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Sample records for hybrid nanocomposite thin

  1. Silicon nanowires in polymer nanocomposites for photovoltaic hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dkhil, S.; Bourguiga, R.; Davenas, J.; Cornu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) and silicon nanowires have been fabricated. ► We have investigated the charge transfer between PVK and SiNWs by the way of the quenching of the PVK photoluminescence. ► The relation between the morphology of the composite thin films and the charge transfer between SiNWs and PVK has been examined. ► We have investigated the effects of SiNWs concentration on the photovoltaic characteristics leading to the optimization of a critical SiNWs concentration. - Abstract: Hybrid thin films combining the high optical absorption of a semiconducting polymer film and the electronic properties of silicon fillers have been investigated in the perspective of the development of low cost solar cells. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic materials based on blends of a semiconductor polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) as electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as electron acceptor have been studied. Composite PVK/SiNWs films were cast from a common solvent mixture. UV–visible spectrometry and photoluminescence of the composites have been studied as a function of the SiNWs concentration. Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) shows the existence of a critical SiNWs concentration of about 10 wt % for PL quenching corresponding to the most efficient charge pair separation. The photovoltaic (PV) effect has been studied under illumination. The optimum open-circuit voltage V oc and short-circuit current density J sc are obtained for 10 wt % SiNWs whereas a degradation of these parameters is observed at higher SiNWs concentrations. These results are correlated to the formation of aggregates in the composite leading to recombination of the photogenerated charge pairs competing with the dissociation mechanism.

  2. Hybrid chemical vapour and nanoceramic aerosol assisted deposition for multifunctional nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, Michael E.A.; Dunnill, Charles W.; Goodall, Josie; Darr, Jawwad A.; Binions, Russell, E-mail: uccarbi@ucl.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid atmospheric pressure chemical vapour and aerosol assisted deposition via the reaction of vanadium acetylacetonate and a suspension of preformed titanium dioxide or cerium dioxide nanoparticles, led to the production of vanadium dioxide nanocomposite thin films on glass substrates. The preformed nanoparticle oxides used for the aerosol were synthesised using a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis route involving the rapid reaction of a metal salt solution with a flow of supercritical water in a flow reactor. Multifunctional nanocomposite thin films from the hybrid deposition process were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The functional properties of the films were evaluated using variable temperature optical measurements to assess thermochromic behaviour and methylene blue photodecolourisation experiments to assess photocatalytic activity. The tests show that the films are multifunctional in that they are thermochromic (having a large change in infra-red reflectivity upon exceeding the thermochromic transition temperature) and have significant photocatalytic activity under irradiation with 254 nm light.

  3. Nanocomposite metal amorphous-carbon thin films deposited by hybrid PVD and PECVD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V; Soares, P; Martins, A J; Carneiro, J; Cerqueira, F

    2009-07-01

    Carbon based films can combine the properties of solid lubricating graphite structure and hard diamond crystal structure, i.e., high hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity and optical transparency without the crystalline structure of diamond. Issues of fundamental importance associated with nanocarbon coatings are reducing stress, improving adhesion and compatibility with substrates. In this work new nanocomposite coatings with improved toughness based in nanocrystalline phases of metals and ceramics embedded in amorphous carbon matrix are being developed within the frame of a research project: nc-MeNxCy/a-C(Me) with Me = Mo, Si, Al, Ti, etc. Carbide forming metal/carbon (Me/C) composite films with Me = Mo, W or Ti possess appropriate properties to overcome the limitation of pure DLC films. These novel coating architectures will be adopted with the objective to decrease residual stress, improve adherence and fracture toughness, obtain low friction coefficient and high wear-resistance. Nanocomposite DLC's films were deposited by hybrid technique using a PVD-Physically Vapor Deposition (magnetron sputtering) and Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD), by the use of CH4 gas. The parameters varied were: deposition time, substrate temperature (180 degrees C) and dopant (Si + Mo) of the amorphous carbon matrix. All the depositions were made on silicon wafers and steel substrates precoated with a silicon inter-layer. The characterisation of the film's physico-mechanical properties will be presented in order to understand the influence of the deposition parameters and metal content used within the a-C matrix in the thin film properties. Film microstructure and film hybridization state was characterized by Raman Spectroscopy. In order to characterize morphology SEM and AFM will be used. Film composition was measured by Energy-Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The contact angle for the produced DLC's on

  4. Plasma deposition of nanocomposite thin films : process concept and realisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcott, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in materials technology, fuelled by the growing hype surrounding nanotechnology, have given rise to a new breed of materials known as nanocomposites. Nanocomposite materials (a subgroup of hybrid materials) are formed from standard polymers impregnated with nanometre sized

  5. Self-assembled single-phase perovskite nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Bi, Lei; Paik, Hanjong; Yang, Dae-Jin; Park, Yun Chang; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2010-02-10

    Thin films of perovskite-structured oxides with general formula ABO(3) have great potential in electronic devices because of their unique properties, which include the high dielectric constant of titanates, (1) high-T(C) superconductivity in cuprates, (2) and colossal magnetoresistance in manganites. (3) These properties are intimately dependent on, and can therefore be tailored by, the microstructure, orientation, and strain state of the film. Here, we demonstrate the growth of cubic Sr(Ti,Fe)O(3) (STF) films with an unusual self-assembled nanocomposite microstructure consisting of (100) and (110)-oriented crystals, both of which grow epitaxially with respect to the Si substrate and which are therefore homoepitaxial with each other. These structures differ from previously reported self-assembled oxide nanocomposites, which consist either of two different materials (4-7) or of single-phase distorted-cubic materials that exhibit two or more variants. (8-12) Moreover, an epitaxial nanocomposite SrTiO(3) overlayer can be grown on the STF, extending the range of compositions over which this microstructure can be formed. This offers the potential for the implementation of self-organized optical/ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic/ferroelectric hybrid nanostructures integrated on technologically important Si substrates with applications in magnetooptical or spintronic devices.

  6. Characterization of Hybrid Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcha, Shelly; Dotan, Ana; Kenig, Samuel; Dodiuk, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) content and its surface treatment on thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites. MWCNTs were surface treated and incorporated into two epoxy systems. MWCNT's surface treatments were based on: (a) Titania coating obtained by sol-gel process and (b) a nonionic surfactant. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement was obtained following incorporation of treated MWCNT. It was noticed that small amounts of titania coated MWCNT (0.05 wt %) led to an increase in the glass transition temperature and stiffness. The best performance was achieved adding 0.3 wt % titania coated MWCNT where an increase of 10 °C in the glass transition temperature and 30% in storage modulus were obtained. PMID:28348313

  7. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  8. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  9. RIR-MAPLE deposition of conjugated polymers and hybrid nanocomposites for application to optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Pate, Ryan; McCormick, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a variation of pulsed laser deposition that is useful for organic-based thin films because it reduces material degradation by selective absorption of infrared radiation in the host matrix. A unique emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE approach has been developed that reduces substrate exposure to solvents and provides controlled and repeatable organic thin film deposition. In order to establish emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a preferred deposition technique for conjugated polymer or hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices, studies have been conducted to demonstrate the value added by the approach in comparison to traditional solution-based deposition techniques, and this work will be reviewed. The control of hybrid nanocomposite thin film deposition, and the photoconductivity in such materials deposited using emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE, will also be reviewed. The overall result of these studies is the demonstration of emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE as a viable option for the fabrication of conjugated polymer and hybrid nanocomposite optoelectronic devices that could yield improved device performance.

  10. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  11. Polyaniline-CuO hybrid nanocomposite with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vânia S.; da Frota, Hidembergue O.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on a polymer matrix constituted of Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) reinforced by copper oxide II (CuO) particles was obtained by in situ polymerization. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of the pure materials and nanocomposite form were investigated. The presence of CuO particles in the nanocomposite material affected the natural alignment of the polymer chains. XRD technique allowed the visualization of the polymer amorphization in the nanocomposite form, suggesting an interaction between both phases. The FTIR spectra confirmed this molecular interaction due to the blue shift of the characteristic absorption peaks of PANI-ES in the nanocomposite form. SEM images revealed that the polymer nanofiber morphology was no longer observed in the nanocomposite. The CuO spherical particles are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The density functional theory plus the Coulomb interaction method revealed a charge transfer from PANI to CuO slab. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) has revealed that the nanocomposite behaves as a metal. In agreement, the electrical conductivity showed an increase of 60% in the nanocomposite material.

