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Sample records for hybrid nanocomposite thin

  1. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Dkhil, S., E-mail: sadok.bendekhil@gmail.com [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Bourguiga, R. [Laboratoire Physique des Materiaux, Structures et Proprietes Groupe Physique des Composants et Dispositifs Nanometriques, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerte (Tunisia); Davenas, J. [Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, IMP, UMR CNRS 5223, Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, 15, boulevard Latarjet, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cornu, D. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR CNRS 5635, Ecole Nationale superieure de Chimie, Universite de Montpellier, 1919 route de Mende, F34000 Montpellier (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV-visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V{sub oc} and short-circuit current density J{sub sc} are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  2. Graphene based nanocomposite hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphale, Ashish N.

    There is an unmet need to develop high performance energy storage systems (ESS), capable of storing energy from both renewable and non-renewable sources to meet the current energy crisis and depletion of non-renewable sources. Amongst many available ESS, supercapacitors (ECs) are the most promising because they exhibit a high charge/discharge rate and power density, along with a long cycle life. The possibility of exploring the use of atomically thin carbon allotropes like graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and electrically conducting polymers (ECPs) such as polypyrrole (PPy) has been studied as a high performance conducting electrodes in supercapacitor application. A novel templated sustainable nanocomposite electrode has been fabricated using cellulose extracted from Cladophora c. aegagropila algae as component of the assembled supercapacitor device which later has been transitioned to a unique template-less freestanding nanocomposite supercapacitor electrode. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-cellulose nanocomposite as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 91.5 F g -1 at the scan rate 50 m Vs-1 in the presence of 1M NaCl electrolyte. The open circuit voltage of the device with polypyrrole -graphene-cellulose electrode was found to be around 225 m V and that of the polypyrrole -cellulose device is only 53 m V without the presence of graphene in the nanocomposite electrode. Understanding the fundamentals by fabricating template nanocomposite electrode, it led to fabricate a unique nanocomposite template-less freestanding film which comprises of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT hybrid. Various experiments have been performed using different electrolytes such ascorbic acid, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid in different scan rates. The specific capacitance of polypyrrole-graphene-CNT nanocomposite with 0.1 wt% of graphene-CNT, as calculated from cyclic voltammetry curve is 450 F g-1 at the scan rate 5 m V s-1. For the first time a nanofibrous membrane has

  3. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxida- tion. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  4. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nanocomposite, in which acid-treated palygorskite was hybridized with carbon, was prepared and designed as an efficient support for electrocatatlysts. Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation. The hybrid supports and electrocatalysts were characterized by ...

  5. Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites as Multifunctional Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, Heveline D M; Naves, Alliny F; Araujo, Rafael A; Dubovoy, Viktor; Huang, Xiaoxi; Asefa, Tewodros; Silva, Rafael; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2017-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of hybrid and nanocomposite materials used as biomaterials in nanomedicine, focusing on applications in controlled drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensors and theranostic systems. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of tuning the properties of nanocomposites, which can be achieved by choosing appropriate synthetic methods and seeking synergy among different types of materials, particularly exploiting their nanoscale nature. The challenges in fabrication for the nanocomposites are highlighted by classifying them as those comprising solely inorganic phases (inorganic/inorganic hybrids), organic phases (organic/organic hybrids) and both types of phases (organic/inorganic hybrids). A variety of examples are given for applications from the recent literature, from which one may infer that significant developments for effective use of hybrid materials require a delicate balance among structure, biocompatibility, and stability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  7. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  8. Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposite Infrared Photodetection by Intraband Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Kevin Richard

    Se CQDs embedded in the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV). Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of MEH-CN-PPV thin films was conducted to determine the dependence of polymer morphology on deposition method in order to identify a reliable device fabrication technique. Three different deposition methods were investigated: drop-casting and spin-casting, which are solution-based; and matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a vacuum-based method that gently evaporates polymers (or hybrid nanocomposites) and limits substrate exposure to solvents. It was found that MAPLE deposition provides repeatable control of the thin film morphology and thickness, which is important for nanocomposite device optimization. Ultra-fast PL spectroscopy of MEH-CN-PPV/CdSe thin films was investigated to determine the charge generation and relaxation dynamics in the hybrid nanocomposite thin films. The mathematical fitting of time-integrated and time-resolved PL provided a rigorous and unique model of the charge dynamics, which enabled calculation of the radiative and non-radiative decay lifetimes in the polymer and CQD. These results imply that long-lived electrons exist in the conduction band of the CQD, which demonstrate that it should be possible to generate a mid- to long-wave infrared photocurrent based on intraband transitions. In fact, room-temperature, intraband, mid-infrared absorption was measured in thin films of MEH-CN-PPV/CdSe hybrid nanocomposites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance spectroscopy. In addition, the hybrid nanocomposite confined energy levels and corresponding oscillator strengths were calculated in order to model the absorption spectrum. The calculated absorption peaks agree well with the measured peaks, demonstrating that the developed computer model provides a useful design tool for determining the impact of important materials system properties, such as CQD size, organic

  9. Bioactive and Biodegradable Nanocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibret Mequanint

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for bone tissue engineering and regeneration rely on bioactive scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and act as templates onto which cells attach, multiply, migrate and function. Of particular interest are nanocomposites and organic-inorganic (O/I hybrid biomaterials based on selective combinations of biodegradable polymers and bioactive inorganic materials. In this paper, we review the current state of bioactive and biodegradable nanocomposite and O/I hybrid biomaterials and their applications in bone regeneration. We focus specifically on nanocomposites based on nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA and bioactive glass (BG fillers in combination with biodegradable polyesters and their hybrid counterparts. Topics include 3D scaffold design, materials that are widely used in bone regeneration, and recent trends in next generation biomaterials. We conclude with a perspective on the future application of nanocomposites and O/I hybrid biomaterials for regeneration of bone.

  10. Influence of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Concentration on Polymer Hole Transport in Hybrid Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Pate; Adrienne D. Stiff-Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates hole transport in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV)/CdSe colloidal quantum dot (CQD) nanocomposites using a modified time-of-flight photoconductivity technique. The measured hole drift mobilities are analyzed in the context of Bässler’s Gaussian disorder model and the correlated disorder model in order to determine the polymer internal morphology of hybrid nanocomposite thin films. This work shows that increasing the CdSe CQD...

  11. Hybrid HPMC nanocomposites containing bacterial cellulose nanocrystals and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, Ranganathan; Sajeevkumar, Vallayil Appukuttan; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Rajamanickam, Ramalingam; Abhishek, Virat; Nadanasabapathy, Shanmugam; Siddaramaiah

    2014-05-25

    Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based hybrid nanocomposites reinforced with bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNC) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) had been prepared and characterised. BCNC was capable of improving the tensile strength and modulus of HPMC, but they made the film more brittle. The addition of AgNPs along with BCNC, helped to regain some of the lost elongation properties without affecting other properties. Moisture sorption analysis proved that the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite decreased considerably by the addition of these nanomaterials. Several mathematical models were also used to fit the experimental sorption results. A unique combination of two nanomaterials was highly effective in overcoming certain limitations of nanocomposites which uses only one type of nanomaterial. This type of hybrid nanocomposites with superior properties is expected to be useful in eco-friendly food packaging applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Semiconductor Nanocrystal Concentration on Polymer Hole Transport in Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates hole transport in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV/CdSe colloidal quantum dot (CQD nanocomposites using a modified time-of-flight photoconductivity technique. The measured hole drift mobilities are analyzed in the context of Bässler’s Gaussian disorder model and the correlated disorder model in order to determine the polymer internal morphology of hybrid nanocomposite thin films. This work shows that increasing the CdSe CQD concentration decreases the polymer hole mobility from ~5.9 × 10−6 cm2/Vs in an MEH-PPV film to ~8.1 × 10−8 cm2/Vs in a 20:80 (wt% MEH-PPV:CdSe CQD nanocomposite film (measured at 25 °C and ~2 × 105 V/cm. The corresponding disorder parameters indicate increasing disruption of interchain interaction with increasing CQD concentration. This work quantifies polymer chain morphology in hybrid nanocomposite thin films and provides useful information regarding the optimal use of semiconductor nanocrystals in conjugated polymer-based optoelectronics.

  13. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-04-02

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  14. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchuan Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

  15. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  16. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 3. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. S Nayar A K Pramanick A Guha B K Mahato M Gunjan A Sinha. Volume 31 Issue 3 June 2008 pp 429-432 ...

  17. Photonic structures based on hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Saima

    In this thesis, photonic structures embedded with two types of nanomaterials, (i) quantum dots and (ii) metal nanoparticles are studied. Both of these exhibit optical and electronic properties different from their bulk counterpart due to their nanoscale physical structure. By integrating these nanomaterials into photonic structures, in which the electromagnetic field can be confined and controlled via modification of geometry and composition, we can enhance their linear and nonlinear optical properties to realize functional photonic structures. Before embedding quantum dots into photonic structures, we study the effect of various host matrices and fabrication techniques on the optical properties of the colloidal quantum dots. The two host matrices of interest are SU8 and PMMA. It is shown that the emission properties of the quantum dots are significantly altered in these host matrices (especially SU8) and this is attributed to a high rate of nonradiative quenching of the dots. Furthermore, the effects of fabrication techniques on the optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. Finally a microdisk resonator embedded with quantum dots is fabricated using soft lithography and luminescence from the quantum dots in the disk is observed. We investigate the absorption and effective index properties of silver nanocomposite films. It is shown that by varying the fill factor of the metal nanoparticles and fabrication parameters such as heating time, we can manipulate the optical properties of the metal nanocomposite. Optimizing these parameters, a silver nanocomposite film with a 7% fill factor is prepared. A one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of the silver nanocomposite and a polymer (Polymethyl methacrylate) is fabricated using spin coating and its linear and nonlinear optical properties are investigated. Using reflectivity measurements we demonstrate that the one-dimensional silver-nanocomposite-dielectric photonic crystal

  18. Shear-Thinning Nanocomposite Hydrogels for the Treatment of Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Internal hemorrhaging is a leading cause of death after traumatic injury on the battlefield. Although several surgical approaches such as the use of fibrin glue and tissue adhesive have been commercialized to achieve hemostasis, these approaches are difficult to employ on the battlefield and cannot be used for incompressible wounds. Here, we present shear-thinning nanocomposite hydrogels composed of synthetic silicate nanoplatelets and gelatin as injectable hemostatic agents. These materials are demonstrated to decrease in vitro blood clotting times by 77%, and to form stable clot-gel systems. In vivo tests indicated that the nanocomposites are biocompatible and capable of promoting hemostasis in an otherwise lethal liver laceration. The combination of injectability, rapid mechanical recovery, physiological stability, and the ability to promote coagulation result in a hemostat for treating incompressible wounds in out-of-hospital, emergency conditions. PMID:25221894

  19. Atom beam sputtered Ag-TiO{sub 2} plasmonic nanocomposite thin films for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Sahu, Kavita [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India); Pandey, A. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Som, T.; Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India)

    2017-07-31

    The development of nanocomposite coatings with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity is important for photocatalytic purification of water and air. We report on the synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam co-sputtering technique. The effects of Ag concentration on the structural, morphological, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite thin films were investigated. UV–visible DRS studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles together with the excitonic absorption peak originating from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies showed that the nanocomposite thin films consist of Ag nanoparticles and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with 5 at% Ag were found to exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity for sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water, indicating their potential application in water purification.

  20. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Reversible Surface Properties of Polybenzoxazine/Silica Nanocomposites Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the reversible surface properties (hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity of a polybenzoxazine (PBZ thin film through simple application of alternating UV illumination and thermal treatment. The fraction of intermolecularly hydrogen bonded O–H⋯O=C units in the PBZ film increased after UV exposure, inducing a hydrophilic surface; the surface recovered its hydrophobicity after heating, due to greater O–H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Taking advantage of these phenomena, we prepared a PBZ/silica nanocomposite coating through two simple steps; this material exhibited reversible transitions from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity upon sequential UV irradiation and thermal treatment.

  2. Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) hollow fiber membranes incorporated with functionalized acid-activated bentonite (ABn-NH) clay: towards enhancement of water vapor permeance and selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingole, Pravin G.; Pawar, Radheshyam R.; Baig, Muhammad Irshad; Jeon, Jae deok; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2017-01-01

    As the use of membrane technology for gas separation has grown, various membrane materials have been developed by numerous researchers to demonstrate separation processes. The present study was intended to make a novel thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane hybridized with amino functionalized

  3. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Bing [Albuquerque, NM; Cecchi, Joseph L [Albuquerque, NM; Brinker, C Jeffrey [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-29

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  4. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  5. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  6. Shell thickness dependent photoinduced hole transfer in hybrid conjugated polymer/quantum dot nanocomposites: from ensemble to single hybrid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihua; Hine, Corey R; Maye, Mathew M; Meng, Qingping; Cotlet, Mircea

    2012-06-26

    Photoinduced hole transfer is investigated in inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposites of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and a cationic conjugated polymer, poly(9,9'-bis(6-N,N,N-trimethylammoniumhexyl)fluorene-alt-phenylene, in solution and in solid thin film, and down to the single hybrid level and is assessed to be a dynamic quenching process. We demonstrate control of hole transfer rate in these quantum dot/conjugated polymer hybrids by using a series of core/shell quantum dots with varying shell thickness, for which a clear exponential dependency of the hole transfer rate vs shell thickness is observed, for both solution and thin-film situations. Furthermore, we observe an increase of hole-transfer rate from solution to film and correlate this with changes in quantum dot/polymer interfacial morphology affecting the hole transfer rate, namely, the donor-acceptor distance. Single particle spectroscopy experiments reveal fluctuating dynamics of hole transfer at the single conjugated polymer/quantum dot interface and an increased heterogeneity in the hole-transfer rate with the increase of the quantum dot's shell thickness. Although hole transfer quenches the photoluminescence intensity of quantum dots, it causes little or no effect on their blinking behavior over the time scales probed here.

  7. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  8. Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.

    We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.

  9. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  10. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigation of multiwall carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their unique electronic and optical properties, nanocomposite thin films are widely used for converting solar radiation therapy into other conventional energy forms, such as heat and electricity. Carbon nanotube-based composites which can...

  11. Investigation of the mechanical properties of GNP/MWCNT reinforced PA66 hybrid nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Søndergaard Jensen, Jacob

    The multifunctional characteristics of nanocomposites have introduced novel possibilities for different industrial sectors. However, the stable and optimized production of polymeric nanocomposite components is challenging. This research investigates the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic based...... nanocomposites reinforced with two prominent nanofillers namely Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene NanoPlatelets (GNP) manufactured through industrially viable methods. Three main groups of Polyamide (PA 66) based nano- and hybrid composite specimens namely PA 66/MWCNT, PA 66/GNP, and PA 66/MWCNT...... and rheological investigations. The research provides an insight to manufacture tailored hybrid nanocomposites with the optimized mechanical properties....

  12. Organic/carbon nanotubes hybrid thin films for chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banimuslem, Hikmat Adnan

    Metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) are classified as an important class of conjugated materials and they possess several advantages attributed to their unique chemical structure. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), on the other hand, are known to enhance the properties of nano-composites in the conjugated molecules, due to their one dimensional electronic skeleton, high surface area and high aspect ratio. In this thesis, work has been carried out on the investigation of different substituted metal-phthalocyanines with the aim of developing novel hybrid film structures which incorporates these phthalocyanines and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for chemical detection applications. Octa-substituted copper phthalocyanines (CuPcR[8]) have been characterised using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Obtained spectra have yielded an evidence of a thermally induced molecular reorganization in the films. Influence of the nature of substituents in the phthalocyanine molecule on the thin films conductivity was also investigated. Octa-substituted lead (II) phthalocyanines (PbPcR[8]) have also been characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy. Sandwich structures of ITO/PbPcR[8]/In were prepared to investigate the electronic conduction in PbPcR[8]. The variation in the J(V) behavior of the films as a result of heat treatment is expected to be caused by changes in the alignment inside the columnar stacking of the molecules of the films. Thin films of non-covalently hybridised SWCNT and tetra-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPcR[4]) molecules have been produced. FTIR, DC conductivity, SEM and AFM results have revealed the [mathematical equation]; interaction between SWCNTs and CuPCR[4] molecules and shown that films obtained from the acid-treated SWCNTs/CuPcR[4] hybrids demonstrated more homogenous surface. Thin films of pristine CuPCR[4] and CuPcR[4]/S WCNT were prepared by spin coating onto gold-coated glass slides and applied as active layers for the detection of benzo

  13. Multilayer Thin Films Sequential Assembly of Nanocomposite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Decher, Gero

    2012-01-01

    This second, comprehensive edition of the pioneering book in this field has been completely revised and extended, now stretching to two volumes. The result is a comprehensive summary of layer-by-layer assembled, truly hybrid nanomaterials and thin films, covering organic, inorganic, colloidal, macromolecular and biological components, plus the assembly of nanoscale films derived from them on surfaces. Praise for the first edition: "... highly recommended to anyone interested in the field... and to scientists and researchers active in materials development..." –Polymer News With contri

  14. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-08-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature (T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  15. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature ( T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  16. Thermally stimulated nonlinear refraction in gelatin stabilized Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y. S., E-mail: ystamgadge@gmail.com; Atkare, D. V. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce & SitaramjiChoudhari Science College, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), India-444906 (India); Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, SantGadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), India-444602 (India); Talwatkar, S. S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS), India-440071 (India); Sunatkari, A. L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS), India-440001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This article illustrates investigations on thermally stimulated third order nonlinear refraction of Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films. Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemical reduction method and thin films in PVP matrix have been obtained using spin coating technique. Thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopyfor structural and linear optical studies. Third order nonlinear refraction studies have been performed using closed aperture z-scan technique under continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser. Cu-PVP nanocomposites are found to exhibit strong nonlinear refractive index stimulated by thermal lensing effect.

  17. High ion conducting polymer nanocomposite electrolytes using hybrid nanofillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Changyu; Hackenberg, Ken; Fu, Qiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Ardebili, Haleh

    2012-03-14

    There is a growing shift from liquid electrolytes toward solid polymer electrolytes, in energy storage devices, due to the many advantages of the latter such as enhanced safety, flexibility, and manufacturability. The main issue with polymer electrolytes is their lower ionic conductivity compared to that of liquid electrolytes. Nanoscale fillers such as silica and alumina nanoparticles are known to enhance the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes. Although carbon nanotubes have been used as fillers for polymers in various applications, they have not yet been used in polymer electrolytes as they are conductive and can pose the risk of electrical shorting. In this study, we show that nanotubes can be packaged within insulating clay layers to form effective 3D nanofillers. We show that such hybrid nanofillers increase the lithium ion conductivity of PEO electrolyte by almost 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, significant improvement in mechanical properties were observed where only 5 wt % addition of the filler led to 160% increase in the tensile strength of the polymer. This new approach of embedding conducting-insulating hybrid nanofillers could lead to the development of a new generation of polymer nanocomposite electrolytes with high ion conductivity and improved mechanical properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Hybrid nanocomposites based on electroactive hydrogels and cellulose nanocrystals for high-sensitivity electro-mechanical underwater actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Migliorini, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Yan, Yunsong; Lenardi, Cristina; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Milani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and characterization of a hybrid hydrogel/cellulose nanocomposite, which exhibits high-performance electro-mechanical underwater actuation and high sensitivity in response to electrical stimuli below the standard potential of water electrolysis. The macromolecular structure of the material is constituted by an electroactive hydrogel, obtained through a photo-polymerization reaction with the use of three vinylic co-monomers: Na-4-vinylbenzenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile. Different amounts (from 0.1% to 1.4% w/w) of biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with sulfonate surface groups, obtained through the acidic hydrolysis of sulphite pulp lapsheets, are physically incorporated into the gel matrix during the synthesis step. Freestanding thin films of the nanocomposites are molded, and their swelling, mechanical and responsive properties are fully characterized. We observed that the embedding of the CNCs enhanced both the material Young’s modulus and its sensitivity to the applied electric field in the sub-volt regime (down to 5 mV cm-1). A demonstrator integrating multiple actuators that cooperatively bend together, mimicking the motion of an electro-valve, is also prototyped and tested. The presented nanocomposite is suitable for the development of soft smart components for bio-robotic applications and cells-based and bio-hybrid fluidic devices fabrication.

  19. Optical, mechanical and structural properties of PMMA/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gyanesh; Srivastava, Subodh; Soni, Purushottam; Kalotra, Pankaj; Vijay, Y. K.

    2018-01-01

    We have fabricated PMMA/SiO2 nanocomposite flexible thin films of 60 μm thicknesses by using solution casting method in the presence of transverse electric field. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of SiO2 nanoparticle (NP) loading on optical and mechanical properties of the composite thin film. The SEM images show that nanocomposite thin films have a smoother and uniform morphology. The transmittance peak near 1103 cm‑1 in FT-IR spectrum confirms the presence of SiO2 NPs in the composite thin film. It is observed that optical bandgap decreases with an increase in the SiO2 NP concentration. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows that presence of SiO2 NP enhances the mechanical strength of the composite thin film.

  20. Mechanical, thermal and decomposition behavior of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposites with clay-supported carbon nanotube hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzopoulou, Zoe; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Potsi, Georgia; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Rudolf, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites with hybrid clay-supported carbon nanotubes (Clay-CNT) in concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 wt% were prepared by melt mixing. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. All nanocomposites exhibited similar

  1. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat, E-mail: malanya@atauni.edu.tr

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  2. Metallic Glass Nano-composite Thin Films for High-performance Functional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Arora, Harpreet Singh; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2017-07-01

    Metallic glass nanocomposite thin films were synthesized for an immiscible Ag-Cu alloy system by magnetron sputtering. The structure of the films was unique, consisting of homogeneously dispersed nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix. The size and volume fraction of the nanocrystallites increased with increasing film thickness resulting in increased elastic modulus and hardness. The high electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite films was examined by a valence-band study, which showed that exchange interaction between Ag and Cu in the nanocomposite structure resulted in enhanced charge carrier concentration. The inverse correlation between electrical conductivity and film thickness was explained by surface and interface scattering of electrons with increasing volume fraction of nanocrystallites. The small temperature dependence of conductivity was attributed to the distorted Fermi surface of the nanocomposite films resulting in a greater contribution from structure scattering, which is temperature-independent.

  3. F and Ti doped silicate nanocomposite thin films for antimicrobial and easy clean applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, YongSeong; Son, You-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jin; Cho, Won-Je; Raj, C Justin; HyunYu, Kook

    2014-12-01

    Titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) silane precursor were employed to coat transparent thin film on the glass substrate and these effectively prevents pollution on the glass from microorganisms. The each nanocomposition film was prepared by sol-gel method, the solution of nanocomposite was coated by spin coater with 1200 rpm for 30 sec and cured by thermal at 100 degrees C on glass which surface treated with Piranha solution. The nanocomposite films with highly self cleaning efficacy were fabricated and studied for various molar compositions of TEOS, TIPO and FAS. TEOS/TIPO film in glass substrate shows an optical transparency over 90% up to 30 mol% of TIPO in TEOS/TIPO composite films and also FAS incorporated up to 4 mol% onto TEOS/TIPO films. The anti-microbial efficiency of the nanocomposite film was improved 30% when it was exposed under UV light radiation than that in ambient condition.

  4. Hybrid nanocomposites based on luminescent colloidal nanocrystals in poly(methyl methacrylate): spectroscopical and morphological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborra, M; Striccoli, M; Curri, M L; Agostiano, A

    2008-02-01

    We report on preparation process and optical characterization of a nanocomposite material obtained dispersing colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), namely CdS and CdSe@ZnS core-shell system in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Such method allows a large flexibility on nanocrystal materials and on the choice of the polymer characteristics. Nanocomposite thin films were extensively investigated by means optical and morphological techniques. The effects on NC composition, concentration, size, and surface chemistry on the spectroscopical and structural behaviour of the nanocomposite properties were studied. The NC size dependent optical properties of the nanocomposites are mainly accounted by the NC composition and size, while the morphology of the films is explained on the base of the NC surface characteristics and their concentration in the nanocomposites.

  5. Organic Thin Film Transistors with Polyvinylpyrrolidone / Nickel Oxide Sol-Gel Derived Nanocomposite Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylpyrrolidone  /  Nickel  oxide  (PVP/NiO  dielectrics  were fabricated  with  sol-gel  method  using  0.2  g  of  PVP  at  different working  temperatures  of  80,  150  and  200  ºC.  Structural  properties and surface morphology of the hybrid films were investigated by X- Ray  diffraction  (XRD  and  Scanning  Electron Microscope  (SEM respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX was used to make  a  quantitative  chemical  analysis  of  an  unknown material. The  obtained  results  demonstrate  the  feasibility  of  using  high dielectric  constant  nanocomposite  PVP/NiO  as  gate  dielectric insulator in the organic thin film transistors (OTFTs.

  6. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Honglin [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 (China); Ren, Kaijing [Department of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts.

  7. Water vapor selective thin film nanocomposite membranes prepared by functionalized Silicon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baig, Muhammad Irshad; Ingole, Pravin G.; Jeon, Jae deok; Hong, Seong Uk; Choi, Won Kil; Jang, Boyun; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we have reported a facile method to improve the water vapor permeation performance of thin film nanocomposite membranes by tailoring the surface properties of Silicon nanoparticles. Inductively coupled plasma technique was utilized to synthesize amorphous Silicon nanoparticles (~. 10.

  8. Nanocomposite C-Pd thin films – a new material with specific spectral properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suchańska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of optical investigations for thin films of carbon-palladium (C-Pd nanocomposites are presented. This films were prepared using two steps method (PVD/ CVD. The optical and Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the material. The multinanolayer model was used to explain the specific spectral properties.

  9. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  10. Boron nitride-MWCNT/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites: Preparation and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulus, Hasan; Üstün, Tugay [Mechanical Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Eskizeybek, Volkan [Materials Science and Engineering, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale 17100 (Turkey); Şahin, Ömer Sinan; Avcı, Ahmet [Mechanical Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Ekrem, Mürsel, E-mail: mekrem@konya.edu.tr [Mechanical Engineering Department, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of BN nanoplatelets on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • We investigated the synergetic effects of BN nanoplatelets and MWCNTs on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • Fracture surfaces were examined by SEM analysis. - Abstract: In this study, production and mechanical properties of hybrid nanocomposites have been investigated. Hybrid nanocomposites are consisting of boron nitride nanoplatelets (BN) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) embedded in epoxy resin. The BN and MWCNT were mixed to epoxy resin in different weight fractions and mixtures were utilized for tensile test specimen production. The synthesized BN and produced hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA analyses. The elasticity modulus and tensile strength values were obtained via tensile tests. The fracture morphologies were investigated after tensile test by means of scanning electron microscopy.

  11. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  12. Integrated Chemical Systems: The Simultaneous Formation of Hybrid Nanocomposites of Iron Oxide and Organo Silsesquioxanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L; Clapsaddle, B; Jr., J S; Schaefer, D; Shea, K

    2004-10-15

    A sol-gel approach for the synthesis of hybrid nanocomposites of iron oxide and bridged polysilsesquioxanes has been established. The procedures allow for the simultaneous formation of iron oxide and polysilsesquioxane networks in monolithic xerogels and aerogels. These hybrid nanocomposites are synthesized from FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and functionalized silsesquioxane monomers in a one-pot reaction using epoxides as a gelation agent. The porosity and microstructure of the materials has been determined by nitrogen porosimetry, electron microscopy and ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The hybrid nanocomposites exhibit a uniform dispersion of both components with no evidence for phase separation at length scales > 5 nm. At this limit of resolution it is not possible to distinguish between two independent interpenetrating networks integrated at molecular length scales or a random copolymer or mixtures of both.

  13. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-27

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  14. Synthesis and Properties of Thin Film Nanocomposites Sn-Y-O for Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav REMBEZA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-component thin film nanocomposites Sn-Y-O were prepared by RF reactive ion-beam sputtering of metal target in the ambient of Ar+O2. Amorphous films were thermal treated at 400 oC for crystallization and stabilization of electrical properties. Atomic composition and morphology of thin films were investigated by X-ray microanalyzer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy method, atomic force microscopy. It was determined that the presence of Y2O3 additive in composites on the base of SnO2 prevents the growth of big grains up to 3 nm, and can be used for the control of thin film structure. Electrical properties and gas sensitivity of nanocomposite samples were studied and the correlation between grain size and gas sensitive parameters was found.

  15. Enhanced Flux Pinning in Laser Ablated YBCO:BaTiO3 Nanocomposite Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Alok K.; Khare, Neeraj; Pinto, R.

    2011-07-01

    The effect of incorporation of BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles on the flux pinning properties of laser deposited YBCO:BTO thin films has been studied. Substantial increase in critical current density (JC) and pinning force density of the nanocomposite thin films was observed. The study of temperature and field dependence of JC of YBCO and YBCO:BTO thin films indicates similar type of pinning. The lattice mismatch between YBCO and BTO seems to introduce more defects resulting in improved flux pinning properties.

  16. MoS2@VS2 Nanocomposite as a Superior Hybrid Anode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Abdus; Shin, Young-Han

    2017-09-06

    Using density functional theory, MoS2@VS2 nanocomposite is reported as a hybrid anode with upgraded electronic conductivity and Li/Na storage capacity. The chemically active monolayer VS2 can be stabilized in energy and phonon vibrations by using the monolayer MoS2 as a substrate. The stability of the chemically active monolayer VS2 is attributed to the interfacial charge accumulation between the monolayer MoS2 and VS2. The maximum specific capacity of the nanocomposite has been enhanced to 584 mAh/g both for Li and for Na storage. We attribute the high enhancement in the Li/Na storage capacity of MoS2@VS2 nanocomposite to the charge redistribution in the formation of the nanocomposite. The lithiation/sodiation open-circuit voltage range of the nanocomposite is quite feasible to be used as anode. Diffusion barriers of Li/Na ions on the surfaces of the nanocomposite are comparable to the barriers on corresponding monolayers, while at the interface the barriers are lower than that for bulk MoS2. This study utilizes different aspects of the two different materials in a hybrid anode with highly enhanced electrochemical performance.

  17. Hybride Nanocomposites aus Ruß, Nanoclay und NR/BR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapkota, Brahmananda; Poikelispää, M.; Das, A.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Vuorinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of partial replacement of carbon black (CB) by nanoclay on the curing kinetics of natural rubber/butadiene rubber-based hybrid nanocomposites was studied. The successive replacement of CB by organically modified nanoclays significantly influenced the curing behaviour of the compound:

  18. Thermal, Mechanical, and Electrical Properties of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Graphene Oxide/ Polyurethane Hybrid Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Pashupati; Lee, Sang Hyub; Lee, Dai Soo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polyurethane (PU) were prepared by in-situ polymerization of 4,4'- diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) with mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) dispersed in a poly(tetramethylene ether glycol) (PTMEG). Effects of the fillers, GO and GNP, on the thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of the nanocomposites of PU were investigated. Sonication of the hybrid of GNP and GO with PTMEG enabled effective dispersion of the fillers in the solution than the sonication of GNP alone. The addition of PTMEG in the solution prevented the GNPs from the restacking during the drying process. It was observed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical property of the nanocomposites based on the hybrid of GO and GNP were superior to the nanocomposite based on GNP alone at the same loading of the filler. At the loading of the 3 wt% hybrid filler in PU, we observed the improvement of Young's modulus -200% and the surface resistivity of 10(9.5) ohm/sq without sacrificing the elongation at break.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanocomposites of polypyrrole filled with iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navale, S. T.; Khuspe, G. D.; Chougule, M. A.; Patil, V. B.

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid polypyrrole (PPy)/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite films were fabricated by spin coating on a glass substrate. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed the crystalline structure of α-Fe2O3 nanostructures and the nanocomposites. The broad PPy peak weakened in intensity as the α-Fe2O3 content increased in PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. Characteristic Fourier-transform IR peaks for pure PPy shifted to higher wavenumbers on addition of α-Fe2O3 to PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. This can be attributed to better conjugation and interactions between PPy and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy images of the nanocomposites reveal a uniform distribution of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the PPy matrix. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy revealed a blue shift from λmax= 441 nm for PPy to λmax= 392 nm for PPy/α-Fe2O3, reflecting strong interactions between PPy and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The room-temperature dc electrical conductivity increased from 4.33×10-9 to 1.81×10-8 S/cm as the α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle content increased from 10 to 50 wt.% in PPy/α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites.

  20. Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tai Le

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we successfully fabricate a hybrid polymer nanocomposite containing epoxy/polyester blend resin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs by a novel technique. A high intensity ultrasonicator is used to obtain a homogeneous mixture of epoxy/polyester resin and graphene nanoplatelets. This mixture is then mixed with a hardener using a high-speed mechanical stirrer. The trapped air and reaction volatiles are removed from the mixture using high vacuum. The hot press casting method is used to make the nanocomposite specimens. Tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA are performed on neat, 0.2 wt %, 0.5 wt %, 1 wt %, 1.5 wt % and 2 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester blend resin to investigate the reinforcement effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this research indicate that the tensile strength of the novel nanocomposite material increases to 86.8% with the addition of a ratio of graphene nanoplatelets as low as 0.2 wt %. DMA results indicate that the 1 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester nanocomposite possesses the highest storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg, as compared to neat epoxy/polyester or the other nanocomposite specimens. In addition, TGA results verify thethermal stability of the experimental specimens, regardless of the weight percentage of GNPs.

  1. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and S C Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), 444906 (India); Talwatkar, S.S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS) 440071 (India); Sunatkari, A.L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS) 440001 (India); Pahurkar, V.G. [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India); Muley, G.G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  2. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md. Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube–alumina (CNT–Al2O3) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT–Al2O3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al2O3 particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al2O3 particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT–Al2O3 hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K1C, compared to neat epoxy. PMID:28772663

  3. Dielectric properties of binary polyvinylidene fluoride/barium titanate nanocomposites and their nanographite doped hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary polyvinylidene fluoride/barium titanate (PVDF/BaTiO3 and its nanographite (GN doped ternary nanocomposites were fabricated using a simple solution casting process followed by compression molding. The dielectric behavior of such hybrids over a wide frequency range was studied. Additions of GN with contents close to the percolation threshold were found to be very effective to enhance dielectric permittivity of the PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites. In this regard, the electrical behavior of ternary PVDF/BaTiO3/GN hybrids can be explained in terms of the percolation theory. Furthermore, both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of hybrids were found to be strongly frequency and temperature dependent.

  4. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  5. Pd-Ni-MWCNT nanocomposite thin films: preparation and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Mirosław; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Sobczak, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The properties of nanocomposite palladium-nickel-multi-walled (Pd-Ni-MWCNT) films deposited on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate have been prepared and investigated. These films were obtained by 3 step process consisted of PVD/CVD/PVD methods. The morphology and structure of the obtained films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques at various stages of the film formation. EDX spectrometer was used to measurements of elements segregation in the obtained film. TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) observations showed MWCNTs decorated with palladium nanoparticles in the film obtained in the last step of film formation (final PVD process). The average size of the palladium nanoparticles observed both on MWCNTs and carbonaceous matrix does not exceed 5 nm. The research was conducted on the use of the obtained films as potential sensors of gases (e.g. H2, NH3, CO2) and bio-sensors or optical sensors.

  6. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindraju, S; Ntholeng, N; Ranganathan, K; Moloto, M. J; Sikhwivhilu, L. M; Moloto, N

    2016-01-01

    ...) to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybrid solar cells. Nearly monodispersed 4 nm Cu2Se nanocrystals were synthesized using the conventional colloidal synthesis. Varying weight...

  7. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil® nanocomposites and combine high erosion resistance, low ice adhesion, and passive anti-icing...

  8. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this Phase I SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil™ nanocomposites that combine high levels of erosion resistance and anti-icing...

  9. Synthesis of tunable plasmonic metal-ceramic nanocomposite thin films by temporally modulated sputtered fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnfält, D.; Melander, E.; Boyd, R. D.; Kapaklis, V.; Sarakinos, K.

    2017-05-01

    The scientific and technological interest for metal-dielectric nanocomposite thin films emanates from the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) on the metal component. The overall optical response of the nanocomposite is governed by the refractive index of the dielectric matrix and the properties of the metallic nanoparticles in terms of their bulk optical properties, size, and shape, and the inter-particle distance of separation. In order to tune the film morphology and optical properties, complex synthesis processes which include multiple steps—i.e., film deposition followed by post-deposition treatment by thermal or laser annealing—are commonly employed. In the present study, we demonstrate that the absorption resonances of Ag/AlOxNy nanocomposite films can be effectively tuned from green (˜2.4 eV) to violet (˜2.8 eV) using a single-step synthesis process that is based on modulating the arrival pattern of film forming species with sub-monolayer resolution, while keeping the amount of Ag in the films constant. Our data indicate that the optical response of the films is the result of LSPRs on isolated Ag nanoparticles that are seemingly shifted by dipolar interactions between neighboring particles. The synthesis strategy presented may be of relevance for enabling integration of plasmonic nanocomposite films on thermally sensitive substrates.

  10. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then subsequently spin-coated on a carbon-coated copper grid for TEM measurements. TEM measurements were performed at liquid nitrogen temperatures to reduce the electron–beam-induced radiation damage. The results showed ...

  11. Multiscale Hybrid Micro-Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Inam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT-NH2/carbon fiber (CF/epoxy hybrid micro-nanocomposite laminates were prepared by a resin infusion technique. DWCNT-NH2/epoxy nanocomposites and carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites were made for comparison. Morphological analysis of the hybrid composites was performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. A good dispersion at low loadings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in epoxy matrix was achieved by a bath ultrasonication method. Mechanical characterization of the hybrid micro-nanocomposites manufactured by a resin infusion process included three-point bending, mode I interlaminar toughness, dynamic mechanical analysis, and drop-weight impact testing. The addition of small amounts of CNTs (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 wt% to epoxy resins for the fabrication of multiscale carbon fiber composites resulted in a maximum enhancement in flexural modulus by 35%, a 5% improvement in flexural strength, a 6% improvement in absorbed impact energy, and 23% decrease in the mode I interlaminar toughness. Hybridization of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy using CNTs resulted in a reduction in and dampening characteristics, presumably as a result of the presence of micron-sized agglomerates.

  12. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  13. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  14. Aquatic biofouling prevention by electrically charged nanocomposite polymer thin film membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lannoy, Charles-François; Jassby, David; Gloe, Katie; Gordon, Alexander D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2013-03-19

    Electrically conductive polymer-nanocomposite (ECPNC) tight nanofiltration (NF) thin film membranes were demonstrated to have biofilm-preventing capabilities under extreme bacteria and organic material loadings. A simple route to the creation and application of these polyamide-carbon nanotube thin films is also reported. These thin films were characterized with SEM and TEM as well as FTIR to demonstrate that the carbon nanotubes are embedded within the polyamide and form ester bonds with trimesoyl chloride, one of the monomers of polyamide. These polymer nanocomposite thin film materials boast high electrical conductivity (∼400 S/m), good NaCl rejection (>95%), and high water permeability. To demonstrate these membranes' biofouling capabilities, we designed a cross-flow water filtration vessel with insulated electrical leads connecting the ECPNC membranes to an arbitrary waveform generator. In all experiments, conducted in highly bacterially contaminated LB media, flux tests were run until fluxes decreased by 45 ± 3% over initial flux. Biofilm-induced, nonreversible flux decline was observed in all control experiments and a cross-flow rinse with the feed solution failed to induce flux recovery. In contrast, flux decrease for the ECPNC membranes with an electric potential applied to their surface was only caused by deposition of bacteria rather than bacterial attachment, and flux was fully recoverable following a short rinse with the feed solution and no added cleaning agents. The prevention of biofilm formation on the ECPNC membranes was a long-term effect, did not decrease with use, and was highly reproducible.

  15. Titanium–vanadium oxide nanocomposite thin films: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, A.W.; Adams, B.M.; Pradhan, D.; Towler, M.R.; Mellott, N.P., E-mail: mellott@alfred.edu

    2014-04-01

    A sol–gel based deposition method was successfully developed to produce a series of crack-free, spatially homogeneous undoped/silver doped titania–vanadia oxide nanocomposite thin films. Thin films were characterized using Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV–Vis). It was determined via both XRD and XPS that when calcined at 450 °C the nanocomposite crystallinity was a function of sol composition. Additionally, it was determined via GIXRD that upon silver doping, silver was incorporated into the vanadia structure or present in silver oxide form in crystalline films. A red shift within the UV–Vis spectra was observed with an increase of vanadia concentration from 0 to 100% respectively. Antibacterial analysis conducted on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis demonstrated that films exposed to light showed greater antibacterial properties. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite crystallinity was a function of sol composition. • Silver was incorporated into the vanadia structure. • A red shift was observed with an increase of vanadia concentration. • Antibacterial analysis conducted on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  16. Organic thin-film transistors using thin ormosil-based hybrid dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sunho; Kim, Dongjo; Lee, Sul; Park, Bong Kyun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-07-16

    We synthesized a novel thermally-crosslinkable ormosil-based hybrid material as a solution-processable dielectric layer for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Dielectrics with a thickness of 50-260 nm were fabricated via spin-coating in order to evaluate their applicability as an ultra-thin gate dielectric. It was observed that the capacitance of the hybrid dielectric increases with decreasing film thickness. Hybrid dielectrics with a thickness of 260 nm and 160 nm, respectively, exhibited adequate leakage current behavior. Coplanar-type OTFTs were fabricated using each of the hybrid dielectrics (i.e., thickness of 260 nm and 160 nm). The off-current, threshold voltage, and field-effect mobility of both transistors were analyzed to investigate the effects of capacitance and film thickness on the electrical performance of the transistors.

  17. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  18. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications. PMID:27472335

  19. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Khan, M. A. M.; Khan, M. Naziruddin; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alhoshan, M.; Alsalhi, M. S., E-mail: aneesaansari@gmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, P. O. Box-2454 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-04-15

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO{sub 2} sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO{sub 2} powder (E{sub g} = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping. (semiconductor materials)

  20. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Khan, M. A. M.; Naziruddin Khan, M.; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alhoshan, M.; Alsalhi, M. S.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I—V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  1. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  2. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Jini, E-mail: jini.nano@gmail.com; Varghese, K.T., E-mail: ktvscs@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr <<< GCZ >> GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min{sup −1} corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  3. Nanoparticle-cored dendrimers: functional hybrid nanocomposites as a new platform for drug delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Veronica; Bouchet, Lydia María; Strumia, Miriam Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticle-cored dendrimers (NCDs) are now offering themselves as versatile carriers because of their colloidal stability, tunable membrane properties and ability to encapsulate or integrate a broad range of drugs and molecules. This kind of hybrid nanocomposite aims to combine the advantages of stimuliresponsive dendritic coatings, in order to regulate the drug release behaviour under different conditions and improve the biocompatibility and in vivo half-time circulation of the inorgan...

  4. Stretchable Porous Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Hybrid Nanocomposite for Harvesting Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, You Jun; Meng, Xian Song; Li, Hua Yang; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ying; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2017-01-01

    A stretchable porous nanocomposite (PNC) is reported based on a hybrid of a multiwalled carbon nanotubes network and a poly(dimethylsiloxane) matrix for harvesting energy from mechanical interactions. The deformation-enabled energy-generating process makes the PNC applicable to various mechanical interactions, including pressing, stretching, bending, and twisting. It can be potentially used as an energy solution for wearable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Ferromagnetic properties of hybrid cementite and diamond nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hui Kang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of cementite (Fe3C nanoparticles and diamond obtained via powder mixed dielectric-electrical discharge machining (PMD-EDM is investigated. The processed surface morphology exhibits various structures, including a white layer (machined surface and a heat-affected zone (HAZ. The concentration of the Fe element in the white layer is higher than that in the HAZ. The value of magnetization is about 0.1~0.5 mA/m2. Increasing the frequency of the pulse affects the ferromagnetic behavior of magnets fabricated using the PMD-EDM process.

  6. The MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce Hybrid Nanocomposite Material for Solution Processing Fabrication of Optoelectronic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Dinh Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication and the property investigation of the hybrid nanocomposite material made of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV polymer and Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce with the relative weight ratio of 1 : 1 in order to apply for optoelectronic devices are reported. Thermal analysis showed the hybrid material’s deterioration or decomposition when the temperature exceeded 200°C under inert gas atmosphere. Rheological measurement concluded that the material solution can be used for spinning or soft moulding lithography making large- or flexible substrate surface. Optical properties of the hybrid material are investigated. The effect of thermal treatment on the optical properties showed that, at 180°C under inert gas environment, the optical properties were enhanced. An MEH-PPV/YAG:Ce hybrid nanocomposite converted LED lamp was fabricated showing that the hybrid material is suitable as conversion material for white LED fabrication.

  7. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  8. Hybrid sols as intermediates to inorganic-organic nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Oliveira, Peter William de; Krug, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    For the preparation of inorganic-organic hybrid materials, synthesis processes have been developed to fabricate so-called hybrid sols, which contain an inorganic core (ceramic or glass) with nano-scale dimensions surface modified by organic groupings. These groupings have been reacted to the particle surface either by amino functional silanes (e.g. in case of iron oxide nanoparticles for amino group containing silanes) reacting with aliphatic acids to make surfaces ureactive and reduce the pa...

