphiphobicity have been successfully prepared through in situ chemical synthesis and then infiltrated with polysiloxane solution. The results suggested that polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles deposited on the surface of BC formed a continuous core-shell structure by taking along the BC template. After modification with polysiloxane, the surface characteristics of the conductive BC membranes changed from highly hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The AFM images revealed that the roughness of samples after polysiloxane treatment increased along with the increase of pyrrole concentration. The contact angles (CAs) data revealed that the highest water contact angle and highest oil contact angle are 160.3° and 136.7°, respectively. The conductivity of the amphiphobic membranes with excellent flexibility reached 0.32 S/cm and demonstrated a good electromagnetic shielding effectiveness with an SE of 15 dB which could be applied in electromagnetic shielding materials with self-cleaning properties. It opened a new field of potential applications of BC materials. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and physical and mechanical characterisation of cellulose-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movva, Mounika; Kommineni, Ravindra

    2017-04-01

    Cellulose is an important nanoentity that have been used for the preparation of composites. The present work focuses on the extraction of cellulose from pistachio shell and preparing a partially degradable nanocomposite with extracted cellulose. Physical and microstructural characteristics of nanocellulose extracted from pistachio shell powder (PSP) through various stages of chemical treatment are identified from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Later, characterized nanocellulose is reinforced in a polyester matrix to fabricate nanocellulose-based composites according to the ASTM standard. The resulting nanocellulose composite performance is evaluated in the mechanical perspective through tensile and flexural loading. SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that the process for extraction is efficient in obtaining 95% crystalline cellulose. Cellulose also showed good thermal stability with a peak thermal degradation temperature of 361 °C. Such cellulose when reinforced in a matrix material showed a noteworthy rise in tensile and flexural strengths of 43 MPa and 127 MPa, at a definite weight percent of 5%.

  8. Synergic catalytic effect of Ti hydride and Nb nanoparticles for improving hydrogenation and dehydrogenation kinetics of Mg-based nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-9.3 wt% (TiH1.971-TiH−0.7 wt% Nb nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction (HPMR approach to enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics of Mg at moderate temperatures by providing nanosizing effect of increasing H “diffusion channels” and adding transition metallic catalysts. The Mg nanoparticles (NPs were in hexagonal shape range from 50 to 350 nm and the average size of the NPs was 177 nm. The small spherical TiH1.971, TiH and Nb NPs of about 25 nm uniformly decorated on the surface of the big Mg NPs. The Mg-TiH1.971-TiH-Nb nanocomposite could quickly absorb 5.6 wt% H2 within 5 min at 573 K and 4.5 wt% H2 within 5 min at 523 K, whereas the pure Mg prepared by HPMR could only absorb 4 and 1.5 wt% H2 at the same temperatures. TiH1.971, TiH and Nb NPs transformed into TiH2 and NbH during hydrogenation and recovered after dehydrogenation pro