  12. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  13. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  14. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  15. MWCNT/CdS hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/CdS hybrid nanocomposite were synthesized by one step hydrothermal method. MWCNTs were used as a substrate for the growth of CdS nanoparticles. MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite and pure CdS were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. HRTEM study confirms the intimate contact of CdS with MWCNT. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite as compared to pure CdS has been attributed to reduced recombination of photogenerated charge carriers due to interfacial electron transfer from CdS to MWCNT.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  17. Optical properties of diamond like carbon nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Shahbaz; Mukherjee, Nillohit; Ahmed, Sk. Faruque

    2018-05-01

    The optical properties of silicon incorporated diamond like carbon (Si-DLC) nanocomposite thin films have been reported. The Si-DLC nanocomposite thin film deposited on glass and silicon substrate by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) process. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of different bonding within the deposited films and deconvolution of FTIR spectra gives the chemical composition i.e., sp3/sp2 ratio in the films. Optical band gap calculated from transmittance spectra increased from 0.98 to 2.21 eV with a variation of silicon concentration from 0 to 15.4 at. %. Due to change in electronic structure by Si incorporation, the Si-DLC film showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak centered at 467 nm, i.e., in the visible range and its intensity was found to increase monotonically with at. % of Si.

  18. Transition metal carbide nanocomposite and amorphous thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Tengstrand, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores thin films of binary and ternary transition metal carbides, in the Nb-C, Ti-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Zr-Si-C, and Nb-Ge-C systems. The electrical and mechanical properties of these systems are affected by their structure and here both nanocomposite and amorphous thin films are thus investigated. By appropriate choice of transition metal and composition the films can be designed to be multifunctional with a combination of properties, such as low electric resistivity, low contact res...

  19. Photonic structures based on hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Saima

    In this thesis, photonic structures embedded with two types of nanomaterials, (i) quantum dots and (ii) metal nanoparticles are studied. Both of these exhibit optical and electronic properties different from their bulk counterpart due to their nanoscale physical structure. By integrating these nanomaterials into photonic structures, in which the electromagnetic field can be confined and controlled via modification of geometry and composition, we can enhance their linear and nonlinear optical properties to realize functional photonic structures. Before embedding quantum dots into photonic structures, we study the effect of various host matrices and fabrication techniques on the optical properties of the colloidal quantum dots. The two host matrices of interest are SU8 and PMMA. It is shown that the emission properties of the quantum dots are significantly altered in these host matrices (especially SU8) and this is attributed to a high rate of nonradiative quenching of the dots. Furthermore, the effects of fabrication techniques on the optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. Finally a microdisk resonator embedded with quantum dots is fabricated using soft lithography and luminescence from the quantum dots in the disk is observed. We investigate the absorption and effective index properties of silver nanocomposite films. It is shown that by varying the fill factor of the metal nanoparticles and fabrication parameters such as heating time, we can manipulate the optical properties of the metal nanocomposite. Optimizing these parameters, a silver nanocomposite film with a 7% fill factor is prepared. A one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of alternating layers of the silver nanocomposite and a polymer (Polymethyl methacrylate) is fabricated using spin coating and its linear and nonlinear optical properties are investigated. Using reflectivity measurements we demonstrate that the one-dimensional silver-nanocomposite-dielectric photonic crystal

  20. Diblock Copolymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limary, Ratchana; Green, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The stability of thin film symmetric diblock copolymers blended with layered silicate nanocomposites were examined using a combination of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two cases were examined PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-b-polymethylacrylate) blended with montmorillonite stoichiometrically loaded with alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(S), and PS-b-PMMA blended with montmorillonite loaded with excess alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(E). XRD spectra show an increase in the gallery spacing of the OLSs, indicating that the copolymer chains have intercalated the layered silicates. AFM images reveal a distinct difference between the two nanocomposite thin films: regions in the vicinity of OLS(S) aggregates were depleted of material, while in the vicinity of OLS(E) aggregates, dewetting of the substrate occurred. We show that the stability of the copolymer/OLS nanocomposite films is determined by the enthalpic driving force associated with intercalation of the copolymer chains into the galleries of the modified OLS layers and by the substrate/organic modifier interactions.

  1. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2010-10-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene] (MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Resonant Infrared Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation Of Inorganic Nanoparticles And Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Ryan; Lantz, Kevin R.; Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Dhawan, Anuj; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    In this research, resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) has been used to deposit different classes of inorganic nanoparticles, including bare, un-encapsulated ZnO and Au nanoparticles, as well as ligand-encapsulated CdSe colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). RIR-MAPLE has been used for thin-film deposition of different organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites using some of these inorganic nanoparticles, including CdSe CQD-poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy )-1,4-(1-cyanovinylene)phenylene](MEH-CN-PPV) nanocomposites and Au nanoparticle-poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) nanocomposites. The unique contribution of this research is that a technique is demonstrated for the deposition of organic-based thin-films requiring solvents with bond energies that do not have to be resonant with the laser energy. By creating an emulsion of solvent and ice in the target, RIR-MAPLE using a 2.94 μm laser can deposit most material systems because the hydroxyl bonds in the ice component of the emulsion matrix are strongly resonant with the 2.94 μm laser. In this way, the types of materials that can be deposited using RIR-MAPLE has been significantly expanded. Furthermore, materials with different solvent bond energies can be co-deposited without concern for material degradation and without the need to specifically tune the laser energy to each material solvent bond energy, thereby facilitating the realization of organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite thin-films. In addition to the structural characterization of the inorganic nanoparticle and hybrid nanocomposite thin-films deposited using this RIR-MAPLE technique, optical characterization is presented to demonstrate the potential of such films for optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Atom beam sputtered Ag-TiO{sub 2} plasmonic nanocomposite thin films for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Sahu, Kavita [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India); Pandey, A. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Som, T.; Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India)

    2017-07-31

    The development of nanocomposite coatings with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity is important for photocatalytic purification of water and air. We report on the synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam co-sputtering technique. The effects of Ag concentration on the structural, morphological, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite thin films were investigated. UV–visible DRS studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles together with the excitonic absorption peak originating from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies showed that the nanocomposite thin films consist of Ag nanoparticles and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with 5 at% Ag were found to exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity for sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water, indicating their potential application in water purification.

  4. Nanocomposite oxide thin films grown by pulsed energy beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, M.; Petitmangin, A.; Hebert, C.; Seiler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highly non-stoichiometric indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulsed energy beam deposition (pulsed laser deposition-PLD and pulsed electron beam deposition-PED) under low oxygen pressure. The analysis of the structure and electrical transport properties showed that ITO films with a large oxygen deficiency (more than 20%) are nanocomposite films with metallic (In, Sn) clusters embedded in a stoichiometric and crystalline oxide matrix. The presence of the metallic clusters induces specific transport properties, i.e. a metallic conductivity via percolation with a superconducting transition at low temperature (about 6 K) and the melting and freezing of the In-Sn clusters in the room temperature to 450 K range evidenced by large changes in resistivity and a hysteresis cycle. By controlling the oxygen deficiency and temperature during the growth, the transport and optical properties of the nanocomposite oxide films could be tuned from metallic-like to insulating and from transparent to absorbing films.

  5. Reversible Surface Properties of Polybenzoxazine/Silica Nanocomposites Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the reversible surface properties (hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity of a polybenzoxazine (PBZ thin film through simple application of alternating UV illumination and thermal treatment. The fraction of intermolecularly hydrogen bonded O–H⋯O=C units in the PBZ film increased after UV exposure, inducing a hydrophilic surface; the surface recovered its hydrophobicity after heating, due to greater O–H⋯N intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Taking advantage of these phenomena, we prepared a PBZ/silica nanocomposite coating through two simple steps; this material exhibited reversible transitions from superhydrophobicity to superhydrophilicity upon sequential UV irradiation and thermal treatment.

  6. Titanium dioxide–cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its glucose biosensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Jang, Sang-Dong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was fabricated by blending TiO 2 nanoparticles and cellulose solution. ► The hybrid nanocomposite has advantages of biodegradability and bio-compatibility of cellulose and physical properties of TiO 2 . ► Enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into the hybrid nanocomposite and covalent bonding between TiO 2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. ► Linear response of the glucose biosensor was obtained in the range of 1–10 mM. - Abstract: This paper investigates the fabrication of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )–cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its possibility for a conductometric glucose biosensor. TiO 2 nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid nanocomposite by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of glucose oxidase into TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO 2 and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of the glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1–10 mM. This study demonstrates that TiO 2 –cellulose hybrid nanocomposite can be a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  7. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, N., E-mail: naheedchem@gmail.com [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products(INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdan, K. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, N.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  8. Physical, structural and thermomechanical properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M.T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present research study deals with the fabrication of kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites by the incorporation of oil palm nano filler, montmorillonite (MMT) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) at 3% loading, through hand lay-up technique. Effect of adding different nano fillers on the physical (density), structural [X-ray diffraction (XRD)] and thermomechanical analysis (TMA) of kenaf/epoxy composites were carried out. Density results revealed that the incorporation of nano filler in the kenaf/epoxy composites increases the density which in turn increases the hardness of the hybrid nanocomposites. XRD analysis confirmed the presence of nano fillers in the structure of their respective fabricated hybrid nanocomposites. All hybrid nanocomposites displayed lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. Overall results predicted that the properties improvement in nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy was quite comparable to MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively lesser to OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and higher with respect to kenaf/epoxy composites. The improvement ascribed due to improved interfacial bonding or cross linking between kenaf fibers and epoxy matrix by addition of nano filler. - Highlights: • Nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites were fabricated by hand lay-up. • Effect of nano OPEFB on density & structure of kenaf/epoxy were investigated. • Thermal expansion coefficients of kenaf/epoxy and hybrid nanocomposites evaluated. • Comparative studies were made with MMT and OMMT kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites.