  9. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  10. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I [' Materials-Technologies' Group, Departamento Ingenieria Quimica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad PaIs Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Plaza Europa 1, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.es

    2008-04-16

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO{sub 2}/SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO{sub 2}/SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO{sub 2}/PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO{sub 2}, as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of multiwall carbon nanotube/NiO nanocomposite thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yalisi, B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available of multiwall carbon nanotube/NiO nanocomposite thin films Brian Yalisi1,2, Kittessa Roro1, Ngcali Tile1,2 and Andrew Forbes1,2,3 1CSIR- National Laser Centre, Pretoria, SA 2School of Physics, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, SA 3School of Physics....60 0.66 0.72 0.78 0.84 ? s o l Substrate temperature (?C) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 ?? th e r Ferguson et al.(2009) Phys. Lett rev., 256103 ? ? d k? Nucleation and thin film growth Page 12 ? CSIR 2011 www...

  12. Room temperature ammonia sensor based on copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Karmakar, N.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of copper nanoparticles intercalated-polyaniline nanocomposites (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. The response characteristics of the NC thin films toward different gases namely NH3, CO, CO2, NO and CH4 were examined at room temperature. Both pure polyaniline (PANI) and NC films exhibited a selective response toward NH3. Incorporation of Cu nanoparticles resulted in an improvement of the sensors response and response kinetics. The response and the recovery times of composite film toward 50 ppm of NH3 were 7 and 160 s, respectively. Additionally, the NC sensor film could reversibly detect as low as 1 ppm of NH3 concentrations. The enhanced response of NC films toward NH3 is attributed to the deprotonation and reprotonation processes as also supported by Raman investigations.

  13. Electrodeposition of inorganic/organic hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tsukasa [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems, Gifu University (Japan); Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Zhang, Jingbo; Komatsu, Daisuke; Sawatani, Seiichi; Minoura, Hideki [Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Pauporte, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Chimie Analytique, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Oekermann, Torsten [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Schlettwein, Derck [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Tada, Hirokazu [Institute for Molecular Science, Higashiyama (Japan); Woehrle, Dieter [Institut fuer Organische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Universitaet Bremen (Germany); Funabiki, Kazumasa; Matsui, Masaki [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan); Miura, Hidetoshi [Chemicrea Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology Takayama-cho 8916-5, Ikoma (Japan)

    2009-01-09

    Electrodeposition of inorganic compound thin films in the presence of certain organic molecules results in self-assembly of various hybrid thin films with new properties. Examples of new discoveries by the authors are reviewed, taking cathodic formation of a ZnO/dye hybrid as the leading example. Hybridization of eosinY leads to the formation of highly oriented porous crystalline ZnO as the consequence of dye loading. The hybrid formation is a highly complicated process involving complex chemistry of many molecular and ionic constituents. However, electrochemical analyses of the relevant phenomena indicate the possibility of reaching a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism, giving us the chance to further develop them into industrial technologies. The porous crystals are ideal for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. As the process also permits the use of non-heat-resistant substrates, the technology can be applied for the development of colorful and light-weight plastic solar cells. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Nanocomposites of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles prepared by focused microwave polymerization for optical thin films applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang-Yen, E-mail: yyyu@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Battery Research Center of Green Energy, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Kan [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist., New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    This study synthesized polyacrylic/titania nanoparticle (NP) hybrid thin films through microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate was hydrolyzed with colloidal titania NPs and then polymerized with an acrylic monomer and initiator to form a precursor solution. Spin-coated hybrid films have strong surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 < n < 1.920), and excellent optical transparency in the visible range. A three-layer anti-reflection coating based on the prepared hybrid films, and possessing a reflectance of less than 0.5% in the visible range, was developed. This study demonstrates a route for preparing the polyacrylic/titania NPs hybrid thin films with a high refractive index for potential applications in optical devices. - Highlights: • Poly(acrylic)/titania hybrid thin films were synthesized. • The films have good surface planarity and high thermal stability. • The optical transparency is high and refractive index is tunable. • Coating with reflectance less than 0.5% was prepared.

  15. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  16. Hybrid Polyamide/Silica Nanocomposites : Synthesis and Mechanical Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, W.E.; Garcia, M.; Schrauwen, B.A.G.; Kooi, B.J.; De Hosson, Jeff Th.M.; Verweij, H.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid inorganic-polymer composite was formed through nanosize silica filler particles (<30 nm) that were incorporated inside a nylon-6 matrix. The composite was microtomed and examined with TEM which revealed that the silica particles were well dispersed and non-aggregated. Optimization of the

  17. Comparative surface and nano-tribological characteristics of nanocomposite diamond-like carbon thin films doped by silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Han-Shen; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-10

    In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite thin films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition methods. The surface and nano-tribological characteristics were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratching experiments. The silver doping was found to have no measurable effect on sp2-sp3 hybridization of the hydrogenated DLC matrix and only a slight effect on the hydrogen-free DLC matrix. The surface topography was analyzed by surface imaging. High- and low-order roughness determined by AFM characterization was correlated to the DLC growth mechanism and revealed the smoothing effect of silver. The nano-tribological characteristics were explained in terms of friction mechanisms and mechanical properties in correlation to the surface characteristics. It was discovered that the adhesion friction was the dominant friction mechanism; the adhesion force between the scratching tip and DLC surface was decreased by hydrogenation and increased by silver doping.

  18. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, J. M.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of graphene-based hybrid nanocomposite: assessment of antibacterial potential and biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Mahesh P; Patil, Mahendra D; Pandey, Abhijeet P; Patil, Pravin O; Deshmukh, Prashant K

    2017-12-01

    The present investigation deals with synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and fabrication of GO-based hybrid nanocomposites (Ncs). Synthesized GO and Ncs were primarily confirmed by UV visible and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fabricated Ncs showed potential antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Surface morphology, Elemental analysis, and FTIR imaging analysis were carried out to confirm Ncs formation. The Ncs were impregnated into the pullulan polymeric layer-by-layer (LbL) ultrathin film by using novel spin-coating approach. Mechanical properties were determined using Brookfield texture analyzer, and percentage moisture content confirmed the physicochemical stability of LbL film.

  20. Phosphorus removal by a fixed-bed hybrid polymer nanocomposite biofilm reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Rodrigues,A.L.; Ribeiro, D.C.; Nogueira, R; Machado, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main challenges regarding the ecological quality of surface waters, phosphorus bioavailability being its main driver. In this context, a novel hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPN-Pr) biofilm reactor aimed at integrated chemical phosphorus adsorption and biological removal was conceived. The assays pointed to removal of 1.2 mg P/g of reactive phosphorus and 1.01 mg P/g of total phosphorus under steady-state conditions. A mathematical adsorption–biological model was a...

  1. Elaboration and characterization of a multifunctional silane/ZnO hybrid nanocomposite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolay, A. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Lanzutti, A. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Poelman, M.; Ruelle, B. [Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Fedrizzi, L. [Department of Chemistry Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy); Dubois, Ph. [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Olivier, M.-G., E-mail: marjorie.olivier@umons.ac.be [Research Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Mons, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova ASBL, Avenue Copernic 1, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite films. • Study of ZnO nanoparticle dispersion in the sol–gel matrix. • Highlighting barrier properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Highlighting UV-absorption properties of the sol–gel coatings. • Influence of ZnO nanofiller percentage on these properties. - Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the elaboration of a ZnO/sol–gel nanocomposite coating, which can provide a number of properties such as UV-absorption, mechanical and barrier effects, etc. depending on targeted applications. The sol–gel coating formulation is an inorganic–organic hybrid based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). In order to ensure good dispersion in the sol–gel matrix, ZnO nanoparticles were surface-modified with a silane coupling agent. The functionalization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. Field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) characterization of the nanocomposite film reveals a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles throughout the film. Glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) analysis allows evaluating the thickness of coatings and getting a depth composition profile. Some properties such as UV-absorption and barrier effect are highlighted using a UV–visible spectrometer and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The effect of ZnO concentration is also presented.

  2. Enhanced Capacitance of Hybrid Layered Graphene/Nickel Nanocomposite for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zaid, Norsaadatul Akmal; Idris, Nurul Hayati

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Ni nanoparticles were directly decorated on graphene (G) nanosheets via mechanical ball milling. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed and attached to the G nanosheet without any agglomerations. Electrochemical results showed that the capacitance of a G/Ni nanocomposite was 275 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, which is higher than the capacitance of bare G (145 F g-1) and bare Ni (3 F g-1). The G/Ni electrode also showed superior performance at a high current density, exhibiting a capacitance of 190 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1 and a capacitance of 144 F g-1 at a current density of 10 A g-1. The equivalent series resistance for G/Ni nanocomposites also decreased. The enhanced performance of this hybrid supercapacitor is best described by the synergistic effect, i.e. dual charge-storage mechanism, which is demonstrated by electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance materials. Moreover, a high specific surface area and electrical conductivity of the materials enhanced the capacitance. These results indicate that the G/Ni nanocomposite is a potential supercapacitor.

  3. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  4. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  5. Structure and properties of electrocodeposited Cu-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangam, Venu [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Electrocodeposition of ceria particles along with copper from acidic electrolytes has been achieved by using pulse plating technique. The ceria particles are synthesized by the aqueous combustion synthesis route with glycine as the fuel and ceric ammonium nitrate as the oxidizer. The nanocomposite thin films have been characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The microhardness of the composites is evaluated and compared with that of pure copper deposited under the same conditions. The microhardness of the copper matrix is enhanced from 0.67 to 1.45 GPa due to the presence of reinforcement. The volume fraction of the reinforcement is estimated to be 7-10% and particles are uniformly distributed in the copper matrix.

  6. Enhancement of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation for E. coli sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor Azmy, Noor Azwen [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A., E-mail: ashrif@ukm.edu.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Arsad, Norhana [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Idris, Sarada [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Radiation Facilities Division, Block 42, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohmad, Abdul Rahman [MEMS-NEMS and Nanoelectronics, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), 43650 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Aidil [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 43650 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation for E. coli sensor were fabricated for the first time. • Exposed to gamma radiation leads to the change the microstructure of the films. • The optical behaviors of thin films were found to be gamma dose dependent. • The sensors had a linear response with GO concentration. • The sensors exhibited enhanced sensitivity at higher gamma radiation. - Abstract: The fabricated E. coli sensor of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation was investigated. Nanocomposite films were prepared via sol–gel method and were irradiated at 10 kGy at room temperature. The surface characteristic of as-prepared samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The proposed structure shows that exposed gamma radiation may change the microstructure of the films occurs as a result of their flexible structure. Uv–vis spectra of nanocomposite were studied to investigate the optical behavior of ZnO-rGO films and the optical energy band gap and Urbach energy were found to be gamma dose dependent. The sensing properties were identified by measuring the changes of conductivity of film using I-V measurement. Upon exposure to E. coli, the radiated ZnO-rGO films (1.00 vol% GO) exhibited higher sensitivity, as much as 4.62 × 10{sup −3}, than un-radiated films, 1.04 × 10{sup −3}. This enhancement of the I-V response was attributed to a positive influence of the gamma radiation in these films. The results prove that our ZnO-rGO nanocomposites thin films by gamma radiation demonstrate a strong performance for the detection of microbiological organisms in water.

  7. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future. Considering the non-biodegradable nature and potential long-term toxicity concerns of photothermal nanoagents, it is of great interest and importance to develop biodegradable and photothermal nanoparticles with an excellent biocompatibility for their future clinical applications. In our experiments, we fabricated porous silicon-based hybrid nanocomposites via surface initiated polymerization of aniline, which showed an excellent photothermal effect, aqueous dispersibility, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Furthermore, after an efficient loading of DOX molecules, polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites exhibited the remarkable synergistic anticancer

  8. Multilevel organization in hybrid thin films for optoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Varun; Bolognesi, Alberto; Calzaferri, Gion; Botta, Chiara

    2009-10-20

    In this work we report two simple approaches to prepare hybrid thin films displaying a high concentration of zeolite crystals that could be used as active layers in optoelectronic devices. In the first approach, in order to organize nanodimensional zeolite crystals of 40 nm diameter in an electroactive environment, we chemically modify their external surface and play on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic forces. We obtain inorganic nanocrystals that self-organize in honeycomb electroluminescent polymer structures obtained by breath figure formation. The different functionalizations of the zeolite surface result in different organizations inside the cavities of the polymeric structure. The second approach involving soft-litography techniques allows one to arrange single dye-loaded zeolite L crystals of 800 nm of length by mechanical loading into the nanocavities of a conjugated polymer. Both techniques result in the formation of thin hybrid films displaying three levels of organization: organization of the dye molecules inside the zeolite nanochannels, organization of the zeolite crystals inside the polymer cavities, and micro- or nanostructuration of the polymer.

  9. Enhancement of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation for E. coli sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Azmy, Noor Azwen; A. Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif; Arsad, Norhana; Idris, Sarada; Mohmad, Abdul Rahman; Abdul Hamid, Aidil

    2017-01-01

    The fabricated E. coli sensor of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation was investigated. Nanocomposite films were prepared via sol-gel method and were irradiated at 10 kGy at room temperature. The surface characteristic of as-prepared samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The proposed structure shows that exposed gamma radiation may change the microstructure of the films occurs as a result of their flexible structure. Uv-vis spectra of nanocomposite were studied to investigate the optical behavior of ZnO-rGO films and the optical energy band gap and Urbach energy were found to be gamma dose dependent. The sensing properties were identified by measuring the changes of conductivity of film using I-V measurement. Upon exposure to E. coli, the radiated ZnO-rGO films (1.00 vol% GO) exhibited higher sensitivity, as much as 4.62 × 10-3, than un-radiated films, 1.04 × 10-3. This enhancement of the I-V response was attributed to a positive influence of the gamma radiation in these films. The results prove that our ZnO-rGO nanocomposites thin films by gamma radiation demonstrate a strong performance for the detection of microbiological organisms in water.

  10. YIG: Bi2O3 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Magnetooptic and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur-E-Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Y3Fe5O12-Bi2O3 composite thin films are deposited onto Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG substrates and their annealing crystallization regimes are optimized (in terms of both process temperatures and durations to obtain high-quality thin film layers possessing magnetic properties attractive for a range of technological applications. The amount of bismuth oxide content introduced into these nanocomposite-type films is controlled by adjusting the RF power densities applied to both Y3Fe5O12 and Bi2O3 sputtering targets during the cosputtering deposition processes. The measured material properties of oven-annealed YIG-Bi2O3 films indicate that cosputtering of YIG-Bi2O3 composites can provide the flexibility of application-specific YIG layers fabrication of interest for several existing, emerging, and also frontier technologies. Experimental results demonstrate large specific Faraday rotation (of more than 1°/µm at 532 nm, achieved simultaneously with low optical losses in the visible range and very narrow peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of around ΔHpp= 6.1 Oe at 9.77 GHz.

  11. Silver Nanowire/MnO2 Nanowire Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites: Materials with High Dielectric Permittivity and Low Dielectric Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Ali Shayesteh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2017-04-26

    This study reports the fabrication of hybrid nanocomposites based on silver nanowire/manganese dioxide nanowire/poly(methyl methacrylate) (AgNW/MnO2NW/PMMA), using a solution casting technique, with outstanding dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss. AgNW was synthesized using the hard-template technique, and MnO2NW was synthesized employing a hydrothermal method. The prepared AgNW:MnO2NW (2.0:1.0 vol %) hybrid nanocomposite showed a high dielectric permittivity (64 at 8.2 GHz) and low dielectric loss (0.31 at 8.2 GHz), which are among the best reported values in the literature in the X-band frequency range (8.2-12.4 GHz). The superior dielectric properties of the hybrid nanocomposites were attributed to (i) dimensionality match between the nanofillers, which increased their synergy, (ii) better dispersion state of AgNW in the presence of MnO2NW, (iii) positioning of ferroelectric MnO2NW in between AgNWs, which increased the dielectric permittivity of nanodielectrics, thereby increasing dielectric permittivity of the hybrid nanocomposites, (iv) barrier role of MnO2NW, i.e., cutting off the contact spots of AgNWs and leading to lower dielectric loss, and (v) AgNW aligned structure, which increased the effective surface area of AgNWs, as nanoelectrodes. Comparison of the dielectric properties of the developed hybrid nanocomposites with the literature highlights their great potential for flexible capacitors.

  12. Micro-mechanics of nanostructured carbon/shape memory polymer hybrid thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, M.; Xu, B.; Pei, Yutao T.; Lu, H.B.; Fu, Y.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanics of hybrid shape memory polymer polystrene (PS) based nanocomposites with skeletal structures of CNFs/MWCNTs formed inside. Experimental results showed an increase of glass transition temperature (Tg) with CNF/MWCNT concentrations instead of a decrease of Tg in

  13. Growth of metal-oxide semiconductor nanocomposite thin films by a dual-laser, dual target deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kompitsas, M. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, The National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave., Athens 11635 (Greece)], E-mail: mcomp@eie.gr; Giannoudakos, A. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, The National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave., Athens 11635 (Greece); Gyoergy, E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest 77125 (Romania); Sauthier, G.; Figueras, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest 77125 (Romania)

    2007-10-15

    Nanocomposite formed by gold nanoparticles embedded in a titanium dioxide matrix thin films have been synthesized by a synchronized two laser system. An ArF* excimer ({lambda} = 193 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx} 12 ns) laser and a frequency tripled Nd:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG; {lambda} = 355 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx} 10 ns) laser were used for the irradiation of titanium dioxide and gold targets. The investigations showed that there exists the possibility for tailoring the optical properties of gold-titanium dioxide nanocomposites by the proper choice of the laser irradiation parameters. The band gap narrowing and additional absorption in the visible spectral region induced by the incorporation of gold in the host TiO{sub 2} matrix allows for the design of nanostructured thin films for new generation of photocatalysts or solar energy converters.

  14. Easily processable multimodal spectral converters based on metal oxide/organic—inorganic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-López, Beatriz; Gonell, Francisco; Lima, Patricia P.; Freitas, Vânia T.; André, Paulo S.; Carlos, Luis D.; Ferreira, Rute A. S.

    2015-10-01

    This manuscript reports the synthesis and characterization of the first organic-inorganic hybrid material exhibiting efficient multimodal spectral converting properties. The nanocomposite, made of Er3+, Yb3+ codoped zirconia nanoparticles (NPs) entrapped in a di-ureasil d-U(600) hybrid matrix, is prepared by an easy two-step sol-gel synthesis leading to homogeneous and transparent materials that can be very easily processed as monolith or film. Extensive structural characterization reveals that zirconia nanocrystals of 10-20 nm in size are efficiently dispersed into the hybrid matrix and that the local structure of the di-ureasil is not affected by the presence of the NPs. A significant enhancement in the refractive index of the di-ureasil matrix with the incorporation of the ZrO2 nanocrystals is observed. The optical study demonstrates that luminescent properties of both constituents are perfectly preserved in the final hybrid. Thus, the material displays a white-light photoluminescence from the di-ureasil component upon excitation at UV/visible radiation and also intense green and red emissions from the Er3+- and Yb3+-doped NPs after NIR excitation. The dynamics of the optical processes were also studied as a function of the lanthanide content and the thickness of the films. Our results indicate that these luminescent hybrids represent a low-cost, environmentally friendly, size-controlled, easily processed and chemically stable alternative material to be used in light harvesting devices such as luminescent solar concentrators, optical fibres and sensors. Furthermore, this synthetic approach can be extended to a wide variety of luminescent NPs entrapped in hybrid matrices, thus leading to multifunctional and versatile materials for efficient tuneable nonlinear optical nanodevices.

  15. PANI-Ag-Cu Nanocomposite Thin Films Based Impedimetric Microbial Sensor for Detection of E. coli Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Huda Abdullah; Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim; Noor Azwen Noor Azmy; Aidil Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Cu nanocomposite thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on the glass substrate using spin coating technique. Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of nitric acid. The films were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The performance of the sensor was conducted using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to obtain the change in impedance of the sensor film before and after incubation w...

  16. Elevated Performance of Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes Enabled by Modified Hydrophilic MOFs for Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyong; Qin, Lijuan; Uliana, Adam; Hou, Jingwei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yatao; Li, Xin; Yuan, Shushan; Li, Jian; Tian, Miaomiao; Lin, Jiuyang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-01-18

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are studied for the design of advanced nanocomposite membranes, primarily due to their ultrahigh surface area, regular and highly tunable pore structures, and favorable polymer affinity. However, the development of engineered MOF-based membranes for water treatment lags behind. Here, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes containing poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) modified ZIF-8 (mZIF) in a polyamide (PA) layer were constructed via a facile interfacial polymerization (IP) method. The modified hydrophilic mZIF nanoparticles were evenly dispersed into an aqueous solution comprising piperazine (PIP) monomers, followed by polymerizing with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) to form a composite PA film. FT-IR spectroscopy and XPS analyses confirm the presence of mZIF nanoparticles on the top layer of the membranes. SEM and AFM images evince a retiform morphology of the TFN-mZIF membrane surface, which is intimately linked to the hydrophilicity and adsorption capacity of mZIF nanoparticles. Furthermore, the effect of different ZIF-8 loadings on the overall membrane performance was studied. Introducing the hydrophilizing mZIF nanoparticles not only furnishes the PA layer with a better surface hydrophilicity and more negative charge but also more than doubles the original water permeability, while maintaining a high retention of Na2SO4. The ultrahigh retentions of reactive dyes (e.g., reactive black 5 and reactive blue 2, >99.0%) for mZIF-functionalized PA membranes ensure their superior nanofiltration performance. This facile, cost-effective strategy will provide a useful guideline to integrate with other modified hydrophilic MOFs to design nanofiltration for water treatment.

  17. Comparative study on the mechanical and microstructural characterisation of AA 7075 nano and hybrid nanocomposites produced by stir and squeeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C; Ramanujam, R

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, a comparative evaluation on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of aluminium based single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites was carried out. The manufacture of a single reinforced nanocomposite was conducted with the distribution of 2 wt.% nano alumina particles (avg. particle size 30-50 nm) in the molten aluminium alloy of grade AA 7075; while the hybrid reinforced nanocomposites were produced with of 4 wt.% silicon carbide (avg. particle size 5-10 µm) and 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% nano alumina particles. Three numbers of single reinforced nanocomposites were manufactured through stir casting with reinforcements preheated to different temperatures viz. 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The stir cast procedure was extended to fabricate two hybrid reinforced nanocomposites with reinforcements preheated to 500 °C prior to their inclusion. A single reinforced nanocomposite was also developed by squeeze casting with a pressure of 101 MPa. Mechanical and physical properties such as density, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength were evaluated on all the developed composites. The microstructural observation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. On comparison with base alloy, an improvement of 63.7% and 81.1% in brinell hardness was observed for single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites respectively. About 16% higher ultimate tensile strength was noticed with the squeeze cast single reinforced nanocomposite over the stir cast.

  18. Biomedical nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate hybridized with modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Sang Shin, Ueon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    Degradable polymer-based materials are attractive in orthopedics and dentistry as an alternative to metallic implants for use as bone fixatives. Herein, a degradable polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was combined with novel hybrid nanopowder of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-calcium phosphate (CP) for this application. In particular, CNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders (0.1 and 0.25% CNTs) were prepared from the solution of ionically modified CNTs (mCNTs), which was specifically synthesized to be well-dispersed and thus to effectively adsorb onto the CP nanoparticles. The mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders were then mixed with PLA (up to 50%) to produce mCNTs-CP-PLA nanocomposites. The mechanical tensile strength of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by the addition of mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders. Moreover, nanocomposites containing low concentration of mCNTs (0.1%) showed significantly stimulated biological responses including cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in terms of gene and protein expressions. Based on this study, the addition of novel mCNT-CP hybrid nanopowders to PLA biopolymer may be considered a new material choice for developing hard tissue implants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Layer-by-layer fabrication of AgCl-PANI hybrid nanocomposite films for electronic tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Alexandra; Shimizu, Flavio M; Mercante, Luiza A; Paris, Elaine C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Correa, Daniel S; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-11-28

    The fabrication of nanostructured films with tailored properties is essential for many applications, particularly with materials such as polyaniline (PANI) whose electrical characteristics may be easily tuned. In this study we report the one-step synthesis of AgCl-PANI nanocomposites that could form layer-by-layer (LbL) films with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and be used for electronic tongues (e-tongues). The first AgCl-PANI layer was adsorbed on a quartz substrate according to a nucleation-and-growth mechanism explained using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) model, revealing a 3D film growth confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films. In contrast to conventional PANI-containing films, the AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films deposited on interdigitated electrodes exhibited electrical resistance that was practically unaffected by changes in pH from 4 to 9, and therefore these films can be used in e-tongues for both acidic and basic media. With a sensor array made of AgCl-PANI/PSS LbL films with different numbers of bilayers, we demonstrated the suitability of the AgCl-PANI nanocomposite for an e-tongue capable of clearly discriminating the basic tastes from salt, acid and umami solutions. Significantly, the hybrid AgCl-PANI nanocomposite is promising for any application in which PANI de-doping at high pH is to be avoided.

  20. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  1. Facile Fabrication of MoS2-Modified SnO2 Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Sun, Yan'e; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-06-08

    An ultrasensitive humidity sensor based on molybdenum-disulfide- (MoS2)-modified tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposite has been demonstrated in this work. The nanostructural, morphological, and compositional properties of an as-prepared MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), nitrogen sorption analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed its successful preparation and rationality. The sensing characteristics of the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid film device against relative humidity (RH) were investigated at room temperature. The RH sensing results revealed an unprecedented response, ultrafast response/recovery behaviors, and outstanding repeatability. To our knowledge, the sensor response yielded in this work was tens of times higher than that of the existing humidity sensors. Moreover, the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite film sensor exhibited great enhancement in humidity sensing performances as compared to the pure MoS2, SnO2, and graphene counterparts. Furthermore, complex impedance spectroscopy and bode plots were employed to understand the underlying sensing mechanisms of the MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite toward humidity. The synthesized MoS2/SnO2 hybrid composite was proved to be an excellent candidate for constructing ultrahigh-performance humidity sensor toward various applications.

  2. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  3. Structuring of DLC:Ag nanocomposite thin films employing plasma chemical etching and ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Tamulevicius@ktu.lt; Tamulevičienė, Asta; Virganavičius, Dainius; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} dry etching of DLC:Ag films revealed the embedded Ag nanoparticles. • Plasma processed samples with more than 5 at.% Ag demonstrated Ostwald ripening. • 4 μm period patterns in aluminum and photoresist were imposed in the DLC:Ag film. • Different micro patterns are formed depending on the selected processing route. - Abstract: We analyze structuring effects of diamond like carbon based silver nanocomposite (DLC:Ag) thin films by CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma chemical etching and Ar{sup +} sputtering. DLC:Ag films were deposited employing unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering of silver target with Ar{sup +} in C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas atmosphere. Films with different silver content (0.6–12.9 at.%) were analyzed. The films (as deposited and exposed to plasma chemical etching) were characterized employing scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS), optical microscopy, ultraviolet–visible light (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. After deposition, the films were plasma chemically etched in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} mixture plasma for 2–6 min. It is shown that optical properties of thin films and silver nano particle size distribution can be tailored during deposition changing the magnetron current and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}/Ar ratio or during following plasma chemical etching. The plasma etching enabled to reveal the silver filler particle size distribution and to control silver content on the surface that was found to be dependent on Ostwald ripening process of silver nano-clusters. Employing contact lithography and 4 μm period mask in photoresist or aluminum the films were patterned employing CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} mixture plasma chemical etching, direct Ar{sup +} sputtering or combined etching processes. It is shown that different processing recipes result in different final grating structures. Selective carbon etching in CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} gas mixture with

  4. Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on PVDF Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titania Hybrid Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Al-Saygh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible nanocomposite pressure sensor with a tensile strength of about 47 MPa is fabricated in this work. Nanolayers of titanium dioxide (titania nanolayers, TNL synthesized by hydrothermal method are used to reinforce the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by simple solution mixing. A hybrid composite is prepared by incorporating the TNL (2.5 wt % with reduced graphene oxide (rGO (2.5 wt % synthesized by improved graphene oxide synthesis to form a PVDF/rGO-TNL composite. A comparison between PVDF, PVDF/rGO (5 wt %, PVDF/TNL (5 wt % and PVDF/rGO-TNL (total additives 5 wt % samples are analyzed for their sensing, thermal and dielectric characteristics. The new shape of additives (with sharp morphology, good interaction and well distributed hybrid additives in the matrix increased the sensitivity by 333.46% at 5 kPa, 200.7% at 10.7 kPa and 246.7% at 17.6 kPa compared to the individual PVDF composite of TNL, confirming its possible application in fabricating low cost and light weight pressure sensing devices and electronic devices with reduced quantity of metal oxides. Increase in the β crystallinity percentage and removal of α phase for PVDF was detected for the hybrid composite and linked to the improvement in the mechanical properties. Tensile strength for the hybrid composite (46.91 MPa was 115% higher than that of the neat polymer matrix. Improvement in the wettability and less roughness in the hybrid composites were observed, which can prevent fouling, a major disadvantage in many sensor applications.

  5. Hybrid silver nanoparticle/conjugated polyelectrolyte nanocomposites exhibiting controllable metal-enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; He, Fang; Zhu, Xi; Tang, Fu; Li, Lidong

    2014-03-01

    Metal-enhanced fluorescence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPs) is realized using a simple, green hybrid Ag nanocomposite film. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are pre-prepared by sodium citrate reduction and incorporated into agarose by mixing to form an Ag-containing agarose film (Ag@agarose). Through variation of the amount of Ag NPs in the Ag@agarose film as well as the thickness of the interlayer between CPs and the Ag@agarose film prepared of layer-by-layer assembly of chitosan and sodium alginate, a maximum 8.5-fold increase in the fluorescence of CPs is obtained. After introducing tyrosinase, this system also can be used to detect phenolic compounds with high sensitivity and good visualization under ultraviolet light.

  6. Signatures of clustering in superparamagnetic colloidal nanocomposites of an inorganic and hybrid nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Aldo F; Fuertes, Antonio B; Gonzalez-Carreño, Teresita; Sevilla, Marta; Valdes-Solis, Teresa; Tartaj, Pedro

    2008-02-01

    The individual and co-operative properties of inorganic and hybrid superparamagnetic colloidal nanocomposites that satisfy all the requirements of magnetic carriers in the biosciences and/or catalysis fields are been studied. Essential to the success of this study is the selection of suitable synthetic routes (aerosol and nanocasting) that allow the preparation of materials with different matrix characteristics (carbon, silica, and polymers with controlled porosity). These materials present magnetic properties that depend on the average particle size and the degree of polydispersity. Finally, the analysis of the co-operative behavior of samples allows for the detection of signatures of clustering, which are closely related to the textural characteristics of samples and the methodology used to produce the magnetic carriers.

  7. Recyclability of thin nylon film-supported p-CuBiS2/ n-TiO2 heterojunction-based nanocomposites for visible light photocatalytic degradation of organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau; Lee, Jiunn-Yih; Wu, Chang-Mou

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid film photocatalysts have been prepared by embedding SiO2/TiO2/CuBiS2/Ag nanocomposite spheres into nylon films (nylon/catalyst) for controlling the leaching problem of catalyst powders during the photodegradation of acid black 1 (AB 1) dye solution. The composite catalyst with 500 nm SiO2 sphere as a support which had uniform size and shape was synthesized by the sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The coupling between p-CuBiS2 and n-TiO2 nanoparticles showed synergetic effects to the enhancement of organic dye photodegradation under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the Ag nanoparticles on the nanocomposites increased the surface plasmonic resonance and acted as electron trapping which is leading to better photocarrier separation. The 20, 30, and 40 mg as-prepared nanocomposite catalysts were embedded into nylon films to produce three different compositions of 120 mg nylon/catalyst hybrids. The good photodegradation property of 40 mg nylon/catalyst hybrid was tested and was found that it could degrade the 100 mL of 5 ppm dye solution, respectively, in 150, 120, 180, and 150 min in four consecutive runs under 150 W halogen light irradiation. The hybrid films did not need a washing procedure after being used and could be incessantly used after that. The good reusability of hybrid photocatalyst films is attributed to its porosity, thin thickness, tiny size of nanoparticles (less than 10 nm), and the formation of nano p- n diodes between p-CuBiS2 and n-TiO2 nanoparticles.

  8. Nanostructured SnO2 encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Priya; Srivastava, Manish; Verma, Ranjana; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, D; Singh, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol-gel derived tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic-inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic-inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO2 nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO2 and SnO2-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV-Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO2 and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2-22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm(-2). Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO2-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO2-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thin Film Solar Cells: Organic, Inorganic and Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankovich, John

    2004-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are an important developing resource for hundreds of applications including space travel. In addition to being more cost effective than traditional single crystal silicon cells, thin film multi-crystaline cells are plastic and light weight. The plasticity of the cells allows for whole solar panels to be rolled out from reams. Organic layers are being investigated in order to increase the efficiency of the cells to create an organic / inorganic hybrid cell. The main focus of the group is a thin film inorganic cell made with the absorber CuInS2. So far the group has been successful in creating the layer from a single-source precursor. They also use a unique method of film deposition called chemical vapor deposition for this. The general makeup of the cell is a molybdenum back contact with the CuInS2 layer, then CdS, ZnO and aluminum top contacts. While working cells have been produced, the efficiency so far has been low. Along with quantum dot fabrication the side project of this that is currently being studied is adding a polymer layer to increase efficiency. The polymer that we are using is P3OT (Poly(3-octylthiopene-2,5-diyll), retroregular). Before (and if) it is added to the cell, it must be understood in itself. To do this simple diodes are being constructed to begin to look at its behavior. The P3OT is spin coated onto indium tin oxide and silver or aluminum contacts are added. This method is being studied in order to find the optimal thickness of the layer as well as other important considerations that may later affect the composition of the finished solar cell. Because the sun is the most abundant renewable, energy source that we have, it is important to learn how to harness that energy and begin to move away from our other depleted non-renewable energy sources. While traditional silicon cells currently create electricity at relatively high efficiencies, they have drawbacks such as weight and rigidness that make them unattractive

  10. High flux thin film nanocomposite membranes based on metal-organic frameworks for organic solvent nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, Sara; Gorgojo, Patricia; Téllez, Carlos; Coronas, Joaquín; Livingston, Andrew G

    2013-10-09

    Thin-film nanocomposite membranes containing a range of 50-150 nm metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles [ZIF-8, MIL-53(Al), NH2-MIL-53(Al) and MIL-101(Cr)] in a polyamide (PA) thin film layer were synthesized via in situ interfacial polymerization on top of cross-linked polyimide porous supports. MOF nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the organic phase containing trimesoyl chloride prior to the interfacial reaction, and their subsequent presence in the PA layer formed was inferred by a combination of contact angle measurements, FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, XPS, and TEM. Membrane performance in organic solvent nanofiltration was evaluated on the basis of methanol (MeOH) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) permeances and rejection of styrene oligomers (PS). The effect of different post-treatments and MOF loadings on the membrane performance was also investigated. MeOH and THF permeance increased when MOFs were embedded into the PA layer, whereas the rejection remained higher than 90% (molecular weight cutoff of less than 232 and 295 g·mol(-1) for MeOH and THF, respectively) in all membranes. Moreover, permeance enhancement increased with increasing pore size and porosity of the MOF used as filler. The incorporation of nanosized MIL-101(Cr), with the largest pore size of 3.4 nm, led to an exceptional increase in permeance, from 1.5 to 3.9 and from 1.7 to 11.1 L·m(-2)·h(-1)·bar(-1) for MeOH/PS and THF/PS, respectively.

  11. Anomalous Drag Reduction and Hydrodynamic Interactions of Nanoparticles in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Jaydeep; Begam, Nafisa; Chandran, Sivasurender; Sprung, Michael

    2015-03-01

    One of the central dogma of fluid physics is the no-slip boundary condition whose validity has come under intense scrutiny, especially in the fields of micro and nanofluidics. Although various studies show the violation of the no-slip condition its effect on flow of colloidal particles in viscous media has been rarely explored. Here we report unusually large reduction of effective drag experienced by polymer grafted nanoparticles moving through a highly viscous film of polymer, well above its glass transition temperature. The extent of drag reduction increases with decreasing temperature and polymer film thickness. We also observe apparent divergence of the wave vector dependent hydrodynamic interaction function of these nanoparticles with an anomalous power law exponent of ~ 2 at the lowest temperatures and film thickness. Such strong hydrodynamic interactions are not expected in polymer melts where these interactions are known to be screened to molecular dimensions. We provide evidence for the presence of large hydrodynamic slip at the nanoparticle-polymer interface and demonstrate its tunability with temperature and confinement. Our study suggests novel physics emerging in dynamics nanoparticles due to confinement and interface wettability in thin films of polymer nanocomposites.

  12. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-06

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g.: sensing, energy conversion) of these materials, introduces additional complications with regard to the processing-morphology-function behavior. A primary challenge is to understand and control the viscosity of a PNC with decreasing film thickness confinement for nanoscale applications. Using a combination of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray standing wave based resonance enhanced XPCS to study the dynamics of neat poly-2-vinyl pyridine (P2VP) chains and the nanoparticle dynamics, respectively, we identified a new mechanism that dictates the viscosity of PNC films in the nanoscale regime. We show that while the viscosities of neat P2VP films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, PNC films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were equal to the bulk values. These results -NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics -suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for 2D and 3D nanoscale applications.

  13. Amorphous Carbon Gold Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural and Spectro-ellipsometric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel-Gonzalez, Z., E-mail: zeuzmontiel@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Mendoza-Galvan, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, 76010 Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic Ellipsometry was used to determine the optical and structural properties of amorphous carbon:gold nanocomposite thin films deposited by dc magnetron co-sputtering at different deposition power. The incorporation of gold as small particles distributed in the amorphous carbon matrix was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Based on these results, an optical model for the films was developed using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium with the Drude-Lorentz model representing the optical response of gold and the Tauc-Lorentz model for the amorphous carbon. The gold volume fraction and particle size obtained from the fitting processes were comparable to those from the physical characterization. The analysis of the ellipsometric spectra for all the samples showed strong changes in the optical properties of the carbon films as a consequence of the gold incorporation. These changes were correlated to the structural modification observed by Raman Spectroscopy, which indicated a clustering of the sp{sup 2} phase with a subsequent decrease in the optical gap. Finally, measurements of Reflection and Transmission Spectroscopy were carried out and Transmission Electron Microscopy images were obtained in order to support the ellipsometric model results.

  14. A Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with MCM-41 Silica Nanoparticles for Brackish Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kadhom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membranes containing MCM-41 silica nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP process. An m-phenylenediamine (MPD aqueous solution and an organic phase with trimesoyl chloride (TMC dissolved in isooctane were used in the IP reaction, occurring on a nanoporous polysulfone (PSU support layer. Isooctane was introduced as the organic solvent for TMC in this work due to its intermediate boiling point. MCM-41 silica NPs were loaded in MPD and TMC solutions in separate experiments, in a concentration range from 0 to 0.04 wt %, and the membrane performance was assessed and compared based on salt rejection and water flux. The prepared membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR analysis. The results show that adding MCM-41 silica NPs into an MPD solution yields slightly improved and more stable results than adding them to a TMC solution. With 0.02% MCM-41 silica NPs in the MPD solution, the water flux was increased from 44.0 to 64.1 L/m2·h, while the rejection virtually remained the same at 95% (2000 ppm NaCl saline solution, 25 °C, 2068 kPa (300 psi.

  15. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-07

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g., sensing, energy conversion) of these materials influences other properties. One challenge is to understand the effects of nanoparticles on the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer films. A new mechanism that contributes to an enhancement of the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer/nanoparticle films is identified. We show that while the viscosities of neat homopolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, polymer/nanoparticle films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were comparable to the bulk values. These results - NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics - suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for nanoscale applications.

  16. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Govindraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybrid solar cells. Nearly monodispersed 4 nm Cu2Se nanocrystals were synthesized using the conventional colloidal synthesis. Varying weight % of these nanocrystals was added to PVK to form polymer nanocomposites. The 10% polymer nanocomposite showed retention of the properties of the pure polymer whilst the 50% resulted in a complete breakdown of the polymeric structure as evident from the FTIR, TGA, and SEM. The lack of transport channels in the 50% polymer nanocomposite solar cell resulted in a device with no photoresponse whilst the 10% polymer nanocomposite resulted in a device with an open circuit voltage of 0.50 V, a short circuit current of 7.34 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 22.28% resulting in a PCE of 1.02%.

  17. Structure-processing-property correlations in thin films of conjugated polymer nanocomposites and blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, Arvind

    Conjugated polymers have found several applications in recent years, in energy conversion and storage devices such as organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, batteries, and super capacitors. Thin films of polymers used for these applications need to be mechanically and thermally stable to withstand the harsh operating conditions. Although there is significant information on the optoelectronic properties of many of these polymers, there are only few studies on their mechanical properties. There is little information in the literature on how processing of these films influence mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) films were prepared by thermolytic conversion of poly[p -phenylene (tetrahydrothiophenium)ethylene chloride] precursor films, at different temperatures and the kinetics of reaction was investigated using thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films, studied using nanoindentation, showed a dependence on the extent of conversion and chemical composition of the films. The presence of chemical defects (e.g., carbonyl groups, detected using FTIR spectroscopy), was also found to have a noticeable effect on the modulus and hardness of the films. The storage modulus, E', and plasticity decreased with an increase in conversion, whereas the loss modulus, E", showed the opposite trend. Both the precursor and the fully-converted PPV films were found to have significantly lower E" than E', consistent with the glassy nature of the polymers at room temperature. In the second part of the study, polyacetylene films were synthesized by acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precursor films. The kinetics of this reaction was monitored by thermogravimetry. The chemical structure of the conjugated polymer films was characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Polyacetylene films incorporated with 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid

  18. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  19. Detection of trace levels of organophosphate pesticides using an electronic tongue based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facure, Murilo H M; Mercante, Luiza A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Correa, Daniel S

    2017-05-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds impose significant strains on public health, environmental/food safety and homeland security, once they have been widely used as pesticides and insecticides and also display potential to be employed as chemical warfare agents by terrorists. In this context, the development of sensitive and reliable chemical sensors that would allow in-situ measurements of such contaminants is highly pursued. Here we report on a free-enzyme impedimetric electronic tongue (e-tongue) used in the analysis of organophosphate pesticides comprising four sensing units based on graphene hybrid nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were prepared by reduction of graphene oxide in the presence of conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS and polypyrrole) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were deposited by drop casting onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Impedance spectroscopy measurements were collected in triplicate for each sample analyzed, and the electrical resistance data were treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing that the system was able to discriminate OPs at nanomolar concentrations. In addition, the electronic tongue system could detect OPs in real samples, where relations between the principal components and the variation of pesticides in a mixture were established, proving to be useful to analyze and monitor mixtures of OP pesticides. The materials employed provided sensing units with high specific surface area and high conductivity, yielding the development of a sensor with suitable stability, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity towards pesticide samples, being able to discriminate concentrations as low as 0.1nmolL-1. Our results indicate that the e-tongue system can be used as a rapid, simple and low cost alternative in the analyses of OPs pesticide solutions below the concentration range permitted by legislation of some countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  1. Influence of Miscibility Phenomenon on Crystalline Polymorph Transition in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Acrylic Rubber/Clay Nanocomposite Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules. PMID:24551141

  2. Large-Scale Syntheses of Zinc Sulfide⋅(Diethylenetriamine)0.5 Hybrids as Precursors for Sulfur Nanocomposite Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Tian-Wen; Yao, Hong-Bin; Su, Ting-Yu; Yu, Zhi-Long; Li, Yi; Lu, Lei-Lei; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-09-18

    Nanostructured metal sulfide-amine hybrid materials have attracted attention because of their unique properties and versatility as precursors for functional inorganic nanomaterials. However, large-scale synthesis of metal sulfide-amine hybrid nanomaterials is limited by hydrothermal and solvothermal preparative reaction conditions; consequently, incorporation of such materials into functional nanomaterials is hindered. An amine molecule-assisted refluxing method was used to synthesize highly uniform zinc sulfide⋅(diethylenetriamine)0.5 (ZnS⋅(DETA)0.5 ) hybrid nanosheets and nanobelts in a large scale. The obtained ZnS⋅(DETA)0.5 hybrid nanomaterials can be used as efficient precursors to fabricate functional ZnS nanomaterials and carbon encapsulated sulfur (S@C) nanocomposite cathodes for Li-S batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites thin films coated on quartz crystal microbalance for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlong; Xie, Guangzhong; Zhou, Yong; Xie, Tao; Tai, HuiLing; Yang, Guangjin

    2014-08-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are sprayed on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for NO2 sensing. The thin films are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The experimental results reveal that PVP/RGO sensor exhibits higher sensitivity and shorter recovery time than those of PVP. Besides, the response to 20 ppm NO2 is higher than other gases such as CO, CO2 and NH3 even at 100ppm. When the PVP/RGO sensor is exposed to these gases, the good selectivity to NO2 makes the sensor ideal for NO2 detection.

  4. Ultra-thin hybrid polyhedral silsesquioxane-polyamide films with potentially unlimited 2D dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, M.R.; Zheng, Jumeng; Hempenius, Mark A.; Raaijmakers, Michiel; Doherty, C.M.; Hill, A.J.; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of hybrid polyhedral silsesquioxane–polyamides, in the form of self-supporting or supported ultra-thin films, is presented. The thin films combine intrinsic local ordering of inorganic and organic constituents on the molecular scale with potentially infinite lateral macroscopic

  5. Electronic excitation induced modifications of structural, electrical and optical properties of Cu-C60 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inani, H.; Singhal, R.; Sharma, P.; Vishnoi, R.; Ojha, S.; Chand, S.; Sharma, G. D.

    2017-09-01

    High energy ion irradiation significantly affects the size and shape of nanoparticles in composites. Low concentration metal fraction embedded in fullerene matrix in form of nanocomposites was synthesized by thermal co-evaporation method. Swift heavy ion irradiation was performed with 120 MeV Au ion beam on Cu-C60 nanocomposites at different fluences 1 × 1012, 3 × 1012, 6 × 1012, 1 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. Absorption spectra demonstrated that absorption intensity of nanocomposite thin film was increased whereas absorption modes of fullerene C60 were diminished with fluence. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was also performed to estimate the thickness of the film and atomic metal fraction in matrix and found to be 45 nm and 3%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy was performed for structural and particle size evaluation of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) in fullerene C60 matrix. A growth of Cu nanoparticles is observed at a fluence of 3 × 1013 ions/cm2 with a bi-modal distribution in fullerene C60. Structural evolution of fullerene C60 matrix with increasing fluence of 120 MeV Au ion beam is studied by Raman spectroscopy which shows the amorphization of matrix (fullerene C60) at lower fluence. The growth of Cu nanoparticles is explained using the phenomena of Ostwald ripening.

  6. Carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films for selective solar absorber

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Nickel oxide nanocomposites were prepared on aluminum substrates for selective solar absorber applications. MWCNTs are functionalized in order to disperse in water and ethanol. Results from the characterization...

  7. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Structure-property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Li; Gao, Yu; Ban, Jinghao; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS), have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group]) and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups]) were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials.

  9. In situ synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene terephthalate hybrid nanocomposites at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Xinyan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Ding Enyong, E-mail: eyding@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Xue Feng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2012-06-15

    TiO{sub 2} nanoflowers were in situ grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven fabric by hydrolysis of TiCl{sub 4} in aqueous solution in the presence of nanocrystal cellulose grafted PET fabric (NCC-g-PET) at a low temperature of 70 Degree-Sign C. Nanocrystal cellulose (NCC) pre-grafted on PET fabric acted as hydrophilic substrate and morphology inducing agent to promote the nucleation and crystal growth of TiO{sub 2}. Detailed information on the synthetic process was presented. The resulting samples were characterized using FE-SEM, EDS, ATR-IR, Raman microscopy, XRD and TG analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of orange methyl under solar light. Characteristic results indicate that rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoflowers have grown abundantly on PET non-woven fabric, and the established hydrogen bonding strengthens the interfacial interaction between the inorganic particles and the polymeric substrates. The methyl orange decoloration test under natural solar light demonstrates that this TiO{sub 2}/PET hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent self-cleaning performance which is expected to have a good potential for commercialization.

  10. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-02-26

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influences of RCF/HNTs dispersion on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of these composites have been characterized in terms of flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, impact toughness, impact strength, and thermogravimetric analysis. The fracture surface morphology and toughness mechanisms were investigated by SEM. Results indicated that mechanical properties increased because of the addition of HNTs into the epoxy matrix. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact toughness increased by 20.8, 72.8, 56.5, and 25.0%, respectively, at 1 wt% HNTs load. The presence of RCF dramatically enhanced flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and impact toughness of the composites by 160%, 350%, 444%, and 263%, respectively. However, adding HNTs to RCF/epoxy showed only slight enhancements in flexural strength and fracture toughness. The inclusion of 5 wt% HNTs into RCF/epoxy ecocomposites increased the impact toughness by 27.6%. The presence of either HNTs or RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy. However, at high temperature, samples reinforced with RCF and HNTs displayed better thermal stability with increased char residue than neat resin. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  11. Measurement of the dielectric, conductance, and pyroelectric properties of MWCNT:PVDF nanocomposite thin films for application in infrared technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew; Guggilla, Padmaja; Corda, John; Egarievwe, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we have determined the dielectric and conductance properties of multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWCNT) in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite thin films as a function of temperature and frequency. Samples, ranging from 15 - 280 microns in thickness, were measured in the temperature range from 21 to 90°C and in frequencies from 50Hz to 110MHz. The samples were prepared by the solution casting technique. Measures indicate that at constant temperatures, the real dielectric constant decreases at lower frequencies, stays steady at low frequencies but rise at higher frequencies over towards the strong resonance. The dielectric loss, a particular concern as it is inversely related to the conductance, decreases also at lower frequencies but rise at higher frequencies with a steeper slope in each case. Additionally, we have measured the pyroelectric coefficient in the same temperature range, compared the pyroelectric coefficient results with previous measures made on silver nanoparticle in PVDF thin films and provided preliminary evidence of the causative microscopic response mechanism. Our MWCNT:PVDF thin films yield higher figures of merit than that indicated by pure PVDF thin films and results indicate a usage of MWCNT:PVDF thin films in infrared uncooled sensors and vidicon technology.

  12. Nanocomposite/Hybrid Materials of Electroactive Polymers With Inorganic Oxides for Biosensor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yen

    2001-01-01

    As proposed, we have successfully synthesized new electroactive and electronically conductive polyaniline polymethacrylate-silica nanocomposites and fabricated biosensor devices, aimed for detecting...

  13. Atmospheric deposition process for enhanced hybrid organic-inorganic multilayer barrier thin films for surface protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mohammad Mutee ur; Kim, Kwang Tae; Na, Kyoung Hoan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, organic polymer poly-vinyl acetate (PVA) and inorganic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) have been used together to fabricate a hybrid barrier thin film for the protection of PET substrate. The organic thin films of PVA were developed through roll to roll electrohydrodynamic atomization (R2R-EHDA) whereas the inorganic thin films of Al2O3 were grown by roll to roll spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-SAALD) for mass production. The use of these two technologies together to develop a multilayer hybrid organic-inorganic barrier thin films under atmospheric conditions is reported for the first time. These multilayer hybrid barrier thin films are fabricated on flexible PET substrate. Each layer of Al2O3 and PVA in barrier thin film exhibited excellent morphological, chemical and optical properties. Extremely uniform and atomically thin films of Al2O3 with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.64 nm and 1.94 nm respectively concealed the non-uniformity and irregularities in PVA thin films with Ra of 2.9 nm and 3.6 nm respectively. The optical transmittance of each layer was ∼ 80-90% while the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of hybrid barrier was in the range of ∼ 2.3 × 10-2 g m-2 day-1 with a total film thickness of ∼ 200 nm. Development of such hybrid barrier thin films with mass production and low cost will allow various flexible electronic devices to operate in atmospheric conditions without degradation of their properties.

  14. Fine-tune optical absorption and light emitting behavior of the CdS/PVA hybridized film nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiba, Z. K.; Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr; Imam, N. G.

    2017-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles (NPs) nucleated at different temperatures were composited with PVA to control and fine-tune optical absorption and emission of the nano-hybrid composite by varying the sizes of the CdS NPs which in turn depends on the nucleation temperature. The implanting of CdS NPs into PVA matrix was confirmed by XRD hand in hand with absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopic techniques. UV/VIS absorption spectra confirm the formation of hybridized film CdS/PVA nanocomposite with refractive index in the range of 2-4. UV/VIS measurements were also used in calculating different optical and dielectric parameters such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, and optical conductivity. The optical parameters varied with the incorporation of CdS NPs within PVA matrix; accordingly, the optical constants of the nanocomposite films could be controlled by size of CdS content. Tauc's relation was used to determine the optical band gap and to determine the type of electronic transition. It is found that the direct allowed transition is more probable in CdS/PVA nanocomposite film of direct band gap around 3.8 eV. Blue and green light emissions from CdS/PVA nanocomposite film have been observed. Further, the PL studies indicated the emission peak observed at UV band represents band to band transition, while the blue and green emissions could be assigned to the optical transition of the first excitonic state of the CdS NPs and emission from interstitial sulfur respectively. The blue shift in the PL spectra was parallel to the shift observed in UV/VIS spectra. Because of its excellent fluorescence and highly transparent performance, the composite film of CdS nucleated at 200 °C was found to be suitable for bio-related applications such as bio-labeling, bio-imaging, drug delivery, and LEDs as well as a window layer in solar cell.

  15. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Yeniyol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness Ra and Rz were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm and protruding hills (10–50 µm on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher Ra and Rz surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.

  16. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials for super-capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouki, M.; Tran-Van, F.; Sarrazin, C.; Chevrot, C. [Cergy-Pontoise Univ., Lab. de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), EA 2528 95 (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d' Electrochimie Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, UMR 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); De, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    2004-07-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials chemically synthesized from colloid particles of iron oxide in aqueous solution have been processed to realize electrode materials for super-capacitor applications. The performances have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvano-static techniques in a three-electrode cell. The capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PPy hybrid nano-composite doped with para-toluene-sulfonate reaches 47 mAh/g in PC/NEt{sub 4}BF{sub 4} with a good stability during cycling (loss of 3% after 1000 cycles). Transmission Electronic Microscopy indicates a porous nano-structure with spherical particles in a range of 400-500 nm which ensures a good accessibility of the electrolyte in the bulk of the electro-active hybrid material. Preliminary studies with room temperature ionic liquid show promising results since the specific capacitance reaches 427 F/g in 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis((tri-fluoro-methyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI). (authors)

  17. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamborova, Irena [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Zajicova, Veronika, E-mail: veronika.zajicova@tul.cz [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Karpiskova, Jana [Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 Degree-Sign C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  18. CO2 sensing properties of semiconducting copper oxide and spinel ferrite nanocomposite thin film

    OpenAIRE

    Chapelle, Audrey; Oudrhiri-Hassani, Fahd; Presmanes, Lionel; Barnabé, Antoine; Tailhades, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    A new active layer for CO2 sensing based on semiconducting CuO–CuxFe3−xO4 (with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nanocomposite was prepared by radiofrequency sputtering from a delafossite CuFeO2 target using a specific in situ reduction method followed by post annealing treatment in air. The tenorite–spinel ferrite nanocomposite layer was deposited on a simplified test device and the response in a carbon dioxide atmosphere was measured by varying the concentration up to 5000 ppm, at different working temperatures ...

  19. An Indigo Carmine-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite with Supramolecular Control of Dye Aggregation and Photobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana L; Gomes, Ana C; Pillinger, Martyn; Gonçalves, Isabel S; de Melo, J Sérgio Seixas

    2015-08-17

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) containing solely indigo carmine (IC) or 1-hexanesulfonate (HS) anions, or a mixture of the two with different HS/IC molar ratios, were prepared by the direct synthesis method and characterized by various techniques. Hydrotalcite-type phases were obtained with basal spacings of 17.6 Å for the LDH intercalated by IC (IC-LDH) and 18.2-18.3 Å for the other materials containing HS. From the basal spacing for IC-LDH and UV/Vis spectroscopic data, it is proposed that the dye molecules assemble within the interlayer galleries to form a J-type stacking arrangement. A comprehensive electronic spectral and photophysical study was undertaken for IC in solution and all materials, aiming to obtain a detailed characterization of the host-guest and guest-guest interactions. In solution (the solvent surrounded "isolated" molecule), IC presents a fast excited state proton transfer with rate constants of ∼1.2-1.4×10(11)  s(-1) , which is linked to the very efficient radiationless deactivation channel. In the solid state it is shown that incorporation of IC within the LDH decreases the level of aggregation, and that further addition of HS induces the appearance of isolated IC units within the LDH galleries. The indigo carmine-based nanocomposites reported constitute a step forward in the design of hybrid materials with tunable properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  1. The Effect of Oxygen-Plasma Treated Graphene Nanoplatelets upon the Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Polycarbonate Hybrid Nanocomposites Used for Electrostatic Dissipative Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkachai Poosala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-plasma treated graphene nanoplatelet (OGNP, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT and polycarbonate (PC hybrid nanocomposites were prepared via a melting process using a twin-screw extruder. The contents of the OGNPs were in the range of 0.0 to 5.0 parts per hundred resin (phr, whilst the dosage of MWCNTs was kept at a constant of 2.0 wt%. Nanocomposites containing 2.0 wt% of MWCNTs and mixtures of 2.0 wt% of MWCNTs at 1.5 to 5.0 phr of OGNPs had tribocharged voltages, surface resistivities, and decay times, all within the electrostatic discharge (ESD specification. The X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results revealed that the OGNPs slightly intercalated and distributed also within the PC matrix. The glass transition temperature Tg and heat capacity jump, at the glass transition stages of nanocomposite, slightly changed, as the contents of the OGNPs increased. The melt flow index (MFI of nanocomposites significantly decreased when MWCNTs were added to the PC resin and slightly changed as the dosage of OGNPs was increased. Tensile Young’s modulus of nanocomposites tended to increase, as the elongation at break and impact strength decreased, when OGNP concentrations were increased. This research work exhibited that OGNP/MWCNT/PC hybrid nanocomposites do indeed have the potential to be used in ESD applications.

  2. Complexes of carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides in thin Langmuir-Blodgett films to detect electrochemically hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. S.; Egorova, V. P.; Krylova, H. V.; Lipnevich, I. V.; Orekhovskaya, T. I.; Veligura, A. A.; Govorov, M. I.; Shulitsky, B. G.

    2014-10-01

    Self-assembled complexes consisting of thin multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and DNA-oligonucleotides which are able to a cooperative binding to complementary oligonucleotides have been investigated. It was establised a high-performance charge transport in nanostructured Langmuir-Blodgett complexes thin MWCNTs/DNA. A method to electrochemically detect DNA hybridization on the self-organized structures has been proposed.

  3. Flexible, transparent, high dielectric and photoconductive thin films using ZnO nanosheets-multi-walled carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmar, J.J.L.; Majumder, T.; Roy, J.N.; Mondal, S.P., E-mail: suvra.phy@nita.ac.in

    2015-12-05

    ZnO nanosheet-Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (ZnO-MWCNT) nanostructures have been grown by a sol–gel chemical process. ZnO-MWCNT nanostructures were dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer solutions and spin coated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to fabricate a flexible, transparent, high dielectric and photoconductive thin film device. ZnO-MWCNT-PVA thin films demonstrated superior dielectric permittivity compare to ZnO-PVA and MWCNT-PVA nanocomposites. The dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity measurements of ITO/ZnO-MWCNT-PVA/Al devices have been carried out with different volume fraction of ZnO-MWCNT nanostructures. The photoconductive nature of ZnO-MWCNT-PVA composites has been investigated under illumination of broad band light source of intensity 80 mW/cm{sup 2}. The flexibility study of the nanocomposite devices have been performed at different bending angles. - Highlights: • ZnO nanosheet-Carbon Nanotube nanocomposites have been synthesized. • ZnO-CNTs were dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol solution to make thin film device. • Nanocomposite films showed high dielectric permittivity and photoconductivity. • Flexibility study of the devices was performed at different bending angles.

  4. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, Yusuf [Department of Electricity and Energy, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Orujalipoor, Ilghar [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Huang, Yen-Chih; Jeng, U-Ser [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ide, Semra [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactive growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.

  5. Investigation on the Optical and Surface Morphology of Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV:ZnO Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Zayana Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of red color poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV containing different weight percent of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by spin-coating techniques. The MEH-PPV:ZnO solutions were spin coated onto silicon and glass substrates. The spun MEH-PPV:ZnO thin films were then used to investigate optical properties by using ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL. The morphologies were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, while the identification of ZnO in the final product was determined by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The UV-Vis absorption band increases, while the optical bandgap decreases when the amount of ZnO nanoparticles increases. ZnO nanoparticles apparently have no effect on the conjugation segments of MEH-PPV. PL spectra show that the emission peak increases and slightly red shift as ZnO concentration increases. Based on SEM images of MEH-PPV:ZnO nanocomposite thin films, ZnO nanoparticles form agglomerated regions.

  6. Raman studies on nanocomposite silicon carbonitride thin film deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arnab Sankar; Mishra, Suman Kumari

    2010-10-01

    Raman studies of nanocomposite SiCN thin film by sputtering showed that with an increase of substrate temperature from room temperature to 500oC, a transition from mostly sp2 graphitic phase to sp3 carbon took place which was observed from the variation of ID/IG ratio and the peak shifts. This process resulted in the growth of C3N4 and Si3N4 crystallites in the amorphous matrix which led to an increase in hardness and modulus obtained through nanoindentation. However, at a further higher temperature of 600oC, again an increase of sp2 C concentration in the film was observed and the H and E values showed a decrease due to increased growth of graphitic carbon phase. The whole process got reflected in a modified four stage Ferrari Robertson model of Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Hybrid Nanocomposite Films Comprising Dispersed VO2 Nanocrystals: A Scalable Aqueous-Phase Route to Thermochromic Fenestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Nathan A; Pelcher, Kate E; Zou, Jian; Nieto, Kelly; Douglas, Lacey D; Sellers, Diane G; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2017-11-08

    Buildings consume an inordinate amount of energy, accounting for 30-40% of worldwide energy consumption. A major portion of solar radiation is transmitted directly to building interiors through windows, skylights, and glazed doors where the resulting solar heat gain necessitates increased use of air conditioning. Current technologies aimed at addressing this problem suffer from major drawbacks, including a reduction in the transmission of visible light, thereby resulting in increased use of artificial lighting. Since currently used coatings are temperature-invariant in terms of their solar heat gain modulation, they are unable to offset cold-weather heating costs that would otherwise have resulted from solar heat gain. There is considerable interest in the development of plastic fenestration elements that can dynamically modulate solar heat gain based on the external climate and are retrofittable onto existing structures. The metal-insulator transition of VO2 is accompanied by a pronounced modulation of near-infrared transmittance as a function of temperature and can potentially be harnessed for this purpose. Here, we demonstrate that a nanocomposite thin film embedded with well dispersed sub-100-nm diameter VO2 nanocrystals exhibits a combination of high visible light transmittance, effective near-infrared suppression, and onset of NIR modulation at wavelengths <800 nm. In our approach, hydrothermally grown VO2 nanocrystals with <100 nm diameters are dispersed within a methacrylic acid/ethyl acrylate copolymer after either (i) grafting of silanes to constitute an amorphous SiO2 shell or (ii) surface functionalization with perfluorinated silanes and the use of a perfluorooctanesulfonate surfactant. Homogeneous and high optical quality thin films are cast from aqueous dispersions of the pH-sensitive nanocomposites onto glass. An entirely aqueous-phase process for preparation of nanocrystals and their effective dispersion within polymeric nanocomposites allows for

  8. Unveiling the hybrid interface in polymer nanocomposites enclosing silsesquioxanes with tunable molecular structure: Spectroscopic, thermal and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, Massimiliano; Diré, Sandra; Redaelli, Matteo; Borovin, Evgeny; Callone, Emanuela; Di Credico, Barbara; Morazzoni, Franca; Pegoretti, Alessandro; Scotti, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    Organic-inorganic nanobuilding blocks (NBBs) based on silsesquioxanes (SSQs) have potential applications as nanofillers, thermal stabilizers, and rheological modifiers, which can improve thermomechanical properties of polymer hosts. The possibility to tune both siloxane structure and pendant groups can promote compatibilization and peculiar interactions with a plethora of polymers. However, the control on SSQs molecular architecture and functionalities is usually delicate and requires careful synthetic details. Moreover, investigating the influence of NBBs loading and structure on the hybrid interface and, in turn, on the polymer chains mobility and mechanical properties, may be challenging, especially for low-loaded materials. Herein, we describe the preparation and characterization of polybutadiene (PB) nanocomposites using as innovative fillers thiol-functionalized SSQs nanobuilding blocks (SH-NBBs), with both tailorable functionality and structure. Swelling experiments and, more clearly, solid-state NMR, enlightened a remarkable effect of SH-NBBs on the molecular structure and mobility of the polymeric chains, envisaging the occurrence of chemical interactions at the hybrid interface. Finally, thermal and DMTA analyses revealed that nanocomposites, even containing very low filler loadings (i.e. 1, 3 wt%), exhibited enhanced thermomechanical properties, which seem to be connected not only to the loading, but also to the peculiar cage or ladder-like architecture of SH-NBBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  10. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  11. Evaluation of co-polyaniline nanocomposite thin films as humidity sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, Madhavi V; Vijayan, Anu; Kulkarni, Milind; Hawaldar, Ranjit; Aiyer, R C

    2008-09-15

    Spin coated films of Co-Polyaniline nanocomposite are evaluated for their transmission properties using He-Ne laser for humidity sensing. The thickness (17-29 microm) of the films is varied by multiple deposition of Co-Polyaniline nanocomposite on a glass substrate. The samples exhibit typically two to three regions in their sensitivity curve when tested in the relative humidity (RH) range of 20-95%. The sensitivity ranges from 0.1 mV/%RH to 12.26 mV/%RH for lower to higher thickness. The sensors show quick response of 8s (20-95%RH), and a recovery time of 1 min (95-20%RH) with good repeatability, reproducibility and low hysteresis effect. The sensitivity of the sensor increases with humidity and thickness. Material characterization is done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

  12. Organic thin film transistor integration: a hybrid approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, F. M

    2011-01-01

    .... Her research interests are in the field of nanoand thin-film technology for applications in large area and flexible electronics, including displays, sensors, photovoltaics, circuits and systems. Dr. Li has co-authored a book entitled CCD Image Sensors in Deep-Ultraviolet (2005), and has published articles in various scientific journals. Arokia Nathan holds the...

  13. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fabrication of graphene-nanoflake/poly(4-vinylphenol) polymer nanocomposite thin film by electrohydrodynamic atomization and its application as flexible resistive switching device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Kyoung-Hoan, E-mail: khna@dankook.ac.kr [College of Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes synthesis of graphene/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) nanocomposite and deposition of thin film by electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) for fabrication flexible resistive switching device. EHDA technique proved its viability for thin film deposition after surface morphology analyses by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and non-destructive 3D Nano-profilometry, as the deposited films were, devoid of abnormalities. The commercially available graphene micro-flakes were exfoliated and broken down to ultra-small (20 nm–200 nm) nano-flakes by ultra-sonication in presence of N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). These graphene nanoflakes with PVP nanocomposite, were successfully deposited as thin films (thickness ~140±7 nm, R{sub a}=2.59 nm) on indium–tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Transmittance data revealed that thin films are up to ~87% transparent in visible and NIR region. Resistive switching behaviour of graphene/PVP nanocomposite thin film was studied by using the nanocomposite as active layer in Ag/active layer/ITO sandwich structure. The resistive switching devices thus fabricated, showed characteristic OFF to ON (high resistance to low resistance) transition at low voltages, when operated between ±3 V, characterized at 10 nA compliance currents. The devices fabricated by this approach exhibited a stable room temperature, low power current–voltage hysteresis and well over 1 h retentivity, and R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON}≈35:1. The device showed stable flexibility up to a minimum bending diameter of 1.8 cm.

  15. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, P.O. Box MG 07, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A. [Molecular Biology Center, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 76201, Bucharest 5 (Romania); Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Gyorgy, E., E-mail: egyorgy@cin2.es [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CSIC-CIN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  16. Phase transitions in hybrid SFS structures with thin superconducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Calculations of critical temperature T c of the phase transition to superconducting state of a superconductor/ ferromagnet/superconductor (SFS) hybrid structure with proximity effect is performed on the base of linearized Usadel equations. It is shown that the proximity effect between S and F metals and the exchange interaction can induce an inhomogeneous superconducting state with longitudinal to layers Δ ∝ exp( ipz) modulation of the superconductivity order parameter, which is characterized by nonzero value of the wave number p, describing the Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell instability. Influence of this instability on transitions between 0- and π-states of the SFS structure is studied. It is shown that the 0-π transition is accompanied by a nonmonotonic dependence of both the critical temperature T c and the effective penetration depth Λ of the magnetic field into the hybrid structure on the characteristic size of the ferromagnetic region.

  17. Enhanced flux pinning in pulsed laser deposited Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ : BaTiO 3 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Alok K.; Khare, Neeraj; Pinto, R.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of incorporation of BaTiO 3(BTO) nanoparticles on the flux pinning properties of pulsed laser deposited YBCO:BTO thin films was studied. Substantial increase in the critical current density ( JC) and the pinning force density ( Fp) of the nanocomposite thin films was observed. At 77 K, and zero applied magnetic field, the value of JC for YBCO and YBCO:BTO (2%) thin films were 2.93 MA/cm 2 and 6.43 MA/cm 2, respectively. At the same temperature and an applied magnetic field of 4 T, the value of JC increases from 3.6×10 4 A/cm 2 for YBCO thin film to 2.7×10 5 A/cm 2 for YBCO:BTO (2%) nanocomposite thin film. The study of temperature and field dependence of J of YBCO and YBCO:BTO thin films indicates similar type of pinning. The lattice mismatch between YBCO and BTO seems to introduce more defects resulting in the improvement of flux pinning properties.

  18. 4f hybridization and band dispersion in gadolinium thin films and compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komesu, Takashi; Jeong, H.K.; Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Wooton, David; Petrosky, J. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Losovyj, Ya.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, Jefferson Highway, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Crain, J.N.; Himpse, F.J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bissen, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, Stoughton, WI (United States); Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wendong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Yakovkin, I.N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Institute of Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-05-15

    There is interplay between intra-atomic orbital hybridization and extra-atomic hybridization in various gadolinium systems, which affects magnetic coupling and electron itinerancy (localization). The results do not always follow expectation. The experimental band structure of thin Gd(0001) films, grown on the Mo(112) surface, along the anti {gamma}- anti M does not agree with expectations even qualitatively. In particular, the dispersion of the gadolinium band, with strong 5d weight near 2 eV binding energy provides considerable evidence to support the case for 4f-5d hybridization, with increasing 5d localization. On the other hand, there is also evidence of extra-atomic Gd 4f hybridization leading band dispersion in the occupied 4f levels in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tae-Keun; Lee, Dong Wook; Choi, Hyun Jung; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2010-07-27

    We developed a simple, versatile method of integrating hybrid thin films of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) via LbL assembly. This approach involves the electrostatic interactions of two oppositely charged suspensions of the RGO nanosheet with MWNTs. This method affords a hybrid multilayer of graphenes with excellent control over the optical and electrical properties. Moreover, the hybrid multilayer exhibits a significant increase of electronic conductivity after the thermal treatment, producing transparent and conducting thin films possessing a sheet resistance of 8 kOmega/sq with a transmittance of 81%. By taking advantage of the conducting network structure of MWNTs, which provides an additional flexibility and mechanical stability of RGO nanosheets, we demonstrate the potential application of hybrid graphene multilayer as a highly flexible and transparent electrode. Because of the highly versatile and tunable properties of LbL-assembled thin films, we anticipate that the general concept presented here offers a unique potential platform for integrating active carbon nanomaterials for advanced electronic, energy, and sensor applications.

  20. Electrical Properties of PVP-SiO2-TMSPM Hybrid Thin Films as OFET Gate Dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, A.; Shahbazi, M.

    2016-02-01

    Organic-inorganic polyvinylpyrrolidone-silicon dioxide-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (PVP-SiO2-TMSPM) hybrid solutions have been synthesized using the sol-gel process with different amounts of TMSPM as coupling agent and equivalent amounts of PVP and SiO2. Hybrid solutions were deposited on p-type Si(111) substrates using the spin coating technique, as a gate dielectric material for use in thin-film transistors. The structural properties of the samples were investigated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were applied to study the topography and morphology of the hybrid thin-film samples. Current-voltage ( I- V) curves, capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements, and the electrical properties of the organic hybrid thin-film gate dielectrics were also studied in a metal-insulator/polymer-semiconductor structure. According to the results, the J GS curves in terms of V GS showed gate leakage current densities small enough for use as gate dielectric material at interface layers. At V DS = 30 V, in the saturation region, I DS curves in terms of V GS presented higher charge carrier mobility ( μ FET,S = 0.0584 cm2 s-1 V-1) due to lower dielectric constant ( k = 11.43) in the sample with 0.05 weight ratio of TMSPM compared with other samples with different weight ratios of TMSPM.

  1. Thin-Film Nanocomposite Membrane with the Minimum Amount of MOF by the Langmuir-Schaefer Technique for Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Marta; Benito, Javier; Paseta, Lorena; Gascón, Ignacio; Coronas, Joaquín; Téllez, Carlos

    2018-01-10

    An innovative procedure for positioning a monolayer of hydrophilic metal organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) (MIL, Materials of Institute Lavoisier) nanoparticles (NPs) in thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes has been implemented by transferring a Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) film of the MOF in between the polyamide thin layer at the top and the cross-linked asymmetric polyimide (P84) support at the bottom. The presence and layout of the LS-MIL-101(Cr) monolayer in the TFN membrane was confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging with a high-angle annular dark-field detector images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy analyses. This methodology requires the smallest amount of MOF reported to date, 3.8 μg cm -2 , and promotes the formation of a defect-free ultrathin MOF film. Although conventional TFN membranes tend to show MOF agglomerates that could contribute to the formation of unselective defects, LS-TFN membranes, characterized by a homogeneous and continuous MOF coating, exhibit an optimal membrane performance, without a significant decrease in selectivity. Outstanding methanol permeances, one of the best results reported to date, of 10.1 ± 0.5 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 when filtering sunset yellow and of 9.5 ± 2.1 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 when filtering rose bengal have been achieved in LS-TFN membranes with a rejection higher than 90% in all cases. Methanol permeates through the polyamide and the LS-MIL-101(Cr) monolayer, greatly enhanced by the MOF pore system, in comparison to thin-film composite and conventional TFN membranes (7.5 ± 0.7 and 7.7 ± 1.1 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 when filtering sunset yellow), respectively, in which polyamide areas free of MOF NPs are present.

  2. Fabrication and electrical characterizations of graphene nanocomposite thin film based heterojunction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ishrat; Shah, Mutabar; Iqbal, Mahmood; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Shah Haider

    2017-11-01

    The use of graphene in electronic devices is becoming attractive due to its inherent scalability and is thus well suited for flexible electronic devices. Here we present the electrical characterization of heterojunction diode, based on the nanocomposite of graphene (G) with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), at room temperature. The diode was fabricated by depositing nanocomposite on the n-Si substrate. The current - voltage (I - V) characteristic of the fabricated junction shows rectifying behavior similar to a Schottky junction. The junction parameters such as ideality factor (n), series resistance (Rs), and barrier height (ϕb) has been extracted, using various methods, from the experimentally obtained I - V data. The measured values of n, Rs and ϕb are 3.86, 45 Ω and 0.367 eV, respectively, as calculated from the I - V curve. The numerical values of these parameters calculated by different methods are in good agreement with each other showing the consistency of the applied calculating techniques. The conduction mechanism of the fabricated diode seems to have been dominated by the Trap Charge Limited Conduction (TCLC) behavior. The energy distribution of interface states density determined from forward bias I - V characteristic shows an exponential decrease with bias from 27 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 at (Ec - 0.345) eV to 3 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1at (Ec - 0.398) eV.

  3. A novel CuO-N-doped graphene nanocomposite-based hybrid electrode for the electrochemical detection of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sathiyanathan; Kollu, Pratap; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    We report a catalyst of N-doped graphene CuO nanocomposite, for the non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. The hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized by copper sulfate, cetyl ammonium bromide and graphite as starting materials. The synthesized composites were characterized with the techniques like X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope to study the crystalline phase and morphological structure. Based on this composite, a non-enzymatic glucose sensor was constructed. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods were done to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of glucose in alkaline medium. For glucose detection, the fabricated sensor showed a linear response over a wide range of concentration from 3 to 1000 µM, with sensitivity of 2365.7 µA mM-1 cm-2 and a fast response time of 5 s. The designed sensor exhibited negligible current response to the normal concentration of common interferents in the presence of glucose. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have good potential application in biological samples, food and other related areas.

  4. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  5. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...

  6. Shape changing thin films powered by DNA hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Tae Soup; Estephan, Zaki G.; Qian, Zhaoxia; Prosser, Jacob H.; Lee, Su Yeon; Chenoweth, David M.; Lee, Daeyeon; Park, So-Jung; Crocker, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Active materials that respond to physical and chemical stimuli can be used to build dynamic micromachines that lie at the interface between biological systems and engineered devices. In principle, the specific hybridization of DNA can be used to form a library of independent, chemically driven actuators for use in such microrobotic applications and could lead to device capabilities that are not possible with polymer- or metal-layer-based approaches. Here, we report shape changing films that are powered by DNA strand exchange reactions with two different domains that can respond to distinct chemical signals. The films are formed from DNA-grafted gold nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer deposition process. Films consisting of an active and a passive layer show rapid, reversible curling in response to stimulus DNA strands added to solution. Films consisting of two independently addressable active layers display a complex suite of repeatable transformations, involving eight mechanochemical states and incorporating self-righting behaviour.

  7. Pulsed photoinitiated synthesis of reduced graphitic oxides-coated Co3O4 nanocomposite thin film for silicon-based micro-supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sijun; Oguntoye, Moses; Bourgeois, Briley; Shipman, Joshua; Pesika, Noshir; Chrisey, Douglas

    Herein we report a novel approach to pulsed photoinitiated synthesis of reduced graphitic oxides-coated Co3O4 in-situ nanocomposite thin film on Cu-coated silicon substrate through pulsed white light irradiating photosensitive Co-organic precursor drop-casted on the substrate. The instantaneous photoinitiated pyrolysis of precursor occurred in the first pulse irradiation forms graphitic oxides-coated Co3O4 nanocrystalline composite thin film with a 3-D nanostructure. The subsequent tens of pulses irradiation with a fluence of 7.7 J/cm2 for about 40 seconds improves the crystalline quality of Co3O4 nanograins and leads to reduction of graphitic oxides through pulsed photothermal effect. After 80,000 times of stable charge-discharge cycling in KOH electrolyte (measured at 2 mA/cm2 in a three-electrode cell), the nanocomposite thin film with a thickness around 1 um shows unoptimized specific areal capacity as high as 50 mF/cm2 and rate capability of 60 % retention from 0.1 mA/cm2 to 10 mA/cm2. This straightforward and scalable thin film processing opens a way to practical application of thin film-based micro-supercapacitor in silicon-based microelectronics devices and microelectromechanical systems.

  8. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunming, E-mail: su.chunming@epa.gov

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of engineered MNPs. • MNPs and their hybrids explored for use in energy, analytical chemistry, and catalysis. • Surface modification to MNPs allow biocompatible applications. • Adsorptive and separative removal of a wide range of contaminants from aquatic environments. • Active remediation and natural attenuation of contaminants in soil and groundwater using MNPs. - Abstract: This review focuses on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition and combustion, hydrothermal process, emulsion, microbial process, and green approaches. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for constructing chemical/biosensors and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are designed as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dyes, oil, arsenic, phosphate, molybdate, fluoride, selenium, Cr(VI), heavy metal cations, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or catalyze chemical oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization.

  9. Stability Study of Flexible 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene Thin-Film Transistors with a Cross-Linked Poly(4-vinylphenol/Yttrium Oxide Nanocomposite Gate Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the electrical and mechanical stability of flexible 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylehtynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs that were fabricated on polyimide (PI substrates using cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol (c-PVP and c-PVP/yttrium oxide (Y2O3 nanocomposite films as gate insulators. Compared with the electrical characteristics of TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP insulators, the TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators exhibited enhancements in the drain current and the threshold voltage due to an increase in the dielectric capacitance. In electrical stability experiments, a gradual decrease in the drain current and a negative shift in the threshold voltage occurred during prolonged bias stress tests, but these characteristic variations were comparable for both types of TFT. On the other hand, the results of mechanical bending tests showed that the characteristic degradation of the TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators was more critical than that of the TFTs with c-PVP insulators. In this study, the detrimental effect of the nanocomposite insulator on the mechanical stability of flexible TIPS-pentacene TFTs was found to be caused by physical adhesion of TIPS-pentacene molecules onto the rough surfaces of the c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulator. These results indicate that the dielectric and morphological properties of polymeric nanocomposite insulators are significant when considering practical applications of flexible electronics operated at low voltages.

  10. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangari, Vijaya K; Mohammad, Ghouse M; Jeelani, Shaik [Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Singh, Shree Ram; Pillai, Shreekumar, E-mail: rangariv@tuskegee.edu [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States)

    2010-03-05

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of {approx} 80 {mu}m size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 {mu}g demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 {+-} 6.72 mm, 19.4 {+-} 3.64 mm, 21.9 {+-} 4.33 mm, and 24.1 {+-} 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 {+-} 2.13 mm, 28.6 {+-} 4.27 mm, 22.6 {+-} 1.27 mm, and 27.0 {+-} 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 {mu}g were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial

  11. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangari, Vijaya K.; Mohammad, Ghouse M.; Jeelani, Shaik; Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Ram Singh, Shree; Pillai, Shreekumar

    2010-03-01

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of ~ 80 µm size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 µg demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 ± 6.72 mm, 19.4 ± 3.64 mm, 21.9 ± 4.33 mm, and 24.1 ± 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 ± 2.13 mm, 28.6 ± 4.27 mm, 22.6 ± 1.27 mm, and 27.0 ± 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 µg were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial strains tested. Further, the

  12. Improved techniques to monitor thin film characteristics for reliable hybrid microcircuit fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawicki, L.R.; Thomas, N.C.

    1980-06-01

    The development, testing, and uses of an edge monitor for monitoring the characteristics of thin metallic films used in the fabrication of hybrid microcircuits are described. The data obtained on this quality control equipment demonstrated improved techniques for monitoring thin film characteristics for reliable hybrid microcircuit fabrication. This was accomplished through the design of a specialized circuit, an integral part of the product substrate to be tested that enhances the effects of degradation mechanisms, both mechanically and electrically. Correlation of mechanical and/or physical characteristcs with electrical data was demonstrated. When coupled with a minicomputer test set with controlling and data retention capabilities, the system offers a useful tool for production process monitoring, diagnostic evaluation, or developmental efforts. (LCL)

  13. Luminescent/magnetic PLGA-based hybrid nanocomposites: a smart nanocarrier system for targeted codelivery and dual-modality imaging in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue; Li, Tingting; Chen, Zhongyuan; Geng, Yue; Xie, Xiaoxue; Li, Shun; Yang, Hong; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2017-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment represent an urgent medical need given the rising cancer incidence over the past few decades. Cancer theranostics, namely, the combination of diagnostics and therapeutics within a single agent, are being developed using various anticancer drug-, siRNA-, or inorganic materials-loaded nanocarriers. Herein, we demonstrate a strategy of encapsulating quantum dots, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanocrystals, and doxorubicin (DOX) into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymeric nanocomposites using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method, followed by coupling to the amine group of polyethyleneimine premodified with polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PEI-PEG-FA [PPF]) segments and adsorption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted small hairpin RNA (shRNA). VEGF is important for tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. These drug-loaded luminescent/magnetic PLGA-based hybrid nanocomposites (LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA) were fabricated for tumor-specific targeting, drug/gene delivery, and cancer imaging. The data showed that LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites can codeliver DOX and VEGF shRNA into tumor cells and effectively suppress VEGF expression, exhibiting remarkable synergistic antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. The cell viability waŝ14% when treated with LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites ([DOX] =25 μg/mL), and in vivo tumor growth data showed that the tumor volume decreased by 81% compared with the saline group at 21 days postinjection. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging data revealed that the luminescent/magnetic hybrid nanocomposites may also be used as an efficient nanoprobe for enhanced T2-weighted magnetic resonance and fluorescence imaging in vitro and in vivo. The present work validates the great potential of the developed multifunctional LDM-PLGA/PPF/VEGF shRNA nanocomposites as effective theranostic agents through the codelivery of drugs/genes and dual

  14. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Predoi, Daniela; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Mihaela RADU; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca; Gyorgy, Eniko

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, n...

  15. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  16. Laser Deposition of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films and Hard Materials and Their Optical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    phosphate glasses etc. [2- 14] Those thin films had many d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t h a d t o b e a d d r e s s e d b e...XRD spectrum of the composite film of PMMA:NaYF4: Ho 3+ ,Yb 3+ . Figure 8. XRD spectrum of the powder of NaYF4: Ho 3+ ,Yb 3+ baked at 400 o C. Figure 9...for fabrication of thin films including those composed of electro-optic BaTi03, piezoelectric ZnO, electroconductive Ti02, rare-earth (RE) doped

  17. Modelling of an ultra-thin silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlexer, Philomena; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a well-ordered silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid thin-film supported on Ru(0 0 0 1) has been reported (2015 Surf. Sci. 632 9-13). The thin-film consist of a monolayer of corner sharing (SiO4)-tetrahedra on top of a (Si2C3) monolayer supported on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. This silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system may exhibit interesting properties for nano-technological applications and represents another example of a 2D material. We explore the physical and chemical properties of the silicatene/silicon-carbide thin-film using DFT and compare the vibrational spectra with existing experimental data. The characteristics of the silicatene/silicon-carbide hybrid system are compared with those of the bilayer-silicatene (pure SiO2 film). We found large differences in the adsorption modes of the two thin-films on the Ru(0 0 0 1) support. Whereas the bilayer-silicatene physisorbs on the Ru(0 0 0 1) surface, the silicatene/silicon-carbide layer binds via chemisorption. The chemical properties of the two thin-films were probed by adsorption of H atoms at various positions, as well as by Al-doping and the formation of hydroxyl groups (Al-OH). These results show that despite the similar structure of the top layer and the identical metal support (Ru), the mixed silicatene/silicon-carbide system behaves quite differently from the pure silica two-layer counterpart.

  18. Fabrication of polyamide thin-film nanocomposite membranes with enhanced surface charge for nitrate ion removal from water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaee, A; Zerafat, M M; Askari, P; Sabbaghi, S; Sadatnia, B

    2017-03-01

    Exclusion due to membrane surface charge is considered as one of the main separation mechanisms occurring in charged membranes, which can be varied through various approaches to affect membrane rejection performance. In this study, thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide (PA) membranes were fabricated via interfacial polymerization of m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) and 2,4-diaminobenzene sulfonic acid with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on a polysulfone sub-layer. The ability of the prepared membrane to remove nitrate ions from water resources has been investigated. In order to improve membrane permeability, zeolite-PA thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes were fabricated by incorporating natural zeolite nanoparticles obtained through ball milling of an Iranian natural zeolite powder in the interfacial polymerization process. The size, morphology and specific surface area of the as-obtained nanozeolite were characterized using particle size analysis, FE-SEM and BET. The functional groups, morphology and surface charge of the membrane were characterized using ATR-FTIR, SEM and zeta potential analyses. Also, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine the distribution of nanozeolite in TFN membranes. The influence of zeolite addition to surface roughness was accessed by atomic force microscopy. The performance of TFC and TFN membranes was evaluated in terms of pure water flux and nitrate rejection. The results showed that in case of sulfonated diamine, nitrate ions rejection was enhanced from 63% to 85% which could be attributed to surface charge enhancement. TFN permeability was almost doubled by the addition of nanozeolite.

  19. Influence of flow rate on different properties of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Santra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN thin films were deposited on pyrex glass substrate using different flow rate of haxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO based liquid precursor with nitrogen gas as a glow discharged decomposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. The significant influence of different precursor flow rates on refractive index and thickness of the DLN films was measured by using spectroscopic filmatrics and DEKTAK profilometer. Optical transparency of the DLN thin films was analyzed by UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer. FTIR spectroscopy, provides the information about shifted bonds like SiC2, Si-C, Si-O, C-C, Si-H, C-H, N-H, and O-H with different precursor flow rate. We have estimated the hardness of the DLN films from Raman spectroscopy using Gaussian deconvolution method and tried to investigate the correlation between hardness, refractive index and thickness of the films with different precursor flow rates. The composition and surface morphology of the DLN films were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM respectively. We have analyzed the hardness by intensity ratio (ID/IG of D and G peaks and correlates with hardness measurement by nanoindentation test where hardness increases from 27.8 μl/min to 80.6μl/min and then decreases with increase of flow rate from 80.6μl/min to 149.5μl/min. Finally, we correlates different parameters of structural, optical and tribological properties like film-thickness, refractive index, light transmission, hardness, surface roughness, modulus of elasticity, contact angle etc. with different precursor flow rates of DLN films.