  9. Palygorskite Hybridized Carbon Nanocomposite as a High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Pd nanoparticles were deposited on the hybrid support as an electrocatalyst for formic acid oxida- tion. .... synthetic procedure using conventional borohydride reduction .... as Al2O3, CaO and MgO, which may exist in both the tetrahedral.

  10. Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.

  11. Poly(vinyl acetate)/clay nanocomposite materials for organic thin film transistor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B J; Sung, J H; Park, J H; Choi, J S; Choi, H J

    2008-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and organoclay were fabricated, in order to be utilized as dielectric materials of the organic thin film transistor (OTFT). Spin coating condition of the nanocomposite solution was examined considering shear viscosity of the composite materials dissolved in chloroform. Intercalated structure of the PVAc/clay nanocomposites was characterized using both wide-angle X-ray diffraction and TEM. Fracture morphology of the composite film on silicon wafer was also observed by SEM. Dielectric constant (4.15) of the nanocomposite materials shows that the PVAc/clay nanocomposites are applicable for the gate dielectric materials.

  12. Synthesis and properties of fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites based on copolyacrylates with dansyl semicarbazide units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Chibac, Andreea L.; Buruiana, Tinca; Musteata, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Our study examined a series of hybrid composites containing copolyacrylate with semicarbazide-dansyl groups prepared by conventional radical polymerization of monomers in the organic montmorillonite modified with alkyl chains of variable length or using the sol-gel technique. The structure and the chemical composition of the copolymers N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-5- (dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-methyl metahacrylate (DnsSA-co-MMA) and N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl -5-(dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-dodecylacrylamide (DnsSA-co-DA) as well as their nanocomposites (HC-P1, HC-P2, HC-P3, HC-P4) were confirmed by spectral analysis ( 1 H NMR, FTIR, UV/vis), thermal methods and atomic force microscopy. To quantify the effect of the inorganic component compared to pure photopolymers we evaluated the properties of hybrid composites, including dielectric characterization. Additionally, these materials have been tested in experiments of fluorescence quenching by acids (HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-S-camphorsulfonic acid), metallic cation (Cu 2+ ) and nitrobenzene. The results suggest that such nanocomposites could find applications as fluorescence-based chemosensors in homogeneous organic solutions or thin films. - Highlights: → Dansylated hybrid composites were prepared by polymerization of monomers in organo-MMT or by sol-gel. → Quenching effects by acids, Cu 2+ and nitrobenzene in solution/film were evidenced. → A fluorescence dequenching was observed for the composite with silsesquixane units. → A reversible process occurs in the composite film exposed to nitrobenzene vapors.

  13. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  14. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, M.; Dridi, C.; Elhouichet, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices

  15. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  16. Rapid fabrication of hierarchically structured supramolecular nanocomposite thin films in one minute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Kao, Joseph

    2016-11-08

    Functional nanocomposites containing nanoparticles of different chemical compositions may exhibit new properties to meet demands for advanced technology. It is imperative to simultaneously achieve hierarchical structural control and to develop rapid, scalable fabrication to minimize degradation of nanoparticle properties and for compatibility with nanomanufacturing. The assembly kinetics of supramolecular nanocomposite in thin films is governed by the energetic cost arising from defects, the chain mobility, and the activation energy for inter-domain diffusion. By optimizing only one parameter, the solvent fraction in the film, the assembly kinetics can be precisely tailored to produce hierarchically structured thin films of supramolecular nanocomposites in approximately one minute. Moreover, the strong wavelength dependent optical anisotropy in the nanocomposite highlights their potential applications for light manipulation and information transmission. The present invention opens a new avenue in designing manufacture-friendly continuous processing for the fabrication of functional nanocomposite thin films.

  17. Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.

    We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.

  18. Thermal properties of oil palm nano filler/kenaf reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, N.; Paridah, M. T.; Abdan, K.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research study was to fabricate nano oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and to make comparative study on the thermal properties of nano OPEFB/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites with the montmorillonite (MMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites and organically modified MMT (OMMT)/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. Epoxy based kenaf hybrid nanocomposites was prepared by dispersing the nano filler (nano OPEFB filler, MMT, OMMT) at 3% loading through high speed mechanical stirrer followed by hand lay-up technique. Thermal properties of hybrid nanocomposites were analyzed through thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Obtained results specified that addition of nano OPEFB filler improves the thermal stability and char yield of kenaf/epoxy composites. Furthermore, the increase in decomposition temperature by the nano OPEFB filler was quite comparable to the MMT/kenaf/epoxy but relatively less than OMMT/kenaf/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites. We concluded from overall consequences that the nano OPEFB filler can be used as the promising and innovative alternative of existing expensive nano filler, with relatively lesser impact on the environment having marked pronounced impact on the construction, automotive, aerospace, electronics and semiconducting sectors as future industries based on bio-wastes with satisfactory light weight and thermal stability on other side.

  19. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigation of multiwall carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their unique electronic and optical properties, nanocomposite thin films are widely used for converting solar radiation therapy into other conventional energy forms, such as heat and electricity. Carbon nanotube-based composites which can...

  20. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.; Low, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission

  1. Interfacial characteristics of hybrid nanocomposite under thermomechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choyal, Vijay; Kundalwal, Shailesh I.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, an improved shear lag model was developed to investigate the interfacial characteristics of three-phase hybrid nanocomposite which is reinforced with microscale fibers augmented with carbon nanotubes on their circumferential surfaces. The shear lag model accounts for (i) radial and axial deformations of different transversely isotropic constituents, (ii) thermomechanical loads on the representative volume element (RVE), and (iii) staggering effect of adjacent RVEs. The results from the current newly developed shear lag model are validated with the finite element simulations and found to be in good agreement. This study reveals that the reduction in the maximum value of the axial stress in the fiber and the interfacial shear stress along its length become more pronounced in the presence of applied thermomechanical loads on the staggered RVEs. The existence of shear tractions along the RVE length plays a significant role in the interfacial characteristics and cannot be ignored.

  2. Titanium dioxide-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its glucose biosensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Jang, Sang-Dong [Center for EAPap Actuator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaehwan, E-mail: jaehwan@inha.ac.kr [Center for EAPap Actuator, Department of Mechanical Engineering, INHA University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was fabricated by blending TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and cellulose solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid nanocomposite has advantages of biodegradability and bio-compatibility of cellulose and physical properties of TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into the hybrid nanocomposite and covalent bonding between TiO{sub 2} and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear response of the glucose biosensor was obtained in the range of 1-10 mM. - Abstract: This paper investigates the fabrication of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite and its possibility for a conductometric glucose biosensor. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were blended with cellulose solution prepared by dissolving cotton pulp with lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solvent to fabricate TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite. The enzyme, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized into this hybrid nanocomposite by physical adsorption method. The successful immobilization of glucose oxidase into TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite via covalent bonding between TiO{sub 2} and GOx was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron analysis. The linear response of the glucose biosensor is obtained in the range of 1-10 mM. This study demonstrates that TiO{sub 2}-cellulose hybrid nanocomposite can be a potential candidate for an inexpensive, flexible and disposable glucose biosensor.

  3. Synthesis and properties of fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites based on copolyacrylates with dansyl semicarbazide units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.r [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Chibac, Andreea L.; Buruiana, Tinca; Musteata, Valentina [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-07-15

    Our study examined a series of hybrid composites containing copolyacrylate with semicarbazide-dansyl groups prepared by conventional radical polymerization of monomers in the organic montmorillonite modified with alkyl chains of variable length or using the sol-gel technique. The structure and the chemical composition of the copolymers N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-5- (dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-methyl metahacrylate (DnsSA-co-MMA) and N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl -5-(dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-dodecylacrylamide (DnsSA-co-DA) as well as their nanocomposites (HC-P1, HC-P2, HC-P3, HC-P4) were confirmed by spectral analysis ({sup 1}H NMR, FTIR, UV/vis), thermal methods and atomic force microscopy. To quantify the effect of the inorganic component compared to pure photopolymers we evaluated the properties of hybrid composites, including dielectric characterization. Additionally, these materials have been tested in experiments of fluorescence quenching by acids (HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-S-camphorsulfonic acid), metallic cation (Cu{sup 2+}) and nitrobenzene. The results suggest that such nanocomposites could find applications as fluorescence-based chemosensors in homogeneous organic solutions or thin films. - Highlights: {yields} Dansylated hybrid composites were prepared by polymerization of monomers in organo-MMT or by sol-gel. {yields} Quenching effects by acids, Cu{sup 2+} and nitrobenzene in solution/film were evidenced. {yields} A fluorescence dequenching was observed for the composite with silsesquixane units. {yields} A reversible process occurs in the composite film exposed to nitrobenzene vapors.