  20. SWCNT/graphite nanoplatelet hybrid thin films for self-temperature-compensated, highly sensitive, and extensible piezoresistive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sida; Liu, Tao

    2013-10-18

    Highly sensitive single-wall carbon nanotube/graphite nanoplatelet (SWCNT/GNP) hybrid thin-film sensors are developed, which possess the unique capability for self-temperature compensation. This unique property in combination with their high gauge sensitivity and large reversible extensibility promises the SWCNT/GNP hybrid thin film piezoresistive sensors for a wide range applications, such as in man-machine interaction and body monitoring. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sol-gel synthesis and characterizations of hybrid chitosan-PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposite modified with ZnO-NPs and (E102) for optical and antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Nahrawy, Amany M; Abou Hammad, Ali B

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid Chitosan/Poly ethylene glycol/calcium silicate (CS/PEG/calcium silicate) nanocomposite modified with different two types, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and tartrazine dye (E102) were prepared by sol gel method and the characterization of their structure and biological properties were carried out in order to evaluate the possible use in optical and biomedical fields. The hybrid CS/PEG/calcium silicate complex formations have been established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The spheres-like chitosan-PEG/calcium silicate and modified with both ZnO-NPs and (E102) were obtained with optimum concentration of 11% ZnO-NPs and 0.3gm (E102) dyes. Spheres-like particle shape of these nanocomposites from SEM images, higher UV absorption in the region of 200-300nm by UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer are recorded. The fabricate CS/PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposites and doped with ZnO-NPs and tetrazine were studied contrary to gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria, fungi (Candidia albicans) and Aspargillus niger via the agar plate method. The obtained results indicated that the prepared CS-PEG/calcium silicate nanocomposites have good antibacterial properties agnist G(+ve), G(-ve) bacteria and fungi, so that it could be a promised candidate in various optical and in biological applications as well as packaging application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PANI-Ag-Cu Nanocomposite Thin Films Based Impedimetric Microbial Sensor for Detection of E. coli Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Cu nanocomposite thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on the glass substrate using spin coating technique. Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of nitric acid. The films were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The performance of the sensor was conducted using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to obtain the change in impedance of the sensor film before and after incubation with E. coli bacteria in water. The peaks in XRD pattern confirm the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis shows the stretching of N–H in the polyaniline structure. The absorption band from UV-Visible spectroscopy shows high peaks between 400 nm and 500 nm which indicate the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles, respectively. Impedance analysis indicates that the change in impedance of the films decreases with the presence of E. coli. The sensitivity on E. coli increases for the sample with high concentration of Cu.

  3. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-10-07

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  5. Influence of Pb doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite Se-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.A. Majeed, E-mail: majeed_phys@rediffmail.co [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 114 51 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, M. Wasi, E-mail: wasi@ksu.edu.s [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 114 51 (Saudi Arabia); Alhoshan, Mansour [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 114 51 (Saudi Arabia); AlSalhi, M.S.; Aldwayyan, A.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 114 51 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 114 51 (Saudi Arabia); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India)

    2010-08-06

    Nanocomposite thin films of Se{sub 0.80}Te{sub 0.20-x}Pb{sub x} (x = 0.02, 0.06 and 0.10) were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by thermal evaporation method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), optical and electrical transport measurements. The XRD patterns show the monoclinic crystal structure with average crystallite size {approx}30 nm. These results were correlated with the result obtained from SEM and TEM. All films reflect almost sphere-like particles with tightly bonded together and exhibit nearly equal sizes. The TEM images showed the average particle size about 27 nm whereas the average particle size for 2% Pb content sample was about 24 nm. The temperature dependence of dc conductivity has been reported in the temperature range 201-401 K. In low temperature region, we interpreted our results in terms of the Mott's law and the analysis is very consistent with the variable range hopping conduction mechanism; while in the high temperature region, it is due to the thermally activated tunneling of charge carriers in the band tails of localized states. The compositional dependence of the derived optical properties was found and discussed.

  6. High-performance polyamide thin-film-nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes containing hydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2015-02-01

    A hydrophobic, hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework (MOF) - zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was successfully incorporated into the selective polyamide (PA) layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for water desalination. The potential advantages of ZIF-8 over classic hydrophilic zeolite used in TFNs include: i) theoretically faster water transport within the framework and ii) better compatibility with the PA matrix. The TFN membranes were characterized with SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, water contact angle measurements and reverse osmosis tests under 15.5bar hydraulic pressure with 2000ppm NaCl solution. Lab-made, nano-sized (~200nm) ZIF-8 increased water permeance to 3.35±0.08L/m2·h·bar at 0.4% (w/v) loading, 162% higher than the pristine PA membranes; meanwhile, high NaCl rejection was maintained. The TFN surface was less crosslinked and more hydrophilic than that of the pristine PA. A filler encapsulation mechanism was proposed for the effects of filler on TFN membrane surface morphology and properties. This study experimentally verified the potential use of ZIF-8 in advanced TFN RO membranes.

  7. Simple fabrication of 12 μm thin nanocomposite fuel cell membranes by direct electrospinning and printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Matthias; Klose, Carolin; Klingele, Matthias; Hartmann, Armin; Erben, Johannes; Cho, Hyeongrae; Kerres, Jochen; Zengerle, Roland; Thiele, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Direct membrane deposition (DMD) was recently introduced as a novel polymer electrolyte membrane fabrication method. Here, this approach is extended to fabricate 12 μm thin nanocomposite fuel cell membranes. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers are directly electrospun onto gas diffusion electrodes. By inkjet-printing Nafion ionomer dispersion into the pore space of PVDF-HFP nanofiber mats, composite membranes of 12 μm thickness were fabricated. At 120 °C and 35% relative humidity, stoichiometric 1.5/2.5 H2/air flow and atmospheric pressure, the power density of the DMD fuel cell (0.19 W cm-2), was about 1.7 times higher than that of the reference fuel cell (0.11 W cm-2) with Nafion HP membrane and identical catalyst. A lower ionic resistance and, especially at 120 °C, a reduced charge transfer resistance is found compared to the Nafion HP membrane. A 100 h accelerated stress test revealed a voltage decay of below 0.8 mV h-1, which is in the range of literature values for significantly thicker reinforced membranes. Finally, this novel fabrication approach enables new degrees of freedom in the design of complex composite membranes. The presented combination of scalable deposition techniques has the potential to simplify and thus reduce cost of composite membrane fabrication at a larger scale.

  8. Processing and Properties of Nanocomposite Thin Films for Microfabricated Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmayer, Michael A.

    Microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells (mSOFCs) have recently gained attention as a promising technology, with the potential to offer a low temperature (as low as 300°C), reduced start-up time, and improved energy density for portable power applications. At present, porous Pt is the most common cathode being investigated for mSOFCs. However, there are significant technical challenges for utilizing pure metallic electrodes at the operating temperatures of interest due to their tendency towards Ostwald ripening, as well as no bulk ionic conductivity. Nanocomposite materials (e.g. Pt/YSZ) are a promising alternative approach for providing both microstructural and electrochemical stability to the electrode layer. The overall objective of this research was to explore the processing of nanocomposite metal / metal oxide materials (i.e. Pt/YSZ) for use as a high performance cathode electrode for mSOFCs. The Pt/YSZ nanocomposite cathodes were deposited through a co-sputtering process and found to be stable up to 600°C in air for extended periods of time through an exhaustive materials and electrochemical study. A percolation theory model was utilized to guide the design of the Pt/YSZ composition, allowing for a networked connection of ionic- and electron-conduction through the membrane, leading to an extension of the triple phase boundary (TPB). The Pt/YSZ composite deposition pressure was found to be a key in helping to stabilize the morphology of the film. By increasing the deposition pressure, this led to the formation of intergranular void spacing, or porosity, as well as a reduction of film strain in the post-annealed film. Surface analyses of the composite film demonstrated that the lower film strain led to a minimization of Pt hillock grain coarsening and de-wetting, even after exposure to high temperatures (600°C) for extended periods of time (tested up to 24hrs) in air. Analyses of the Pt/YSZ composite microstructure and composition by TEM confirmed an

  9. ArF excimer laser-induced deposition of Ag/C nanocomposite thin films in the presence of n-Hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, Mohammed Ashraf, E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Fajgar, Radek [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, 16502 Prague (Czech Republic); Chang, Xiaofeng [Laser Research Group, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, 16502 Prague (Czech Republic); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Shen, Kai [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Xu, Qingyu [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • A new excimer laser ablation process was proposed to fabricate Ag/C thin film. • The size of Ag nanoparticles is ranging from 5 to 20 nm. • The ratios of Ag to C can be controlled by adjusting the pressure of n-Hexane. • The graphite-like structure of carbonaceous products was confirmed. - Abstract: Ag/C nanocomposite thin films with different Ag/C molar ratios have been prepared using ArF excimer laser-induced ablation process and silver target under n-Hexane atmosphere. The morphology, crystal structure and composition of as-deposited Ag/C nanocomposite thin films were investigated with high resolution electronic microscopic techniques (including scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Laser Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques were also applied to characterize the final carbonaceous products generated from n-Hexane under laser ablation process. The optical emission of the plume caused by the interaction between excimer laser and silver target in the presence of n-Hexane was studied to understand the possible reaction process. The UV–vis absorption of as-deposited Ag/C thin films, which is attributed to the surface plasmonic excitation, was also investigated in the present work.

  10. Organic/hybrid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most exciting materials research in the 21st century attempts to resolve the challenge of simulating, synthesizing, and characterizing new materials with unique properties designed from first principles. Achievements in such development for organic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials make them important options for electronic and/or photonic devices because they can impart multi-functionality, flexibility, transparency, and sustainability to emerging systems, such as wearable electronics. Functional organic materials include small molecules, oligomers, and polymers, while hybrid materials include inorganic nanomaterials (such as zero-dimensional quantum dots, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, or two-dimensional nanosheets) combined with organic matrices. A critically important step to implementing new electronic and photonic devices using such materials is the processing of thin films. While solution-based processing is the most common laboratory technique for organic and hybrid materials, vacuum-based deposition has been critical to the commercialization of organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules, for example. Therefore, it is desirable to explore vacuum-based deposition of organic and hybrid materials that include larger macromolecules, such as polymers. This review article motivates the need for physical vapor deposition of polymeric and hybrid thin films using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a type of pulsed laser deposition. This review describes the development of variations in the MAPLE technique, discusses the current understanding of laser-target interactions and growth mechanisms for different MAPLE variations, surveys demonstrations of MAPLE-deposited organic and hybrid materials for electronic and photonic devices, and provides a future outlook for the technique.

  11. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-01-01

    .... The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers...

  12. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri - 574 199 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  14. Design and synthesis of ternary Co3O4/carbon coated TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Choi, Jaeho; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon

    2016-07-20

    Recently, attention has been focused on the synthesis and application of nanocomposites for supercapacitors, which can have superior electrochemical performance than single structured materials. Here, we report a carbon-coated TiO2/Co3O4 ternary hybrid nanocomposite (TiO2@C/Co) electrode for supercapacitors. A carbon layer was directly introduced onto the TiO2 surface via thermal vapor deposition. The carbon layer provides anchoring sites for the deposition of Co3O4, which was introduced onto the carbon-coated TiO2 surface by hydrazine and the thermal oxidation method. The TiO2@C/Co electrode exhibits much higher charge storage capacity relative to pristine TiO2, carbon-coated TiO2, and pristine Co3O4, showing a specific capacitance of 392.4 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with 76.2% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s(-1) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution electrolyte. This outstanding electrochemical performance can be attributed to the high conductivity and high pseudo-capacitive contributions of the nanoscale particles. To evaluate the capacitive performance of a supercapacitor device employing the TiO2@C/Co electrode, we have successfully assembled TiO2@C/Co//activated carbon (AC) asymmetric supercapacitors. The optimized TiO2@C/Co//AC supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the voltage range from 0 to 1.5 V, and it exhibits a specific capacitance of 59.35 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) with a specific capacitance loss of 15.4% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. These encouraging results show great potential in terms of developing high-capacitive energy storage devices for practical applications.

  15. Mesoporous Hybrid Polypyrrole-Silica Nanocomposite Films with a Strata-Like Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2016-06-14

    Using a single-potential-step coelectrodeposition route, Ppy-SiO2 nanocomposite films characterized by a multimodal porous structure were cathodically deposited from ethanolic solutions on oxidizable and nonoxidizable substrates for the first time. The materials produced have an interesting and unique strata-like pore structure along their depth. With the exception of a silica-rich inner region, the nanocomposite films are homogeneous in composition. Because the region closest to the electrode surface is silica-rich, the fabrication of Ppy-SiO2 and Ppy free-standing films become possible using a multistep etching strategy. Such films can be captured on a variety of different supports depending on the application, and they maintain their conductivity when interfaced with an electrode surface. These mesoporous composite films form through a unique mechanism that involves the production of two catalysts, OH(-) and NO(+). Through the process of understanding the reaction mechanism, we highlighted the effect of two simultaneous competing redox reactions occurring at the electrode interface on the morphology of the electrodeposited Ppy nanocomposite films and how solvent can influence the Ppy electropolymerization reaction mechanism and hence control the morphology of the final material. In an ethanolic solvent system, the pyrrole monomers undergo a step-growth polymerization, and particulate-like nanostructured films were obtained even upon changing the monomer or acid concentration. In an aqueous-based system, nanowire-like structures were produced, which is consistent with a chain-growth mechanism. Such materials are promising candidates for a wide range of applications including electrochemical sensing, energy storage, and catalysis.

  16. Plasmonic-exciton coupling in synthesized metal/semiconductor hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, A.; Hamad, D. A. [Physics Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, M. B. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced science (NIELS), Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been developed to grow plasmonic semiconductor nanocomposites of Au/CdSe and Ag/CdSe. Their chemical composition and crystal structure are determined by X-ray diffraction. The collective optical properties of the prepared semiconductor nanohybrid have been measured using spectrophotometer techniques and compared to those of the individual components. The electron transfer processes from CdSe to the gold are faster than that of the silver. Au/CdSe has a strong plasmonic-excitonic coupling, but Ag/CdSe has a weak plasmonic-excitonic coupling.

  17. Antibacterial Nanocomposites Based on Fe3O4–Ag Hybrid Nanoparticles and Natural Rubber-Polyethylene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Dung Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the vulcanized natural rubber (NR, incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs into the NR matrix did not exhibit the bactericidal property against Escherichia coli (E. coli. However, incorporation of AgNPs into polyethylene (PE matrix showed good antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present work, NR/PE (85/15 blends have been prepared by melt blending with presence of compatibilizer in an internal mixer. To possess antibacterial property, AgNPs (5–10 nm or Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FAgNPs, 8 nm/16 nm were added into PE matrix before its blending with NR component. The tensile test indicated that the presence of compatibilizer in NR/PE blend significantly enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break (up to 35% and 38% increases, resp.. The antibacterial activity test was performed by monitoring of the bacterial lag-log growth phases with the presence of nanocomposites in the E. coli cell culture reactor. The antibacterial test showed that the presence of FAgNPs in NR/PE blend had a better antibacterial activity than that obtained with the lone AgNPs. Two similar reasons were proposed: (i the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4–Ag hybrid nanoparticles due to the electron transfer from AgNP to Fe3O4 nanoparticle and (ii the fact that the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure might be accelerated by Fe3+ ions.

  18. Physical Methods for the Preparation of Hybrid Nanocomposite Polymer Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Roberto F. A.; Bon, Stefan A. F.

    In this chapter, we will highlight conceptual physical approaches towards the fabrication of nanocomposite polymer latexes in which each individual latex particle contains one or more "hard" nanoparticles, such as clays, silicates, titanates, or other metal(oxides). By "physical approaches" we mean that the "hard" nanoparticles are added as pre-existing entities, and are not synthesized in situ as part of the nanocomposite polymer latex fabrication process. We will narrow our discussion to focus on physical methods that rely on the assembly of nanoparticles onto the latex particles after the latex particles have been formed, or its reciprocal analogue, the adhesion of polymer onto an inorganic nanoparticle. First, will discuss the phenomenon of heterocoagulation and its various driving forces, such as electrostatic interactions, the hydrophobic effect, and secondary molecular interactions. We will then address methods that involve assembly of nanoparticles onto or around the more liquid precursors (i.e., swollen/growing latex particles or monomer droplets). We will focus on the phenomenon of Pickering stabilization. We will then discuss features of particle interaction with soft interfaces, and see how the adhesion of particles onto emulsion droplets can be applied in suspension, miniemulsion, and emulsion polymerization. Finally, we will very briefly mention some interesting methods that make use of interface-driven templating for making well-defined assembled clusters and supracolloidal structures.

  19. Synthesis of Polyimides in Molecular-Scale Confinement for Low-Density Hybrid Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Scott G; Fostvedt, Jade I; Koerner, Hilmar; Baur, Jeffery W; Lionti, Krystelle; Volksen, Willi; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we exploit a confinement-induced molecular synthesis and a resulting bridging mechanism to create confined polyimide thermoset nanocomposites that couple molecular confinement-enhanced toughening with an unprecedented combination of high-temperature properties at low density. We describe a synthesis strategy that involves the infiltration of individual polymer chains through a nanoscale porous network while simultaneous imidization reactions increase the molecular backbone stiffness. In the extreme limit where the confinement length scale is much smaller than the polymer's molecular size, confinement-induced molecular mechanisms give rise to exceptional mechanical properties. We find that polyimide oligomers can undergo cross-linking reactions even in such molecular-scale confinement, increasing the molecular weight of the organic phase and toughening the nanocomposite through a confinement-induced energy dissipation mechanism. This work demonstrates that the confinement-induced molecular bridging mechanism can be extended to thermoset polymers with multifunctional properties, such as excellent thermo-oxidative stability and high service temperatures (>350 °C).

  20. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  1. Epitaxial superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7‑δ /Gd2O3 nanocomposite thin films from advanced low-fluorine solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, Pablo; Mundet, Bernat; Eloussifi, Hichem; Vallés, Ferrán; Coll, Mariona; Ricart, Susagna; Gázquez, Jaume; Palau, Anna; Roura, Pere; Farjas, Jordi; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the CSD method to synthesize GdBCO and GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposite 250–300 nm thin films. For this we have designed a new low-fluorine solution never used before in the synthesis of GdBCO thin films that allows us to reduce the HF release by 80% and increase the reproducibility of the pyrolysis process. The growth of these thin films required a new thermal process to be designed, which we refer to as ‘flash-heating’, where the heating rate is extremely fast (∼600 °C min‑1). The structure and the superconducting properties of the pristine GdBCO films are excellent, showing a (00 l) epitaxial orientation of the GdBCO grains and T c values that reach 92.8 K, which means an enhancement of more than 1 K with respect to standard YBCO films. The calculated J c inside the grains ({J}{{c}}{{G}}) also presents remarkable values: {J}{{c}}{{G}}(5 K) ∼ 40 MA cm‑2 and {J}{{c}}{{G}}(77 K) ∼ 3.3 MA cm‑2. Finally, the GdBCO–Gd2O3 nanocomposites films, with a 20% mol of Gd2O3, exhibit superior superconducting properties and pinning performances with respect to GdBCO pristine films.

  2. Electrical characteristics of ZnO nanorods reinforced polymer nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Snigdha; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics National Institute Technology Silchar Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanorods have been prepared by simple chemical method, which is used to fabricate organic bistable devices (OBDs). OBDs are fabricated by incorporating different weight percent (wt %) of chemically synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the spin coated ZnO+PMMA nanocomopsite thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate showed current hysteresis behaviour, which is an indication of memory effect. The samples exhibit two distinct resistance states, ON and OFF states, characterised by relatively low and high resistance of the OBDs, respectively. It is also observed that with change in ZnO dopant concentration the value of ON/OFF current changes. Higher ON/OFF current ratio is desired for practical applications. Current conduction mechanism of the devices has been explained invoking various existing models, and it has been found that the trapped-charge-limited conduction mechanism was dominant in our samples.

  3. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of hybrid nanfluids prepared with magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite material; preparation of nanofluids and estimation of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity has been explained experimentally in this paper. The nanocomposite material has been synthesized by using in-situ growth technique and chemical coprecipitation between cobalt chloride and sodium borohydrate. The various techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS and VSM have been used to confirm the ND and Co3O4 phase of synthesized nanocomposite. The hybrid nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing synthesized ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite in water, ethylene glycol/water mixtures. The thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured experimentally at different weight concentrations and temperatures. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity enhancements are about 16%, 9%, 14%, 11% and 10% for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Similarly the viscosity enhancements are about 1.45-times, 1.46-times, 1.15-times, 1.19-times, and 1.51-times for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Based on the experimental data new correlations for thermal conductivity and viscosity have been developed.

  4. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  5. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Camarchia, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.camarchia@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pandolfi, Paolo [Politronica Inkjet Printing S.r.l., C/O i3p, Corso Castelfidardo 30/A, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pirri, Candido Fabrizio [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  6. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    We obtained experimentally strong plasmon interactions between localized surface plasmon with delocalized surface plasmon polaritons in a new nanosystem of silver semishells island film arrays arranged as a closed-packing structure coupled to an adjacent thin silver film. We show that plasmon...... interactions for such a nanosystem exhibits two pronounced resonances and interpret the coupling in terms of Fano resonances. The higher energy resonance is identified as a symmetric hybridization mode between localized plasmon resonances in the island semishell array and surface plasmon polaritons...

  7. Super-capacitor and Thin Film Battery Hybrid Energy Storage for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Ningning; Vinco, Alessandro; Siddique, Rashid; Hayes, Mike; O'Flynn, Brendan; O'Mathuna, Cian

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the design of hybrid energy storage unit (HESU) for energy harvesting applications using super-capacitor and thin film battery (TFB). The power management circuits of this hybrid energy storage unit are proposed to perform "smart" charge/discharge control in order to optimize the HESU from the perspectives of energy loss due to leakage current and equivalent series resistance (ESR). This paper shows the characterizations of ESUs for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. A new design of power management circuits is proposed in order to utilize the low ESR characteristics of super-capacitor and the low leakage current characteristics of the TFB in the hybrid energy storage. The average power loss due to leakage current is measured at 38μW in the proposed system. When Compared to the super-capacitor energy storage with the similar capacity, the proposed hybrid energy storage unit reduces the leakage power by approximately 45% whilst maintains a similar (<100 mΩ) ESR.

  8. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni3N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong; Huang, Keke; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Novel nickel nitride (Ni3N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni3N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni3N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni3N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni3N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni3N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni3N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  9. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-11-01

    In this article, Cr(OH)3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

  10. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  11. Magnetic graphene coated inorganic-organic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced preconcentration of selected pesticides in tomato and grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Nodeh, Hamid; Sereshti, Hassan; Gaikani, Hamid; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Afsharsaveh, Zahra

    2017-08-04

    The new magnetic graphene based hybrid silica-N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine (MG@SiO 2 -TMSPED) nanocomposite was synthesized via sol-gel process, and used as an effective adsorbent in magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of three selected pesticides followed by gas chromatography micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). The adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) techniques. The analytical validity of the developed method was evaluated under optimized conditions and the following figures of merit were obtained: linearity, 1-20μgkg -1 with good determination coefficients (R 2 =0.995-0.999); limits of detection (LODs), 0.23-0.30μgkg -1 (3×SD/m, n=3); and limits of quantitation (LOQ), 0.76-1.0μgkg -1 (10×SD/m, n=3). The precision (RSD%) of the proposed MSPE method was studied based on intra-day (3.43-8.83%, n=3) and inter-day (6.68-8.37%, n=12) precisions. Finally, the adsorbent was applied to determination of pesticides in tomato and grape samples and good recoveries were obtained in the range from 82 to 113% (RSDs 5.1-8.1%, n=3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Carboxylic acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3: A novel hybrid nanocomposite as highly efficient photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireesha, Pedaballi; Sasikumar, Ragu; Chen, Shen-Ming; Su, Chaochin; Ranganathan, Palraj; Rwei, Syang-Peng

    2017-11-01

    Herein, we are reporting carboxylic acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polyindole/Ti2O3 hybrid nanocomposite (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3) synthesis, phase structure and morphology studies with extended applications. FE-SEM, and TGA results shows that the hybrid nanocomposite having good thermal stability. This hybrid nanocomposite is utilized to prepare a photo-anode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Interestingly, the doped with TiO2 (f-MWCNTs-PIN/Ti2O3/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposite based photo-anode for DSSC reported power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.6% and it is about 6% higher than that of un-doped TiO2 photo-anode. The corresponding short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 18.30 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.71 V, fill factor (FF) of 0.66, and dye absorption amount is 0.16 × 10-6 mol cm-2 respectively. The obtained results suggest that the hybrid nanocomposite is a suitable photo-anodic material for DSSCs applications.

  13. Ultra-Thin Films of Poly(acrylic acid/Silver Nanocomposite Coatings for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Fahmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work not only colloids of poly(acrylic acid (PAA embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs but thin films (10 nm also were deposited using electrospray deposition technique (ESD. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaBH4 and ascorbic acid (AA were utilized to reduce the silver ions to generate Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix. Moreover, sodium tricitrate was used to stabilize the prepared colloids. The obtained colloids and films were characterized using UV-visible, transmission electron microscopy (TEM. UV-Vis results reveal that an absorption peak at 425 nm was observed in presence of PAA-AgNO3-AA-citrate-NaBH4. This peak is attributed to the well-known surface plasmon resonance of the silver bound in Ag-NPs, while the reduction was rendering and/or inhibiting in absence of the AA and citrate. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the mechanism of the reaction process of silver nitrate with PAA. TEM images showed the well dispersion of Ag-NPs in the PAA matrix with average particle size of 8 nm. The antimicrobial studies showed that the Ag-NPs embedded in the PAA matrix have proven to have a significant antimicrobial activity against E. coli, B. subtilis, and C. albicans.

  14. Hybrid nano-composites made of ss-DNA/wrapped carbon nanotubes and titania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romio, Martina; Mesa, Camillo La

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs, are stabilized thanks to the surface wrapping of single-strand DNA, ss-DNA; the resulting adducts are kinetically and thermodynamically stable Such entities build up nano-hybrids with titania, TiO2, nano-particles, in presence of surfactant as an adjuvant. The conditions leading to TiO2 adsorption onto ss-DNA/CNTs were investigated, by optimizing the concentration of adducts, nano-particles (NPs), and of the cationic surfactant (CTAB). Controlling the working conditions makes possible to get homogeneously organized hybrids. Characterization by DLS, electro-phoretic mobility, SEM and AFM clarified the surfactant-assisted association modes between adducts and CTAB-functionalized TiO2. Nano-particles' clustering onto DNA-wrapped adducts gives hybrids trough electrostatic interactions. Surface coverage by TiO2 is significant and homogeneous. It is expected that the reported hybrids can be useful for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Hybrid Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites for the Clarification of Water and Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources will not be able to meet all requirements and water should not be considered a self-renewable, low cost resource. Thus, the needs for increased amount of water imply adopting several approaches that include intercepting and transferring water, desalination and water re-use. In all three approaches removal of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) is a crucial step, as one of the essential parameters limiting water quality. This paper reviews a series of patents focusing on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites to obtain very fast and efficient turbidity and suspended solids removal in water and effluents. The rational beyond the use of nanoparticles based on an anchoring denser core (for example a clay mineral) to which chains of a polyelectrolyte with charge that opposes the colloidal charges, is that it induces fast formation of neutralized flocs, that are denser than organic colloids. In such a way all three colloidal stability factors (size, charge and density) are addressed achieving very fast clarification. This paper summarizes several applications and examples of the procedure: removal of algae or microbes in surface water, clarification of saline effluents or sea water before desalination, and almost complete removal of turbidity and suspended solids in several industrial very turbid effluents. In all cases, clarification is obtained in seconds by the formation of 20-500 μm flocs, and their further separation by sedimentation or filtration, within a very wide pH range (3-11). Clay polymer nanocomposites can offer very effective clarification yielding reduction of more than 90% of the turbidity and the suspended solids in water or effluents, including in some cases deactivation of microorganisms that could offer an environmentally oriented alternative to chlorination. The good performance observed is presumably due to the broad versatility that stems from the use of different polymers and clays, and even different clay

  16. Hybrid Analytical Technique for Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Thin-Walled Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Hadian, Jafar M.; Andersen, Carl M.

    1993-01-01

    A two-step hybrid analytical technique is presented for the nonlinear vibration analysis of thin-walled beams. The first step involves the generation of various-order perturbation functions using the Linstedt-Poincare perturbation technique. The second step consists of using the perturbation functions as coordinate (or approximation) functions and then computing both the amplitudes of these functions and the nonlinear frequency of vibration via a direct variational procedure. The analytical formulation is based on a form of the geometrically nonlinear beam theory with the effects of in-plane inertia, rotatory inertia, and transverse shear deformation included. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated by means of a numerical example of thin-walled beam with a doubly symmetric I-section. The solutions obtained using a single-spatial mode were compared with those obtained using multiple-spatial modes. The standard of comparison was taken to be the frequencies obtained by the direct integration/fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique. The nonlinear frequencies obtained by the hybrid technique were shown to converge to the corresponding ones obtained by the direct integration/fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique well beyond the range of applicability of the perturbation technique. The frequencies and total strain energy of the beam were overestimated by using a single-spatial mode.

  17. Preparation of antibacterial coating based on in situ synthesis of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite on cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barani, Hossein, E-mail: barani@birjand.ac.ir

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ approach was used to synthesize ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. • Spherical structure and stabilized ZnO/SiO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized. • The synthesized ZnO particles have a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. • The ZnO nanoparticles enhance the moisture content of cotton fabric. • ZnO/SiO{sub 2} loaded cotton fabrics presented a good antibacterial property. - Abstract: In this study, the antibacterial cotton fabric was prepared using zinc oxide/silicon dioxide (ZnO/SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized with an in situ approach using two different methods on the cotton fabric. One of the methods was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles into the prepared sol solution, and then coating on the cotton fabric. The other method was to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide-coated cotton fabric. The morphological, structural, thermal, and antibacterial properties of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite-coated cotton fabric was studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermo gravimetric analysis, and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles on the silicon dioxide coated cotton fabric sample resulted in agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fiber, while the spherical nanoparticles structure was formed by synthesizing them into the sol solution of silicon dioxide. The EDS results indicated presence of ZnO/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite on the surface of coated cotton fabric, and presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  18. Characterization of amorphous and nanocomposite Nb–Si–C thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedfors, Nils, E-mail: nils.nedfors@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Tengstrand, Olof [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Flink, Axel [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582-16 Linköping (Sweden); Eklund, Per; Hultman, Lars [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Jansson, Ulf [Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-10-31

    Two series of Nb–Si–C thin films of different composition have been deposited using DC magnetron sputtering. In the first series the carbon content was kept at about 55 at.% while the Si/Nb ratio was varied and in the second series the C/Nb ratio was varied instead while the Si content was kept at about 45 at.%. The microstructure is strongly dependent on Si content and Nb–Si–C films containing more than 25 at.% Si exhibit an amorphous structure as determined by X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy, however, induces crystallisation during analysis, thus obstructing a more detailed analysis of the amorphous structure. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy suggests that the amorphous films consist of a mixture of chemical bonds such as Nb–Si, Nb–C, and Si–C. The addition of Si results in a hardness decrease from 22 GPa for the binary Nb–C film to 18 – 19 GPa for the Si-containing films, while film resistivity increases from 211 μΩcm to 3215 μΩcm. Comparison with recently published results on DC magnetron sputtered Zr–Si–C films, deposited in the same system using the same Ar-plasma pressure, bias, and a slightly lower substrate temperature (300 °C instead of 350 °C), shows that hardness is primarily dependent on the amount of Si–C bonds rather than type of transition metal. The reduced elastic modulus on the other hand shows a dependency on the type of transition metal for the films. These trends for the mechanical properties suggest that high wear resistant (high H/E and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} ratio) Me–Si–C films can be achieved by appropriate choice of film composition and transition metal. - Highlights: • Si reduces crystallinity, amorphous structure for films containing > 25 at.% Si. • Electron beam induced crystallization during transmission electron microscopy. • Hardness and resistivity are primarily dependent on the relative amount of C–Si bonds.

  19. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  20. Hybrid thiol-ene network nanocomposites based on multi(meth)acrylate POSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liguo; Liang, Rendong; Li, Yajie; Liu, Hongzhi; Feng, Shengyu

    2013-09-15

    First, multi(meth)acrylate functionalized POSS monomers were synthesized in this paper. Secondly, FTIR was used to evaluate the homopolymerization behaviors of multi(meth)acrylate POSS and their copolymerization behaviors in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS in the presence of photoinitiator. Results showed that the photopolymerization rate of multimethacrylate POSS was faster than that of multiacrylate POSS. The FTIR results also showed that the copolymerizations were dominant in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS, different from traditional (meth)acrylate-thiol system, in which homopolymerizations were predominant. Finally, the resulted hybrid networks based on POSS were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, DSC, and TGA. The characterization results showed that hybrid networks based on POSS were homogeneous and exhibited high thermal stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymer hybrid thin films based on rare earth ion-functionalized MOF: photoluminescence tuning and sensing as a thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-28

    A series of photofunctional polymer hybrid thin films based on rare earth ion functionalized metal organic frameworks (MOFs, 1 for zinc complexes bio-MOF-1 (Zn8(ad)4(BPDC)6O·2Me2NH2) and 2 for rare earth complexes RE(BPDC)(Ad) (BPDC = biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, Ad = adenine) have been prepared via polymerization reaction of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (VPD). The as-obtained hybrid films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and SEM, especially for the luminescence performance and sensing ability. These hybrid polymer thin films are dense and transparent and display multi-colors, including blue, red and blue-green. Among them, Y0.9Tb0.0999Eu(0.0001)-2 fabricated hybrid thin film displays a white light output. More significantly and interestingly, the Tb0.999Eu(0.001)-2 fabricated hybrid thin film can be used as luminescent ratiometric thermometer based on the energy transfer from Tb(3+) to Eu(3+), whose color will change from blue-green to pink from 100 K to 320 K.

  2. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  3. Resistive Switching in All-Printed, Flexible and Hybrid MoS2-PVA Nanocomposite based Memristive Device Fabricated by Reverse Offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Gul, Jahan Zeb; Kim, Soo-Wan; Lim, Jong Hwan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28 × 102, 105 sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2 mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device.

  4. Hybrid nanostructured thin-films by PLD for enhanced field emission performance for radiation micro-nano dosimetry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, E., E-mail: maniphysics@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); Materials Science Group (MSG), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital (SBMCH), Bharath University, Chrompet, Chennai 600044 (India); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Kavitha, G. [UNESCO-UNISA AFNET in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS–National Research Foundation (NRF), 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West, PO Box 722, Western Cape (South Africa); PG& Research Dept of Physics, AM Jain College Affiliated to University of Madras, Chennai 600114 (India); and others

    2015-10-25

    We report the observation of hybrid nanostructured thin-films such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) signature on the ZnO epitaxial thin-films grown onto the device silicon/quartz substrate by reactive pulsed laser deposition (r-PLD) under the argon–oxygen (Ar|O{sub 2}) ambient at 573 K. Undoped and Carbon (C) doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by the accelerator based ion-beam analysis (IBA) technique of resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RRBS), glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) pattern, micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and field-emission (F-E) studies. The RRBS and GIXRD results show the deposition of epitaxial thin-films containing C into ZnO. The μ-RS technique is a standard nondestructive tool (NDT) for the characterization of crystalline, nano-crystalline, and amorphous carbons (a-C). As grown ZnO and C-doped ZnO thin-films μ-RS result reveal the doping effect of C-impurities that appear in the form of DLC evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak at 438 cm{sup −1} with E{sub 2}(h) phonon of ZnO. The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-films has high conductivity than the un-doped film. Fabricated hybrid nanostructured thin-films materials could be very useful for the emerging applications of micro-nano dosimetry. - Highlights: • Observation of hybrid nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) on ZnO epitaxial thin-films at 573 K. • Carbon doped epitaxial ZnO thin-film layer formation is revealed by RRBS, Micro-Raman. • Field-emission (F-E) study. • DLC formation evident from Raman peaks at 1357 and 1575 cm{sup −1} along with a wurtzite structure peak of ZnO. • The electron transport F-E result shows the hybrid thin-film has high conductivity than the undoped thin-film.

  5. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Huang, Keke [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO catalysts are synthesized by using a two-step method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: Novel nickel nitride (Ni{sub 3}N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni{sub 3}N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  6. Mixed colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide and layered metal oxide nanosheets: useful precursors for the porous nanocomposites and hybrid films of graphene/metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ri; Kim, In Young; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Jang Mee; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2012-02-20

    Homogeneously mixed colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide, or RGO, and layered manganate nanosheets have been synthesized by a simple addition of the exfoliated colloid of RGO into that of layered MnO(2). The obtained mixed colloidal suspensions with the RGO/MnO(2) ratio of ≤0.3 show good colloidal stability without any phase separation and a negatively charged state with a zeta (ζ) potential of -30 to -40 mV. The flocculation of these mixed colloidal suspensions with lithium cations yields porous nanocomposites of Li/RGO-layered MnO(2) with high electrochemical activity and a markedly expanded surface area of around 70-100 m(2)  g(-1). Relative to the Li/RGO and Li/layered MnO(2) nanocomposites (≈116 and ≈167 F g(-1)), the obtained Li/RGO-layered MnO(2) nanocomposites deliver a larger capacitance of approximately 210 F g(-1) with good cyclability of around 95-97 % up to the 1000th cycle, thus indicating the positive effect of hybridization on the electrode performances of RGO and lithium manganate. Also, an electrophoretic deposition of the mixed colloidal suspensions makes it possible to easily fabricate uniform hybrid films composed of graphene and manganese oxide. The obtained films show a distinct electrochemical activity and a homogeneous distribution of RGO and MnO(2). The present experimental findings clearly demonstrate that the utilization of the mixed colloidal suspensions as precursors provides a facile and universal methodology to synthesize various types of graphene/metal oxide hybrid materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis, structure, and physical properties of hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moreno, I; Costela, A; Cuesta, A; García, O; del Agua, D; Sastre, R

    2005-11-24

    We report on the synthesis, structural characterization, physical properties, and lasing action of two organic dyes, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and Pyrromethene 597 (PM597), incorporated into new hybrid organic-inorganic materials, where the organic component was either poly(2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate) (PHEMA) or copolymers of HEMA with methyl methacrylate (MMA), and the inorganic counterpart consisted of silica derived from hydrolysis-condensation of methyltriethoxysilane (TRIEOS) in weight proportion of up to 30%. Lasing efficiencies of up 23% and high photostabilities, with no sign of degradation in the initial laser output after 100 000 pump pulses at 10 Hz, were demonstrated when pumping the samples transversely at 534 nm with 5.5 mJ/pulse. A direct relationship could be established between the structure of the hybrid materials, analyzed by solid-state NMR, and their laser behavior. An inorganic network dominated by di-/tri- substituted silicates in a proportion approximately 35:65, corresponding to samples of HEMA with 15 and 20 wt % proportion of TRIEOS, optimizes the lasing photostability. The thermal properties of these materials, together with the high homogeneity revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, even in compounds with high silica content, indicate their microstructure to be a continuous phase, corresponding to the polymer matrix, which "traps" the silica components at molecular level via covalent bonding, with few or no silica islands.

  8. Thermal annealing and SHI irradiation induced modifications in sandwiched structured Carbon-gold-Carbon (a-C/Au/a-C) nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, we study the annealing and swift heavy ion (SHI) beam induced modifications in the optical and structural properties of sandwiched structured Carbon-gold-Carbon (a-C/Au/a-C) nanocomposite (NCs) thin films. The NCs thin films were synthesized by electron-beam evaporation technique at room temperature with ∼30 nm thickness for both carbon layer and ∼6 nm for gold layer. Gold-carbon NCs thin films were annealed in the presence of argon at a temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C and 750 °C. The NCs thin films were also irradiated with 90 MeV Ni ions beam with different ion fluences in the range from 3 × 1012, 6 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au nanoparticles are not observed in the pristine film but, after annealing at temperature of 600 °C and 750 °C, it was clearly seen at ∼534 nm as confirmed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. 90 MeV Ni irradiated thin film at the fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2 also show strong absorption band at ∼534 nm. The growth and size of Au nanoparticle for pristine and 90 MeV Ni ion irradiated thin film with fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2, were estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images with the bi-model distribution. The size of the gold nanoparticle (NPs) was found to be ∼4.5 nm for the pristine film and ∼5.4 nm for the irradiated film at a fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. The thickness and metal atomic fraction in carbon matrix were estimated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The effect of annealing as well as heavy ion irradiation on D and G band of carbon matrix were studied by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. One-pot synthesis of silica-hybridized Ag{sub 2}S–CuS nanocomposites with tunable nonlinear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann Mary, K.A. [School of Pure & Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Unnikrishnan, N.V., E-mail: nvu100@yahoo.com [School of Pure & Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560 (India); Philip, Reji [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Silica modified QDs of CuS and Ag{sub 2}S is developed at room temperature. • Formation of Ag{sub 2}S/CuS nanocomposites is confirmed from XRD and FFT of HRTEM images. • The concentration dependent growth of silica modified QDs is discussed. • Nonlinear absorption observed in ns excitations is dominated by SA and ESA. • Tuning of optical limiting efficiency is achieved with relative Ag{sub 2}S content. - Abstract: In the present work we report a simple, facile route developed for preparing silica hybridized copper sulfide and silver sulfide quantum dots at room temperature. By adjusting the concentration of the precursors, Ag{sub 2}S can form Ag{sub 2}S–CuS nanocomposites which are self regulated in one pot. Their crystalline, structural and optical properties have been investigated in detail, and the optical limiting nature is studied from fluence-dependent transmittance measurements employing short (5 ns) laser pulses at 532 nm. Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles are found to have large third order nonlinear optical coefficients with a relatively lower optical limiting threshold of 1.7 J cm{sup −2}, while the nonlinearity of the nanocomposites is found to lie in between that of Ag{sub 2}S and CuS nanoparticles. These results suggest pathways for designing good quality optical limiters with tunable optical limiting efficiencies by varying the constituent nanocrystal compositions.

  10. Gap Bridging Ability in Laser GMA Hybrid Welding of Thin 22MnB5 Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, F.; Kügler, H.; Kötschau, S.; Geier, A.; Goecke, S.-F.

    In this paper, laser GMA hybrid welding of thin ultra-high-strength steel sheets (22MnB5) is investigated. A single-mode laser beam oscillating transversal to the welding direction is used in order to minimize the heat input during the process. The sheets have a thickness of 1.5mm each and are fixed in overlap configuration. The gap between the sheets was 0.8mm during experiments in order to simulate typical gap width in industrial manufacturing processes. It is shown that a stable weld seam has been achieved for this gap width in case of a welding speed of 6m/min. The gap bridging ability is caused by the interaction of the arc and the laser beam process. The laser beam process produces deeper penetration in the bottom sheet. Thus, the arc is stabilized by the laser beam.

  11. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  12. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  13. Microstructured Nickel-Titanium Thin Film Leaflets for Hybrid Tissue Engineered Heart Valves Fabricated by Magnetron Sputter Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loger, K; Engel, A; Haupt, J; Lima de Miranda, R; Lutter, G; Quandt, E

    2016-03-01

    Heart valves are constantly exposed to high dynamic loading and are prone to degeneration. Therefore, it is a challenge to develop a durable heart valve substitute. A promising approach in heart valve engineering is the development of hybrid scaffolds which are composed of a mechanically strong inorganic mesh enclosed by valvular tissue. In order to engineer an efficient, durable and very thin heart valve for transcatheter implantations, we developed a fabrication process for microstructured heart valve leaflets made from a nickel-titanium (NiTi) thin film shape memory alloy. To examine the capability of microstructured NiTi thin film as a matrix scaffold for tissue engineered hybrid heart valves, leaflets were successfully seeded with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In vitro pulsatile hydrodynamic testing of the NiTi thin film valve leaflets demonstrated that the SMC layer significantly improved the diastolic sufficiency of the microstructured leaflets, without affecting the systolic efficiency. Compared to an established porcine reference valve model, magnetron sputtered NiTi thin film material demonstrated its suitability for hybrid tissue engineered heart valves.

  14. Ultra-sensitive determination of epinephrine based on TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters supported on reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianbo, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Luo, Chuannan, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net

    2016-07-01

    A highly efficient and sensitive electrochemical sensor for EP based on reduced graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites loaded TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. The surface nature and morphology of the nanocomposite film and the electrochemical properties of the sensor were characterized by Raman spectra, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Carbon nanomaterials were widely used in sensing due to its large electroactive surface area, fast electron transport and strong adsorption capacity. Meanwhile, TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters could accelerate the electron transfer, increase reactive site and extend electrochemical response window. The nanocomposite film could greatly enhance the response sensitivity and decrease the overpotential. The resulting sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward EP. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. pH 6.0, 0.1 M PBS, preconcentration for 110 s), Differential pulse voltammetry was employed to detect ultra-trace amounts of EP. The result of a wide linear range of 1.0–300 nM and limited of detection 0.34 nM (S/N = 3) were obtained. The constructed sensor exhibited excellent accuracy and precision, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%. The nanocomposite film sensor was successfully used to accurately detect the content of EP in practical samples, and the recoveries for the standards added are 97%–105%. - Highlights: • The three dimensional composite materials rGO/CNTs were successful synthesized. • High conductivity and catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters were synthesized. • The sensor displays a wide linear range, low detection limit and good stability.

  15. Multilevel structures of Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon nanocomposites derived from hybrid V-MOFs for long-life and cheap lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Chuanjiang; Fang, Leyong

    2017-10-01

    The Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon (LVP/P-C) nanocomposites with multilevel structures (such as spheroidal, foam, prism and flower-like structures) are synthesized via one-pot in-situ synthesis using hybrid vanadium metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the LVP/P-C nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and element mapping. The results show that the multilevel structures are generated from the assemblies of the hybrid surfactant templates in the glass fiber drawing wastewater (GFDW) and the hybrid V-MOFs. The structure of LVP/P-C nanocomposite is controlled by V-MOFs. The nanocomposites exhibit a long service life, a discharge capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at 10 C with 90% capacity retention after 1100 cycles. The high cycling stability is attributed to the multilevel structures, which is ideal for making rechargeable lithium ion batteries. More importantly, our results have demonstrated that GFDW can be transformed into treasure of multilevel structure nanocomposites for cheap Li ion batteries.

  16. Efficient upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Burkett, Allan; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Walker, Vernell; Sarkisov, Sergey; Koplitz, Brent

    2014-09-01

    We report on fabrication and investigation of optical and morphological properties of highly efficient (a quantum yield of 1%) upconversion polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters prepared by the new technique of double beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (DB-MAPLE). Polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host was evaporated on a silicon substrate using a 1064-nm pulsed laser beam using a target made of frozen (to the temperature of liquid nitrogen) solution of PMMA in chlorobenzene. Concurrently, the second 532-nm pulsed beam from the same laser was used to impregnate the polymer host with the inorganic nanoparticulate made of the rare earth upconversion compounds NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+, NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+, and NaYF4: Yb3+, Tm3+. The compounds were initially synthesized using the wet process, baked, and compressed in solid pellet targets. The proposed DB-MAPLE method has the advantage of making highly homogeneous nanocomposite films with precise control of the doping rate due to the optimized overlapping of the plumes produced by the ablation of the organic and inorganic target with the infrared and visible laser beams respectively. X-ray diffraction, electron and atomic force microscopy, and optical fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the inorganic nanoparticulate preserved its crystalline structure and upconversion properties (strong emission in green, red, and blue bands upon illumination with 980-nm laser diode) after being transferred from the target in the polymer nanocomposite film. The produced films can be used in applications varying from the efficiency enhancement of the photovoltaic cells, optical sensors and biomarkers to anti-counterfeit labels.

  17. Hybrid ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H thin-film radial junction solar cells using nanoparticle front contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathirane, M., E-mail: minoli.pathirane@uwaterloo.ca; Iheanacho, B.; Lee, C.-H.; Wong, W. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tamang, A.; Knipp, D. [Research Center for Functional Materials and Nanomolecular Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen 28759 (Germany); Lujan, R. [Electronic Materials and Devices Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, California 93003 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Hydrothermally synthesized disordered ZnO nanowires were conformally coated with a-Si:H thin-films to fabricate three dimensional hybrid nanowire/thin-film structures. The a-Si:H layer formed a radial junction p-i-n diode solar cell around the ZnO nanowire. The cylindrical hybrid solar cells enhanced light scattering throughout the UV-visible-NIR spectrum (300 nm–800 nm) resulting in a 22% increase in short-circuit current density compared to the reference planar p-i-n device. A fill factor of 69% and a total power conversion efficiency of 6.5% were achieved with the hybrid nanowire solar cells using a spin-on indium tin oxide nanoparticle suspension as the top contact.

  18. Hybrid ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H thin-film radial junction solar cells using nanoparticle front contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirane, M.; Iheanacho, B.; Tamang, A.; Lee, C.-H.; Lujan, R.; Knipp, D.; Wong, W. S.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized disordered ZnO nanowires were conformally coated with a-Si:H thin-films to fabricate three dimensional hybrid nanowire/thin-film structures. The a-Si:H layer formed a radial junction p-i-n diode solar cell around the ZnO nanowire. The cylindrical hybrid solar cells enhanced light scattering throughout the UV-visible-NIR spectrum (300 nm-800 nm) resulting in a 22% increase in short-circuit current density compared to the reference planar p-i-n device. A fill factor of 69% and a total power conversion efficiency of 6.5% were achieved with the hybrid nanowire solar cells using a spin-on indium tin oxide nanoparticle suspension as the top contact.

  19. Accuracy Enhancement of Hybrid/Mixed Models for Thin-Walled Beam Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendy, A. S.; El-Fayomy, T. I.

    2012-07-01

    Aiming to increase the accuracy and computational efficiency of shear, flexible, thin-walled beam assemblages with arbitrary cross-section, two C0-finite element models for three-dimensional analysis are developed based on the hybrid/mixed variational principle. To eliminate the shear/warping locking in these C0elements, the Hellinger-Reissner-variational principle is adopted. In this, both displacement and stress fields are approximated independently. To enhance the accuracy and performance of these models, the stress parameters are chosen to satisfy the equilibrium within the element level in addition to the conventional requirements; i.e., avoid all kinematic deformation modes and enable the resulting element to handle applications with constrained problems. Such stress parameters are of the interelement-independent type and, therefore, can be eliminated on the element level by applying the relevant stationary conditions, thus leading to the standard form of the stiffness equations for implementation. Further, the underlying generalized beam theory employed accounts for all coupled significant modes of deformations including stretching, bending, shear, torsion, as well as warping. The formulation is also valid for both open- and closed-type, thin-walled sections; this is accomplished by using kinematic descriptions accounting for both flexural and warping torsional effects. Despite the effort in selecting the stress field to satisfy equilibrium within the element level, the present models achieved better accuracy, robustness, and fast convergence.

  20. Effective removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using modified xanthan gum/silica hybrid nanocomposite as adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Soumitra; Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Panda, A B; Pal, Sagar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of XG-g-PAM/SiO2 nanocomposite towards its potential application as high performance adsorbent for removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The surface area, average pore size and total pore volume of the developed nanocomposite has been determined. The efficiency of CR dye adsorption depends on various factors like pH, temperature of the solution, equilibrium time of adsorption, agitation speed, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage. It has been observed that the nanocomposite is having excellent CR dye adsorption capacity (Q0=209.205 mg g(-1)), which is considerably high. The dye adsorption process is controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The adsorption equilibrium data correlates well with Langmuir isotherm. Desorption study indicates the efficient regeneration ability of the dye loaded nanocomposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Au/CdS Hybrid Nanocomposites Stabilized by Branched Polymer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor (Au/CdS nanocomposites were synthesized in the solution of branched D-g-PAA polymer. TEM and DLS of Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites revealed complicated nanocomposite structure consisting of the Au nanoparticles (NPs of 6 nm in size surrounded by small CdS NPs with size of 3 nm. These nanocomposites formed the aggregates-clusters with average size of 50–800 nm. Absorption spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites consist of the bands of excitons in CdS NPs and surface plasmons in Au ones. The surface plasmon band of gold NPs is red shifted and broadened in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites comparing to the one of Au NPs in Au/D-g-PAA proving the fact of close location of CdS and Au NPs in the synthesized Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites. The PL spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites originate from the radiative transitions in excitons in CdS NPs. The 4-fold increase of intensity of free exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA that is due to PL enhancement by local field of surface plasmons of Au NPs. Also, the 12-fold decrease of intensity of localized exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA. Most probably, it is due to passivation of the surface of CdS NPs carried out by the Au ones.

  2. Rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 hybrid nanocomposite-supported Au nanocatalysts for tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyunje; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sungkyun; Park, Kang Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A facile synthesis of rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocomposites via controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 and reduction of Pd(OAc)2, followed by the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the Pd-Fe3O4 supports, is reported. The morphology of these hybrid nanostructures could be easily controlled by varying the amount of Fe(CO)5 and the reaction temperature. Moreover, the synthesized Au/Pd-Fe3O4 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for the tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles and demonstrated magnetic recyclability.A facile synthesis of rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocomposites via controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 and reduction of Pd(OAc)2, followed by the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the Pd-Fe3O4 supports, is reported. The morphology of these hybrid nanostructures could be easily controlled by varying the amount of Fe(CO)5 and the reaction temperature. Moreover, the synthesized Au/Pd-Fe3O4 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for the tandem synthesis of 2-phenylindoles and demonstrated magnetic recyclability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01441g

  3. Evolution of microstructure in mixed niobia-hybrid silica thin films from sol-gel precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besselink, Rogier; Stawski, Tomasz M; Castricum, Hessel L; ten Elshof, Johan E

    2013-08-15

    The evolution of structure in sol-gel derived mixed bridged silsesquioxane-niobium alkoxide sols and drying thin films was monitored in situ by small-angle X-ray scattering. Since sol-gel condensation of metal alkoxides proceeds much faster than that of silicon alkoxides, the incorporation of d-block metal dopants into silica typically leads to formation of densely packed nano-sized metal oxide clusters that we refer as metal oxide building blocks in a silica-based matrix. SAXS was used to study the process of niobia building block formation while drying the sol as a thin film at 40-80°C. The SAXS curves of mixed niobia-hybrid silica sols were dominated by the electron density contrast between sol particles and surrounding solvent. As the solvent evaporated and the sol particles approached each other, a correlation peak emerged. Since TEM microscopy revealed the absence of mesopores, the correlation peak was caused by a heterogeneous system of electron-rich regions and electron poor regions. The regions were assigned to small clusters that are rich in niobium and which are dispersed in a matrix that mainly consisted of hybrid silica. The correlation peak was associated with the typical distances between the electron dense clusters and corresponded with distances in real space of 1-3 nm. A relationship between the prehydrolysis time of the silica precursor and the size of the niobia building blocks was observed. When 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane was first hydrolyzed for 30 min before adding niobium penta-ethoxide, the niobia building blocks reached a radius of 0.4 nm. Simultaneous hydrolysis of the two precursors resulted in somewhat larger average building block radii of 0.5-0.6 nm. This study shows that acid-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of mixed hybrid silica niobium alkoxides can be rationalized and optimized by monitoring the structural evolution using time-resolved SAXS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid films for highly efficient thin-film microextraction of organic volatiles in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ansai, Toshihiro; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-15

    ZSM-5 zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hybrid thin films were demonstrated for efficient thin-film microextraction (TFME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analyzing organic volatiles in water. The extraction efficiency for a series of aliphatic alcohols and two aromatic compounds was significantly improved owing to the presence of ZSM-5 zeolites. The extraction efficiency of the hybrid films was increased in proportion to the content of ZSM-5 in the PDMS film, with 20wt% of ZSM-5 showing the best results. The 20wt% ZSM-5/PDMS hybrid film exhibited higher volatile organic content extraction compared with the single-component PDMS film or PDMS hybrid films containing other types of zeolite (e.g., SAPO-34). Limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual analytes were in the range of 0.0034-0.049ppb and of 0.010-0.15 ppb, respectively. The effects of experimental parameters such as extraction time and temperature were optimized, and the molecular dispersion of the zeolites in/on the hybrid film matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the optimized hybrid film was preliminarily tested for the analysis of organic volatiles contained in commercially available soft drinks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on montmorillonite/insulin/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite as a new oral drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, Younes; Ghiaci, Payam; Ghiaci, Mehran

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted in two main stages. In the first stage, drug-loaded montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by intercalation of insulin into the montmorillonite layers in acidic deionized (DI) water. In the second stage, to increase the release of insulin from the prepared nanocomposites they were coated with TiO2, an inorganic porous coating, by using titanium (IV) butoxide, as precursor. The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, BET, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. After investigating the release behaviour of the nanocomposites by UV-Vis absorbance technique, the results revealed that incorporation of porous TiO2 coating increased the drug entrapment noticeably, and decreased the amount of drug release, so that nanocomposites without and with TiO2 coating released the drug after 60min and 22h in pH7.4, respectively. These results could be used in converting the insulin utilization from injection to oral. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  7. 7-Octenyltrichrolosilane/trimethyaluminum hybrid dielectrics fabricated by molecular-atomic layer deposition on ZnO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lee, Mingun; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Ha, Min-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of 7-octenytrichlorosilane (7-OTS)/trimethylaluminum (TMA) organic-inorganic hybrid films using molecular-atomic layer deposition (MALD). The properties of 7-OTS/TMA hybrid films are extensively investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrical measurements. Our results suggest that uniform and smooth amorphous hybrid thin films with excellent insulating properties are obtained using the MALD process. Films have a relatively high dielectric constant of approximately 5.0 and low leakage current density. We fabricate zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin film transistors (TFTs) using 7-OTS/TMA hybrid material as a back gate dielectric with the top ZnO channel layer deposited in-situ via MALD. The ZnO TFTs exhibit a field effect mobility of approximately 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage of approximately 1 V, and an on/off ratio of approximately 103 under low voltage operation (from -3 to 9 V). This work demonstrates an organic-inorganic hybrid gate dielectric material potentially useful in flexible electronics application.

  8. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  9. Designing hybrid gate dielectric for fully printing high-performance carbon nanotube thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shilong; Yang, Dehua; Su, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhou, Weiya; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2017-10-01

    The electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) strongly depend on the properties of the gate dielectric that is in direct contact with the semiconducting CNT channel materials. Here, we systematically investigated the dielectric effects on the electrical characteristics of fully printed semiconducting CNT-TFTs by introducing the organic dielectrics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to modify SiO2 dielectric. The results showed that the organic-modified SiO2 dielectric formed a favorable interface for the efficient charge transport in s-SWCNT-TFTs. Compared to single-layer SiO2 dielectric, the use of organic-inorganic hybrid bilayer dielectrics dramatically improved the performances of SWCNT-TFTs such as mobility, threshold voltage, hysteresis and on/off ratio due to the suppress of charge scattering, gate leakage current and charge trapping. The transport mechanism is related that the dielectric with few charge trapping provided efficient percolation pathways for charge carriers, while reduced the charge scattering. High density of charge traps which could directly act as physical transport barriers and significantly restrict the charge carrier transport and, thus, result in decreased mobile carriers and low device performance. Moreover, the gate leakage phenomenon is caused by conduction through charge traps. So, as a component of TFTs, the gate dielectric is of crucial importance to the manufacture of high quality TFTs from the aspects of affecting the gate leakage current and device operation voltage, as well as the charge carrier transport. Interestingly, the OTS-modified SiO2 allows to directly print horizontally aligned CNT film, and the corresponding devices exhibited a higher mobility than that of the devices with the hybrid PMMA/SiO2 dielectric although the thickness of OTS layer is only ˜2.5 nm. Our present result may provide key guidance for the further development of printed

  10. Recent trends in preparation and application of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dang, Van; Dung Nguyen, Duc; Thanh Cao, Thi; Le, Phuoc Huu; Tran, Dai Lam; Phan, Ngoc Minh; Chuc Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The combination of one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional (2D) graphene materials to generate three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid thin films (CNGHTFs) has attracted great attention owing to their intriguing properties via the synergistic effects of these two materials on their electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties in comparison with their individual components. This review aims to provide a brief introduction of recent trends in preparation methodologies and some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs. It contains two main scientific subjects. The first of these is the research on preparation techniques of CNGHTFs, including reduction agent-assisted mechanical blending of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CNTs, hybridization methods for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of CNTs and rGO sheets, multi-step methods using combinations of a solution and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processing, one-step growth of CNGHTFs by the CVD method, and modified CVD methods via thermal deposition of carbon source on catalyst surfaces. The advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods of CNGHTFs are presented and discussed in detail. The second scientific subject of the review is the research on some outstanding applications of CNGHTFs in various research fields, including transparent conductors, electron field emitters, field-effect transistors, biosensors and supercapacitors. In most cases, the CNGHTFs showed superior performances than those of the pristine GO/graphene or CNT materials. Therefore, the CNGHTFs exhibit as high-potential materials for various practical applications. Opportunites and challenges in the fields are also presented.

  11. Designing hybrid gate dielectric for fully printing high-performance carbon nanotube thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Shilong; Yang, Dehua; Su, Wei; Wang, Yanchun; Zhou, Weiya; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2017-10-27

    The electrical characteristics of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) strongly depend on the properties of the gate dielectric that is in direct contact with the semiconducting CNT channel materials. Here, we systematically investigated the dielectric effects on the electrical characteristics of fully printed semiconducting CNT-TFTs by introducing the organic dielectrics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to modify SiO2 dielectric. The results showed that the organic-modified SiO2 dielectric formed a favorable interface for the efficient charge transport in s-SWCNT-TFTs. Compared to single-layer SiO2 dielectric, the use of organic-inorganic hybrid bilayer dielectrics dramatically improved the performances of SWCNT-TFTs such as mobility, threshold voltage, hysteresis and on/off ratio due to the suppress of charge scattering, gate leakage current and charge trapping. The transport mechanism is related that the dielectric with few charge trapping provided efficient percolation pathways for charge carriers, while reduced the charge scattering. High density of charge traps which could directly act as physical transport barriers and significantly restrict the charge carrier transport and, thus, result in decreased mobile carriers and low device performance. Moreover, the gate leakage phenomenon is caused by conduction through charge traps. So, as a component of TFTs, the gate dielectric is of crucial importance to the manufacture of high quality TFTs from the aspects of affecting the gate leakage current and device operation voltage, as well as the charge carrier transport. Interestingly, the OTS-modified SiO2 allows to directly print horizontally aligned CNT film, and the corresponding devices exhibited a higher mobility than that of the devices with the hybrid PMMA/SiO2 dielectric although the thickness of OTS layer is only ∼2.5 nm. Our present result may provide key guidance for the further development of printed

  12. The enhanced formaldehyde-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film OTFT sensor and further insight into its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yadong; Xie, Guangzhong; Du, Xiaosong

    2015-01-19

    A thin-film transistor (TFT) having an organic-inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles' hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times) and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology.

  13. The Enhanced Formaldehyde-Sensing Properties of P3HT-ZnO Hybrid Thin Film OTFT Sensor and Further Insight into Its Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Tai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film transistor (TFT having an organic–inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT-zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles’ hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology.

  14. Substrate effects on photoluminescence and low temperature phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.

  15. Low-voltage and hysteresis-free organic thin-film transistors employing solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Jun [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    This study presents a promising approach to realize low-voltage (<3 V) organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) exhibiting improved electrical and optical stability. Such device performance results from the use of solution-processed hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics consisting of zirconium dioxide (high-k dielectric) and amorphous fluoropolymer, CYTOP{sup ®} (low-k dielectric). Employing a very thin amorphous fluoropolymer film reduces interfacial defect-states by repelling water molecules and other aqueous chemicals from an organic semiconductor active layer due to the hydrophobic surface-property. The chemically clean interface, stemming from decrease in density of trap states improves all the key device properties such as field-effect mobility, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Furthermore, degradation by electrical bias-stress and photo-induced hysteresis were suppressed in OTFTs employing hybrid bilayer gate dielectrics.

  16. Nanocomposites from block copolymer lamellar nanostructures and selective gold deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diletto, Claudia; Morvillo, Pasquale; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio

    2013-07-01

    Innovative hybrid nanocomposites based on a nanostructured block copolymer (BCP) matrix whose lamellar nanodomains are selectively loaded with metal nanoparticles, have been prepared. A symmetric poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) amorphous BCP showing a lamellar morphology has been employed. Thin films of PS-b-PMMA were deposited by spin-coating or drop casting on indium thin oxide (ITO) substrate in order to achieve orientation of lamellae with the lamellar surface perpendicular to the substrate. The perpendicular orientation is related to the use of ITO substrate, which shows a neutral surface with non-preferential interactions with the PS and PMMA domains. Hybrid nanocomposites have been then prepared by selective incorporation of gold nanoparticles into the PS lamellar domain by using a simple method based on the selective deposition of thermally evaporated gold nanoparticles. This innovative approach can be very useful for the realization of nanocomposites that could be used as active layer in non-volatile OFET memory devices or very efficient organic solar cells, depending on the appropriate guest molecules.

  17. Calibration of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627; Arfaoui, Samir; Benoit, Mathieu; Celeste, Damiano; Dannheim, Dominik; Pfleger, Florentina; Redford, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of vertex detector R&D for a future Compact Linear Collider, the charac- terisation of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies comprising 50 − 300 μm thick silicon sensors and Timepix readout ASICs is underway through beam tests at DESY and CERN. The work presented here supports the beam test data analysis by providing an energy calibra- tion of certain assemblies, so giving access to energy measurements in addition to recorded Time Over Threshold counts. Photons from a variety of radioactive sources and X-ray fluorescence are used to measure the response of the assemblies in the region of 3 − 60 keV. Threshold measurements are also performed. Global and pixel-by-pixel calibrations of the assemblies are parametrised and the uniformity of the response of the pixel matrices are discussed. Data samples recorded in beam tests are calibrated and the resulting energy spectra presented. For the first time calibration parameters are estimated for two 50 μm thick sensors which are forese...

  18. Thin Film Silicon Nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Surface Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Hong, Lei; Tan, Yew Heng; Tan, Chuan Seng; Rusli

    2016-06-01

    SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are fabricated on 10.6-μm-thick crystalline Si thin films. Cells with Si nanowires (SiNWs) of different lengths fabricated using the metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) technique have been investigated. A surface treatment process using oxygen plasma has been applied to improve the surface quality of the SiNWs, and the optimized cell with 0.7-μm-long SiNWs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.83 %. The surface treatment process is found to remove surface defects and passivate the SiNWs and substantially improve the average open circuit voltage from 0.461 to 0.562 V for the optimized cell. The light harvesting capability of the SiNWs has also been investigated theoretically using optical simulation. It is found that the inherent randomness of the MCEE SiNWs, in terms of their diameter and spacing, accounts for the excellent light harvesting capability. In comparison, periodic SiNWs of comparable dimensions have been shown to exhibit much poorer trapping and absorption of light.

  19. Surface plasmon coupled emission studies on engineered thin film hybrids of nano α-Al2O3 on silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Lingam, Kiran; Chunduri, Avinash; Rattan, Tanu Mimani; Rao, Apparao M.; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2014-01-01

    We report the first time engineering and fabrication of a novel thin film hybrid of nano α-alumina doped in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix along with rhodamine b (Rh.B) on a silver thin film. Silver films of 50 nm thickness on glass slides were fabricated by thermal evaporation. Nano α-alumina was synthesized through the combustion route and characterized by XRD. The α-alumina was dispersed in the PVA-Rh.B matrix by tip sonication. The resultant solution was spin coated on the Ag thin film at 3000 rpm to generate an overcoat of ˜30 nm. We have designed and constructed an opto-mechanical setup for performing the SPCE studies. Excitation with a 532 nm continuous laser, led to the coupling of the energy of Rh.B emission to the surface plasmon modes of silver. The emission @ 580 nm was recorded using an Ocean Optics{copyright, serif} fiber optic spectrometer. Calculation of the ratio of signal intensity between the directional SPCE and isotropic fluorescence gives us the factor of signal enhancements which SPCE offers. We report an '8 fold' signal enhancement attributed to SPCE arising from the metal oxide doped thin film hybrid. We observed only a '5 fold' signal enhancement in the case of a thin film hybrid without α-alumina. The emission was also 92% P-polarized which is in coherence with the theory of SPCE. The greater degree of signal enhancement observed in the α-alumina doped thin film substrate can be attributed to the surface roughness which alumina offers to silver, which along with the porous nature of alumina enables a greater degree of adsorption of Rh.B which results in a higher emission intensity. Computational modeling was also performed, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) calculations to provide theoretical background to observed experimental data. The α-alumina thin film hybrid can be extended as an economical sensing platform towards the high sensitive detection of analytes.

  20. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters...

  1. Improved surface-enhanced Raman and catalytic activities of reduced graphene oxide-osmium hybrid nano thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, C.; Bramhaiah, K.; John, Neena S.; Aggarwal, Shantanu

    2017-09-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-osmium (rGO-Os) hybrid nano dendtrites have been prepared by simple liquid/liquid interface method for the first time. The method involves the introduction of phase-transfered metal organic precursor in toluene phase and GO dispersion in the aqueous phase along with hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Dendritic networks of Os nanoparticles and their aggregates decorating rGO layers are obtained. The substrate shows improved catalytic and surface-enhanced activities comparable with previous reports. The catalytic activity was tested for the reduction of p-nitroaniline into p-phenyldiamine with an excess amount of NaBH4. The catalytic activity factors of these hybrid films are 2.3 s-1 g-1 (Os film) and 4.4 s-1 g-1 (rGO-Os hybrid film), which are comparable with other noble metal nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, but lower than Pd-based catalysts. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements have been done on rhodamine 6G (R6G) and methylene blue dyes. The enhancement factor for the R6G adsorbed on rGO-Os thin film is 1.0 × 105 and for Os thin film is 7 × 103. There is a 14-fold enhancement observed for Os hybrids with rGO. The enhanced catalytic and SERS activities of rGO-Os hybrid thin film prepared by simple liquid/liquid interface method open up new challenges in electrocatalytic application and SERS-based detection of biomolecules.

  2. Design, Manufacturing, and Characterization of High-Performance Lightweight Bipolar Plates Based on Carbon Nanotube-Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelet Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a study on manufacturing and characterization of a platform material for high-performance lightweight bipolar plates for fuel cells based on nanocomposites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs. The experiments were designed and performed in three steps. In the preexperimental stage, xGnP-epoxy composite samples were prepared at various xGnP weight percentages to determine the maximum processable nanofiller concentration. The main part of the experiment employed the statistics-based design of experiments (DOE methodology to identify improved processing conditions and CNT : xGnP ratio for minimized electrical resistivity. In the postexperimental stage, optimized combinations of material and processing parameters were investigated. With the aid of a reactive diluent, 20 wt.% was determined to the be maximum processable carbon nanomaterial content in the epoxy. The DOE analyses revealed that the CNT : xGnP ratio is the most dominant factor that governs the electrical properties, and its implications in relation to CNT-xGnP interactions and microstructure are elucidated. In addition, samples fabricated near the optimized condition revealed that there exists an optimal CNT : xGnP ratio at which the electrical performance can be maximized. The electrical and mechanical properties of optimal samples suggest that CNT-xGnP hybrid nanocomposites can serve as an alternative material platform for affordable, lightweight bipolar plates.

  3. Influence of Structure of Fe2O3−In2O3 Nanocomposites on the Sensitivity of Thin-Film Sensors on their Base // Mater. Chem. Phys. 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsikau, Dzmitry; Ivanovskaya, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sensing layers based on Fe2O3eIn2O3 nanocomposites with different component ratio and structural features were synthesized by inorganic modification of solegel method. The phase composition and morphology of the composites as a function of the synthesis conditions were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. The gas-sensing parameter...

  4. Modeling and Optimization of NLDH/PVDF Ultrafiltration Nanocomposite Membrane Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi-Oskoui, Samira; Khataee, Alireza; Vatanpour, Vahid

    2017-07-10

    In this research, MgAl-CO32- nanolayered double hydroxide (NLDH) was synthesized through a facile coprecipitation method, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The prepared NLDHs were used as a hydrophilic nanofiller for improving the performance of the PVDF-based ultrafiltration membranes. The main objective of this research was to obtain the optimized formula of NLDH/PVDF nanocomposite membrane presenting the best performance using computational techniques as a cost-effective method. For this aim, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for modeling and expressing the relationship between the performance of the nanocomposite membrane (pure water flux, protein flux and flux recovery ratio) and the affecting parameters including the NLDH, PVP 29000 and polymer concentrations. The effects of the mentioned parameters and the interaction between the parameters were investigated using the contour plot predicted with the developed model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle techniques were applied to characterize the nanocomposite membranes and to interpret the predictions of the ANN model. The developed ANN model was introduced to genetic algorithm (GA) as a bioinspired optimizer to determine the optimum values of input parameters leading to high pure water flux, protein flux, and flux recovery ratio. The optimum values for NLDH, PVP 29000 and the PVDF concentration were determined to be 0.54, 1, and 18 wt %, respectively. The performance of the nanocomposite membrane prepared using the optimum values proposed by GA was investigated experimentally, in which the results were in good agreement with the values predicted by ANN model with error lower than 6%. This good agreement confirmed that the nanocomposite membranes prformance could be successfully modeled and optimized by ANN-GA system.

  5. A hybrid surface modification method on copper wire braids for enhancing thermal performance of ultra-thin heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, W. K.; Lin, H. T.; Wu, C. H.; Kuo, L. S.; Chen, P. H.

    2017-02-01

    Copper is the most widely used material in heat pipe manufacturing. Since the capability of wick structures inside a heat pipe will dominate its thermal performance, in this study, we introduce a hybrid surface modification method on the copper wire braids being inserted as wick structure into an ultra-thin heat pipe. The hybrid method is the combination of a chemical-oxidation-based method and a sol-gel method with nanoparticles being dip-coated onto the braid. The experimental data show that braids under hybrid treatment perform higher water rising speed than the oxidized braids while owning higher water net weight than those braids being only dip-coated with nanoparticle.

  6. Hybrid Nanocomposite Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop an innovative solar cell design that combines nanotechnology with conducting polymer...

  7. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with

  8. Hybrid Perovskite Thin Film Formation: From Lab Scale Spin Coating to Large Area Blade Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2017-11-22

    Our reliance on semiconductors is on the rise with the ever growing use of electronics in our daily life. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as a prime alternative to current standard and expensive semiconductors because of its use of abundant elements and the ease of solution processing. This thesis has shed light on the ink-to-solid conversion during the one-step solution process of hybrid perovskite formulations from DMF. We utilize a suite of in situ diagnostic probes including high speed optical microscopy, optical reflectance and absorbance, and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS), all performed during spin coating, to monitor the solution thinning behavior, changes in optical absorbance, and nucleation and growth of crystalline phases of the precursor and perovskite. The starting formulation experiences solvent-solute interactions within seconds of casting, leading to the formation of a wet gel with nanoscale features visible by in situ GIWAXS. The wet gel subsequently gives way to the formation of ordered precursor solvates (equimolar iodide and chloride solutions) or disordered precursor solvates (equimolar bromide or 3:1 chloride), depending upon the halide and MAI content. The ordered precursor solute phases are stable and retain the solvent for long durations, resulting in consistent conversion behavior to the perovskite phase and solar-cell performance. In this thesis, we develop a firm understanding of the solvent engineering process in which an anti-solvent is used during the coating process through the solvent mixture of GBL and DMSO in different ratios. It has been shown that solvent engineering produce pin hole-free films, justifying its wide adoption across the field. We then translate our learnings from the lab scale spin coating process to the industrial friendly blade coating process. Here we compare the ink solidification and film formation mechanisms of CH3NH3PbI3 in solutions we used to

  9. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Structural Properties of Cu2Se/Polyvinylcarbazole Nanocomposites on the Performance of Hybrid Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Govindraju, S.; Ntholeng, N.; K Ranganathan; M.J. Moloto; L. M. Sikhwivhilu; Moloto, N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been said that substitution of fullerenes with semiconductor nanocrystals in bulk heterojunction solar cells can potentially increase the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of these devices far beyond the 10% mark. However new semiconductor nanocrystals other than the potentially toxic CdSe and PbS are necessary. Herein we report on the synthesis of Cu2Se nanocrystals and their incorporation into polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) to form polymer nanocomposites for use as active layers in hybri...

  11. Solid-State Thin-Film Supercapacitors with Ultrafast Charge/Discharge Based on N-Doped-Carbon-Tubes/Au-Nanoparticles-Doped-MnO2 Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiying; Wang, Shang; Sun, Hongyu; Luo, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Xiao, JunWu; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-13

    Although carbonaceous materials possess long cycle stability and high power density, their low-energy density greatly limits their applications. On the contrary, metal oxides are promising pseudocapacitive electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their high-energy density. Nevertheless, poor electrical conductivity of metal oxides constitutes a primary challenge that significantly limits their energy storage capacity. Here, an advanced integrated electrode for high-performance pseudocapacitors has been designed by growing N-doped-carbon-tubes/Au-nanoparticles-doped-MnO2 (NCTs/ANPDM) nanocomposite on carbon fabric. The excellent electrical conductivity and well-ordered tunnels of NCTs together with Au nanoparticles of the electrode cause low internal resistance, good ionic contact, and thus enhance redox reactions for high specific capacitance of pure MnO2 in aqueous electrolyte, even at high scan rates. A prototype solid-state thin-film symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) device based on NCTs/ANPDM exhibits large energy density (51 Wh/kg) and superior cycling performance (93% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device assembled from NCTs/ANPDM and Fe2O3 nanorods demonstrates ultrafast charge/discharge (10 V/s), which is among the best reported for solid-state thin-film supercapacitors with both electrodes made of metal oxide electroactive materials. Moreover, its superior charge/discharge behavior is comparable to electrical double layer type supercapacitors. The ASC device also shows superior cycling performance (97% after 5000 cycles). The NCTs/ANPDM nanomaterial demonstrates great potential as a power source for energy storage devices.

  12. Photoluminescence and electrochemical properties of transparent CeO{sub 2}-ZnO nanocomposite thin films prepared by Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, Z.K.; Ghodsi, F.E.; Mazloom, J. [University of Guilan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Namjoo Ave, P.O. Box 41335-1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of CeO{sub 2}-ZnO with different molar ratios of Zn/Ce (=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel route. Various spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were applied to investigate the films. XRD patterns of all the samples exhibited the peaks corresponding to cubic fluorite structure of ceria and the (101) and (103) peaks of ZnO with hexagonal structure was just observed in the sample with molar ratio of 1. EDS confirmed the presence of constituent of element in the samples. FESEM images of the films showed a surface composed of nanograins. AFM analysis revealed that root mean square roughness was enhanced as molar ratio of Zn/Ce increased. Moreover, fractal dimension of surfaces were calculated by cube counting approach. Optical measurements indicated that the film with molar ratio of 1 has the highest transmission and lowest reflectivity. The optical band gap values varied between 2.95 and 3.42 eV. The compositional dependence of refractive index and extinction coefficient were reported. The UV and blue emission appeared in PL spectra. The highest photoluminescence emission intensity was observed in the 1:1 molar ratio sample. The cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated the highest charge density (9.75 mC cm{sup -2}) and diffusion coefficient (3.507 x 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) belonged to the Ce/Zn (1:1) thin film. (orig.)

  13. Structure and Bonding in Amorphous Cr1-xCx Nanocomposite Thin Films: X-ray Absorption Spectra and First-Principles Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Olovsson, Weine; Magnuson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The local structure and chemical bonding in two-phase amorphous Cr$_{1-x}$C$_{x}$ nanocomposite thin films are investigated by Cr $K$-edge ($1s$) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies in comparison to theory. By utilizing the computationally efficient \\textit{stochastic quenching} (SQ) technique, we reveal the complexity of different Cr-sites in the transition metal carbides, highlighting the need for large scale averaging to obtain theoretical XANES and EXAFS spectra for comparison with measurements. As shown in this work, it is advantageous to use \\textit{ab initio} theory as an assessment to correctly model and fit experimental spectra and investigate the trends of bond lengths and coordination numbers in complex amorphous materials. With sufficient total carbon content ($\\geq$ 30 at\\%), we find that the short-range coordination in the amorphous carbide phase exhibit similarities to that of a Cr$_{7}$C$_{3\\pm{}y}$ structure, while e...

  14. Wood-Based Nanocomposite Derived by in Situ Formation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymer within Wood via a Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoying; Zhuo, Xiao; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Gang; Li, Yongfeng

    2017-03-15

    Solid wood materials and wood-plastic composites as two kinds of lightweight materials are attracting great interest from academia and industry due to their green and recycling nature. However, the relatively lower specific strength limits their wider applications. In particular, solid wood is vulnerable to moisture and decay fungi in nature, resulting in its poor durability for effectively long-term utilization. Inspired from the porous structure of wood, we propose a new design to build a wood-based nanocomposite with higher specific strength and satisfactory durability by in situ generation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood via a sol-gel method. The derived composite has 50-1200% improvement of impact toughness, 56-192% improvement of tensile strength, and 110-291% improvement of flexural strength over those of typical wood-plastic composites, respectively; and even 34% improvement of specific tensile strength than that of 36A steel; 208% enhancement of hardness; and 156% enhancement of compression strength than those of compared solid wood, respectively; as well as significantly improved dimensional stability and decay resistance over those of untreated natural wood. Such materials could be potentially utilized as lightweight and high-strength materials for applications in construction and automotive industries. This method could be extended to constitute other inorganic nanomaterials for novel organic-inorganic hybrid polymer within wood.

  15. Copper and iron based thin film nanocomposites prepared by radio frequency sputtering. Part I: elaboration and characterization of metal/oxide thin film nanocomposites using controlled in situ reduction process

    OpenAIRE

    Barnabé, Antoine; Chapelle, Audrey; Presmanes, Lionel; Tailhades, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Copper and iron based thin films were prepared on glass substrate by radio-frequency sputtering technique from a delafossite CuFeO2 target. After deposition, the structure and microstructure of the films were examined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and transmission electron microscopy coupled with EDS mapping. Target to substrate distance and sputtering gas pressure were varied to obtain films having different amount and distributi...

  16. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeradasan Perumal

    Full Text Available The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm. The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002. When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm. In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.

  17. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Haarindraprasad, R.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P.; Balakrishnan, S. R.; Thivina, V.; Ruslinda, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5–10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications. PMID:26694656

  18. Thickness Dependent Nanostructural, Morphological, Optical and Impedometric Analyses of Zinc Oxide-Gold Hybrids: Nanoparticle to Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Veeradasan; Hashim, Uda; Gopinath, Subash C B; Haarindraprasad, R; Liu, Wei-Wen; Poopalan, P; Balakrishnan, S R; Thivina, V; Ruslinda, A R

    2015-01-01

    The creation of an appropriate thin film is important for the development of novel sensing surfaces, which will ultimately enhance the properties and output of high-performance sensors. In this study, we have fabricated and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon substrates, which were hybridized with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain ZnO-Aux (x = 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm) hybrid structures with different thicknesses. Nanoscale imaging by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed increasing film uniformity and coverage with the Au deposition thickness. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the AuNPs exhibit an increasing average diameter (5-10 nm). The face center cubic Au were found to co-exist with wurtzite ZnO nanostructure. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed that as the Au content increased, the overall crystallite size increased, which was supported by X-ray diffraction measurements. The structural characterizations indicated that the Au on the ZnO crystal lattice exists without any impurities in a preferred orientation (002). When the ZnO thickness increased from 10 to 40 nm, transmittance and an optical bandgap value decreased. Interestingly, with 50 nm thickness, the band gap value was increased, which might be due to the Burstein-Moss effect. Photoluminescence studies revealed that the overall structural defect (green emission) improved significantly as the Au deposition increased. The impedance measurements shows a decreasing value of impedance arc with increasing Au thicknesses (0 to 40 nm). In contrast, the 50 nm AuNP impedance arc shows an increased value compared to lower sputtering thicknesses, which indicated the presence of larger sized AuNPs that form a continuous film, and its ohmic characteristics changed to rectifying characteristics. This improved hybrid thin film (ZnO/Au) is suitable for a wide range of sensing applications.

  19. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles and MoO3 thin films grown on carbon fiber cloth for efficient flexible hybrid supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ke; Song, Bin; Li, Kang; Zhang, Jintao; Ma, Houyi

    2017-12-01

    For the wearable and flexible applications, solid-state supercapacitors have been attracted significant attention owing to their unique features. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of a high-energy solid-state hybrid supercapacitor by using cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles and molybdenum oxide thin films grown on the flexible carbon fiber cloth. The flexible hybrid supercapacitor using a neutral gel electrolyte can be operated in a stable potential window of 2.0 V and delivers a maximal energy density of 67.8 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 1003 W kg-1, outstanding reliability without capacitance degradation under various twisting rates, and remarkable cycling stability retaining 74% of initial capacitance after 10000 cycles.

  20. Polyimide Nanocomposites Prepared from High-Temperature, Reduced Charge Organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, D. M.; Orwoll, R. A.; Cahoon, J. F.; Ladislaw, J. S.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite clays modified with the dihydrochloride salt of 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene (APB) were used in the preparation of polyimide/organoclay hybrid films. Organoclays with varying surface charge based upon APB were prepared and examined for their dispersion behavior in the polymer matrix. High molecular weight poly(amide acid) solutions were prepared in the presence of the organoclays. Films were cast and subsequently heated to 300C to cause imidization. The resulting nanocomposite films, containing 3 wt% of organoclay, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The clay's cation exchange capacity (CEC) played a key role in determining the extent of dispersion in the polyimide matrix. Considerable dispersion was observed in some of the nanocomposite films. The most effective organoclay was found to have a CEC of 0.70 meq/g. Nanocomposite films prepared with 3-8 wt% of this organoclay were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thin-film tensile testing. High levels of clay dispersion could be achieved even at the higher clay loadings. Results from mechanical testing revealed that while the moduli of the nanocomposites increased with increasing clay loadings, both strength and elongation decreased.

  1. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2-CNTs Hybrid Nanocomposites with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuisheng; Dai, Weili

    2017-03-03

    SnO2 nanoparticles coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared via a simple microwave-hydrothermal route. The as-obtained SnO2-CNTs composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2-CNTs for degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2-CNTs nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 due to the rapid transferring of electrons and the effective separation of holes and electrons on SnO2-CNTs.

  2. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  3. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  4. Ru-N-C Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ammonia Dehydrogenation: Influence of N-doping on Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Bich Hien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For application to ammonia dehydrogenation, novel Ru-based heterogeneous catalysts, Ru-N-C and Ru-C, were synthesized via simple pyrolysis of a mixture of RuCl3·6H2O and carbon black with or without dicyandiamide as a nitrogen-containing precursor at 550 °C. Characterization of the prepared Ru-N-C and Ru-C catalysts via scanning transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated the formation of hollow nanocomposites in which the average sizes of the Ru nanoparticles were 1.3 nm and 5.1 nm, respectively. Compared to Ru-C, the Ru-N-C nanocomposites not only proved to be highly active for ammonia dehydrogenation, giving rise to a NH3 conversion of >99% at 550 °C, but also exhibited high durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the Ru active sites in Ru-N-C were electronically perturbed by the incorporated nitrogen atoms, which increased the Ru electron density and ultimately enhanced the catalyst activity.

  5. Manipulation of MWCNT Concentration in MWCNT/TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC using multiwalled carbon nanotube/titanium dioxide (MWCNT/TiO2 was successfully synthesized using sol-gel method. In this method, it has been performed under various acid treatments MWCNT concentration level at (a 0.00 g, (b 0.01 g, (c 0.02 g, and (d 0.03 g. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to study surface roughness of the MWCNT/TiO2 thin films. The average roughness results for 0.00 g, 0.01 g, 0.02 g, and 0.03 g were 10.995, 18.308, 24.322, and 25.723 nm, respectively. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM analysis showned the inner structural design of the MWCNT/TiO2 particles. The TiO2 nanoparticles covered almost all the area of MWCNT particles. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM gave the morphological surface structure of the thin films. The thin films formed in good distribution with homogenous design. The DSSC with MWCNT/TiO2 electrode containing 0.03 g MWCNT were resulted in the highest efficiency of 2.80% with short-circuit current density Jsc of 9.42 mA/cm2 and open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.65 V.

  6. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    and X-ray diffraction and physico-mechanical properties. Due to polarity match, hydrophilic unmodified montmorillonite clay showed enhanced properties in resulting fluoroelastomer nanocomposites, while hydro- phobic organo-clay showed best results in SEBS nanocomposites. Keywords. Nanocomposites; nanoclays ...

  7. Solid-state densification of spun-cast self-assembled monolayers for use in ultra-thin hybrid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, Daniel O.; Acton, Orb [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weidner, Tobias [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cernetic, Nathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Baio, Joe E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Castner, David G. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ma, Hong, E-mail: hma@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y., E-mail: ajen@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid processing of SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric is obtained utilizing a single wet processing step. - Abstract: Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO{sub x} (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} and capacitance density of 0.62 {mu}F cm{sup -2} at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to

  8. Water and oil wettability of hybrid organic-inorganic titanate-silicate thin films deposited via a sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmard, M.; Vasconcelos, D. C. L.; Vasconcelos, W. L.; Berthomé, G.; Joud, J. C.; Langlet, M.

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic titanate-silicate thin films were deposited on silicium wafer via a sol-gel route. Hybrid sols were formulated by mixing an inorganic titanium alkoxide solution with solutions of hybrid organic-inorganic silicon alkoxides partially substituted with non-hydrolysable alkyl chains. Three organo-silicate precursors were used to introduce methyl, octyl, or hexadecyl chains in the oxide network. Physico-chemical and morphological properties of derived hybrid films have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy. Contact angle measurements have also been performed to assess the water and mineral oil wettability of hybrid films. Wettability properties of these films are discussed with respect to physico-chemical and morphological features. It is shown that increasing the fraction and length of alkyl chains in the oxide network conjointly increases water and oil contact angles measured on such hybrid films.

  9. Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide hybrids used as long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyao; Xu, Ruoyu; Ling, Min; He, Guanjie

    2017-10-01

    We report a facile thermal decomposition approach to synthesize Ag-Ag2S/reduced graphene oxide (Ag-Ag2S/rGO), the Ag-Ag2S nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide with diameters of 10-20 nm. The photoluminescence spectra of Ag-Ag2S/rGO showed two obvious emission peaks at 327 and 339 nm with the excitation wavelength at 287 nm. Compared with Ag-Ag2S heterostructured clusters with two peaks at 407 and 430 nm, it showed a big blue shift and higher intensity, which makes it a novel candidate for long-wave UV radiation emitting nanocomposite.