  4. Multilayer Thin Films Sequential Assembly of Nanocomposite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Decher, Gero

    2012-01-01

    This second, comprehensive edition of the pioneering book in this field has been completely revised and extended, now stretching to two volumes. The result is a comprehensive summary of layer-by-layer assembled, truly hybrid nanomaterials and thin films, covering organic, inorganic, colloidal, macromolecular and biological components, plus the assembly of nanoscale films derived from them on surfaces. Praise for the first edition: "... highly recommended to anyone interested in the field... and to scientists and researchers active in materials development..." –Polymer News With contri

  5. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature ( T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  6. Thermally stimulated nonlinear refraction in gelatin stabilized Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y. S., E-mail: ystamgadge@gmail.com; Atkare, D. V. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce & SitaramjiChoudhari Science College, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), India-444906 (India); Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, SantGadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), India-444602 (India); Talwatkar, S. S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS), India-440071 (India); Sunatkari, A. L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS), India-440001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This article illustrates investigations on thermally stimulated third order nonlinear refraction of Cu-PVP nanocomposite thin films. Cu nanoparticles have been synthesized using chemical reduction method and thin films in PVP matrix have been obtained using spin coating technique. Thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopyfor structural and linear optical studies. Third order nonlinear refraction studies have been performed using closed aperture z-scan technique under continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser. Cu-PVP nanocomposites are found to exhibit strong nonlinear refractive index stimulated by thermal lensing effect.

  7. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  8. Hybrid nanocomposites based on electroactive hydrogels and cellulose nanocrystals for high-sensitivity electro-mechanical underwater actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Migliorini, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Yan, Yunsong; Lenardi, Cristina; Comes Franchini, Mauro; Milani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and characterization of a hybrid hydrogel/cellulose nanocomposite, which exhibits high-performance electro-mechanical underwater actuation and high sensitivity in response to electrical stimuli below the standard potential of water electrolysis. The macromolecular structure of the material is constituted by an electroactive hydrogel, obtained through a photo-polymerization reaction with the use of three vinylic co-monomers: Na-4-vinylbenzenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, and acrylonitrile. Different amounts (from 0.1% to 1.4% w/w) of biodegradable cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with sulfonate surface groups, obtained through the acidic hydrolysis of sulphite pulp lapsheets, are physically incorporated into the gel matrix during the synthesis step. Freestanding thin films of the nanocomposites are molded, and their swelling, mechanical and responsive properties are fully characterized. We observed that the embedding of the CNCs enhanced both the material Young’s modulus and its sensitivity to the applied electric field in the sub-volt regime (down to 5 mV cm-1). A demonstrator integrating multiple actuators that cooperatively bend together, mimicking the motion of an electro-valve, is also prototyped and tested. The presented nanocomposite is suitable for the development of soft smart components for bio-robotic applications and cells-based and bio-hybrid fluidic devices fabrication.

  9. Dielectric property study of poly(4-vinylphenol)-graphene oxide nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti

    2018-05-01

    Thin film capacitor device having a sandwich structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass/polymer or polymer nanocomposite /silver has been fabricated and their dielectric and leakage current properties has been studied. The dielectric properties of the capacitors were characterized for frequencies ranging from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. 5 wt% Poly(4-vinylphenol)(PVPh)-Graphene (GO) nanocomposite exhibited an increase in dielectric constant to 5.6 and small rise in dielectric loss to around˜0.05 at 10 KHz w.r.t polymer. The DC conductivity measurements reveal rise of leakage current in nanocomposite.

  10. Dopamine/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films prepared by the liquid phase deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tauste, David [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: davidg@qf.uab.es; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-30

    Liquid phase deposition method is applied to one-step production of a hybrid material composed by dopamine(DA) and TiO{sub 2} anatase. An optimized amount of the enediol derivative is added to a fluoride titania precursor aqueous solution in order to entrap this modifier within the growing TiO{sub 2}, yielding a DA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite material. Uniform, well-adhered and brown-colored thin films are deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass substrate. The DA/TiO{sub 2} hybrid material has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of the hybrid material seems to be reasonably explained by linkage of different TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites taking advantage of both enediol and amine groups of DA.

  11. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-09-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  12. Third-order nonlinear optical response of Ag-CdSe/PVA hybrid nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jaspreet; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are gaining great interest in nonlinear optoelectronic devices. Present work includes the characterization of CdSe polymer nanocomposite prepared by chemical in situ technique. From X-ray diffraction, the hexagonal wurtzite structure of nanoparticles has been confirmed with spherical morphology from transmission electron microscopy. Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has been prepared chemically at different Ag concentrations. The presence of Ag in hybrid nanocomposite has been confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of varying Ag concentration on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the nanocomposites has been studied. In linear optical parameters, the linear absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical conductivity have been calculated. The third-order nonlinear optical properties have been observed with open- and closed-aperture Z-scan technique. The large nonlinear refractive index ∝10 -5 cm 2 /W with self-focusing behaviour is due to the combined effect of quantum confinement and thermo-optical effects. The enhanced nonlinearity with increasing Ag content is due to the surface plasmon resonance, which enhances the local electric field near the nanoparticle surface. Thus, Ag-CdSe hybrid polymer nanocomposite has favourable nonlinear optical properties for various optoelectronic applications. (orig.)

  13. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting [UCB

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules with a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. The present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.

  14. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Guangyao; Luo, Honglin; Zuo, Guifu; Ren, Kaijing; Wan, Yizao

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts

  15. Novel porous graphene oxide and hydroxyapatite nanosheets-reinforced sodium alginate hybrid nanocomposites for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Guangyao [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Honglin [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 (China); Ren, Kaijing [Department of Joint Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute of Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) and hydroxyapatite (HAp) are frequently used as reinforcements in polymers to improve mechanical and biological properties. In this work, novel porous hybrid nanocomposites consisting of GO, HAp, and sodium alginate (SA) have been prepared by facile solution mixing and freeze drying in an attempt to obtain a scaffold with desirable mechanical and biological properties. The as-prepared porous GO/HAp/SA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, and mechanical testing. In addition, preliminary cell behavior was assessed by CCK8 assay. It is found that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show improved compressive strength and modulus over neat SA and HAp/SA nanocomposites. CCK8 results reveal that the GO/HAp/SA nanocomposites show enhanced cell proliferation over neat SA and GO/SA nanocomposite. It has been demonstrated that GO/HAp20/SA holds promise in bone tissue engineering. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HAp), and alginate (SA) nanocomposites were fabricated. • The novel porous composites were prepared by solution mixture and freeze drying. • The GO/HAp/SA had porous structure with porosity > 85% and pore size > 150 μm. • The GO/HAp/SA exhibited improved mechanical properties over HAp/SA counterparts. • The GO/HAp/SA showed enhanced cell proliferation over GO/SA counterparts.

  16. Effect of annealing temperatures on the morphology and structural properties of PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozana, M. D.; Arshad, A. N.; Wahid, M. H. M.; Habibah, Z.; Sarip, M. N.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of annealing on the topography, morphology and crystal phases of poly(vinylideneflouride)/Magnesium Oxide (MgO) nanocomposites thin films via AFM, FESEM and ATR-FTIR. The nanocomposites thin films were annealed at temperatures ranging from 70°C to 170°C. The annealed PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films were then cooled at room temperature before removal from the oven. This is to restructure the crystal lattice and to reduce imperfection for the PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films. PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films with annealing temperatures of 70°C, 90°C and 110°C showed uniform distribution of MgO nanoparticles, relatively low average surface roughness and no visible of defects. High application of annealing temperature on PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films caused tear-like defects on the thin films surface as observed by FESEM. The PVDF/MgO nanocomposites thin films annealed at 70°C was found to be a favourable film to be utilized in this study due to its enhanced β-crystalites of PVDF as evident in ATR-FTIR spectra.

  17. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene

  18. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijiong; Zhou, Zhihua; Yun, Gaoqian; Shi, Kai; Lv, Xiaowei; Yang, Baocheng

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s-1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors.