  10. Thin Polymer Films Containing Carbon Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, S.; Piesowicz, E.; Irska, I.; Roslaniec, Z.; Szymczyk, A.; Pawelec, I.

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the presented paper, the research experiments were conducted on the preparation and characterization of polymer thin films containing carbon nanotubes, graphene derivatives and hybrid systems of both CNTs/graphene derivatives, in which condensation polymers constituted the matrix. The use of in situ synthesis allowed to obtain nanocomposites with a high degree of homogeneity, which is a key issue for further industrial applications, while the analysis of the physical properties of the obtained materials showed effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphene derivatives on their structure, barrier properties and thermal and electrical conductivity.

  11. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanju, E-mail: sanju.gupta@wku.edu; Price, Carson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  12. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x)SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films: Structure, optical and antireflection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermadi, S., E-mail: kermadisalim@yahoo.fr [CRTSE—Division DDCS, 02 Bd Dr. Frantz Fanon BP, 140, les 07 merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Agoudjil, N. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Physico-Chemistry of Materials and Environment, USTHB, BO Box 32 El Alia, 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Sali, S.; Boumaour, M. [CRTSE—Division DDCS, 02 Bd Dr. Frantz Fanon BP, 140, les 07 merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Bourgeois, S.; Marco de Lucas, M.C. [Interdisciplinary Laboratory Carnot of Bourgogne, University of Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, PO Box 47 870, F-21078 Dijon (France)

    2014-08-01

    Sol-gel xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x)SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with x = 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mol % were dip-coated on glass and silicon substrates. The influence of the composition on structure, morphology and optical properties was studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, monochromatic ellipsometry at λ = 632.8 nm and ultraviolet–visible absorbance spectroscopy. The optical properties were discussed on the basis of the microstructure. After annealing at 500 °C, results showed high pure materials, homogenous crack-free surfaces with good adherence and high optical qualities. The 100% TiO{sub 2} crystallizes in the anatase phase and exhibits nanograins of 6 to 10 nm in size. However, all the other compositions are amorphous with comparable grains around 4 nm in size. The averaged transmittance decreases with increasing the TiO{sub 2} content but remains higher than 90%. Whatever the composition, the coating thickness increases linearly as the withdrawal speed increases from 10 to 54 mm/minute. The relationship between refractive index and composition was analyzed by fitting the experimental data to different theoretical models for the refractive index of mixed films. Results showed that depending on the withdrawal speed, the data can properly fit either the Drude or the linear models. Thus, the film thickness can be adjusted by the control of the withdrawal speed. However, the control of the composition allows easily the tuning of the refractive index from 1.48 to 2.18 at λ = 632.8 nm to achieve optimum anti-reflection characteristics. Different anti-reflection designs of both single and double layers were experimentally examined. Gains (assigned to the reduction of reflection losses) up to 54 and 63% were predicted with 75% TiO{sub 2} single-coating and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} double-coatings respectively. - Highlights: • Stable sol for dip-coating xTiO{sub 2}(100 − x

  14. Enhanced performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on Au-TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 plasmonic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Huili; Fan, Jiajie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Jing; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Novel double-layer films were prepared and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles as a bonding underlayer and noble metal (Au and Ag) nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires (NW) incorporated to hybrid TiO2 composites, consisting of 3 dimensional (3D) hierarchical microspheres, 3D hollow spheres, 2 dimensional (2D) nanosheets and commercial P25 nanoparticles, as multifunctional light scattering overlayer. The influence of Au NP, Ag NP, Au NW, and Ag NW on of microstructures of the film electrodes and the photovoltaic (PV) performances of DSSCs was investigated. The result revealed that the ranges and intensity of sunlight absorption, the photo capture ability for dye molecules of the hybrid nanocomposite film electrodes, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the cells were all significantly enhanced due to the plasmonic effect of the noble metal nanostructures. All composite DSSCs with noble metal nanostructures have higher PCE than the pure TiO2 solar cell. This is attributed the improved electron transport of the noble metal nanostructures, and the improvement of light absorption because of their local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. Under optical conditions, a PCE of 5.74% was obtained in the TiO2-AgNW DSSC, representing a 25.3% enhancement compared to a reference solar cell based on pure TiO2 film (4.58%). The main reason of the advancement is the improved electron transport of AgNW, the light absorption enhancement on account of the LSPR effect of AgNW, and increased light scattering due to the incorporation of the large one dimensional AgNWs within the photo-anode.

  15. Self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell particulate nanocomposites through DNA-DNA hybridization and magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapudi Sreenivasulu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are of importance for studies on mechanical strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric subsystems. This work is on DNA-assisted self-assembly of superstructures of such composites with nanometer periodicity. The synthesis involved oligomeric DNA-functionalized ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles, 600 nm BaTiO3 (BTO and 200 nm NiFe2O4 (NFO, respectively. Mixing BTO and NFO particles, possessing complementary DNA sequences, resulted in the formation of ordered core-shell heteronanocomposites held together by DNA hybridization. The composites were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy. The presence of heteroassemblies along with core-shell architecture is clearly observed. The reversible nature of the DNA hybridization allows for restructuring the composites into mm-long linear chains and 2D-arrays in the presence of a static magnetic field and ring-like structures in a rotating-magnetic field. Strong magneto-electric (ME coupling in as-assembled composites is evident from static magnetic field H induced polarization and low-frequency magnetoelectric voltage coefficient measurements. Upon annealing the nanocomposites at high temperatures, evidence for the formation of bulk composites with excellent cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems is obtained by H-induced polarization and low-frequency ME voltage coefficient. The ME coupling strength in the self-assembled composites is measured to be much stronger than in bulk composites with randomly distributed NFO and BTO prepared by direct mixing and sintering.

  16. A highly sensitive NADH sensor based on a mycelium-like nanocomposite using graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes to co-immobilize poly(luminol) and poly(neutral red) hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Lin, Kuo; Yu Lai, Szu; Ming Chen, Shen

    2014-08-21

    Hybridization of poly(luminol) (PLM) and poly(neutral red) (PNR) has been successfully performed and further enhanced by a conductive and steric hybrid nanotemplate using graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The morphology of the PLM-PNR-MWCNT-GO mycelium-like nanocomposite is studied by SEM and AFM and it is found to be electroactive, pH-dependent, and stable in the electrochemical system. It shows electrocatalytic activity towards NADH with a high current response and low overpotential. Using amperometry, it has been shown to have a high sensitivity of 288.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to NADH (Eapp. = +0.1 V). Linearity is estimated in a concentration range of 1.33 × 10(-8) to 1.95 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.33 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Particularly, it also shows another linear range of 2.08 × 10(-4) to 5.81 × 10(-4) M with a sensitivity of 151.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The hybridization and activity of PLM and PNR can be effectively enhanced by MWCNTs and GO, resulting in an active hybrid nanocomposite for determination of NADH.

  17. Enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer based hybrid nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization via synergy effect between SWCNTs and graphene nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paszkiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoplatelets/single walled carbon nanotubes/poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide segmented copolymer (GNP/SWCNT/PTT-PTMO hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ polymerization. A remarkable synergistic effect between GNPs and SWCNTs on improving thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites based on segmented block copolymers was observed. Heterogeneous structure of the PTT-PTMO allowed for a better and more uniform distribution of both types of nanoparticles and stabilized the structure in question. This enabled us to observe a so-called ‘synergistic effect’, caused by the use of mixture of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanopletelets, on the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the obtained polymer. In order to ascertain the influence of mentioned carbon nanostructures on the nano-phase-separated structure of the synthesized PTT-PTMO block copolymers, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermoanalysis (DMTA measurements were performed. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM images of the PTTPTMO nanocomposites displayed that hybrid nanofillers exhibited better distribution and compatibility than SWCNTs and GNPs did individually. The tensile modulus of 0.5SWCNT/0.1GNP/PTT-PTMO composites was 68% higher than that of the PTT-PTMO alone, compared to only a 10 and 28% increase in tensile modulus for 0.3GNP/PTT-PTMO and 0.3SWCNT/PTT-PTMO composites respectively (the highest concentration when single nanofiller was added.

  18. Chitosan-doped-hybrid/TiO2 nanocomposite based sol-gel coating for the corrosion resistance of aluminum metal in 3.5% NaCl medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Balaji; M G, Sethuraman

    2017-11-01

    The study outlines the role of chitosan, a biopolymer on corrosion behavior of Hy/nano-TiO2 based sol-gel coating over aluminum metal. In this study organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIP) in acidic solution. Chitosan was doped into sol-gel matrix and self-assembled over aluminum substrate. The resultant chitosan-doped-Hy/nano-TiO2 sol-gel coating was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The as-tailored aluminum substrate was evaluated for corrosion resistance in neutral medium. The protection ability of these coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) measurements in 3.5% NaCl medium. The EIS and PP results showed that chitosan-doped- Hy/nano-TiO2 sol-gel coating exhibited better protection from corrosion than the undoped Hy/TiO2 nanocomposite coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  20. Mechanical and electrical properties of novel poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube/inorganic fullerene-like WS{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposites: Experimental measurements and theoretical predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Pascual, Ana M. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Naffakh, Mohammed, E-mail: mnaffakh@ictp.csic.es [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Fatou, Marian A. [Department of Physics and Engineering, Institute of Polymer Science and Technology, CSIC, Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} The mechanical properties of PEEK based hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed. {center_dot} The composites showed improved stiffness and strength than the neat polymer. {center_dot} Their Young's modulus was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models. {center_dot} The hybrids with high SWCNT content exhibited semiconducting behaviour. {center_dot} These multifunctional materials are suitable for industrial applications. - Abstract: The mechanical and electrical properties of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) based hybrid nanocomposites incorporating single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been extensively investigated from both experimental and theoretical point of views. Dynamic mechanical studies revealed a remarkable increase in the storage modulus and glass transition temperature of the matrix by the inclusion of both nanofillers. Moreover, tensile and flexural tests indicated significant enhancements in stiffness and strength, attributed to synergistic reinforcement effects combined with strong PEEK-SWCNT interfacial interactions. The Young's modulus of these nanocomposites was fairly well predicted by simple theoretical models such as the rule of mixtures. The hybrids with SWCNT content equal or higher than 0.5 wt% exhibited semiconducting behaviour and the temperature dependence of their electrical conductivity followed a fluctuation-induced tunnelling model. Enhanced overall performance was found for composites prepared by a single-step melt-blending process compared to those manufactured in two stages. The addition of both nanoreinforcements opens up new opportunities for the development of high-performance multifunctional materials suitable for industrial applications.

  1. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Méndez-García, Celia; Kim, Chang-H; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Zimmerman, Sabrina; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cann, Isaac K; Mackie, Roderick I

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35-37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15-21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, we found

  2. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.

    2016-06-06

    Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35–37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15–21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Conclusions Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

  3. A quantum hybrid with a thin antenna at the vertex of a wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.carlone@unina.it [Università “Federico II” di Napoli, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni “R. Caccioppoli”, MSA, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Posilicano, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.posilicano@uninsubria.it [DiSAT, Università dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100, Como (Italy)

    2017-03-26

    We study the spectrum, resonances and scattering matrix of a quantum Hamiltonian on a “hybrid surface” consisting of a half-line attached by its endpoint to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. At the boundary of the wedge, outside the vertex, homogeneous Dirichlet conditions are imposed. The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. - Highlights: • Spectral characterization of a quantum Hamiltonian on “hybrid surface” consisting of a halfline attached to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. • The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. • Relation between the conduction properties inside the hybrid and formation of resonances. • Easy generalization of the results to more complicated structures.

  4. Correlation between composition, morphology and optical properties of PVK: n-ZnO:CTAB thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Samir; Belhaj, Marwa; Zargouni, Sarra; Dridi, Cherif

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we report on the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles ( n-ZnO) content and surfactant addition on the performance of poly ( N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): n-ZnO nanocomposite thin films. Morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PVK and PVK: n-ZnO:cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) hybrid films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We noticed that surface morphology was very dependent on surfactant addition into inorganic and organic components and on the ZnO content in the mixture. The optical absorption spectra of PVK: n-ZnO thin films showed a red shift of the optical band gap energy. Besides, PL measurements demonstrated an interfacial charge transfer between PVK matrix and ZnO nanoparticles through the reduced PL intensity of nanocomposites compared to PVK thin films.

  5. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The methylmethacrylate (MMA) incorporated SiO2 thin films having low dielectric constant ( = 2.97) were deposited successfully to realize new interlayer material for the enhancement of electrical performance of on-chip wiring in very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. We have successfully incorporated MMA monomer ...

  6. Quasi-analytical solutions of hybrid platform and the optimization of highly sensitive thin-film sensors for terahertz radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tapsanit, Piyawath; Ishihara, Teruya; Otani, Chiko

    2016-01-01

    We present quasi-analytical solutions (QANS) of hybrid platform (HP) comprising metallic grating (MG) and stacked-dielectric layers for terahertz (THz) radiation. The QANS are validated by finite difference time domain simulation. It is found that the Wood anomalies induce the high-order spoof surface plasmon resonances in the HP. The QANS are applied to optimize new perfect absorber for THz sensing of large-area thin film with ultrahigh figure of merit reaching fifth order of magnitude for the film thickness 0.0001p (p: MG period). The first-order Wood's anomaly of the insulator layer and the Fabry-Perot in the slit's cavity account for the resonance of the perfect absorber. The QANS and the new perfect absorber may lead to highly sensitive and practical nano-film refractive index sensor for THz radiation.

  7. 30.1 8b thin-film microprocessor using a hybrid oxide-organic complementary technology with inkjet-printed P2ROM memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Smout, S.; Rockelé, M.; Bhoolokam, A.; Ke, T.H.; Steudel, S.; Obata, K.; Marinkovic, M.; Pham, D.V.; Hoppe, A.; Gulati, A.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Cobb, B.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an 8b general-purpose microprocessor realized in a hybrid oxide-organic complementary thin-film technology. The n-type transistors are based on a solution-processed n-type metal-oxide semiconductor, and the p-type transistors use an organic semiconductor. As compared to previous work

  8. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  9. The study of structural properties of carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles and application of nano-composite thin film as H₂S gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, R; Rashidi, Ali M; Alaie, M; Mohammadzadeh, R; Izadi, N

    2014-11-01

    Nano-composite of multiwall carbon nanotube, decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-MWCNT), was synthesized using the sol-gel method. NiFe2O4-MWCNTs were characterized using different methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of the crystallites is 23.93 nm. The values of the saturation magnetization (MS), coercivity (HC) and retentivity (MR) of NiFe2O4-MWCNTs are obtained as 15 emu g(-1), 21Oe and 5 emu g(-1), respectively. In this research, NiFe2O4-MWCNT thin films were prepared with the spin-coating method. These thin films were used as the H2S gas sensor. The results suggest the possibility of the utilization of NiFe2O4-MWCNT nano-composite, as the H2S detector. The sensor shows appropriate response towards 100 ppm of H2S at 300°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid thin-film solar cells comprising mesoporous titanium dioxide and conjugated polymers; Hybride Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus mesoporoesem Titandioxid und konjugierten Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schattauer, Sylvia

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the active components and their interactions in so called organic hybrid solar cells. These consist of a thin inorganic titanium dioxide layer, combined with a polymer layer. In general, the efficiency of these hybrid solar cells is determined by the light absorption in the donor polymer, the dissociation of excitons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and polymer, as well as the generation and extraction of free charge carriers. To optimize the solar cells, the physical interactions between the materials are modified and the influences of various preparation parameters are systematically investigated. Among others, important findings regarding the optimal use of materials and preparation conditions as well as detailed investigations of fundamental factors such as film morphology and polymer infiltration are presented in more detail. First, a variety of titanium dioxide layer were produced, from which a selection for use in hybrid solar cells was made. The obtained films show differences in surface structure, film morphology and crystallinity, depending on the way how the TiO{sub 2} layer has been prepared. All these properties of the TiO{sub 2} films may strongly affect the performance of the hybrid solar cells, by influencing e.g. the exciton diffusion length, the efficiency of exciton dissociation at the hybrid interface, and the carrier transport properties. Detailed investigations were made for mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer following a new nanoparticle synthesis route, which allows to produce crystalline particles during the synthesis. As donor component, conjugated polymers, either derivatives of cyclohexylamino-poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) or a thiophene are used. The preparation routine also includes a thermal treatment of the TiO{sub 2} layers, revealing a temperature-dependent change in morphology, but not of the crystal structure. The effects on the solar cell properties have been documented and

  11. Low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on solution-processed hybrid dielectrics: theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qiutan; Wu, Qian; Liang, Lijuan; Pei, Yanli; Lu, Xubing; Li, Minmin; Huang, Kairong; Liu, Xuying; Liu, Chuan

    2017-10-01

    In organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), using high-k dielectrics could increase the accumulated carrier numbers at low operation voltage (i.e. the bulk effect), but may induce extra dipolar disorders to affect the electronic states in organic semiconductors (i.e. the interfacial effect). The two effects are considered together to model charge transport in OTFTs and to give quantitative calculations of the impacts from using high-k dielectrics or hybrid dielectrics, especially the relations between mobility and Fermi-energy, carrier concentrations, or gate-voltage. In experimental studies, zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) are fabricated by solution process for high-k dielectrics. The oxide insulating films are modified by low-k polymer layers and the resulting OTFTs show low operation voltage and high performance in ambient test. The highest mobility reaches 2.38 cm2 V-1 s-1 for ZrO2 based OTFT and 3.56 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Y2O3 based OTFT, and the on/off ratio is 1.4 × 104 for ZrO2 devices and 5.4 × 104 for Y2O3 devices. In general, the trends of experimentally measured mobility are consistent with the theoretical calculations, showing the high-k/low-k hybrid dielectrics mainly improve the carrier mobility in the regime of low carrier density.

  12. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200 nm)/i-Si(450 nm)/n-Si(200 nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  13. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  14. A Hybrid Kinetic Model of Asymmetric Thin Current Sheets with Sheared Flows in a Collisionless Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    different regimes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Asymmetric Collisionless Current Sheet Solar Wind Theory Reconnection Hybrid Simulation 16. SECllRITY...Pritchett, 2008]. Cas.sak and Shay [2007] provided a theory and simulation of asymmetric reconnection in the MHD regime. Malova et al. [2007] proposed a...z are aligned with those of the usual Geocentric Sun- Earth (aSE) coordinates. In this frame, +x points from the Earth to the Sun, +y points out of

  15. Photocatalytic removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by magnetically separable flower-like BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 hybrid nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengwang; Guo, Changsheng; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Wang, Qiang; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Jianfeng; Meng, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2017-06-05

    A novel flower-like three-dimensional BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized using a simple in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The hybrid composites were characterized by a couple of techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, photoluminescence technique, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were perfectly loaded on the surface of BiOBr/BiOI microspheres. The recyclable magnetic BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 was employed to degrade TBBPA under visible light irradiation. The optimal removal efficiency of the ternary BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 (2:2:0.5) nanocomposite reached up to 98.5% for TBBPA in aqueous solution. The superior photocatalytic activity of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 was mainly ascribed to large surface area and appropriate energy gaps, resulting in the effective adsorption and separation of electrons-hole pairs. The photogenerated reactive species determined by free radicals trapping experiments revealed that the excellent catalytic activity was primarily driven by O2(-) radical. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics and a detailed mechanism were also proposed. Result demonstrated that the BiOBr/BiOI/Fe3O4 can be magnetically recycled, and maintain high photocatalytic activity after reuse over five cycles. It suggested that the synthesized material had a potentially promising application for TBBPA removal by photocatalytic degradation from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomineralization-Inspired Preparation of Zinc Hydroxide Carbonate/Polymer Hybrids and Their Conversion into Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shunichi; Horiguchi, Yoshimasa; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Kato, Takashi

    2016-05-17

    The development of ZnO thin films has been achieved through the conversion of zinc hydroxide carbonate thin-film crystals. Crystallization of this compound is induced by a biomineralization-inspired method with polymer-stabilized amorphous precursors. The crystals grow radially on polymer matrices, leading to the formation of zinc hydroxide carbonate/polymer thin-film hybrids that fully cover the substrate. These hybrids are converted into ZnO and retain their thin-film morphologies. The resultant ZnO thin films exhibit a preferential crystallographic orientation that is attributed to the alignment of zinc hydroxide carbonate crystals before conversion. In addition, a photocatalytic function of the ZnO thin films has been demonstrated by analyzing the oxidation reaction of 2-propanol. The biomineralization-inspired approach reported herein is a promising way to develop ZnO materials with controlled morphologies and structures for photocatalytic applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hybrid phosphorene/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for Na-ion batteries: a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linxia; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Wei; Gu, Xiao; Huang, Li

    2017-04-01

    The potential application of the hybrid phosphorene/graphene (P/G) composites as an anode material in Na-ion batteries (NIBs) has been explored based on first-principles calculations. The calculated elastic constants reveal that the P/G has an ultrahigh stiffness, which can effectively suppress the undesirable structural deformation during the sodiation and desodiation cycles. Na atoms can strongly bind with the phosphorene single-layer (SP), double-layer (DP), and their composites with graphene (SP/G, DP/G, G/DP/G), and can even cause a sliding between the layers when the DP/G accommodate more Na atoms. The migration of Na in P/G is anisotropic with the minimum energy path along the zigzag channel. The low diffusion barriers of only about several tens of meV ensure the high mobility of Na within the layers, and thus lead to rapid charge/discharge capacity of P/G. The electronic structures show that the hybrid P/G becomes metallic with the Na incorporation, which contributes to the good electric conductivity in P/G. We further demonstrate that the average open circuit voltage (OCV) of DP/G is 0.53 V, which is comparable to other anode materials. These results suggest that P/G composites hold great potential to be a good anode material in NIBs.

  18. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  19. Synthesis of co-polymer-grafted gum karaya and silica hybrid organic–inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite for the highly effective removal of methylene blue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available characterizations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission and scanning electron microscopies supported the formation of the grafted hydrogel polymer of GK and the SiO(sub2)-containing nanocomposite. The Brunauer...

  20. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  1. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-07-01

    Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 104 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 103 and 1.4 × 103, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 104 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  2. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  3. Strained hybrid perovskite thin films and their impact on the intrinsic stability of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Deng, Yehao; Wei, Haotong; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Yu, Zhenhua; Shao, Yuchuan; Shield, Jeffrey E; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-11-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP) solar cells have achieved comparable efficiencies to those of commercial solar cells, although their instability hinders their commercialization. Although encapsulation techniques have been developed to protect OIHP solar cells from external stimuli such as moisture, oxygen, and ultraviolet light, understanding of the origin of the intrinsic instability of perovskite films is needed to improve their stability. We show that the OIHP films fabricated by existing methods are strained and that strain is caused by mismatched thermal expansion of perovskite films and substrates during the thermal annealing process. The polycrystalline films have compressive strain in the out-of-plane direction and in-plane tensile strain. The strain accelerates degradation of perovskite films under illumination, which can be explained by increased ion migration in strained OIHP films. This study points out an avenue to enhance the intrinsic stability of perovskite films and solar cells by reducing residual strain in perovskite films.

  4. Strained hybrid perovskite thin films and their impact on the intrinsic stability of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Deng, Yehao; Wei, Haotong; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Yu, Zhenhua; Shao, Yuchuan; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Huang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP) solar cells have achieved comparable efficiencies to those of commercial solar cells, although their instability hinders their commercialization. Although encapsulation techniques have been developed to protect OIHP solar cells from external stimuli such as moisture, oxygen, and ultraviolet light, understanding of the origin of the intrinsic instability of perovskite films is needed to improve their stability. We show that the OIHP films fabricated by existing methods are strained and that strain is caused by mismatched thermal expansion of perovskite films and substrates during the thermal annealing process. The polycrystalline films have compressive strain in the out-of-plane direction and in-plane tensile strain. The strain accelerates degradation of perovskite films under illumination, which can be explained by increased ion migration in strained OIHP films. This study points out an avenue to enhance the intrinsic stability of perovskite films and solar cells by reducing residual strain in perovskite films. PMID:29159287

  5. Solar absorption and thermal emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films synthesized by sol-gel process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available phonons of NiO, and the D and G bands of the MWCNTs. Red and blue shifts of the NiO phonons and the MWCNT phonons suggested that the vibrational properties of both materials were changed to form new nanocomposite vibrational properties. Despite unoptimized...

  6. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Thin-Film Solar Cells: A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Space Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Dickman, John E.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Anctil, Annick; DiLeo, Roberta; Jin, Michael H.-C.; Lee, Chung-Young; hide

    2007-01-01

    The development of hybrid inorganic/organic thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified, durable substrates provides an attractive solution for fabricating solar arrays with high mass specific power (W/kg). Next generation thin-film technologies may well involve a revolutionary change in materials to organic-based devices. The high-volume, low-cost fabrication potential of organic cells will allow for square miles of solar cell production at one-tenth the cost of conventional inorganic materials. Plastic solar cells take a minimum of storage space and can be inflated or unrolled for deployment. We will explore a cross-section of in-house and sponsored research efforts that aim to provide new hybrid technologies that include both inorganic and polymer materials as active and substrate materials. Research at University of Texas at Arlington focuses on the fabrication and use of poly(isothianaphthene-3,6-diyl) in solar cells. We describe efforts at Norfolk State University to design, synthesize and characterize block copolymers. A collaborative team between EIC Laboratories, Inc. and the University of Florida is investigating multijunction polymer solar cells to more effectively utilize solar radiation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) group has undertaken a thermal analysis of potential metallized substrates as well as production of nanoparticles of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 in good yield at moderate temperatures via decomposition of single-source precursors. Finally, preliminary work at the Rochester Institute of Technology (R.I.T.) to assess the impact on performance of solar cells of temperature and carbon nanotubes is reported. Technologies that must be developed to enable ultra-lightweight solar arrays include: monolithic interconnects, lightweight array structures, and new ultra-light support and deployment mechanisms. For NASA applications, any solar cell or array technology must not only meet

  7. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese space agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission returned the first particulate samples (typically conductive paint, and the entire assembly coated with approx. 40nm of carbon to eliminate sample charging during FIB work. A protective carbon cap is placed according to the plan for the 15 FIB sections. The central 'spine' of the cap runs perpendicular to the front of the sample, and the 'ribs' protruding from either side run parallel. Each rib indicates the location of a planned FIB section, and the spine contains the final two planned sections. We use a cap with a 4 micron-wide spine and 2micron-wide ribs that have ?3.5 micron of space between them (narrower cuts result in too much re-deposition of material inside the trenches). Using a 30kV, 3nA ion-beam we expose the front surface of the grain and commence milling trenches between sections. Rather than using the typical C-cut to prepare the sample for lift-out, an L-cut is used instead, leaving the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  8. Effect of hydrolysed cellulose nanowhiskers on properties of montmorillonite/polylactic acid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Haafiz, M K M; Zakaria, Zainoha; Islam, Md Saiful

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites reinforced with hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers [MMT/CNW(SO4)] were prepared by solution casting. The CNW(SO4) nanofiller was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose using acid hydrolysis treatment. PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of various amounts of CNW(SO4) [1-9 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr)] into PLA/MMT nanocomposite at 5 phr MMT content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported previously. The biodegradability, thermal, tensile, morphological, water absorption and transparency properties of PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The Biodegradability, thermal stability and crystallinity of hybrid nanocomposites increased compared to PLA/MMT nanocomposite and neat PLA. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained by incorporating 1 phr CNW(SO4) [∼ 36 MPa]. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 87% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW(SO4) content. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of nanofillers in the hybrid nanocomposites, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of some polar interactions. In addition, water resistance of the hybrid nanocomposites improved and the visual transparency of neat PLA film did not affect by addition of CNW(SO4). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly Thermal Conductive Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Ping (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Veca, Lucia Monica (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are methods for forming carbon-based fillers as may be utilized in forming highly thermal conductive nanocomposite materials. Formation methods include treatment of an expanded graphite with an alcohol/water mixture followed by further exfoliation of the graphite to form extremely thin carbon nanosheets that are on the order of between about 2 and about 10 nanometers in thickness. Disclosed carbon nanosheets can be functionalized and/or can be incorporated in nanocomposites with extremely high thermal conductivities. Disclosed methods and materials can prove highly valuable in many technological applications including, for instance, in formation of heat management materials for protective clothing and as may be useful in space exploration or in others that require efficient yet light-weight and flexible thermal management solutions.

  10. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  11. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  12. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  13. Three-Dimensional pH Mapping within Model Hybrid Xerogel Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destino, Joel F; Craft, Andrew K; Bright, Frank V

    2017-05-02

    When xerogel films derived from carboxyethylsilanetriol (COE) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8), and TEOS are formed on Al2O3 they exhibit chemically segregated domains with unique chemistries and topographies. These characteristics are important for marine antifouling. By using the ratiometric fluorescent probe 5 (and 6)-carboxy SNARF-1 (C.SNARF-1) in concert with confocal fluorescence microscopy, we determine the pH in three dimensions within these hybrid films. For the COE/TEOS film, 4-5 μm diameter dendritically shaped features form, and they extend ∼100 nm above the film base. These dendritic features are acidic (pH 7) in comparison to the film base and are columnar in shape, extending without change in diameter throughout the entire film. From the solution-film interface the planes located within the first 3/4 of the film exhibit basic surface areas that are equivalent to the average APTES mole fraction used to create the film. However, as one approaches the film-Al2O3 interface, many new 100-200 nm basic subsurface regions appear. The basic surface area in those film planes within 400-500 nm of the film-Al2O3 interface are enriched in APTES by up to 500% above the average APTES mole fraction used to create the film.

  14. Hybrid dielectric light trapping designs for thin-film CdZnTe/Si tandem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H; Zhou, C; Tee, X T; Jung, K-Y; Bermel, P

    2016-07-11

    Tandem solar cells consisting of high bandgap cadmium telluride alloys atop crystalline silicon have potential for high efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, experimental results have fallen well below this goal significantly because of non-ideal current matching and light trapping. In this work, we simulate cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) tandems as an exemplary system to show the role that a hybrid light trapping and bandgap engineering approach can play in improving performance and lowering materials costs for tandem solar cells incorporating crystalline silicon. This work consists of two steps. First, we optimize absorption in the crystalline silicon layer with front pyramidal texturing and asymmetric dielectric back gratings, which results in 121% absorption enhancement from a planar structure. Then, using this pre-optimized light trapping scheme, we model the dispersion of the CdxZn1-xTe alloys, and then adjust the bandgap to realize the best current matching for a range of CZT thicknesses. Using experimental parameters, the corresponding maximum efficiency is predicted to be 16.08 % for a total tandem cell thickness of only 2.2 μm.

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} hybrids in solutions and doped-PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; He, Wen-Li; Yu, Hong-Yu [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Hong-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djqian@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} (nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr) hybrids were synthesized and characterized using thermogravimetry, infrared, UV–vis absorption and, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM). The organic substituents immobilized on the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids accounted for approximately 10% of the total weight. Polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) was found to be the most suitable solvent to suspend the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids compared to other commonly used organic solvents. FETEM images indicated an average SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle diameter of approximately 12 nm and a 1- to 2-nm thick organic species functionalization layer. Several emission peaks were recorded at wavelengths of 380–580 nm and were designated as emissions arising from either the monomer or excimer of the pyrene substituents. Excimer formation was concentration and solvent polarity dependent, with higher concentrations and a stronger solvent polarity benefiting excimer formation. Further, nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films; fluorescence spectra indicated that the excimer could be formed almost exclusively from neighboring nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids. Time-resolved fluorescence decays revealed that the emission lifetimes of nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr monomers and excimers were approximately 190 ns and 65–100 ns in the PEG200 solution, respectively, which was shortened to 0.45 ns to tens of ns in doped PMMA thin films, depending on the nano-hybrid concentration. Thus, the present study not only provides a method to prepare luminescent nano-materials but also a route to investigate excimer formation in solutions and thin films. - Highlights: • Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were prepared. • A 1- to 2- nm thick organic functionalization layer on nano-SiO{sub 2} was observed. • Formation of pyrene excimer was concentration and solvent

  16. Synthesis of water-dispersible poly-l-lysine-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) nanocomposite hybrid with a large surface area for high-efficiency removal of tartrazine and Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Wan, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhou, Chunhua

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a novel, effective and environment-friendly methods was used to prepare poly-l-lysine (PLL)-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite with large surface area and abundant hydroxyl and amino groups. The as-prepared PLL-Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) nanocomposite was systematically characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, VSM and EDX. The PLL-Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of a dye (tartrazine) and a heave metal (Pb(II)). The result showed that adsorption of Pb(II) reached equilibrium in 30min and adsorption of tartrazine reached equilibrium in approximately 60min. Most importantly, PLL-Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid possesses high adsorption capacity, rapid separation, and less time-consuming. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was 1038.42mgg(-1) for Pb(II) and 775.19mgg(-1) for tartrazine under the optimal conditions. These two pollutants removal were found to obey Langmuir adsorption model, while the kinetics of adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed where the chelation between PLL and Pb(II) or electrostatic interaction between GO and tartrazine. These results demonstrated the potential applications of PLL-Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite in deep-purification of polluted water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Complex dynamics in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S; Kandar, A K; Basu, J K; Mukhopadhyay, M K; Lurio, L B; Narayanan, S; Sinha, S K

    2009-02-01

    Polymer nanocomposites offer the potential to create a new type of hybrid material with unique thermal, optical, or electrical properties. Understanding their structure, phase behavior, and dynamics is crucial for realizing such potentials. In this work we provide an experimental insight into the dynamics of such composites in terms of the temperature, wave vector, and volume fraction of nanoparticles, using multispeckle synchrotron x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements on gold nanoparticles embedded in polymethylmethacrylate. Detailed analysis of the intermediate scattering functions reveals possible existence of an intrinsic length scale for dynamic heterogeneity in polymer nanocomposites similar to that seen in other soft materials like colloidal gels and glasses.

  18. Photophysical properties and energy transfer mechanism of PFO/Fluorol 7GA hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali, E-mail: alasbahibandar@gmail.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sana' a University (Yemen); Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji, E-mail: hafizhj@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin; Flaifel, Moayad Husein [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    Photophysical properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl) (PFO)/2-butyl-6- (butylamino)benzo [de] isoquinoline-1,3-dione (Fluorol 7GA) and energy transfer between them have been investigated. In this work, both PFO and Fluorol 7GA act as donor and acceptor, respectively. Based on the absorption and luminescence measurements, the photophysical and energy transfer properties such as fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}), fluorescence lifetime (τ), radiative rate constant (k{sub r}), non-radiative rate constant (k{sub nr}), quenching rate constant (k{sub SV}), energy transfer rate constant (k{sub ET}), energy transfer probability (P{sub DA}), energy transfer efficiency (η), critical concentration of acceptor (C{sub o}), energy transfer time (τ{sub ET}) and critical distance of energy transfer (R{sub o}) were calculated. Large values of k{sub SV}, k{sub ET} and R{sub o} suggested that Förster-type energy transfer was the dominant mechanism for the energy transfer between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules. It was observed that the Förster energy transfer together with the trapping process are crucial for performance improvement in ITO/(PFO/Fluorol7GA)/Al device. -- Highlights: • The efficient of energy transfer from PFO to Fluorol 7GA was evidenced. • The resonance energy transfer (Förster type) is the dominant mechanism. • Hsu et al. model was used to calculate Φ{sub f}, τ, k{sub r} and k{sub nr} of PFO thin film. • Several of the photophysical and energy transfer properties were calculated. • Trapping process and Förster energy transfer led to improve the device performance.

  19. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Nanocomposites; nanotechnology; nanometric; characterisation techniques. Author Affiliations. Arunkumar Lagashetty1 A Venkataraman2. Appa Institute of Engineering & Technology, Gulbarga, India. Department of Chemistry Gulbarga University Gulbarga, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education.

  20. Effect of reduced graphene oxide-hybridized ZnO thin films on the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Swe Jyan; Yeoh, Soo Ling; Lee, Kian Mun; Lai, Chin Wei; Abdul Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-08-01

    The immobilization of photocatalyst nanoparticles on a solid substrate is an important aspect for improved post-treatment separation and photocatalyst reactor design. In this study, we report the simple preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-hybridized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a one-step electrochemical deposition, and investigated the effect of rGO-hybridization on the photoinactivation efficiency of ZnO thin films towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) as target bacterial pathogens. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the formation of geometric, hexagonal flakes of ZnO on the ITO glass substrate, as well as the incorporation of rGO with ZnO in the rGO/ZnO thin film. Raman spectroscopy indicated the successful incorporation of rGO with ZnO during the electrodeposition process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy indicates that rGO hybridization with ZnO increases the amount of oxygen vacancies, evidenced by the shift of visible PL peak at 650 to 500nm. The photoinactivation experiments showed that the thin films were able to reduce the bacterial cell density of Staph. aureus and S. Typhi from an initial concentration of approximately 10(8) to 10(3)CFU/mL within 15min. The rGO/ZnO thin film increased the photoinactivation rate for S. aureus (log[N/No]) from -5.1 (ZnO) to -5.9. In contrast, the application of rGO/ZnO thin film towards the photoinactivation of S. Typhi did not improve its photoinactivation rate, compared to the ZnO thin film. We may summarise that (1) rGO/ZnO was effective to accelerate the photoinactivation of S. aureus but showed no difference to improve the photoinactivation of S. Typhi, in comparison to the performance of ZnO thin films, and (2) the photoinactivation in the presence of ZnO and rGO/ZnO was by ROS damage to the extracellular wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  2. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  3. Flexible SiInZnO thin film transistor with organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectric processed at 150 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. Y.; Kim, S.; Hwang, B.-U.; Lee, N.-E.; Lee, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Silicon indium zinc oxide (SIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate by using organic/inorganic hybrid gate dielectrics of poly-4vinyl phenol (PVP) and Al2O3. To improve the mechanical stability, Al2O3 has been used as a buffer layer on the flexible substrate. The Al2O3 layer of hybrid gate dielectrics protected the organic gate dielectric and improved mechanical flexibility. The different surface roughness of the gate dielectrics is investigated. The performance of the device with smooth surface roughness was significantly improved. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the TFTs with hybrid gate dielectrics were measured as well as the promising electrical endurance characteristics at the bending radius of 5 mm.

  4. Dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fina, I.; Dix, N. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain); Laukhin, V. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain); Institut Catala de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Fabrega, L. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lourdes@icmab.es; Sanchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, Bellaterra E-08193, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    We report on the dielectric characterization of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-BaTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites grown by rf sputtering. Dielectric properties have been analyzed for samples grown at different deposition temperatures and with different thicknesses. Impedance spectroscopy data has been analyzed by fitting to an equivalent circuit and different contributions have been identified. Correlations between dielectric properties and deposition temperature and thickness have been established.

  5. Facile preparation of agarose-chitosan hybrid materials and nanocomposite ionogels using an ionic liquid via dissolution, regeneration and sol-gel transition

    CERN Document Server

    Trivedi, Tushar J; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    We report simultaneous dissolution of agarose (AG) and chitosan (CH) in varying proportions in an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C4mim][Cl]. Composite materials were constructed from AG-CH-IL solutions using the antisolvent methanol, and IL was recovered from the solutions. Composite materials could be uniformly decorated with silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to form nanocomposites in a single step by in situ synthesis of Ag NPs in AG-CH-IL sols, wherein the biopolymer moiety acted as both reducing and stabilizing agent. Cooling of Ag NPs-AG-CH-IL sols to room temperature resulted in high conductivity and high mechanical strength nanocomposite ionogels. The structure, stability and physiochemical properties of composite materials and nanocomposites were characterized by several analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), CD spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and...

  6. Wood surface modification by in-situ sol-gel deposition of hybrid inorganic-organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Li-Piin Sung

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of nanoparticles of iron, titanium, aluminum, and zinc oxides in transparent coatings for wood is increasing. Such nano-composite coatings have the potential of not only preserving the natural color of the wood, but also stabilizing the wood surface against the combined degradative effects of sunlight and moisture. The nanoparticles can be used as...

  7. Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a fiber coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Vahid; Parastari, Sheyda; Gorji, Mohsen; Foroutani, Reza; Mahdavi, Mehri; Hazizadeh, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    We describe the synthesis of a layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a new solid-phase microextraction fiber. The fiber coating can be prepared easily in a short time and the reaction is at room temperature; it is mechanically stable and exhibits relatively high thermal stability. The synthesized layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate nanocomposite was successfully prepared and immobilized on a stainless steel wire and evaluated for the extraction of aromatic compounds from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The method yields good results for some validation parameters. Under optimum conditions (extraction time: 15 min, extraction temperature: 50°C, desorption time: 1 min, desorption temperature: 250°C, salt concentration: 0.5 g/mL), the limit of detection and dynamic linear range were 0.69-3.2 ng/L and 10-500 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to the analyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylenes in two real water samples collected from the Aji river and Mehran river, Tabriz, Iran. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 3.2-7.3% and 4.2-11.2% respectively. The fibers are thermally stable and yield better recoveries than conventional methods of analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A study on the electrical, optical, and physicochemical properties of poly(MMA-co-MAA)/ poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hybrid thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeong Eun; Hwangbo, Kyung-Hee; Yim, Jin-Heong; Cho, Kuk Young

    2013-08-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has good properties as a conductive polymer such as high conductivity, optical transmittance, and chemical stability, while offering relatively weak physicochemical properties. The main purpose of this paper is to improve physicochemical properties such as solvent resistance and pencil hardness of PEDOT. Carboxyl groups in the poly(MMA-co-MAA) polymer chains can effectively crosslink each other in the presence of aziridine, resulting in physicochemically robust PEDOT/poly(MMA-co-MAA) hybrid conductive films. The electrical conductivity, optical properties, and physicochemical properties of the hybrid conductive film were compared by varying the solid content and poly(MMA-co-MAA) portion in the coating precursor solution. From the results, the transparency and surface resistance of the hybrid film show a tendency to decrease with increasing solid content in the coating precursor. Moreover, solvent resistance and hardness were dramatically enhanced by hybridization of PEDOT and crosslinked poly(MMA-co-MAA) due to curing reactions between carboxyl groups. The chemical composition of 30 wt-% of poly(MMA-co-MAA) (MMA:MAA mole ratio 9:1) and 3 wt-% - 5 wt-% of aziridine yields the best physicochemical properties of poly(MMA-co-MAA)/PEDOT hybrid thin films.

  9. Tribology of polymeric nanocomposites friction and wear of bulk materials and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in a

  10. High performance novel gadolinium doped ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia/nickel layered and hybrid thin film anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Beltrán, A. M.; Yubero, F.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Lambert, R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering under oblique angle deposition was used to produce Ni-containing ultra thin film anodes comprising alternating layers of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of either 200 nm or 1000 nm thickness. The evolution of film structure from initial deposition, through calcination and final reduction was examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and TOF-SIMS. After subsequent fuel cell usage, the porous columnar architecture of the two-component layered thin film anodes was maintained and their resistance to delamination from the underlying YSZ electrolyte was superior to that of corresponding single component Ni-YSZ and Ni-GDC thin films. Moreover, the fuel cell performance of the 200 nm layered anodes compared favorably with conventional commercially available thick anodes. The observed dependence of fuel cell performance on individual layer thicknesses prompted study of equivalent but more easily fabricated hybrid anodes consisting of simultaneously deposited Ni-GDC and Ni-YSZ, which procedure resulted in exceptionally intimate mixing and interaction of the components. The hybrids exhibited very unusual and favorable Isbnd V characteristics, along with exceptionally high power densities at high currents. Their discovery is the principal contribution of the present work.

  11. Magnetic nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Silke; Appel, Ingo

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites are multi-component materials, typically containing nanosized magnetic materials to trigger the response to an external stimulus (i.e., an external static or alternating magnetic field). Up to now, the search for novel nanocomposites has lead to the combination of a plethora of different materials (e.g., gels, liquid crystals, renewable polymers, silica, carbon or metal organic frameworks) with various types of magnetic particles, offering exciting perspectives not only for fundamental investigations but also for application in various fields, including medical therapy and diagnosis, separations, actuation, or catalysis. In this review, we have selected a few of the most recent examples to highlight general concepts and advances in the preparation of magnetic nanocomposites and recent advances in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Bath Deposition of p-Type Transparent, Highly Conducting (CuS)x:(ZnS)1-x Nanocomposite Thin Films and Fabrication of Si Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Bullock, James; Schelhas, Laura T; Stutz, Elias Z; Fonseca, Jose J; Hettick, Mark; Pool, Vanessa L; Tai, Kong Fai; Toney, Michael F; Fang, Xiaosheng; Javey, Ali; Wong, Lydia Helena; Ager, Joel W

    2016-03-09

    P-type transparent conducting films of nanocrystalline (CuS)x:(ZnS)1-x were synthesized by facile and low-cost chemical bath deposition. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to evaluate the nanocomposite structure, which consists of sub-5 nm crystallites of sphalerite ZnS and covellite CuS. Film transparency can be controlled by tuning the size of the nanocrystallites, which is achieved by adjusting the concentration of the complexing agent during growth; optimal films have optical transmission above 70% in the visible range of the spectrum. The hole conductivity increases with the fraction of the covellite phase and can be as high as 1000 S cm(-1), which is higher than most reported p-type transparent materials and approaches that of n-type transparent materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) synthesized at a similar temperature. Heterojunction p-(CuS)x:(ZnS)1-x/n-Si solar cells were fabricated with the nanocomposite film serving as a hole-selective contact. Under 1 sun illumination, an open circuit voltage of 535 mV was observed. This value compares favorably to other emerging heterojunction Si solar cells which use a low temperature process to fabricate the contact, such as single-walled carbon nanotube/Si (370-530 mV) and graphene/Si (360-552 mV).