  19. High-performance solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a facile low-cost synthesis of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for solid-state supercapacitors. Structural analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of ZnO nanorods that are inserted in graphene nanosheets, forming a sandwiched architecture. The material exhibited a high specific capacitance of 156 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV.s−1. The fabricated solid-state supercapacitor device using these graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites exhibits good supercapacitive performance and long-term cycle stability. The improved supercapacitance property of these materials could be ascribed to the increased conductivity of ZnO and better utilization of graphene. These results demonstrate the potential of the graphene-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites as an electrode in high-performance supercapacitors. PMID:24215772

  20. Boron nitride-MWCNT/epoxy hybrid nanocomposites: Preparation and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulus, Hasan; Üstün, Tugay; Eskizeybek, Volkan; Şahin, Ömer Sinan; Avcı, Ahmet; Ekrem, Mürsel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the effects of BN nanoplatelets on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • We investigated the synergetic effects of BN nanoplatelets and MWCNTs on tensile strength and elasticity modulus for polymer composites. • Fracture surfaces were examined by SEM analysis. - Abstract: In this study, production and mechanical properties of hybrid nanocomposites have been investigated. Hybrid nanocomposites are consisting of boron nitride nanoplatelets (BN) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) embedded in epoxy resin. The BN and MWCNT were mixed to epoxy resin in different weight fractions and mixtures were utilized for tensile test specimen production. The synthesized BN and produced hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA analyses. The elasticity modulus and tensile strength values were obtained via tensile tests. The fracture morphologies were investigated after tensile test by means of scanning electron microscopy

  1. Modeling glass transition and aging processes in nanocomposites and polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2010-03-01

    We use a lattice kinetic model of glass transition to study the role of confinement and the presence of nano-inclusions. We have studied freely suspended films of glass-formers and its nanocomposites with ``plastifying'' and ``hardening'' nanoparticles. Using our model we determine the thickness and nanoparticle load dependencies of the Kauzmann temperature T0 and the fragility parameter. We found the glass transition temperature increases with the thickness of the film and the volume fraction of ``hardening'' nanoparticles , while Tg decreases with increase in the loading of ``plastifying'' nanoparticles. We found that the isothermal free volume relaxation rate of the nanocomposite thin film, usually referred as an aging, correlates with the glass transition temperature shift. We also studied the relations between our lattice model and Curro's, Kovacs and Struik's phenomenological models of free volume reduction to deduce physical insights into the mechanisms governing aging processes in thin films and nanocomposites.

  2. Thin polyaniline and polyaniline/carbon nanocomposite films for gas sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobotka, P.; Kunzo, P.; Kováčová, E.; Vávra, I.; Križanová, O.; Smatko, V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Konyushenko, Elena; Omastová, M.; Špitálský, Z.; Mičušík, M.; Krupa, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 12 (2011), s. 4123-4127 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : gas sensor * polyaniline thin film * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2011

  3. Nanocomposite C-Pd thin films – a new material with specific spectral properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suchańska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of optical investigations for thin films of carbon-palladium (C-Pd nanocomposites are presented. This films were prepared using two steps method (PVD/ CVD. The optical and Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the material. The multinanolayer model was used to explain the specific spectral properties.

  4. Mechanical properties of hybrid SiC/CNT filled toughened epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratim, S.; Ahmad, S.; Bonnia, N. N.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites filled single filler have been extensively studied by various researchers. However, there are not much discovery on the behavior of hybrid nanocomposite. In this study, single and hybrid nanocomposites of toughened epoxy filled CNT/SiC nanoparticles were investigated. The hybrid nanocomposites samples were prepared by combining CNT and SiC nanoparticles in toughened epoxy matrix via mechanical stirring method assisted with ultrasonic cavitations. Epoxy resin and liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) mixture were first blend prior to the addition of nanofillers. Then, the curing process of the nanocomposite samples were conducted by compression molding technique at 130°C for 2 hours. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hybridization effect of CNT and SiC nanoparticles on mechanical properties toughened epoxy matrix. The total loading of single and hybrid nanofillers were fixed to 4% volume are 0, 4C, 4S, 3S1C, 2S2C, and 1S3C. Mechanical properties of hybrid composites show that the highest value of tensile strength achieved by 3S1C sample at about 7% increment and falls between their single composite values. Meanwhile, the stiffness of the same sample is significantly increased at about 31% of the matrix. On the other hand, a highest flexural property is obtained by 1S3C sample at about 20% increment dominated by CNT content. However, the impact strength shows reduction trend with the addition of SiC and CNT into the matrix. The hybridization of SiC and CNT show highest value in sample 1S3C at about 3.37 kJ/m2 of impact energy absorbed. FESEM micrograph have confirmed that better distributions and interaction observed between SiC nanoparticles and matrix compared to CNT, which contributed to higher tensile strength and modulus.

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  6. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  7. Mechanical comparison of a polymer nanocomposite to a ceramic thin-film anti-reflective filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druffel, Thad; Geng Kebin; Grulke, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Thin-film filters on optical components have been in use for decades and, for those industries utilizing a polymer substrate, the mismatch in mechanical behaviour has caused problems. Surface damage including scratches and cracks induces haze on the optical filter, reducing the transmission of the optical article. An in-mold anti-reflective (AR) filter incorporating 1/4-wavelength thin films based on a polymer nanocomposite is outlined here and compared with a traditional vacuum deposition AR coating. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques are used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the resulting indentations and scratches are then compared to the force deflection curves to further explain the phenomena. The traditional coatings fractured by brittle mechanisms during testing, increasing the area of failure, whereas the polymer nanocomposite gave ductile failure with less surface damage

  8. Mechanical comparison of a polymer nanocomposite to a ceramic thin-film anti-reflective filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, Thad; Geng, Kebin; Grulke, Eric

    2006-07-28

    Thin-film filters on optical components have been in use for decades and, for those industries utilizing a polymer substrate, the mismatch in mechanical behaviour has caused problems. Surface damage including scratches and cracks induces haze on the optical filter, reducing the transmission of the optical article. An in-mold anti-reflective (AR) filter incorporating 1/4-wavelength thin films based on a polymer nanocomposite is outlined here and compared with a traditional vacuum deposition AR coating. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques are used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the resulting indentations and scratches are then compared to the force deflection curves to further explain the phenomena. The traditional coatings fractured by brittle mechanisms during testing, increasing the area of failure, whereas the polymer nanocomposite gave ductile failure with less surface damage.

  9. Laser sintered thin layer graphene and cubic boron nitride reinforced nickel matrix nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zengrong; Tong, Guoquan

    2015-10-01

    Laser sintered thin layer graphene (Gr)-cubic boron nitride (CBN)-Ni nanocomposites were fabricated on AISI 4140 plate substrate. The composites fabricating process, composites microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to study the micro structures and composition of the composites. XRD and Raman tests proved that graphene and CBN were dispersed in the nanocomposites. Nanoindentation test results indicate the significant improvements were achieved in the composites mechanical properties.

  10. Investigation of the mechanical properties of GNP/MWCNT reinforced PA66 hybrid nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Søndergaard Jensen, Jacob

    nanocomposites reinforced with two prominent nanofillers namely Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene NanoPlatelets (GNP) manufactured through industrially viable methods. Three main groups of Polyamide (PA 66) based nano- and hybrid composite specimens namely PA 66/MWCNT, PA 66/GNP, and PA 66/MWCNT...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Nanocomposite of Polyacrylamide/Silica-Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rabiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamides are water soluble macromolecules. These polymers are widely used for flocculation, separation and treatment of solid-liquid phase materials. In this research, organic-inorganic hybrid of polyacrylamide/silica nanoparticle is prepared via radical polymerization. First, the silica nanoparticle surfaces were modified by 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as coupling agent using a sol-gel technique in aqueous media in acidic condition. Afterwards, the modified nanoparticles are copolymerized by acrylamide monomer in presence of a peroxide initiator during a free radical polymerization. The chemical structure of the prepared modified nano-silica as well as polyacrylamide nanocomposite was studied and confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy technique. The morphology of nanocomposite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM micrograph showed that the surface of the composite did not display any phase separation. Nanoparticles distribution was investigated by SEM-EDX technique. The results showed a uniform distribution of particles throughout the polymer bulk. TEM analysis showed the presence of silica nanoparticles in bulk of polymer which is an indicative of suitable dispersion of nanoparticles. The thermal stability of hybrid nanocomosite with that of polyacrylamide was compared by TGA technique. The higher thermal stability of hybrid nanocomposite with respect to homopolymer is indicative of a reaction between the modified nanoparticles and polyacrylamide chain. The presence of silica particles in copolymer was also confirmed with EDX analysis in ash content of hybrid nanocomposite.