  13. Antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for controlled growth of hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Chan; Lee, Se Won; Kim, Dae-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    We develop antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for the controlled growth of hybrid inorganic-organic CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite thin films. The powders, which are used as the precursors for solution processing, are synthesized by pouring a MAPbI3 precursor solution into various antisolvents, such as dichloromethane, chloroform, diethyl ether, and toluene. Two types of powders having different colors are obtained, depending on the antisolvent used. The choice of the antisolvent used for synthesizing the powders strongly influences not only the phases of the powders but also the morphology and structure of the thin films subsequently fabricated by solution processing. This, in turn, affects the photovoltaic performance.

  14. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis of polymer nanocomposites is an integral aspect of polymer nanotechnology. By inserting the nano- metric inorganic compounds, the properties of polymers improve and hence this has a lot of applications depending upon the inorganic material present in the polymers. Sol- vent casting is one of the easiest ...

  15. Metal Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Søren Vang; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2014-01-01

    We have made SU-8 gold nanoparticle composites in two ways, ex situ and in situ, and found that in both methods nanoparticles embedded in the polymer retained their plasmonic properties. The in situ method has also been used to fabricate a silver nanocomposite which is electrically conductive. Th...

  16. Nanocarbon composites and hybrids in sustainability: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Eder, Dominik

    2012-03-12

    There is an ever-growing need to protect our environment by increasing energy efficiency and developing "clean" energy sources. These are global challenges, and their resolution is vital to our energy security. Although many conventional materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics, cannot fulfil all requirements for these new technologies, many material combinations can offer synergistic effects that create improved and even new properties. The implementation of nanocarbons, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, into nanocomposites and, more recently, into the new class of hybrids, are very promising examples. In contrast to classical nanocomposites, where a low volume fraction of the carbon component is mixed into a polymer or ceramic matrix, hybrids are materials in which nanocarbon is coated with a thin layer of the functional compound, which introduces the interface as a powerful new parameter. Based on interfacial charge and energy transfer processes, nanocarbon hybrids have shown increased sensitivities in gas sensors, improved efficiencies in photovoltaics, superior activities in photocatalysts, and enhanced capacities in supercapacitors. This review compares the characteristics and potentials of both nanocarbon composites and hybrids, highlights recent developments in their synthesis and discusses key challenges for their use in various energy applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Simple synthesis of clay-gold nanocomposites with tunable color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renyun; Hummelgård, Magnus; Olin, Håkan

    2010-04-20

    Clay-based nanocomposites have been studied for several decades, mainly focusing on clay-polymer nanocomposites. Here, we report on a simple wet chemical method to synthesize clay-APTES-Au (CAAu) nanocomposites, where 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) acts as the linkage. The silane terminal of APTES formed bonds with the clay surface, while the other -NH(2) terminal bonds to gold nanoparticles. The color of clay changed when these CAAu nanocomposites were formed. By changing the size of the gold nanoparticles, the color of CAAu could be adjusted, simply by changing process parameters. TEM characterization of the synthesized nanocomposites showed an even distribution of gold nanoparticles on the clay surfaces. The nanocomposites were stable in strong acid and high concentration of salt conditions, while strong basic solution like NaOH could slightly influence the status of the gold nanoparticles due to the rupture of the Si-O-Si bonds between APTES and clay. To demonstrate the potential for label free sensing application of CAAu nanocomposites, we made hybrids of clay-APTES-Au-HD-Au (CAAuHAu), where hexamethylene diamine (HD) served as links between CAAu nanocomposites and the gold nanoparticles. The color of the composites changed from red to blue, when the hybrids were formed. Moreover, hemoglobin was loaded on the CAAu nanocomposites, which can potentially be used as a biosensor. These synthesized nanocomposites may combine the catalytic properties of clay and the well-known excellent properties of gold nanoparticles, such as the ability to anchor biological and chemical molecules. Furthermore, the color change of CAAu, when the CAAuHAu hybrids were observed, suggests the applications of these nanocomposites in biochemical and chemical sensing.

  18. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  19. Gold nanoparticle core-europium(iii) chelate fluorophore-doped silica shell hybrid nanocomposites for the lateral flow immunoassay of human thyroid stimulating hormone with a dual signal readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preechakasedkit, Pattarachaya; Osada, Kota; Katayama, Yuta; Ruecha, Nipapan; Suzuki, Koji; Chailapakul, Orawon; Citterio, Daniel

    2018-01-21

    Hybrid nanocomposite particles composed of a gold core coated with a europium(iii)-chelate fluorophore-doped silica shell (AuNPs@SiO 2 -Eu 3+ ) have been synthesized and applied as antibody labels in lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) devices for the determination of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). Labeling of monoclonal anti-hTSH antibodies with AuNPs@SiO 2 -Eu 3+ nanocomposites allows for both colorimetric and fluorometric observation of assay results on LFIA devices, relying on visible light absorption due to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au-core and the fluorescence emission of the Eu(iii)-chelate-modified shell under UV hand lamp irradiation (365 nm), respectively. The possibility for a dual signal readout provides an attractive alternative for LFIAs: instantaneous naked eye observation of the AuNP colorimetric signal as in conventional LFIAs for hypothyroidism detection, and more sensitive fluorescence detection to assess hyperthyroidism. The limits of detection (LOD) for naked eye observation of LFIA devices are 5 μIU mL -1 and 0.1 μIU mL -1 for the colorimetric and fluorimetric detection, respectively. Using the fluorescence detection scheme in combination with a smartphone and digital color analysis, a quantitative linear relationship between the red intensity and the logarithmic concentration of hTSH was observed (R 2 = 0.988) with an LOD of 0.02 μIU mL -1 . Finally, LFIA devices were effectively applied for detecting hTSH in spiked diluted human serum with recovery values between 100-116%.

  20. Enhancement in charge transfer by non-ligand exchange process for colloidal hybrid organic(MEH-PPV):inorganic(CdSe) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Aarti; Sharma, Shailesh N.; Singh, V. N.; Srivastva, A. K.; Chand, S.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the effect of surface modification of as-synthesized oleylamine-capped spherical CdSe QDs of size (5-7 nm). The as-prepared CdSe QDs are highly luminescent, monodispersive and exhibit energy transfer effects upon their dispersion in MEH-PPV polymer matrix. However, repetitive washing of CdSe QDs upon suitable chemical treatment leads to enhancement in charge transfer process as observed in their corresponding MEH-PPV: CdSe nanocomposites. Here, no evidence of agglomeration effects and surface states were found. This enhancement in charge transfer is mainly due to the partial removal of oleylamine capping ligand, which acts as a hindrance in the interaction between polymer and CdSe QDs. The importance of this study is that as-synthesized CdSe QDs show effective energy transfer whereas after chemical treatment, it shows enhanced charge transfer mechanism which makes their corresponding nanocomposites useful for different applications in organic electronic devices such as efficient electroluminescent (OLED) and photovoltaic (OPV) devices respectively.

  1. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  2. Photocatalytic removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by magnetically separable flower-like BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shengwang [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Hou, Song; Wan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Qiang [Heilongjiang Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Harbin 150056 (China); Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: xujian@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A novel BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites was prepared for the first time. • BiOBr-BiOI-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) displays superior photocatalytic activity for TBBPA. • Good magnetic property makes it easy for the material’s recovery from solution. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was proposed. • Superoxide radical is the dominant ROS in TBBPA degradation. - Abstract: A novel flower-like three-dimensional BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized using a simple in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The hybrid composites were characterized by a couple of techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, photoluminescence technique, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were perfectly loaded on the surface of BiOBr/BiOI microspheres. The recyclable magnetic BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was employed to degrade TBBPA under visible light irradiation. The optimal removal efficiency of the ternary BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) nanocomposite reached up to 98.5% for TBBPA in aqueous solution. The superior photocatalytic activity of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was mainly ascribed to large surface area and appropriate energy gaps, resulting in the effective adsorption and separation of electrons-hole pairs. The photogenerated reactive species determined by free radicals trapping experiments revealed that the excellent catalytic activity was primarily driven by ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radical. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics and a detailed mechanism were also proposed. Result demonstrated that the BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be magnetically recycled, and maintain high photocatalytic activity after reuse over five cycles. It

  3. Supplementary Material for: Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35–37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15–21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Conclusions Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and

  4. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ε-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  5. New Magnetic Thin Film Hybrid Materials Built by the Incorporation of Octanickel(II)-oxamato Clusters Between Clay Mineral Platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toma, Luminita M.; Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Cangussu, Danielle; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Rudolf, Petra

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new method based on the combination of Langmuir-Schaefer deposition with self-assembly to insert highly anisotropic Ni(8) molecules in a hybrid organic-inorganic nanostructure. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and magnetic data prove the successful insertion of the guest cationic

  6. The properties of SIRT, TVM, and DART for 3D imaging of tubular domains in nanocomposite thin-films and sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Delei [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Polymer Institute (DPI), P.O. Box 902, 5600 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Goris, Bart [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bleichrodt, Folkert [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mezerji, Hamed Heidari; Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, Kees Joost [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); With, Gijsbertus de [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Friedrich, Heiner, E-mail: h.friedrich@tue.nl [Laboratory of Materials and Interface Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    In electron tomography, the fidelity of the 3D reconstruction strongly depends on the employed reconstruction algorithm. In this paper, the properties of SIRT, TVM and DART reconstructions are studied with respect to having only a limited number of electrons available for imaging and applying different angular sampling schemes. A well-defined realistic model is generated, which consists of tubular domains within a matrix having slab-geometry. Subsequently, the electron tomography workflow is simulated from calculated tilt-series over experimental effects to reconstruction. In comparison with the model, the fidelity of each reconstruction method is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively based on global and local edge profiles and resolvable distance between particles. Results show that the performance of all reconstruction methods declines with the total electron dose. Overall, SIRT algorithm is the most stable method and insensitive to changes in angular sampling. TVM algorithm yields significantly sharper edges in the reconstruction, but the edge positions are strongly influenced by the tilt scheme and the tubular objects become thinned. The DART algorithm markedly suppresses the elongation artifacts along the beam direction and moreover segments the reconstruction which can be considered a significant advantage for quantification. Finally, no advantage of TVM and DART to deal better with fewer projections was observed. - Highlights: • Dose and tilt-scheme dependence of SIRT, TVM and DART tomograms are quantified. • SIRT is the most stable method and insensitive to changes in angular sampling. • TVM significantly reduces noise but objects become thinned. • DART markedly suppresses the elongation artifacts. • No advantage of TVM and DART for fewer projections is observed.

  7. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi; Oda, Seitaro; Tokuyasu, Shinichi; Harada, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR.

  8. Flexible Transparent Electrode of Hybrid Ag-Nanowire/Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Thin Film on PET Substrate Prepared Using H2/Ar Low-Damage Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsien Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ H2/Ar low-damage plasma treatment (H2/Ar-LDPT to reduce graphene oxide (GO coating on a polymer substrate—polyethylene terephthalate (PET—with the assistance of atomic hydrogen (Hα at low temperature of 70 °C. Four-point probing and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy demonstrate that the conductivity and transmittance can be controlled by varying the H2/Ar flow rate, treatment time, and radio-frequency (RF power. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals that the Hα intensity depends on these processing parameters, which influence the removal of oxidative functional groups (confirmed via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to yield reduced GO (rGO. To further improve the conductivity while maintaining high transmittance, we introduce silver nanowires (AgNWs between rGO and a PET substrate to obtain a hybrid rGO/AgNWs/PET with a sheet resistance of ~100 Ω/sq and 81% transmittance. In addition, the hybrid rGO/AgNWs thin film also shows high flexibility and durability and is suitable for flexible and wearable electronics applications.

  9. Separation performance and interfacial properties of nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Pendergast, MaryTheresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Four different types of nanocomposite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were formed by interfacial polymerization of either polyamide (PA) or zeolite A-polyamide nanocomposite (ZA-PA) thin films over either pure polysulfone (PSf) or zeolite A-polysulfone nanocomposite (ZA-PSf) support membranes cast by wet phase inversion. All three nanocomposite membranes exhibited superior separation performance and interfacial properties relative to hand-cast TFC analogs including: (1) smoother, more hydrophilic surfaces (2) higher water permeability and salt rejection, and (3) improved resistance to physical compaction. Less compaction occurred for membranes with nanoparticles embedded in interfacially polymerized coating films, which adds further proof that flux decline associated with physical compaction is influenced by coating film properties in addition to support membrane properties. The new classes of nanocomposite membrane materials continue to offer promise of further improved RO membranes for use in desalination and advanced water purification. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; M?ndez-Garc?a, Celia; Kim, Chang-H.; Bauer, Stefan; Ib??ez, Ana B.; Zimmerman, Sabrina; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cann, Isaac K.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40??C) and thermophilic (55??C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD o...

  11. Nanostructured TiO2/carbon nanosheet hybrid electrode for high-rate thin-film lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitzheim, S; Nimisha, C S; Deng, Shaoren; Cott, Daire J; Detavernier, C; Vereecken, P M

    2014-12-19

    Heterogeneous nanostructured electrodes using carbon nanosheets (CNS) and TiO2 exhibit high electronic and ionic conductivity. In order to realize the chip level power sources, it is necessary to employ microelectronic compatible techniques for the fabrication and characterization of TiO2-CNS thin-film electrodes. To achieve this, vertically standing CNS grown through a catalytic free approach on a TiN/SiO2/Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) was used. The substrate-attached CNS is responsible for the sufficient electronic conduction and increased surface-to-volume ratio due to its unique morphology. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nanostructured amorphous TiO2 on CNS provides enhanced Li storage capacity, high rate performance and stable cycling. The amount of deposited TiO2 masks the underlying CNS, thereby controlling the accessibility of CNS, which gets reflected in the total electrochemical performance, as revealed by the cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge measurements. TiO2 thin-films deposited with 300, 400 and 500 ALD cycles on CNS have been studied to understand the kinetics of Li insertion/extraction. A large potential window of operation (3-0.01 V); the excellent cyclic stability, with a capacity retention of 98% of the initial value; and the remarkable rate capability (up to 100 C) are the highlights of TiO2/CNS thin-film anode structures. CNS with an optimum amount of TiO2 coating is proposed as a promising approach for the fabrication of electrodes for chip compatible thin-film Li-ion batteries.

  12. Surface tailoring of newly developed amorphous Znsbnd Sisbnd O thin films as electron injection/transport layer by plasma treatment: Application to inverted OLEDs and hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongsheng; Kim, Junghwan; Yamamoto, Koji; Xing, Xing; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We report a unique amorphous oxide semiconductor Znsbnd Sisbnd O (a-ZSO) which has a small work function of 3.4 eV for as-deposited films. The surface modification of a-ZSO thin films by plasma treatments is examined to apply it to the electron injection/transport layer of organic devices. It turns out that the energy alignment and exciton dissociation efficiency at a-ZSO/organic semiconductor interface significantly changes by choosing different gas (oxygen or argon) for plasma treatments (after a-ZSO was exposed to atmospheric environment for 5 days). In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) measurement reveals that the work function of a-ZSO is increased to 4.0 eV after an O2-plasma treatment, while the work function of 3.5 eV is recovered after an Ar-plasma treatment which indicates this treatment is effective for surface cleaning. To study the effects of surface treatments to device performance, OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells with O2-plasma or Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO are compared. Effects of these surface treatments on performance of inverted OLEDs and hybrid polymer solar cells are examined. Ar-plasma treated a-ZSO works well as the electron injection layer in inverted OLEDs (Alq3/a-ZSO) because the injection barrier is small (∼ 0.1 eV). On the other hands, O2-plasma treated a-ZSO is more suitable for application to hybrid solar cells which is benefiting from higher exciton dissociation efficiency at polymer (P3HT)/ZSO interface.

  13. Purple-bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers and quantum-dot hybrid-assemblies in lecithin liposomes and thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Eugeny P; Knox, Petr P; Gorokhov, Vladimir V; Grishanova, Nadezda P; Seifullina, Nuranija Kh; Krikunova, Maria; Lokstein, Heiko; Paschenko, Vladimir Z

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) absorb ultraviolet and long-wavelength visible light energy much more efficiently than natural bacterial light-harvesting proteins and can transfer the excitation energy to photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs). Inclusion of RCs combined with QDs as antennae into liposomes opens new opportunities for using such hybrid systems as a basis for artificial energy-transforming devices that potentially can operate with greater efficiency and stability than devices based only on biological components or inorganic components alone. RCs from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and QDs (CdSe/ZnS with hydrophilic covering) were embedded in lecithin liposomes by extrusion of a solution of multilayer lipid vesicles through a polycarbonate membrane or by dialysis of lipids and proteins dispersed with excess detergent. The efficiency of RC and QD interaction within the liposomes was estimated using fluorescence excitation spectra of the photoactive bacteriochlorophyll of the RCs and by measuring the fluorescence decay kinetics of the QDs. The functional activity of the RCs in hybrid complexes was fully maintained, and their stability was even increased. The efficiency of energy transfer between QDs and RCs and conditions of long-term stability of function of such hybrid complexes in film preparations were investigated as well. It was found that dry films containing RCs and QDs, maintained at atmospheric humidity, are capable of maintaining their functional activity for at least some months as judged by measurements of their spectral characteristics, efficiency of energy transfer from QDs to RCs and RC electron transport activity. Addition of trehalose to the films increases the stability further, especially for films maintained at low humidity. These stable hybrid film structures are promising for further studies towards developing new phototransformation devices for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved surface-enhanced Raman and catalytic activities of reduced graphene oxide–osmium hybrid nano thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, C.; Bramhaiah, K.; John, Neena S.; Aggarwal, Shantanu

    2017-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide–osmium (rGO-Os) hybrid nano dendtrites have been prepared by simple liquid/liquid interface method for the first time. The method involves the introduction of phase-transfered metal organic precursor in toluene phase and GO dispersion in the aqueous phase along with hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Dendritic networks of Os nanoparticles and their aggregates decorating rGO layers are obtained. The substrate shows improved catalytic and surface-enhanced activities...

  15. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Low TCR nanocomposite strain gages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); Chen, Ximing (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature thin film strain gage sensor capable of functioning at temperatures above 1400.degree. C. The sensor contains a substrate, a nanocomposite film comprised of an indium tin oxide alloy, zinc oxide doped with alumina or other oxide semiconductor and a refractory metal selected from the group consisting of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, W, Ir, NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlY deposited onto the substrate to form an active strain element. The strain element being responsive to an applied force.

  17. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Cadmium Zinc Sulfide Nanocomposite with Controlled Band Gap for Large-Area Thin-Film Optoelectronic Device Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sk; Chakraborty, Koushik; Pal, Tanusri; Ghosh, Surajit

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we report the one pot single step solvothermal synthesis of reduced grapheme oxide-cadmium zinc sulfide (RGO-Cd0.5Zn0.5S) composite. The reduction in graphene oxide (GO), synthesis of Cd0.5Zn0.5S (mentioned as CdZnS in the text) nanorod and decoration of CdZnS nanorods onto RGO sheet were done simultaneously. The structural, morphological and optical properties were studied thoroughly by different techniques, such as XRD, TEM, UV-Vis and PL. The PL intensity of CdZnS nanorods quenches significantly after the attachment of RGO, which confirms photoinduced charge transformation from CdZnS nanorods to RGO sheet through the interface of RGO-CdZnS. An excellent photocurrent generation in RGO-CdZnS thin-film device has been observed under simulated solar light irradiation. The photocurrent as well as photosensitivity increases linearly with the solar light intensity for all the composites. Our study establishes that the synergistic effect of RGO and CdZnS in the composite is capable of getting promising applications in the field of optoelectronic devising.

  18. Zinc oxide based nanocomposite thin film electrodes and the effect of D.C. plasma oxidation power on discharge capacity for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Hatem; Guler, Mehmet Oguz; Aydin, Yasemin

    2012-12-01

    Zinc oxide based thin films have been grown on glass and stainless steel substrates in two steps; thermal evaporation from high purity metallic zinc and D.C. plasma oxidation. X-ray diffraction has shown that the films were polycrystalline nature and small predominant orientation at some specific planes. Analysis showed that plasma oxidation starts from the thermally evaporated leaf-like surfaces and produces a core-shell structure of ZnO on the metallic Zn. Increasing plasma oxidation power causes increased amount of ZnO volume and resistivity. Coin-type (CR2016) test cells were assembled in an argon-filled glove box and cyclically tested. The electrochemical performance of the films has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The dependence of converted Li-ions on voltage profile of the films has been determined. It was found that the Zn/ZnO films exhibited highest the number of converted Li-ions at 175 W plasma oxidation conditions. Discharge capacity measurements revealed the double phase structures of Zn/ZnO exhibited significantly high reversible capacities. The high capacity and low capacity fade values were attributed to the high electrical conductivity and buffering ability of metallic Zn in the anodes.

  19. Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion Efficiency of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot/Graphene/Silver Nanowire Hybrid Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bo-Tau; Wu, Kuan-Han; Lee, Rong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared the reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) hybrid films on a three-layer scaffold that the QD layer was sandwiched between the two rGO layers. The photocurrent was induced by virtue of the facts that the rGO quenched the photoluminescence of QDs and transferred the excited energy. The quenching mechanism was attributed to the surface energy transfer, supported in our experimental results. We found that the optoelectronic conversion efficiency of th...

  20. Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane Filled with Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 and MIL-125 Nanoparticles for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhom, Mohammed; Hu, Weiming; Deng, Baolin

    2017-06-14

    Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles (NPs), UiO-66 (~100 nm) and MIL-125 (~100 nm), were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in an organic phase. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and salt rejection and water flux assessments. Results showed that both UiO-66 and MIL-125 could improve the membranes' performance and the impacts depended on the NPs loading. At the optimum NPs loadings, 0.15% for UiO-66 and 0.3% for MIL-125, the water flux increased from 62.5 L/m² h to 74.9 and 85.0 L/m² h, respectively. NaCl rejection was not significantly affected (UiO-66) or slightly improved (MIL-125) by embedding these NPs, always at >98.5% as tested at 2000 ppm salt concentration and 300 psi transmembrane pressure. The results from this study demonstrate that it is promising to apply MOFs NPs to enhance the TFC membrane performance for desalination.

  1. Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane Filled with Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 and MIL-125 Nanoparticles for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kadhom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs nanoparticles (NPs, UiO-66 (~100 nm and MIL-125 (~100 nm, were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP of m-phenylenediamine (MPD in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC in an organic phase. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and salt rejection and water flux assessments. Results showed that both UiO-66 and MIL-125 could improve the membranes’ performance and the impacts depended on the NPs loading. At the optimum NPs loadings, 0.15% for UiO-66 and 0.3% for MIL-125, the water flux increased from 62.5 L/m2 h to 74.9 and 85.0 L/m2 h, respectively. NaCl rejection was not significantly affected (UiO-66 or slightly improved (MIL-125 by embedding these NPs, always at >98.5% as tested at 2000 ppm salt concentration and 300 psi transmembrane pressure. The results from this study demonstrate that it is promising to apply MOFs NPs to enhance the TFC membrane performance for desalination.

  2. Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane Filled with Metal-Organic Frameworks UiO-66 and MIL-125 Nanoparticles for Water Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhom, Mohammed; Hu, Weiming; Deng, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Knowing that the world is facing a shortage of fresh water, desalination, in its different forms including reverse osmosis, represents a practical approach to produce potable water from a saline source. In this report, two kinds of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles (NPs), UiO-66 (~100 nm) and MIL-125 (~100 nm), were embedded separately into thin-film composite membranes in different weight ratios, 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The membranes were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) of m-phenylenediamine (MPD) in aqueous solution and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in an organic phase. The as-prepared membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and salt rejection and water flux assessments. Results showed that both UiO-66 and MIL-125 could improve the membranes’ performance and the impacts depended on the NPs loading. At the optimum NPs loadings, 0.15% for UiO-66 and 0.3% for MIL-125, the water flux increased from 62.5 L/m2 h to 74.9 and 85.0 L/m2 h, respectively. NaCl rejection was not significantly affected (UiO-66) or slightly improved (MIL-125) by embedding these NPs, always at >98.5% as tested at 2000 ppm salt concentration and 300 psi transmembrane pressure. The results from this study demonstrate that it is promising to apply MOFs NPs to enhance the TFC membrane performance for desalination. PMID:28613247

  3. A nanoceria-platinum-graphene nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P; Vanegas, D C; Taguchi, M; Burrs, S L; Sharma, P; McLamore, E S

    2014-08-15

    Most graphene-metal nanocomposites for biosensing are formed using noble metals. Recently, development of nanocomposites using rare earth metals has gained much attention. This paper reports on the development of a nanoceria-nanoplatinum-graphene hybrid nanocomposite as a base transducing layer for mediator-free enzymatic biosensors. The hybrid nanocomposite was shown to improve detection of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide when compared to other carbon-metal hybrid nanocomposites. Based on this finding, the nanocomposite was applied for biosensing by adding either a peroxide-producing oxidase (glucose oxidase), or a superoxide-producing oxidase (xanthine oxidase). Material analysis indicated that nanoceria and nanoplatinum were equally distributed along the surface of the hybrid material, ensuring detection of either superoxide or hydrogen peroxide produced by oxidase activity. Glucose biosensors demonstrated a sensitivity (66.2±2.6μAmM(-1)cm(-2)), response time (6.3±3.4s), and limit of detection (1.3±0.6μM) that were comparable to other graphene-mediated electrodes in the current literature. Remarkably, XOD biosensor sensitivity (1164±332μAmM(-1)), response time (5.0±1.5s), and limit of detection (0.2±0.1μM) were higher than any reported biosensors using similar metal-decorated carbon nanomaterials. This material is the first demonstration of a highly efficient, diverse nanoceria/nanoplatinum/graphene hybrid nanocomposite for biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective dielectric constants and spectral density analysis of plasmonic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin You; Raza, Aikifa; Fang, Nicholas X.; Chen, Gang; Zhang, TieJun

    2016-10-01

    Cermet or ceramic-metal composite coatings promise great potentials in light harvesting, but the complicated composite structure at the nanoscale induces a design challenge to predict their optical properties. We find that the effective dielectric constants of nanocomposites predicted by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulation results match those of different classical effective medium theories in their respective validity range. However, a precise prediction of the fabricated nanocomposite properties for different filling factors is very challenging. In this work, we extract the spectral density functions in the Bergman representation from the analytical models, numerical simulations, and experimental data of plasmonic nanocomposites. The spectral density functions, which only depend on geometry of the nanocomposite material, provide a unique measure on the contribution of individual and percolated particles inside the nanocomposite. According to the spectral density analysis of measured dielectric constants, the material properties of nanocomposites fabricated by the co-sputtering approach are dominated by electromagnetic interaction among individual metallic particles. While in the case of the nanocomposites fabricated by the multilayer thin film approach, the material properties are dominated by percolated metallic particles inside the dielectric host, as indicated by our FDTD simulation results. This understanding provides new physical insight into the interaction between light and plasmonic nanocomposites.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of electrical percolation in multicomponent thin films with nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaojuan; Hui, Chao; Su, Ninghai; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2018-02-01

    We developed a 2D disk–stick percolation model to investigate the electrical percolation behavior of an insulating thin film reinforced with 1D and 2D conductive nanofillers via Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical predictions of the percolation threshold in single component thin films showed good agreement with the previous published work, validating our model for investigating the characteristics of the percolation phenomena. Parametric studies of size effect, i.e., length of 1D nanofiller and diameter of 2D nanofiller, were carried out to predict the electrical percolation threshold for hybrid systems. The relationships between the nanofillers in two hybrid systems was established, which showed differences from previous linear assumption. The effective electrical conductance was evaluated through Kirchhoff’s current law by transforming it into a resistor network. The equivalent resistance was obtained from the distribution of nodal voltages by solving a system of linear equations with a Gaussian elimination method. We examined the effects of stick length, relative concentration, and contact patterns of 1D/2D inclusions on electrical performance. One novel aspect of our study is its ability to investigate the effective conductance of nanocomposites as a function of relative concentrations, which shows there is a synergistic effect when nanofillers with different dimensionalities combine properly. Our work provides an important theoretical basis for designing the conductive networks and predicting the percolation properties of multicomponent nanocomposites.

  6. Nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitlin, David; , Ophus, Colin; Evoy, Stephane; Radmilovic, Velimir; Mohammadi, Reza; Westra, Ken; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel; Lee, Zonghoon

    2010-07-20

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  7. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  8. An ultra-thin dual-band phase-gradient metasurface using hybrid resonant structures for backward RCS reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhi; Wu, Chenjun; Ge, Chenchen; Yang, Jiaji; Pei, Xiaojun; Jia, Fan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2017-05-01

    We introduce and investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, a dual-band phase-gradient metasurface (PGM) to accurately facilitate dual-band beams deflection for electromagnetic waves. The designed PGM is composed of two kinds of split-ring resonators as the basic element of a super cell. These hybrid resonant structures can generate phase gradients at two distinct frequencies, which, in turn, generate appropriately artificial wave vectors that meet the requirements for anomalous reflection in terms of generalized Snell's law. Both simulations and experiments are consistent with the theoretical predictions. Further, this PGM can work at 8.9 and 11.4 GHz frequencies providing a phenomenon of anomalous reflection, which is useful for backward radar cross section reduction.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of hybrid perovskites for high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics from first-principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brivio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of perovskite solar cells recently exceeded 15% solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency for small-area devices. The fundamental properties of the active absorber layers, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites formed from mixing metal and organic halides [e.g., (NH4PbI3 and (CH3NH3PbI3], are largely unknown. The materials are semiconductors with direct band gaps at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone. The calculated dielectric constants and band gaps show an orientation dependence, with a low barrier for rotation of the organic cations. Due to the electric dipole of the methylammonium cation, a photoferroic effect may be accessible, which could enhance carrier collection.

  10. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  11. Optical properties of selectively absorbing C/NiO nanocomposite coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite thin films are widely used for solar thermal applications. Using carbon nanoparticle containing metal oxide as a spectrally selective solar absorber coating has grown significantly in recent years. Recently, Katumba et al. have...

  12. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photo-sensing of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM blend-based photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Qayyum, E-mail: qayyumzafar@siswa.um.edu.my; Najeeb, Mansoor Ani, E-mail: animansoor@um.edu.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zubair, E-mail: zubairtarar@qu.edu.qa [Qatar University, Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering (Qatar); Sulaiman, Khaulah, E-mail: khaulah@um.edu.my [University of Malaya, Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    The sensing parameters of previously reported PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM ternary blend-based organic photodetector have been improved in the present study. Improvement has been successfully demonstrated by doping TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS thin film. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 250 nm diameters have initially been dispersed in PEDOT:PSS, and the resulting suspension has been spun coated on glass substrates and subjected to UV/vis and PL study. Thin film of PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2} (100 nm) has shown maximum quenching in PL spectra, along with fairly good visible-light absorption. For further studies, 5 wt% TiO{sub 2} (100 nm) nanoparticles dispersion in PEDOT:PSS has been utilized for the fabrication of ITO/PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2}/PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM/Al photodiode. The PEDOT:PSS–TiO{sub 2} suspension has been spun coated onto the ITO substrates primarily and annealed to densify the film by vaporizing water contents in the film. A ternary blend of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM in optimized volumetric ratio has been sequentially spun-cast to serve as a photoactive film. Significantly improved values of the sensing parameters such as responsivity (4 mA/W) and photo-to-dark current ratio (∼6.4 × 10{sup 4}) have also been found. Response/recovery times of the fabricated sensor remain almost the same (<1 s) as previously reported for PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC{sub 71}BM ternary blend.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photo-sensing of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM blend-based photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Qayyum; Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Ahmad, Zubair; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2015-09-01

    The sensing parameters of previously reported PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM ternary blend-based organic photodetector have been improved in the present study. Improvement has been successfully demonstrated by doping TiO2 nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS thin film. TiO2 nanoparticles of 50, 100 and 250 nm diameters have initially been dispersed in PEDOT:PSS, and the resulting suspension has been spun coated on glass substrates and subjected to UV/vis and PL study. Thin film of PEDOT:PSS-TiO2 (100 nm) has shown maximum quenching in PL spectra, along with fairly good visible-light absorption. For further studies, 5 wt% TiO2 (100 nm) nanoparticles dispersion in PEDOT:PSS has been utilized for the fabrication of ITO/PEDOT:PSS-TiO2/PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM/Al photodiode. The PEDOT:PSS-TiO2 suspension has been spun coated onto the ITO substrates primarily and annealed to densify the film by vaporizing water contents in the film. A ternary blend of PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM in optimized volumetric ratio has been sequentially spun-cast to serve as a photoactive film. Significantly improved values of the sensing parameters such as responsivity (4 mA/W) and photo-to-dark current ratio ( 6.4 × 104) have also been found. Response/recovery times of the fabricated sensor remain almost the same (<1 s) as previously reported for PFO-DBT:MEH-PPV:PC71BM ternary blend.

  14. Study of exciton transfer in dense quantum dot nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Coskun, Yasemin; Ibrahimova, Vusala; Tuncel, Donus; Govorov, Alexander O.; Sun, Xiao Wei; Xiong, Qihua; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-09-01

    Nanocomposites of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) integrated into conjugated polymers (CPs) are key to hybrid optoelectronics, where engineering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale is crucial. For such excitonic operation, it was believed that exciton diffusion is essential to realize nonradiative energy transfer from CPs to QDs. In this study, contrary to the previous literature, efficient exciton transfer is demonstrated in the nanocomposites of dense QDs, where exciton transfer can be as efficient as 80% without requiring the assistance of exciton diffusion. This is enabled by uniform dispersion of QDs at high density (up to ~70 wt%) in the nanocomposite while avoiding phase segregation. Theoretical modeling supports the experimental observation of weakly temperature dependent nonradiative energy transfer dynamics. This new finding provides the ability to design hybrid light-emitting diodes that show an order of magnitude enhanced external quantum efficiencies.Nanocomposites of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) integrated into conjugated polymers (CPs) are key to hybrid optoelectronics, where engineering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale is crucial. For such excitonic operation, it was believed that exciton diffusion is essential to realize nonradiative energy transfer from CPs to QDs. In this study, contrary to the previous literature, efficient exciton transfer is demonstrated in the nanocomposites of dense QDs, where exciton transfer can be as efficient as 80% without requiring the assistance of exciton diffusion. This is enabled by uniform dispersion of QDs at high density (up to ~70 wt%) in the nanocomposite while avoiding phase segregation. Theoretical modeling supports the experimental observation of weakly temperature dependent nonradiative energy transfer dynamics. This new finding provides the ability to design hybrid light-emitting diodes that show an order of magnitude enhanced external quantum efficiencies. Electronic supplementary

  15. Design and fabrication of colloidal polymer nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.; Keddie, JL

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that colloidal polymer particles can be used to create organised structures by methods of horizontal deposition, vertical deposition, spin-casting, and surface pattern-assisted deposition. Each particle acts as a building block in the structure. This paper reviews how two-phase (or hybrid) polymer colloids can offer an attractive method to create nanocomposites. Structure in the composite can be controlled at the nanoscale by using such particles. Methods to create armo...

  16. Frequency-Stable Ionic-Type Hybrid Gate Dielectrics for High Mobility Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sang Heo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate high mobility solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs by using a high-frequency-stable ionic-type hybrid gate dielectric (HGD. The HGD gate dielectric, a blend of sol-gel aluminum oxide (AlOx and poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP, exhibited high dielectric constant (ε~8.15 and high-frequency-stable characteristics (1 MHz. Using the ionic-type HGD as a gate dielectric layer, an minimal electron-double-layer (EDL can be formed at the gate dielectric/InOx interface, enhancing the field-effect mobility of the TFTs. Particularly, using the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics annealed at 350 °C, InOx TFTs having an average field-effect mobility of 16.1 cm2/Vs were achieved (maximum mobility of 24 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics can be processed at a low temperature of 150 °C, which may enable their applications in low-thermal-budget plastic and elastomeric substrates. In addition, we systematically studied the operational stability of the InOx TFTs using the HGD gate dielectric, and it was observed that the HGD gate dielectric effectively suppressed the negative threshold voltage shift during the negative-illumination-bias stress possibly owing to the recombination of hole carriers injected in the gate dielectric with the negatively charged ionic species in the HGD gate dielectric.

  17. Top-gate hybrid complementary inverters using pentacene and amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors with high operational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the operational stability of low-voltage hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a top-gate bottom source-drain geometry. The inverters are comprised of p-channel pentacene and n-channel amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs with bi-layer gate dielectrics formed from an amorphous layer of a fluoropolymer (CYTOP and a high-k layer of Al2O3. The p- and n- channel TFTs show saturation mobility values of 0.1 ± 0.01 and 5.0 ± 0.5 cm2/Vs, respectively. The individual transistors show high electrical stability with less than 6% drain-to-source current variations after 1 h direct current (DC bias stress. Complementary inverters yield hysteresis-free voltage transfer characteristics for forward and reverse input biases with static DC gain values larger than 45 V/V at 8 V before and after being subjected to different conditions of electrical stress. Small and reversible variations of the switching threshold voltage of the inverters during these stress tests are compatible with the observed stability of the individual TFTs.

  18. Solution-deposited organic-inorganic hybrid multilayer gate dielectrics. Design, synthesis, microstructures, and electrical properties with thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young-geun; Emery, Jonathan D; Bedzyk, Michael J; Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-06

    We report here on the rational synthesis, processing, and dielectric properties of novel layer-by-layer organic/inorganic hybrid multilayer dielectric films enabled by polarizable π-electron phosphonic acid building blocks and ultrathin ZrO(2) layers. These new zirconia-based self-assembled nanodielectric (Zr-SAND) films (5-12 nm thick) are readily fabricated via solution processes under ambient atmosphere. Attractive Zr-SAND properties include amenability to accurate control of film thickness, large-area uniformity, well-defined nanostructure, exceptionally large electrical capacitance (up to 750 nF/cm(2)), excellent insulating properties (leakage current densities as low as 10(-7) A/cm(2)), and excellent thermal stability. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated with pentacene and PDIF-CN(2) as representative organic semiconductors and zinc-tin-oxide (Zn-Sn-O) as a representative inorganic semiconductor function well at low voltages (films, functionalized on the surface with various alkylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers, are investigated and shown to correlate closely with the alkylphosphonic acid chain dimensions.

  19. Effect of Nano-TiC Dispersed Particles and Electro-Codeposition Parameters on Morphology and Structure of Hybrid Ni/TiC Nanocomposite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-06

    This research work describes the effect of dispersed titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles into nickel plating bath on Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers obtained by electro-codeposition. The surface morphology of Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of coatings and the incorporation percentage of TiC nanoparticles into Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has been applied in order to investigate the phase structure as well as the corresponding relative texture coefficients of the composite layers. The results show that the concentration of nano-TiC particles added in the nickel electrolyte affects the inclusion percentage of TiC into Ni/TiC nano strucured layers, as well as the corresponding morphology, relative texture coefficients and thickness indicating an increasing tendency with the increasing concentration of nano-TiC concentration. By increasing the amount of TiC nanoparticles in the electrolyte, their incorporation into nickel matrix also increases. The hybrid Ni/nano-TiC composite layers obtained revealed a higher roughness and higher hardness; therefore, these layers are promising superhydrophobic surfaces for special application and could be more resistant to wear than the pure Ni layers.

  20. Optical properties of P3HT:tributylphosphine oxide-capped CdSe nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benchaabane, A. [Faculte des Sciences d' Amiens, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Amiens (France); Universite Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Materiaux avances et phenomenes quantiques, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Universite Arabe des Sciences, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs et des Etudes Technologiques, Tunis (Tunisia); Ben Hamed, Z.; Kouki, F.; Bouchriha, H. [Universite Tunis El-Manar, Laboratoire de Materiaux avances et phenomenes quantiques, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis El Manar, Tunis (Tunisia); Lahmar, A.; Zellama, K.; Zeinert, A. [Faculte des Sciences d' Amiens, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Amiens (France); Sanhoury, M.A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Structurale, Synthese et Etudes Physicochimiques, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-08-15

    The optical properties of nanocomposite layers prepared by incorporation of tributylphosphine oxide (TBPO)-capped CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in a P3HT polymer matrix are studied using different nanocrystal concentrations. Reflection spectra analyzed through Kim oscillator model lead to the determination of optical constants such as refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, dielectric permittivity ε and absorption coefficient α. Using the common Cauchy, Drude-Lorentz, Tauc and single-effective-oscillator theoretical models, we have determined the values of static refractive index n{sub s} and permittivity ε{sub s}, plasma frequency ω{sub p}, carrier density N, optical band gap E{sub g} and oscillator and dispersion energies E{sub 0} and E{sub d}, respectively. It is found that TBPO-capped CdSe NCs concentration affects the optoelectronic parameters of the nanocomposite thin films. Moreover, the disorder of this hybrid system is also studied by the determination of Urbach energy, which increases with TBPO-capped CdSe concentration. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  2. Nafion–clay nanocomposite membranes: Morphology and properties

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Alonso, Rafael

    2009-05-01

    A series of Nafion-clay nanocomposite membranes were synthesized and characterized. To minimize any adverse effects on ionic conductivity the clay nanoparticles were H+ exchanged prior to mixing with Nafion. Well-dispersed, mechanically robust, free-standing nanocomposite membranes were prepared by casting from a water suspension at 180 °C under pressure. SAXS profiles reveal a preferential orientation of Nafion aggregates parallel to the membrane surface, or normal plane. This preferred orientation is induced by the platy nature of the clay nanoparticles, which tend to align parallel to the surface of the membrane. The nanocomposite membranes show dramatically reduced methanol permeability, while maintaining high levels of proton conductivity. The hybrid films are much stiffer and can withstand much higher temperatures compared to pure Nafion. The superior thermomechanical, electrochemical and barrier properties of the nanocomposite membranes are of significant interest for direct methanol fuel cell applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanocomposite thin films for optical temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Brown, Thomas D.; Buric, Michael P.; Matranga, Christopher

    2017-02-14

    The disclosure relates to an optical method for temperature sensing utilizing a temperature sensing material. In an embodiment the gas stream, liquid, or solid has a temperature greater than about 500.degree. C. The temperature sensing material is comprised of metallic nanoparticles dispersed in a dielectric matrix. The metallic nanoparticles have an electronic conductivity greater than approximately 10.sup.-1 S/cm at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. The dielectric matrix has an electronic conductivity at least two orders of magnitude less than the dispersed metallic nanoparticles at the temperature of the temperature sensing material. In some embodiments, the chemical composition of a gas stream or liquid is simultaneously monitored by optical signal shifts through multiple or broadband wavelength interrogation approaches. In some embodiments, the dielectric matrix provides additional functionality due to a temperature dependent band-edge, an optimized chemical sensing response, or an optimized refractive index of the temperature sensing material for integration with optical waveguides.

  4. Nanocomposite thin films for optical gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Brown, Thomas D

    2014-06-03

    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for gas sensing in a gas stream utilizing a gas sensing material. In an embodiment the gas stream has a temperature greater than about 500.degree. C. The gas sensing material is comprised of gold nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. Changes in the chemical composition of the gas stream are detected by changes in the plasmon resonance peak. The method disclosed offers significant advantage over active and reducible matrix materials typically utilized, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or TiO.sub.2.

  5. Microstructure and Thermomechanical Properties of Polyimide-Silica Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. M. Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyimide-silica nanocomposites with interphase chemical bonding have been prepared using the sol-gel process. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties were studied as a function of silica content and compared with the similar composites having no interphase interaction. The polyimide precursors, polyamic acids (PAAs with or without pendant hydroxyl groups were prepared from the reaction of pyromellitic dianhydride with a mixture of oxydianiline and 1,3 phenylenediamine or 2,4-diminophenol in dimethylacetamide. The PAA with pendant hydroxyl groups was reacted with isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to produce alkoxy groups on the chain. The reinforcement of PAA matrices with or without alkoxy groups on the chain was carried out by mixing appropriate amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and carrying out its hydrolysis and condensation in a sol-gel process. Thin hybrid films were imidized by successive heating up to 300C∘. The presence of alkoxy groups on the polymer chain and their cocondensation with TEOS developed the silica network which was interconnected chemically with the polyimide matrix. SEM studies show a drastic decrease in the silica particle size in the chemically bonded system. Higher thermal stability and mechanical strength, improved transparency, and low values of thermal coefficient of expansion were observed in case of chemically bonded composites.

  6. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shi [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Gaume, Romain, E-mail: gaume@ucf.edu [CREOL, College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  7. Transparent bulk-size nanocomposites with high inorganic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Gaume, Romain

    2015-12-01

    With relatively high nanoparticle loading in polymer matrices, hybrid nanocomposites made by colloidal dispersion routes suffer from severe inhomogeneous agglomeration, a phenomenon that deteriorates light transmission even when the refractive indices of the inorganic and organic phases are closely matched. The dispersion of particles in a matrix is of paramount importance to obtain composites of high optical quality. Here, we describe an innovative, yet straightforward method to fabricate monolithic transparent hybrid nanocomposites with very high particle loading and high refractive index mismatch tolerance between the inorganic and organic constituents. We demonstrate 77% transmission at 800 nm in a 2 mm-thick acrylate polymer nanocomposite containing 61 vol. % CaF2 nanoparticles. Modeling shows that similar performance could easily be obtained with various inorganic phases relevant to a number of photonic applications.

  8. (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PMMA; polymer nanocomposite; sol–gel; SEM; FTIR. 1. Introduction ... 'sol–gel', was fol- lowed for the same (Schmidt 1998; Limmer et al 2002). In this paper, we propose a new method to prepare PMMA nanocomposite by free radical suspension polymerization ... the hydrophilic silica particles migrated to the polymer.

  9. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications.

  10. Design and fabrication of colloidal polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Keddie, Joseph L

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that colloidal polymer particles can be used to create organised structures by methods of horizontal deposition, vertical deposition, spin-casting, and surface pattern-assisted deposition. Each particle acts as a building block in the structure. This paper reviews how two-phase (or hybrid) polymer colloids can offer an attractive method to create nanocomposites. Structure in the composite can be controlled at the nanoscale by using such particles. Methods to create armored particles, such as via methods of hetero-flocculation and Pickering polymerization, are of particular interest here. Polymer colloids can also be blended with other types of nanoparticles, e.g. nanotubes and clay platelets, to create nanocomposites. Structure can be controlled over length scales approaching the macroscopic through the assembly of hybrid particles or particle blends via any of the various deposition methods. Colloidal nanocomposites can offer unprecedented long-range 2D or 3D order that provides a periodic modulation of physical properties. They can also be employed as porous templates for further nanomaterial fabrication. Challenges in the design and control of the macroscopic properties, especially mechanical, are considered. The importance of the internal interfacial structure (e.g. between inorganic and polymer particles) is highlighted.

  11. Alloy Design Criteria for Solid Metal Dealloying of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Ian; Demkowicz, Michael J.

    2017-11-01

    Liquid metal dealloying is a promising route for making metal nanocomposites with a wide range of microstructure morphologies. However, it is not well suited for synthesizing nanocomposites in thin-film form. We propose a new route to fabricating fully dense nanocomposite thin films by dealloying a binary parent alloy in a unary solid metal solvent. We fabricated and tested three thin-film diffusion couples to understand the alloy design criteria for synthesizing dealloyed thin films free of cracks and voids. We find that the best-quality dealloyed thin films may be obtained from alloys that do not undergo large volume changes upon dealloying and that exhibit minimal net vacancy flux during interdiffusion.

  12. Sonochemical synthesis of Graphene-Ce-TiO2 and Graphene-Fe-TiO2 ternary hybrid photocatalyst nanocomposite and its application in degradation of crystal violet dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, T P; Bhanvase, B A; Rathod, A P; Pinjari, D V; Sonawane, S H

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) using Hummers-Offeman method in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations. Further loading of TiO2 photocatalyst on prepared GO was accomplished which is basically oxidation reduction reaction between graphene oxide and titanium isopropoxide that leads to the formation of graphene-TiO2 nanocomposite. Graphene-Ce-TiO2 and Graphene-Fe-TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared using one step in-situ ultrasound assisted method using GO, titanium isopropoxide, cerium nitrate, ferric nitrate, and 2-propanol. The successfully prepared graphene-TiO2, Graphene-Ce-TiO2, Graphene-Fe-TiO2 nanocomposites were then characterized using XRD, SEM and TEM analysis. The obtained XRD patterns clearly indicates the formation of anatase TiO2 on graphene nanosheets and it also indicates the presence of Ce and Fe in the Graphene-Ce-TiO2 and Graphene-Fe-TiO2 nanocomposite respectively. Further the use of the prepared nanocomposites as a photocatalyst have been studied for the degradation of crystal violet dye. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst doping, catalyst loading and initial concentration of dye on its degradation were studied. The effectiveness of the prepared catalysts were compared for the degradation of crystal violet dye. It has been observed that Graphene-Fe-TiO2 exhibits maximum photocatalytic activity compared to Graphene-Ce-TiO2 and Graphene-TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and optical and electrical evaluation of bulk SiO{sub 2} sonogel hybrid composites and vacuum thermal evaporated thin films prepared from molecular materials derived from (Fe, Co) metallic phthalocyanines and 1,8 dihydroxiantraquinone compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Vergara, Maria Elena [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte. Avenida Universidad Anahuac 46, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786 Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Morales-Saavedra, Omar G. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: omar.morales@ccadet.unam.mx; Ontiveros-Barrera, Fernando G.; Torres-Zuniga, Vicente; Ortega-Martinez, Roberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, CCADET-UNAM, A.P. 70-186, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz Rebollo, Armando [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, IIM-UNAM, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-02-25

    Semiconducting molecular material of PcFe(CN)L1 and PcCo(CN)L1 (L1 = 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone), PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 (L2 = double potassium salt of 1,8 dihydroxianthraquinone) have been successfully used to prepare thin film and bulk sol-gel hybrid optical materials. These samples were developed according to the vacuum thermal evaporation technique and the catalyst-free sonogel route, respectively. Thin films samples were deposited on Corning glass substrates and crystalline silicon wafers and were characterized by infrared (FTIR), Raman and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies. IR-spectroscopy and Raman studies unambiguously confirmed that the molecular material thin films exhibit the same intra-molecular bonds, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds significantly. These results show that it is possible to deposit molecular materials of PcFe(CN)L2 and PcCo(CN)L2 on Corning glass substrates and silicon wafers. From the UV-vis studies the optical band gap (E{sub g}) was evaluated. The effect of temperature on conductivity was also evaluated in these samples. Finally, the studied molecular systems dissolved at different concentrations in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were successfully embedded into a highly pure SiO{sub 2} sonogel network generated via sonochemical reactions to form several solid state, optically active sol-gel hybrid glasses. By this method, homogeneous and stable hybrid monoliths suitable for optical characterization can be produced. The linear optical properties of these amorphous bulk structures were determined by the Brewster angle method and by absorption-, Raman- and photoluminescent (PL)-spectroscopies, respectively.

  14. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  15. A hybrid method combining the TD-MoM with the TD-UTD to calculate the transient radiation of thin dipoles in presence of a perfectly conducting screen

    OpenAIRE

    A. Becker; Hansen, V.

    2005-01-01

    A time domain Method of Moments algorithm (TD-MoM) is combined with the time domain version of the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (TD-UTD). By use of the TD-MoM the fields radiated from thin wire structures positioned in free space are determined. The TD-UTD is applied to calculate the fields scattered by a perfectly conducting screen. Both techniques are hybridized by adding possible reflected and diffracted fields in the TD-MoM algorithm and by using the TD-MoM solution to calculate the fiel...

  16. Superparamagnetic gamma-Fe2O3-SiO2 Nanocomposites from Fe2O3-SiO2-PVA Hybrid Xerogels: Characterization and MRI Preliminary Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ianasi, C.; Costisor, O.; Putz, A.-M.; Plocek, Jiří; Sacarescu, L.; Nižňanský, Daniel; Savii, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 27 (2017), s. 2783-2791 ISSN 1385-2728 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : nanocomposite * oxides * magnetic properties * saturation magnetization * superparamagnetic behaviour Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.924, year: 2016

  17. Biocompatible Bacterial Cellulose-Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Andrea G. P. R.; Figueiredo, Ana R. P.; Alonso-Varona, Ana; Fernandes, Susana C. M.; Palomares, Teodoro; Rubio-Azpeitia, Eva; Barros-Timmons, Ana; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Pascoal Neto, Carlos; Freire, Carmen S. R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of bacterial cellulose-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite films was prepared by in situ radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), using variable amounts of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as cross-linker. Thin films were obtained, and their physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties were evaluated. The films showed improved translucency compared to BC and enhanced thermal stability and mechanical performance when compared to poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). Finally, BC/PHEMA nanocomposites proved to be nontoxic to human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and thus are pointed as potential dry dressings for biomedical applications. PMID:24093101

  18. Caracterização viscosimétrica de nanocompósitos híbridos PS/POSS Viscometric characterization of PS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos híbridos de poliestireno (PS e poliedros oligoméricos silsesquioxanos (POSS com diferentes composições e graus de hibridização foram obtidos por processamento reativo no estado fundido utilizando-se peróxido de dicumila (DCP como iniciador, na presença ou não de estireno como agente de transferência de radical. Os materiais foram caracterizados viscosimetricamente por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC usando detecção tripla por espalhamento de luz, viscosimetria e índice de refração. As amostras PS/POSS processadas com estireno apresentaram maiores valores de massa molar ponderal média (Mw e menores valores de polidispersão (Mw/Mn, devido ao maior grau de conversão da reação de hibridização do PS-POSS (28-40% e do menor grau de degradação (cisão das cadeias do PS, quando comparadas com amostras PS/POSS processadas sem estireno nas quais o grau de conversão ficou em torno de 24-28%. Para os sistemas PS e PS/POSS em solução com THF, os parâmetros da equação de Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS, α ≅ 0,7 e log K ≅ -3,5 a -3,9 e os valores dos parâmetros de interação polímero-solvente, χij ≅ 0,49, não apresentaram diferenças significativas com relação aos tamanhos moleculares. Por outro lado, essas diferenças de tamanhos moleculares foram caracterizadas por uma função cumulativa da fração mássica de cadeias em função da distância média quadrática entre pontas de cadeia (0½.Polystyrene (PS and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrid nanocomposites with different compositions were obtained by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene as radical transfer agent. The materials were characterized by viscosimetry by means of gel permeation chromatography (GPC using triple-detector: light scattering, viscometer and refractive index. PS/POSS samples processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular

  19. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    the morphology of palygorskite, but did not destroy its architecture. XPS results indicated that the introduction of palygorskite resulted in a negative shift of binding energy of Pd deposited on it. The electrochemical results showed .... Figure 1 The change of palygorskite structure after acid treatment. Figure 2 XRD patterns of ...

  20. Volumetric composition of nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Mannila, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterisation of the properties of composite materials with nanoscale fibres is central for the further progress in optimization of their manufacturing and properties. In the present study, a methodology for the determination and analysis of the volumetric composition of nanocomposites...... significant figures. The plotting of the measured nanocomposite density as a function of the nanofibre weight content is shown to be a first good approach of assessing the porosity content of the materials. The known gravimetric composition of the nanocomposites is converted into a volumetric composition....... An analytical model, previously established for conventional fibre composites, is used for the analysis of the volumetric composition. For the aluminosilicate/polylactate nanocomposites, based on the established linear relationship between the porosity content and the fibre volume content, the fibre correlated...

  1. Nanocomposite thermite ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, Alexander S [Albuquerque, NM; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Stuecker, John N [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-11-01

    A nanocomposite thermite ink for use in inkjet, screen, and gravure printing. Embodiments of this invention do not require separation of the fuel and oxidizer constituents prior to application of the ink to the printed substrate.

  2. Tribology of Nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides recent information on nanocomposites tribology. Chapter 1 provides information on tribology of bulk polymer nanocomposites and nanocomposite coatings. Chapter 2 is dedicated to nano and micro PTFE for surface lubrication of carbon fabric reinforced polyethersulphone composites. Chapter 3 describes Tribology of MoS2 -based nanocomposites. Chapter 4 contains information on friction and wear of Al2O2 -based composites with dispersed and agglomerated nanoparticles. Finally, chapter 5 is dedicated to wear of multi-scale phase reinforced composites. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It is a useful reference for academics, materials and physics researchers, materials, mechanical and manufacturing engineers, both as final undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

  3. Chitosan-based nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bio-nanocomposites, where biopolymers are formulated with fillers with nanometric dimensions, have raised great research interest because of the increasing demand of environmental friendly products. Due to the nanometer size...

  4. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  5. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Iron Oxide Nanocomposite as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Eeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPy was reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO and iron oxide to achieve electrochemical stability and enhancement. The ternary nanocomposite film was prepared using a facile one-pot chronoamperometry approach, which is inexpensive and experimentally friendly. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM image shows a layered morphology of the ternary nanocomposite film as opposed to the dendritic structure of PPy, suggesting hybridization of the three materials during electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD profile shows the presence of Fe2O3 in the ternary nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry (CV analysis illustrates enhanced current for the nanocomposite by twofold and fourfold compared to its binary (PPy/RGO and individual (PPy counterparts, respectively. The ternary nanocomposite film exhibited excellent specific capacitance retention even after 200 cycles of charge/discharge.

  6. Síntese e caracterização de nanocompósitos Ni: SiO2 processados na forma de filmes finos Synthesis and characterization of Ni: SiO2 nanocomposites processed as thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gouveia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We have produced nanocomposite films of Ni:SiO2 by an alternative polymeric precursor route. Films, with thickness of ~ 1000 nm, were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, flame absorption atomic spectrometry, and dc magnetization. Results from the microstructural characterizations indicated that metallic Ni-nanoparticles with average diameter of ~ 3 nm are homogeneously distributed in an amorphous SiO2 matrix. Magnetization measurements revealed a blocking temperature T B ~ 7 K for the most diluted sample and the absence of an exchange bias suggesting that Ni nanoparticles are free from an oxide layer.

  7. Modeling of rheological behavior for polymer nanocomposites via Brownian dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Dong Gi; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-11-01

    Reptation dynamics of the coarse-grained polymer molecular chain is investigated to predict rheological behavior of polymeric nanocomposites by applying Brownian dynamics simulation to the proposed full chain reptation model. Extensibility of polymer chain and constraint release from chain stretch or retraction are of main concern in describing the nanocomposite systems. Rheological results are well predicted by applying the improved simulation algorithm using stepwise Wiener processes. Strong shear thinning and elongational strain hardening are predicted and compared with the experimental results of polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites. The full chain reptation model enables us to predict dynamic motion of the polymer chain segments and understand mechanisms for characteristic rheological behaviors.

  8. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Au Nanocomposite for NO2 Sensing at Low Operating Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A reduced grapheme oxide (rGO/Au hybrid nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment using graphite and HAuCl4 as the precursors. Characterization, including X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelecton spectroscopy (XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, indicates the formation of rGO/Au. A gas sensor fabricated with rGO/Au nanocomposite was applied for NO2 detection at 50 °C. Compared with pure rGO, rGO/Au nanocomposite exhibits higher sensitivity, a more rapid response–recovery process and excellent reproducibility.

  9. Flexible carbon nanotube nanocomposite sensor for multiple physiological parameter monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-10-16

    The paper presents the design, development, and fabrication of a flexible and wearable sensor based on carbon nanotube nanocomposite for monitoring specific physiological parameters. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as the substrate with a thin layer of a nanocomposite comprising functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and PDMS as electrodes. The sensor patch functionalized on strain-sensitive capacitive sensing from interdigitated electrodes which were patterned with a laser on the nanocomposite layer. The thickness of the electrode layer was optimized regarding strain and conductivity. The sensor patch was connected to a monitoring device from one end and attached to the body on the other for examining purposes. Experimental results show the capability of the sensor patch used to detect respiration and limb movements. This work is a stepping stone of the sensing system to be developed for multiple physiological parameters.

  10. An innovative concept of use of redox-active electrolyte in asymmetric capacitor based on MWCNTs/MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Patil, Amar M.; Kim, Jin H.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2016-01-01

    In present investigation, we have prepared a nanocomposites of highly porous MnO2 spongy balls and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in thin film form and tested in novel redox-active electrolyte (K3[Fe(CN)6] doped aqueous Na2SO4) for supercapacitor application. Briefly, MWCNTs were deposited on stainless steel substrate by “dip and dry” method followed by electrodeposition of MnO2 spongy balls. Further, the supercapacitive properties of these hybrid thin films were evaluated in hybrid electrolyte ((K3[Fe(CN)6 doped aqueous Na2SO4). Thus, this is the first proof-of-design where redox-active electrolyte is applied to MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid thin films. Impressively, the MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid film showed a significant improvement in electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 1012 Fg−1 at 2 mA cm−2 current density in redox-active electrolyte, which is 1.5-fold higher than that of conventional electrolyte (Na2SO4). Further, asymmetric capacitor based on MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid film as positive and Fe2O3 thin film as negative electrode was fabricated and tested in redox-active electrolytes. Strikingly, MWCNTs/MnO2//Fe2O3 asymmetric cell showed an excellent supercapacitive performance with maximum specific capacitance of 226 Fg−1 and specific energy of 54.39 Wh kg−1 at specific power of 667 Wkg−1. Strikingly, actual practical demonstration shows lightning of 567 red LEDs suggesting “ready-to sell” product for industries. PMID:27982087

  11. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  12. CdS-graphene Nanocomposite for Efficient Visible-light-driven Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ehtisham; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports cadmium sulphide nanoparticles-(CdS NPs)-graphene nanocomposite (CdS-Graphene), prepared by a simple method, in which CdS NPs were anchored/decorated successfully onto graphene sheets. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized using standard characterization techniques. A combination of CdS NPs with the optimal amount of two-dimensional graphene sheets had a profound influence on the properties of the resulting hybrid nanocomposite, such as enhanced optical, photocatalytic, and photo-electronic properties. The photocatalytic degradation ability of the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite was evaluated by degrading different types of dyes in the dark and under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the photoelectrode performance of the nanocomposite was evaluated by different electrochemical techniques. The results showed that the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite can serve as an efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst as well as photoelectrochemical performance for optoelectronic applications. The significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of the CdS-Graphene nanocomposite was attributed to the synergistic effects of the enhanced light absorption behaviour and high electron conductivity of the CdS NPs and graphene sheets, which facilitates charge separation and lengthens the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs by reducing the recombination rate. The as-synthesized narrow band gap CdS-Graphene nanocomposite can be used for wide range of visible light-induced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical based applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hierarchical multifunctional nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2014-03-01

    Nanocomposites; including nano-materials such as nano-particles, nanoclays, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets; are of significant importance in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. Due to the nanometer size of these inclusions, their physicochemical characteristics differ significantly from those of micron size and bulk materials. The field of nanocomposites involves the study of multiphase materials where at least one of the constituent phases has one dimension less than 100 nm. This is the range where the phenomena associated with the atomic and molecular interaction strongly influence the macroscopic properties of materials. Since the building blocks of nanocomposites are at nanoscale, they have an enormous surface area with numerous interfaces between the two intermix phases. The special properties of the nano-composite arise from the interaction of its phases at the interface and/or interphase regions. By contrast, in a conventional composite based on micrometer sized filler such as carbon fibers, the interfaces between the filler and matrix constitutes have a much smaller surface-to-volume fraction of the bulk materials, and hence influence the properties of the host structure to a much smaller extent. The optimum amount of nanomaterials in the nanocomposites depends on the filler size, shape, homogeneity of particles distribution, and the interfacial bonding properties between the fillers and matrix. The promise of nanocomposites lies in their multifunctionality, i.e., the possibility of realizing unique combination of properties unachievable with traditional materials. The challenges in reaching this promise are tremendous. They include control over the distribution in size and dispersion of the nanosize constituents, and tailoring and understanding the role of interfaces between structurally or chemically dissimilar phases on bulk properties. While the properties of the matrix can be improved by the inclusions of nanomaterials, the

  14. Piezoresistance in Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Reza

    Piezoresistivity in conductive polymer nanocomposites occurs because of the disturbance of particle networks in the polymer matrix. The piezoresistance effect becomes more prominent if the matrix material is compliant making these materials attractive for applications that require flexible force and displacement sensors such as e-textiles and biomechanical measurement devices. However, the exact mechanisms of piezoresistivity including the relationship between the matrix polymer, conductive particle, internal structure and the composite's piezoresistance need to be better understood before it can be applied for such applications. The objective of this thesis is to report on the development of conductive polymer nanocomposites for use as flexible sensors and electrodes. Electrically conductive and piezoresistive nanocomposites were fabricated by a scalable melt compounding process. Particular attention was given to elucidating the role of matrix and filler materials, plastic deformation and porosity on the electrical conduction and piezoresistance. These effects were parametrically investigated through characterizing the morphology, electrical properties, rheological properties, and piezoresistivity of the polymer nanocomposites. The electrical and rheological behavior of the nanocomposites was modeled by the percolation-power law. Furthermore, a model was developed to describe the piezoresistance behavior during plastic deformation in relation to the stress and filler concentration.

  15. Fabrication and characterisation of graphene oxide-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpaya, Dilini; Wang, Mingchao; Yan, Cheng; Liu, Meinan; Motta, Nunzio; Waclawik, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Adequate amount of graphene oxide (GO) was firstly prepared by oxidation of graphite and GO/epoxy nanocomposites were subsequently prepared by typical solution mixing technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, X-ray photoelectron (XPS), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the successful preparation of GO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the graphite oxide showed that they consist of a large amount of graphene oxide platelets with a curled morphology containing of a thin wrinkled sheet like structure. AFM image of the exfoliated GO signified that the average thickness of GO sheets is ~1.0 nm which is very similar to GO monolayer. Mechanical properties of as prepared GO/epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. Significant improvements in both Young's modulus and tensile strength were observed for the nanocomposites at very low level of GO loading. The Young's modulus of the nanocomposites containing 0.5 wt% GO was 1.72 GPa, which was 35 % higher than that of the pure epoxy resin (1.28 GPa). The effective reinforcement of the GO based epoxy nanocomposites can be attributed to the good dispersion and the strong interfacial interactions between the GO sheets and the epoxy resin matrices.

  16. Microporous Nanocomposite Enabled Microfluidic Biochip for Cardiac Biomarker Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nawab; Ali, Md Azahar; Rai, Prabhakar; Sharma, Ashutosh; Malhotra, B D; John, Renu

    2017-10-04

    This paper demonstrates an ultrasensitive microfluidic biochip nanoengineered with microporous manganese-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for detection of cardiac biomarker, namely human cardiac troponin I. In this device, the troponin sensitive microfluidic electrode consisted of a thin layer of manganese-reduced graphene oxide (Mn3O4-RGO) nanocomposite material. This nanocomposite thin layer was formed on surface of a patterned indium tin oxide substrate after modification with 3-aminopropyletriethoxysilane and was assembled with a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic system. The nanoengineered microelectrode was functionalized with antibodies specific to cardiac troponin I. The uniformly distributed flower-shaped nanostructured manganese oxide (nMn3O4) onto RGO nanosheets offered large surface area for enhanced loading of antibody molecules and improved electrochemical reaction at the sensor surface. This microfluidic device showed an excellent sensitivity of log [87.58] kΩ/(ng mL-1)/cm2 for quantification of human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) molecules in a wide detection range of 0.008-20 ng/mL. This device was found to have high stability, high reproducibility, and minimal interference with other biomarkers cardiac troponin C and T, myoglobin, and B-type natriuretic peptide. These advantageous features of the Mn3O4-RGO nanocomposite, in conjunction with microfluidic integration, enabled a promising microfluidic biochip platform for point-of-care detection of cardiac troponin.

  17. Sulfonated Polyimide-Clay Thin Films for Energy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Saeed, Shaukat; Shah, Syed Sakhawat; Rahim, Fazal; Duclaux, Laurent; Levêque, Jean-Marc; Reinert, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) are considered as the promising alternatives to Nafion as membrane materials for the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). They generally exhibit high ionic conductivity, good mechanical properties, excellent thermal and chemical stabilities. The six-membered ring, naphthalenic anhydride-based SPIs, not only exhibit superior chemical and thermo-oxidative stabilities but are also more resistant to hydrolysis than their five-membered phthalic anhydride-based SPIs. The composites based on napthalenic polyimides are also significantly stable in high temperature environment and show better stability to hydrolysis. Incorporation of inorganic fillers into organic polymers has gained tremendous attention and these new materials are called organic-inorganic hybrids. Few patents related to the synthesis and performance PEM materials have been reviewed and cited. Keeping in view the importance of sulfonated polyimide based nanocomposites as potential membrane materials for PEM in fuel cell, we have synthesized SPIs clay based nanocomposite as potential membrane material. The objective of this work was to synthesize clay based SPIs thin films which could be used as membrane materials in PEM fuel cell for energy applications. Methods/Experimental: At the first step the nanometric sheets of vermiculite clay prepared via sonication was surface modified by grafting 3-APTES. Then the SPI was synthesized via one-step high temperature direct imidization method, which serve as a matrix material. The organo modified VMT was dispersed via sonication in the SPI matrix. Four different sets of organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes thin films, having VMT contents in the range of 1 to 7 wt.% were prepared by casting, curing and acidification route. The synthesis of SPIs clay based thin films were carried out at three different steps and fully characterized. The synthesis of SPIs and SPIs clay based thin films were analyzed via different analytical techniques

  18. Epoxy and Silicone Optical Nanocomposites Filled with Grafted Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng

    , the grafted PGMA brushes effectively screen the van der Waals attraction between the particles, and homogenous nanoparticle dispersions of grafted nanoparticles were obtained. Transparent high refractive index TiO2/epoxy thin film and bulk nancomposites were obtained by dispersing PGMA brushes-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy matrix. The refractive index of the nanocomposites showed a linear dependence on the volume fraction of TiO2 nanoparticles and the optical transparency could be generally described by the Rayleigh scattering model. This powerful dispersing technique was further employed to make visibly transparent, UV/IR blocking ITO/epoxy nanocomposites which can be easily applied onto glass and plastic substrates as energy saving optical coating materials. To produce transparent silicone nanocomposites, we directly coupled phosphate-terminated PDMS chains onto the optical nanoparticle surface. It was observed that the mono-modal PDMS-grafted particles usually formed agglomerates within silicone matrices, whereas the bimodal PDMS-grafted particles were able to be individually dispersed even within high molecular weight matrices. Transparent high refractive index bulk TiO2/silicone nanocomposites were successfully prepared by filling with bimodal PDMS-grafted TiO2 nanoparticles. Furthermore, we used the PDMS-grafted TiO2/silicone nanocomposite as a model system to create a methodology to predict and control the dispersion behavior of grafted nanoparticles. The good agreement between experimental observation of dispersion of mono-modal and bimodal grafted particles and theoretical prediction would better guide future experiments and lead to predictability in polymer composite design. Finally, the bimodal grafted chain design was implemented in the preparation of transparent and luminescent CdSe/silicone nanocomposites with potential application as non-scattering light conversion materials for LEDs. The homogeneous dispersion of bimodal PDMS

  19. Low contrast- and low radiation dose protocol for cardiac CT of thin adults at 256-row CT: usefulness of low tube voltage scans and the hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Kidoh, Masafumi; Sakaino, Naritsugu; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Kawahara, Tetsuya; Harada, Kazunori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect on image quality of a low contrast and radiation dose protocol for cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a low tube voltage, the hybrid-iterative reconstruction algorithm, and a 256-row CT scanner. Before clinical study, we performed phantom experiments to evaluate the hybrid iterative reconstruction technique. We randomly assigned 68 patients undergoing cardiac CT to one of two protocols; 33 were scanned with our conventional 120 kVp protocol, the contrast material (370 mgI/kg body weight) was delivered over 15 s. The other 35 patients underwent scanning at a tube voltage of 80 kVp; the contrast dose, reduced by 50 % (185 mgI/kg), was delivered at the same fractional dose (24.7 mgI/kg/s). The 80 kVp images were post-processed with the 60 % hybrid-iterative reconstruction technique. We evaluated the effective dose (ED), image noise, mean attenuation, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each protocol. The hybrid-iterative reconstruction technique offers almost same spatial resolution and noise-power-spectrum curve as compared with filtered back projection reconstruction. There were no decrease in spatial resolution and no shift of spatial frequency in noise power spectrum. The average ED was 74 % lower with the 80- than the 120 kVp protocol (1.4 vs 5.4 mSv). Dunnett's test showed that there were no significant differences in the image noise, mean attenuation, and CNR between hybrid-iterative-reconstructed 80 kVp scans and 120 kVp scans (28.6 ± 6.5 vs 25.3 ± 4.5, p = 0.18; 475.0 HU ± 87.0 vs 445.3 HU ± 67.7, p = 0.20; 17.1 HU ± 3.5 vs 17.8 HU ± 3.1, p = 0.53). The low kVp scan and hybrid-iterative reconstruction algorithm can dramatically decrease the radiation dose and contrast dose with adequate image quality at cardiac CT of thin adults using a 256-row CT scanner.

  20. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  1. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites for theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Lev A; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2016-11-01

    Although Au-particle potential in nanobiotechnology has been recognized for the last 15 years, new insights into the unique properties of multifunctional nanostructures have just recently started to emerge. Multifunctional gold-based nanocomposites combine multiple modalities to improve the efficacy of the therapeutic and diagnostic treatment of cancer and other socially significant diseases. This review is focused on multifunctional gold-based theranostic nanocomposites, which can be fabricated by three main routes. The first route is to create composite (or hybrid) nanoparticles, whose components enable diagnostic and therapeutic functions. The second route is based on smart bioconjugation techniques to functionalize gold nanoparticles with a set of different molecules, enabling them to perform targeting, diagnostic, and therapeutic functions in a single treatment procedure. Finally, the third route for multifunctionalized composite nanoparticles is a combination of the first two and involves additional functionalization of hybrid nanoparticles with several molecules possessing different theranostic modalities. This last class of multifunctionalized composites also includes fluorescent atomic clusters with multiple functionalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  3. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    . A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools......Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials......, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance....

  4. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2017-10-13

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  5. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance. PMID:29027926

  6. Potential of polyaniline modified clay nanocomposite as a selective decontamination adsorbent for Pb(II) ions from contaminated waters; kinetics and thermodynamic study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Somayeh Piri; Zahra Alikhani Zanjani; Farideh Piri; Abbasali Zamani; Mohamadreza Yaftian; Mehdi Davari

    2016-01-01

    .... In this article the synthesis and characterization of conductive polyaniline/clay (PANI/clay) as a hybrid nanocomposite with extended chain conformation and its application for water purification are presented...

  7. Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in cluster-assembled Sn–Co nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houben, K., E-mail: kelly.houben@fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Menéndez, E. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Romero, C.P. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Trekels, M. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Picot, T. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vantomme, A.; Temst, K. [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Bael, M.J. [KU Leuven, Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Superconductivity in Sn–Co nanocomposites is tuned by morphology and composition. • Coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism achieved up to high Co content. • Electronic coupling between grains is reduced by creating low transparency interfaces. • Insight in contribution of different pair breaking mechanisms in hybrid superconductor. - Abstract: The coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism is investigated in granular Sn–Co nanocomposites. The nanocomposites have been prepared by co-deposition of Sn atoms and Co clusters, the morphology and composition of which can be tuned by varying the deposition rate of Co clusters relative to Sn atoms. Flat isolated Sn islands are obtained at zero or low Co cluster flux, while granular nanocomposites are formed with increasing Co cluster flux, reaching Co concentrations up to 44 vol.%. Interfaces with a low electronic transparency between superconductor and ferromagnet are obtained by a combination of the granular nature of the nanocomposites and the formation of Sn–Co alloys at the Sn/Co interfaces. The structure and composition of the nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. Over the entire Co concentration range, the hybrids show a ferromagnetic response. The superconducting phase boundary and the Meissner response depend on the morphology and composition of the nanocomposites. In particular, the superconducting critical temperature decreases with increasing Co concentration, while the Meissner response varies from a reversible to a strongly hysteretic behaviour depending on the morphology of the samples with different Co content. The persistence of superconductivity at high Co concentrations is attributed to a suppression of the superconducting proximity effect in these nanocomposites, which is ascribed to the low interface transparency between the Sn and Co components

  8. High-Purity Hybrid Organolead Halide Perovskite Nanoparticles Obtained by Pulsed-Laser Irradiation in Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Amendola, Vincenzo

    2016-11-17

    Nanoparticles of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have attracted a great deal of attention due to their variety of optoelectronic properties, their low cost, and their easier integration into devices with complex geometry, compared with microcrystalline, thin-film, or bulk metal halides. Here we present a novel one-step synthesis of organolead bromide perovskite nanocrystals based on pulsed-laser irradiation in a liquid environment (PLIL). Starting from a bulk CHNHPbBr crystal, our PLIL procedure does not involve the use of high-boiling-point polar solvents or templating agents, and runs at room temperature. The resulting nanoparticles are characterized by high crystallinity and are completely free of any microscopic product or organic coating layer. We also demonstrate the straightforward inclusion of laser-generated perovskite nanocrystals in a polymeric matrix to form a nanocomposite with single- and two-photon luminescence properties.

  9. Hybrid spin-crossover nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quintero, Carlos M; Félix, Gautier; Suleimanov, Iurii; Sánchez Costa, José; Molnár, Gábor; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-01-01

    This review reports on the recent progress in the synthesis, modelling and application of hybrid spin-crossover materials, including core-shell nanoparticles and multilayer thin films or nanopatterns...

  10. Novel hybrid polymeric materials for barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, Erin Christine

    . The novel preparation of hybrid films coupling the advantageous properties of organic-inorganic hybrids formed through sol-gel chemistry with polymer-clay nanocomposite technology was also explored. Alkoxysilane-functional copolymer-clay nanocomposites were first synthesized, followed by crosslinking via simultaneous hydrolysis and condensation reactions to create the novel hybrid barrier films. By dispersing organomodified clay throughout the hybrid network, dramatic improvements in several film properties were observed, particularly regarding the viscoelastic properties. Additional studies with the same organic-inorganic preparation technique were performed to incorporate amine-functionality into the hybrid film for potential applications as protective membranes in carbon dioxide capture and separation technologies. Finally, controlled free-radical polymerization techniques were combined with the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrids.

  11. Fracture Mechanisms of Layer-By-Layer Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheng, Eugene R.

    A layer-by-layer(LBL) manufactured material is examined in detail in this thesis. Improvements are made to the method of its manufacture. Efforts are made to understand its fracture mechanisms and take advantage of these fracture mechanisms in the absorption of impact energy. A novel series of experiments has been performed on LBL manufactured thin films to demonstrate their unique fracture mechanisms. Polyurethane/Poly(Acrylic Acid) (PU/PAA) and PU/PAA/(PU/Clay)5 nanocomposite films readily undergo Interlaminar mode II fracture, because of the relatively weak elctrostatic bonds between monolayers. Tensile tests performed while under observation by a scanning electron microscope demonstrate the tendency of these nanocomposite films to undergo interlaminar mode II fracture even when loads are applied in the plane of nanocomposite film. It is concluded that these mechanisms of energy dissipation are responsible for the enhanced toughness of these films when used as layers between glass blocks in the prevention of impact damage to the glass. A novel automated manufacturing facility has been designed and built to deposit large sheets of Layer-by-Layer nanocomposite film. These large sheets are incorporated into a borosillicate glass composite in order to compare the ballistic characteristics of LBL PU based nanocomposite films to a single cast layer of polyurethane. It is demonstrated that shear fracture is the mode of failure in the blocks containing the nanocomposite film. The shear fracture surface in the nanocomposite after it has undergone a ballistic impact is characterized. Additional experiments are performed to characterize the interlaminar fracture stresses and toughnesses of the nanocomposite LBL layers, to assist in the implementation of a numerical crack band model that describes the nanocomposite film. The computational model predicts the failure of the ballistic nanocomposite samples, and the predicted V50 velocity is found to be in good agreement with

  12. Elaboration and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite fibers by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, Sara [Universite Montpellier 2, Institut Charles Gerhardt, UMR CNRS 5253, Laboratoire des Agregats, Interfaces et Materiaux pour l' Energie (France); Salles, Vincent; Brioude, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.brioude@univ-lyon1.f [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS-Universite Lyon 1 (France); Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire BioMoCeTi UMR 7033, CNRS-Universite Paris 13 (France); Monod, Philippe [ESPCI ParisTech, Laboratoire de Physique du Solide (France); Cornu, David; Miele, Philippe [Universite de Lyon, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615 CNRS-Universite Lyon 1 (France)

    2010-10-15

    We describe a simple method based on the electrospinning process to prepare heterogeneous hybrid submicronic fibers with magnetic behavior, consisting of Co nanoparticles embedded in a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer. Quantity and anisotropy of magnetic nanoparticles are key parameters to improve the specific magnetic properties of fibers. We notably show that for higher Co nanoparticles concentration, their lower dispersity into the resulting fibers lead to dipolar interactions that become demagnetizing. The structural and morphological properties of Co nanodisks and of the resulting nanocomposite fibers are investigated by SEM, TEM, and EDX. The magnetic properties of the hybrid electrospun fibers have been evaluated with a SQUID magnetometer.

  13. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  14. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  15. Nanocomposites of ferroelectric polymers with surface-hydroxylated BaTiO 3 nanoparticles for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    A facile surface hydroxylation treatment using hydrogen peroxide to modify the surface of BaTiO 3 nanofillers dispersed in a ferroelectric copolymer host has been investigated. We demonstrate that the surface functionalization of the BaTiO 3 nanofillers (<100 nm) with hydroxyl groups results in as much as two orders of magnitude reduction in the leakage current of nanocomposite thin-film capacitors. This reduction is observed concurrently with the enhancement of the effective permittivity and breakdown strength of the thin-film nanocomposites. Surface modified BaTiO 3 particles display better dispersion within the polymer matrix, resulting in enhanced relative permittivity and reduced dielectric loss. The dielectric behavior of the nanocomposite films containing up to 30 vol.% BaTiO 3 agreed well with the Bruggeman model. These results demonstrate the potential of facile surface hydroxylation of nanoparticles towards the fabrication of higher energy-density nanocomposites. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Metal-Polymer Nanocomposites: (Co-Evaporation/(CoSputtering Approaches and Electrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanna Torrisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the basic concepts related to (co-evaporation and (cosputtering based fabrication methods and the electrical properties of polymer-metal nanocomposite films. Within the organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites research framework, the field related to metal-polymer nanocomposites is attracting much interest. In fact, it is opening pathways for engineering flexible composites that exhibit advantageous electrical, optical, or mechanical properties. The metal-polymer nanocomposites research field is, now, a wide, complex, and important part of the nanotechnology revolution. So, with this review we aim, starting from the discussion of specific cases, to focus our attention on the basic microscopic mechanisms and processes and the general concepts suitable for the interpretation of material properties and structure–property correlations. The review aims, in addition, to provide a comprehensive schematization of the main technological applications currently in development worldwide.

  17. Self-assembled nanocomposite film with tunable enhanced fluorescence for the detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Xiaoyu; He, Fang; Tang, Fu; Li, Lidong

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a simple and environmentally friendly, silver nanocomposite film was prepared via the in situ reduction of silver ions in self-assembled chitosan (CS)/sodium alginate film matrixes. Negatively charged DNA containing the fluorescent intercalator acriflavine (Acf) was assembled on the surface of the silver nanocomposite film, to facilitate the detection of DNA. A tunable fluorescence enhancement was achieved for the Acf in the silver nanocomposite film simply by changing the thickness of the interlayer between the DNA and the silver nanocomposite film. Using the interlayer prepared by an assembly of poly(acrylic acid) and CS, a significant enhancement in the fluorescence of Acf was obtained. Owing to the ability of Acf to intercalate into DNA, this hybrid system with an enhanced Acf fluorescence could be used to monitor the template-independent DNA elongation process in a facile, high-efficiency, label-free fashion.

  18. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  19. Nanocomposites of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by magnetic alignment and polymerization of a lyotropic precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauter, Meagan S; Elimelech, Menachem; Osuji, Chinedum O

    2010-11-23

    We demonstrate a novel path for the fabrication of thin-film polymer nanocomposites containing vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Liquid crystal mesophases of hexagonally packed cylindrical micelles orient with their long axes parallel to an applied magnetic field and template the alignment of SWNTs sequestered in the micellar cores. The mesophase is a stable single-phase material containing monomers that can be polymerized after nanotube alignment to form the nanocomposite polymer. The space-pervasive nature of magnetic fields and the tunable physicochemical properties of multicomponent mesophases make this an attractive approach that can be leveraged for application in diverse nanocomposite systems.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Cellulose Acetate Propionate Nanocomposites via Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Wojciechowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized from modified cellulose acetate propionate (MCAP via sol-gel reaction at ambient temperature. The inorganic phase was introduced in situ by hydrolysis-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS in different concentrations, under acid catalysis, in the presence of organic polymer dissolved in acetone. The chemical modification of CAP was monitored by infrared spectroscopy (IR. The nanocomposites structure was characterized by IR analysis and solid state 29Si NMR studies. The spectral data revealed that organic and inorganic phases are linked through covalent bound. Surface morphology of the samples and the degree of dispersion of inorganic phase in the polymer matrix were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The actual incorporation of the inorganic component into the hybrid nanocomposites was deducted from the residual weight according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA.

  1. Nanocomposite hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering: mesoporous silica nanofibers interlinked with siloxane derived polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtová, Nela; Réthoré, Gildas; Boyer, Cécile; Guicheux, Jérôme; Rambaud, Frédéric; Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Sanchez, Clément; Chauvet, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre; Le Bideau, Jean

    2013-08-01

    Injectable materials for mini-invasive surgery of cartilage are synthesized and thoroughly studied. The concept of these hybrid materials is based on providing high enough mechanical performances along with a good medium for chondrocytes proliferation. The unusual nanocomposite hydrogels presented herein are based on siloxane derived hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Si-HPMC) interlinked with mesoporous silica nanofibers. The mandatory homogeneity of the nanocomposites is checked by fluorescent methods, which show that the silica nanofibres dispersion is realized down to nanometric scale, suggesting an efficient immobilization of the silica nanofibres onto the Si-HPMC scaffold. Such dispersion and immobilization are reached thanks to the chemical affinity between the hydrophilic silica nanofibers and the pendant silanolate groups of the Si-HPMC chains. Tuning the amount of nanocharges allows tuning the resulting mechanical features of these injectable biocompatible hybrid hydrogels. hASC stem cells and SW1353 chondrocytic cells viability is checked within the nanocomposite hydrogels up to 3 wt% of silica nanofibers.

  2. Metallocene Based Polyolefin Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Kaminsky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient and versatile ways to synthesize polyolefin nanocomposites is the in-situ polymerization of olefins in the presence of nano particles by metallocene catalysts. Metallocene/methylaluminoxane (MAO catalysts are soluble in hydrocarbons and therefore they can be absorbed perfectly in solution onto the surface of particles or fibers and after addition of ethene or propene they can then catalyze a polyolefin film on the surface. Metallocene/MAO and other single site catalysts allow the synthesis of polymers with a precisely defined microstructure, tacticity, and stereoregularity as well as new copolymers with superior properties such as film clarity, high tensile strength and lower content of extractables. The polymer properties can be enlarged by the incorporation of nanofillers. The resulting polyethylene or polypropylene nanocomposites give a tremendous boost to the physical and chemical properties such as dramatically improved stiffness, high gas barrier properties, significant flame retardancy, and high crystallization rates.

  3. Wettability Investigation of UV/O3 and Acid Functionalized MWCNT and MWCNT/PMMA Nanocomposites by Contact Angle Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seil Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion state of individual MWCNT in the polymer matrix influences the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the resulting composite. One method of obtaining a good dispersion state of MWCNT in a polymer matrix is to functionalize the surface of MWCNT using various treatments to enhance the surface energy and increase the dispersibility of MWCNT. In this study, wettability and surface energy of UV/O3 and acid-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and its polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA polymer nanocomposites were measured using contact angle analysis in various solvent media. Contact angle analysis was based on ethylene glycol-water-glycerol probe liquid set and data was further fitted into geometric mean (Fowkes, van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (GvOC, and Chang-Qing-Chen (CQC models to determine both nonpolar and acid base surface energy components. Analysis was conducted on MWCNT thin films subjected to different levels of UV/O3 and acid treatments as well as their resulting MWCNT/PMMA nanocomposites. Contact angle analysis of thin films and nanocomposites revealed that the total surface energy of all samples was well fitted with each other. In addition, CQC model was able to determine the surface nature and polarity of MWCNT and its nanocomposites. Results indicated that the wettability changes in the thin film and its nanocomposites are due to the change in surface chemistry. Finally, electrical properties of nanocomposites were measured to investigate the effect of surface functionality (acid or basic on the MWCNT surfaces.

  4. High Performance Flexible Actuator of Urchin-Like ZnO Nanostructure/Polyvinylenefluoride Hybrid Thin Film with Graphene Electrodes for Acoustic Generator and Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Oug Jae; Lee, James S; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2016-05-01

    A bass frequency response enhanced flexible polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based thin film acoustic actuator is successfully fabricated. High concentrations of various zinc oxide (ZnO) is embedded in PVDF matrix, enhancing the β phase content and the dielectric property of the composite thin film. ZnO acts as a nucleation agent for the crystallization of PVDF. A chemical vapor deposition grown graphene is used as electrodes, enabling high electron mobility for the distortion free acoustic signals. The frequency response of the fabricated acoustic actuator is studied as a function of the film thickness and filler content. The optimized film has a thickness of 80 μm with 30 wt% filler content and shows 72% and 42% frequency response enhancement in bass and midrange compared to the commercial PVDF, respectively. Also, the total harmonic distortion decreases to 82% and 74% in the bass and midrange regions, respectively. Furthermore, the composite film shows a promising potential for microphone applications. Most of all, it is demonstrated that acoustic actuator performance is strongly influenced by degree of PVDF crystalline. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  6. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), incr