  12. The Effect of Clay/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Fillers on the Properties of Elastomer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid fillers of 1D multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT and 2D montmorillonite (MMT have led to excellent physical and chemical properties in high performance elastomer nanocomposites. In this study, the hybridization of PDDA (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride functionalized MWNT (P-MWNT and hydroxyl-functionalized MMT (H-MMT was prepared by the electrostatic interaction between the positive charge on the MWNT and the negative charge on the MMT using a simple solution mixing process. Also, a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR nanocomposite containing the hybrid nanofillers was prepared to improve the dispersion of nanofillers with SBR latex. The SBR nanocomposites with the hybrid nanofillers exhibited outstanding mechanical properties including modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break, due to the enhanced interfacial bonding with the elastomer matrix. Furthermore, the hybrid nanofillers in the SBR matrix showed superior thermal and electrical properties and gas barrier performance at low loadings. The synergistic effects of the SBR produced by the hybridized nanofillers will open up new opportunities for elastomer composites with high performance.

  13. High-performance polyamide thin-film-nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes containing hydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang; Pan, Yichang; Pacheco Oreamuno, Federico; Litwiller, Eric; Lai, Zhiping; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    A hydrophobic, hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework (MOF) - zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was successfully incorporated into the selective polyamide (PA) layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for water desalination

  14. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat

    2014-01-01

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images

  15. Polymer-ZnO nanocomposites foils and thin films for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, Haider Mohammed; Yahaya, Muhammad; Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    The damage of UV radiation on human eye and skin is extensively studied. In the present work, the nanocomposites foils and thin films have been prepared by using casting method and spin coating, respectively. Nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ZnO nanoparticles with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as polymer matrix. Different contents of ZnO nanoparticles were used as filler in the nanocomposites. UV-Vis spectra showed very low transmittance in UV region that decreases with increase content of ZnO. PVDF/ZnO samples showed the lowest transmittance. The rough surface of PVDF was observed from SEM image. While a homogeneous dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles in PMMA were indicated by FESEM images.

  16. Thermally tunable VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite thin-film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Narayanachari, K. V. L. V.; Wan, Chenghao; Sun, Xing; Wang, Haiyan; Cooley, Kayla A.; Mohney, Suzanne E.; White, Doug; Duwel, Amy; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of co-sputtered VO2-SiO2 nanocomposite dielectric thin-film media possessing continuous temperature tunability of the dielectric constant. The smooth thermal tunability is a result of the insulator-metal transition in the VO2 inclusions dispersed within an insulating matrix. We present a detailed comparison of the dielectric characteristics of this nanocomposite with those of a VO2 control layer and of VO2/SiO2 laminate multilayers of comparable overall thickness. We demonstrated a nanocomposite capacitor that has a thermal capacitance tunability of ˜60% between 25 °C and 100 °C at 1 MHz, with low leakage current. Such thermally tunable capacitors could find potential use in applications such as sensing, thermal cloaks, and phase-change energy storage devices.

  17. Semiconductor/metal nanocomposites formed by in situ reduction method in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanli; Wang Enbo; Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Wang Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    A layer-by-layer adsorption and in situ reduction method was adopted for synthesizing semiconductor/metal nanocomposites in multilayer ultra-thin films. Alternate adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles modified with poly(ethyleneimine), hydrogentetrachloroaurate and poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium results in the formation of ZnO/AuCl 4 - -loaded multilayer films. In situ reduction of the incorporated metal ions by heating yields ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the films. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the components of the composite films. UV-vis spectra indicate regular growth of the films. The electrochemistry behavior of the multilayer films was studied in detail on indium tin oxide electrode. The combined results suggest that the layer-by-layer adsorption and subsequent reduction method used here provides an effective way to synthesize ZnO/Au nanocomposites in the polymer matrix

  18. Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yuhong; Kang, Joonhyeon; Nam, Seunghoon; Byun, Sujin [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byungwoo, E-mail: byungwoo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-16

    The enhanced catalytic properties toward ethanol electrooxidation on Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes were investigated. The Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites with various Al/Pt ratios (0.27, 0.57, and 0.96) were fabricated by a co-sputtering method. All of the Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites showed a negative shift in the onset potential and a higher current density than those of pure Pt electrode for the electrooxidation of ethanol. Among the various Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite thin-film electrodes, the electrode with an atomic ratio of Al to Pt of 0.57 showed the highest electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation. The activation enthalpy for the optimum Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposite was approximately 0.05 eV lower than that of pure Pt. It is believed that the enhancement in catalytic activity is due to the electron-rich Pt resulting from the Fermi-energy difference between Pt and AlPO{sub 4}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced ethanol electrooxidation on Pt/AlPO{sub 4} nanocomposites is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pt/AlPO{sub 4} exhibits higher current density and lower onset potential than pure Pt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation enthalpy for optimum Pt/AlPO{sub 4} electrode is {approx}0.05 eV lower than pure Pt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows electron-rich Pt due to Fermi-energy difference between Pt and AlPO{sub 4}.

  19. Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tai Le

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we successfully fabricate a hybrid polymer nanocomposite containing epoxy/polyester blend resin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs by a novel technique. A high intensity ultrasonicator is used to obtain a homogeneous mixture of epoxy/polyester resin and graphene nanoplatelets. This mixture is then mixed with a hardener using a high-speed mechanical stirrer. The trapped air and reaction volatiles are removed from the mixture using high vacuum. The hot press casting method is used to make the nanocomposite specimens. Tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA are performed on neat, 0.2 wt %, 0.5 wt %, 1 wt %, 1.5 wt % and 2 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester blend resin to investigate the reinforcement effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this research indicate that the tensile strength of the novel nanocomposite material increases to 86.8% with the addition of a ratio of graphene nanoplatelets as low as 0.2 wt %. DMA results indicate that the 1 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester nanocomposite possesses the highest storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg, as compared to neat epoxy/polyester or the other nanocomposite specimens. In addition, TGA results verify thethermal stability of the experimental specimens, regardless of the weight percentage of GNPs.

  20. Thermal and Mechanical Behavior of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposite Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Minh-Tai; Huang, Shyh-Chour

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, we successfully fabricate a hybrid polymer nanocomposite containing epoxy/polyester blend resin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by a novel technique. A high intensity ultrasonicator is used to obtain a homogeneous mixture of epoxy/polyester resin and graphene nanoplatelets. This mixture is then mixed with a hardener using a high-speed mechanical stirrer. The trapped air and reaction volatiles are removed from the mixture using high vacuum. The hot press casting method is used to make the nanocomposite specimens. Tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are performed on neat, 0.2 wt %, 0.5 wt %, 1 wt %, 1.5 wt % and 2 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester blend resin to investigate the reinforcement effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The results of this research indicate that the tensile strength of the novel nanocomposite material increases to 86.8% with the addition of a ratio of graphene nanoplatelets as low as 0.2 wt %. DMA results indicate that the 1 wt % GNP-reinforced epoxy/polyester nanocomposite possesses the highest storage modulus and glass transition temperature (Tg), as compared to neat epoxy/polyester or the other nanocomposite specimens. In addition, TGA results verify thethermal stability of the experimental specimens, regardless of the weight percentage of GNPs. PMID:28793521

  1. Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan; Abdul Kudus, Muhammad Helmi; Md Akil, Hazizan; Zamri, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-03-16

    The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube-alumina (CNT-Al₂O₃) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al₂O₃ particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al₂O₃ particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C , compared to neat epoxy.

  2. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  3. Elastomer Nanocomposites Based on Butadiene Rubber, Nanoclay and Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sepideh Zoghi; Ghasem Naderi; Gholam Reza Bakhshandeh; Morteza Ehsani; Shirin Shokoohi

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on butadiene rubber (BR), (0, 3, 5 and 7 phr) organoclay (Cloisite 15A) and (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 phr) powder coating wastes, i.e., epoxypolyester hybrid (EPH) were prepared using a laboratory-scale internal mixer in order to study the effect of organoclay and EPH content on the mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposite samples. Cure characteristics of the prepared compounds including optimum cure time (t90) and scorch time (t5) depicted a decrease in both...

  4. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on polystyrene (PS, w = 234 K) – Au nanoparticle composite thin films that were annealed up to 350°C under reduced pressure conditions. The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then ...

  5. Work function measurements of copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.; Kothari, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    The nature of contact between the electrode and the sensing material plays a crucial role in governing the sensing mechanism. Thin films of polyaniline (PANI) and copper-polyaniline nanocomposite (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of Cu nanoparticles. For sensing applications a thin film Au (gold) ˜100 nm is deposited and used as a conducting electrode. To understand the nature of contact (i.e., ohmic or Schottky) the work function of the conducting polyaniline and nanocomposite films were measured using Kelvin Probe method. I-V characteristics of PANI and NC films investigated at room temperatures further corroborates and confirms the formation of Ohmic contact as evident from work function measurements.

  6. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil® nanocomposites and combine high erosion resistance, low ice adhesion, and passive anti-icing...

  7. Laser Deposition of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films and Hard Materials and Their Optical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    visible light on instruments such as microscope tips and micro- surgical tools. Hard carbon known as diamond-like carbon films produced by pulsed laser ...visible (610 nm) LED source and a supplemental infra-red 980-nm laser diode (for the studies of the upconversion fluorescence). The basic package...5/2013 Final Performance Report 15 Sep 2012- 14 Sep 2013 LASER DEPOSITION OF POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE THIN FILMS AND HARD MATERIALS AND THEIR OPTICAL

  8. Photoluminescence enhancement in nanocomposite thin films of CdS-ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Pushan; Vasa, Parinda; Taneja, Praveen; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Singh, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the photoluminescence emitted from a dense, two-component quantum dot ensemble on a thin film is significantly higher and decays much faster than that from quantum dots of either of the two pure systems (CdS and ZnO). The semiconductor nanocomposite, in which the characteristic grain size of each species was 2-3 nm, was deposited directly on Si wafers by high-pressure magnetron sputtering, and exhibits a single, relatively sharp optical absorption edge

  9. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamgadge, Y.S.; Talwatkar, S.S.; Sunatkari, A.L.; Pahurkar, V.G.; Muley, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  10. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and S C Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), 444906 (India); Talwatkar, S.S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS) 440071 (India); Sunatkari, A.L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS) 440001 (India); Pahurkar, V.G. [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India); Muley, G.G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  11. Development of thin-film Si HYBRID solar module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Akihiko; Gotoh, Masahiro; Sawada, Toru; Fukuda, Susumu; Yoshimi, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Nomura, Takuji [Kaneka Corporation, 2-1-1, Hieitsuji, Otsu, Shiga 520-0104 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The device current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of thin-film silicon stacked tandem solar modules (HYBRID modules), consisting of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) cell and a thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell ({mu}c-Si), have been investigated under various spectral irradiance distributions. The performance of the HYBRID module varied periodically in natural sunlight due to the current-limiting property of the HYBRID module and the environmental effects. The behavior based on the current-limiting property was demonstrated by the modelling of the I-V curves using the linear interpolation method for each component cell. The improvement of the performance for the HYBRID module in natural sunlight will also be discussed from the viewpoint of the device design of the component cells. (author)

  12. Synthesis of hybrid cellulose nanocomposite bonded with dopamine SiO2/TiO2 and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sivalingam; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2015-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid material based cellulose was synthesized by the sol-gel approach. The explosion of activity in this area in the past decade has made tremendous progress in industry or academic both fundamental understanding of sol-gel process and applications of new functionalized hybrid materials. In this present research work, we focused on cellulose-dopamine functionalized SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite by sol-gel process. The cellulose-dopamine hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized via γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (γ-APTES) coupling agent by in-situ sol-gel process. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized dopamine bonding to cellulose structure with covalent cross linking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR spectral analysis. The morphological analysis of cellulose-dopamine nanoSiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite materials was characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. From this different analysis results indicate that the optical transparency, thermal stability, control morphology of cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore cellulose-dopamine-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was tested against pathogenic bacteria for antimicrobial activity.

  13. Multiscale Hybrid Micro-Nanocomposites Based on Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Inam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino-modified double wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT-NH2/carbon fiber (CF/epoxy hybrid micro-nanocomposite laminates were prepared by a resin infusion technique. DWCNT-NH2/epoxy nanocomposites and carbon fiber/epoxy microcomposites were made for comparison. Morphological analysis of the hybrid composites was performed using field emission scanning electron microscope. A good dispersion at low loadings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in epoxy matrix was achieved by a bath ultrasonication method. Mechanical characterization of the hybrid micro-nanocomposites manufactured by a resin infusion process included three-point bending, mode I interlaminar toughness, dynamic mechanical analysis, and drop-weight impact testing. The addition of small amounts of CNTs (0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 wt% to epoxy resins for the fabrication of multiscale carbon fiber composites resulted in a maximum enhancement in flexural modulus by 35%, a 5% improvement in flexural strength, a 6% improvement in absorbed impact energy, and 23% decrease in the mode I interlaminar toughness. Hybridization of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy using CNTs resulted in a reduction in and dampening characteristics, presumably as a result of the presence of micron-sized agglomerates.

  14. Structural and biocompatible characterization of TiC/a:C nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balázsi, K.; Vandrovcová, M.; Bačáková, L.; Balázsi, Cs.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sputtered TiC/amorphous C thin films have been developed in order to be applied as potential barrier coating for interfering of Ti ions from pure Ti or Ti alloy implants. Our experiments were based on magnetron sputtering method, because the vacuum deposition provides great flexibility for manipulating material chemistry and structure, leading to films and coatings with special properties. The films have been deposited on silicon (001) substrates with 300 nm thick oxidized silicon sublayer at 200 °C deposition temperature as model substrate. Transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural investigations. Thin films consisted of ∼ 20 nm TiC columnar crystals embedded by 5 nm thin amorphous carbon matrix. MG63 osteoblast cells have been applied for in vitro study of TiC nanocomposites. The cell culture tests give strong evidence of thin films biocompatibility. Highlights: ► The main goal of this work is the relatively easy preparation of nanocomposite TiC thin films by dc magnetron sputtering. ► TEM and HREM were applied for structural characterization of columnar TiC nanocrystals and amorphous carbon matrix. ► The biocompatibility of films was showed by MG63 human osteoblast like cells during 1, 3 and 7 days seeding

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  16. Granular and layered ferroelectric–ferromagnetic thin-film nanocomposites as promising materials with high magnetotransmission effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbashev, A.R. [Department of Materials Science, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Telegin, A.V., E-mail: telegin@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kaul, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, Yu.P. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr{sub 1–x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO{sub 3} were grown on ZrO{sub 2}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr–Sr–Lu–Mn–O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature. - Highlights: • Thin-film ferromagnetic–ferroelectric nanocomposites have been prepared by MOCVD. • Giant change of optical transparency of nanocomposites in magnetic field was detected. • Positive magnetotransmission in the granular nanocomposite was discovered in the IR. • Negative magnetotransmission in the layered nanocomposite was revealed in the IR. • Ferroelectric–ferromangetic nanocomposite is a promising material for optoelectronics.

  17. Granular and layered ferroelectric–ferromagnetic thin-film nanocomposites as promising materials with high magnetotransmission effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbashev, A.R.; Telegin, A.V.; Kaul, A.R.; Sukhorukov, Yu.P.

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr 1–x Sr x MnO 3 and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO 3 were grown on ZrO 2 (Y 2 O 3 ) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr–Sr–Lu–Mn–O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature. - Highlights: • Thin-film ferromagnetic–ferroelectric nanocomposites have been prepared by MOCVD. • Giant change of optical transparency of nanocomposites in magnetic field was detected. • Positive magnetotransmission in the granular nanocomposite was discovered in the IR. • Negative magnetotransmission in the layered nanocomposite was revealed in the IR. • Ferroelectric–ferromangetic nanocomposite is a promising material for optoelectronics

  18. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  19. Pd-Ni-MWCNT nanocomposite thin films: preparation and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Mirosław; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Sobczak, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The properties of nanocomposite palladium-nickel-multi-walled (Pd-Ni-MWCNT) films deposited on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate have been prepared and investigated. These films were obtained by 3 step process consisted of PVD/CVD/PVD methods. The morphology and structure of the obtained films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques at various stages of the film formation. EDX spectrometer was used to measurements of elements segregation in the obtained film. TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) observations showed MWCNTs decorated with palladium nanoparticles in the film obtained in the last step of film formation (final PVD process). The average size of the palladium nanoparticles observed both on MWCNTs and carbonaceous matrix does not exceed 5 nm. The research was conducted on the use of the obtained films as potential sensors of gases (e.g. H2, NH3, CO2) and bio-sensors or optical sensors.

  20. Development of novel biocompatible hybrid nanocomposites based on polyurethane-silica prepared by sol gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashti, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yahyaei, Hossein [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozi, Saman [Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezani, Sara [Department of Neuroscience, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahiminejad, Ali [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Science, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzaneh, Khadijeh [Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, Mohsen [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanbari, Hossein, E-mail: hghanbari@tums.ac.ir [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biomaterials Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Due to high biocompatibility, polyurethane has found many applications, particularly in development of biomedical devices. A new nanocomposite based on thermoset polyurethane and silica nanoparticles was synthesized using sol-gel method. Sol-gel process was fulfilled in two acidic and basic conditions by using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethoxyisocyanatesilane as precursors. The hybrid films characterized for mechanical and surface properties using tensile strength, contact angle, ATR-FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the hybrids were assessed using standard MTT, LDH and TUNEL assays. The results revealed that incorporation of silica nanoparticles was significantly improved tensile strength and mechanical properties of the hybrids. Based on the contact angle results, silica nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of the hybrids. Biocompatibility by using human lung epithelial cell line (MRC-5) demonstrated that the hybrids were significantly less cytotoxic compared to pristine polymer as tested by MTT and LDH assays. TUNEL assay revealed no signs of apoptosis in all tested samples. The results of this study demonstrated that incorporation of silica nanoparticles into polyurethane lead to the enhancement of biocompatibility, indicating that these hybrids could potentially be used in biomedical field in particular as a new coating for medical implants. - Highlights: • Nanocomposites based on polyurethane and nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method fabricated • Addition of inorganic phase improved mechanical properties. • Nanosilica prepared by sol-gel method increased hydrophilicity. • By adding nanosilica to polyurethane biocompatibility increased significantly.

  1. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  2. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  3. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, Jini; Varghese, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr  > GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min"−"1 corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  4. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Khan; Zafar Abas; Heung Soo Kim; Jaehwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active pa...

  5. Graphene/CuS/ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for high performance photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Jini, E-mail: jini.nano@gmail.com; Varghese, K.T., E-mail: ktvscs@gmail.com

    2015-11-01

    We herein report a novel, high performance ternary nanocomposite composed of Graphene doped with nano Copper Sulphide and Zinc Oxide nanotubes (GCZ) for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Investigations were made to estimate and compare the Methyl Orange dye (MO) degradation using GCZ, synthesized pristine Graphene (Gr) and Graphene–ZnO hybrid nanocomposite (GZ) under UV light irradiations. The synthesis of nanocomposites involves the simple ultra-sonication and mixing methods. The nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area method. The as synthesized GCZ shows better surface area, porosity and band gap energy than as synthesized Gr and GZ. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye follows as Gr <<< GCZ >> GZ due to the stronger adsorbability, large number of photo induced electrons and highest inhibition of charge carrier's recombination of GCZ. The kinetic investigation demonstrates that dye degradation exhibit the pseudo first order kinetic model with rate constant 0.1322, 0.049 and0.0109 min{sup −1} corresponding to GCZ, GZ and Gr. The mechanism of dye degradation in presence of photocatalyst is also discussed. This study confirms that GCZ is a more promising material for high performance catalytic applications especially in the dye waste water purification. - Highlights: • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show better surface area, porosity and adsorbability. • CuS–ZnO hybrid nanostructure highly enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Graphene. • Graphene–CuS–ZnO hybrid composites show superior photocatalytic efficiency, rate constant and quantum yield.

  6. Hybrid metallic nanocomposites for extra wear-resistant diamond machining tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, P.A.; Sidorenko, D.A.; Levashov, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of metallic nanocomposites as binder for diamond machining tools is demonstrated. The various nanoreinforcements (carbon nanotubes, boron nitride hBN, nanoparticles of tungsten carbide/WC) and their combinations are embedded into metallic matrices and their mechanical properties...... are determined in experiments. The wear resistance of diamond tools with metallic binders modified by various nanoreinforcements was estimated. 3D hierarchical computational finite element model of the tool binder with hybrid nanoscale reinforcements is developed, and applied for the structure...

  7. Graphene Oxide/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanocomposite Thin-Film Phototransistor for Logic Circuit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, S.; Coskun, B.; El Mir, L.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a sheet-structured material that lacks a forbidden band, being a good candidate for use in radiofrequency applications. We have elaborated graphene-oxide-doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite to increase the interlayer distance and thereby open a large bandgap for use in the field of logic circuits. Graphene oxide/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (GO/P3HT) nanocomposite thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on silicon oxide substrate by spin coating method. The current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of TFTs with various P3HT compositions were studied in the dark and under light illumination. The photocurrent, charge carrier mobility, subthreshold voltage, density of interface states, density of occupied states, and I ON/ I OFF ratio of the devices strongly depended on the P3HT weight ratio in the composite. The effects of white-light illumination on the electrical parameters of the transistors were investigated. The results indicated that GO/P3HT nanocomposite thin-film transistors have high potential for use in radiofrequency applications, and their feasibility for use in digital applications has been demonstrated.

  8. Aquatic biofouling prevention by electrically charged nanocomposite polymer thin film membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lannoy, Charles-François; Jassby, David; Gloe, Katie; Gordon, Alexander D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2013-03-19

    Electrically conductive polymer-nanocomposite (ECPNC) tight nanofiltration (NF) thin film membranes were demonstrated to have biofilm-preventing capabilities under extreme bacteria and organic material loadings. A simple route to the creation and application of these polyamide-carbon nanotube thin films is also reported. These thin films were characterized with SEM and TEM as well as FTIR to demonstrate that the carbon nanotubes are embedded within the polyamide and form ester bonds with trimesoyl chloride, one of the monomers of polyamide. These polymer nanocomposite thin film materials boast high electrical conductivity (∼400 S/m), good NaCl rejection (>95%), and high water permeability. To demonstrate these membranes' biofouling capabilities, we designed a cross-flow water filtration vessel with insulated electrical leads connecting the ECPNC membranes to an arbitrary waveform generator. In all experiments, conducted in highly bacterially contaminated LB media, flux tests were run until fluxes decreased by 45 ± 3% over initial flux. Biofilm-induced, nonreversible flux decline was observed in all control experiments and a cross-flow rinse with the feed solution failed to induce flux recovery. In contrast, flux decrease for the ECPNC membranes with an electric potential applied to their surface was only caused by deposition of bacteria rather than bacterial attachment, and flux was fully recoverable following a short rinse with the feed solution and no added cleaning agents. The prevention of biofilm formation on the ECPNC membranes was a long-term effect, did not decrease with use, and was highly reproducible.

  9. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  10. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  11. Hybrid Nanocomposites for Efficient Aerospace Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles program seeks to improve safety and efficiency through exploration of the value of hybrid composites, guiding utilization of the...

  12. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I

    2008-01-01

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO 2 /SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO 2 /SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO 2 /PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO 2 nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO 2 , as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy

  13. Optical, structural and electrochromic behavior studies on nanocomposite thin film of aniline, o-toluidine and WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Ashtiani, Hamed; Bahari, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In the field of materials for electrochromic (EC) applications much attention was paid to the derivatives of aniline. We report on the optical, structural and electrochromic properties of electrochromic thin film based on composite of WO3 nanoparticles and copolymer of aniline and o-toluidine prepared by electrochemical polymerization method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared thin film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as well. The optical spectra of nanocomposite thin film were characterized in the 200-900 nm wavelength range and EC properties of nanocomposite thin film were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The calculation of optical band gaps of thin film exhibited that the thin film has directly allowed transition with the values of 2.63 eV on first region and 3.80 eV on second region. Dispersion parameters were calculated based on the single oscillator model. Finally, important parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy and lattice dielectric constant were determined and compared with the data from other researchers. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were extracted. The obtained results of nanocomposite thin film can be useful for the optoelectronic applications.

  14. Mass Transfer in Amperometric Biosensors Based on Nanocomposite Thin Films of Redox Polymers and Oxidoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr L. Simonian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer in nanocomposite hydrogel thin films consisting of alternating layers of an organometallic redox polymer (RP and oxidoreductase enzymes was investigated. Multilayer nanostructures were fabricated on gold surfaces by the deposition of an anionic self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, followed by the electrostatic binding of a cationic redox polymer, poly[vinylpyridine Os(bis-bipyridine2Clco-allylamine], and an anionic oxidoreductase. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared external reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS, ellipsometry and electrochemistry were employed to characterize the assembly of these nanocomposite films. Simultaneous SPR/electrochemistry enabled real time observation of the assembly of sensing components, changes in film structure with electrode potential, and the immediate, in situ electrochemical verification of substrate-dependent current upon the addition of enzyme to the multilayer structure. SPR and FTIR-ERS studies also showed no desorption of polymer or enzyme from the nanocomposite structure when stored in aqueous environment occurred over the period of three weeks, suggesting that decreasing in substrate sensitivity were due to loss of enzymatic activity rather than loss of film compounds from the nanostructure.

  15. Rheological and electrical properties of hybrid nanocomposites of epoxy resins filled with graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang-Trung; Lee, Seon-Suk; Lee, Dai-Soo

    2011-02-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were prepared by microwave irradiation of natural graphites intercalated with ferric chloride in nitromethane (GIC). Intercalated structure of GIC was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. SEM images of GIC after microwave irradiation showed the exfoliation of GIC, the formation of GNPs. Hybrid nanocomposites of bisphenol-A type epoxy resins filled with GNP and a conductive carbon black (CB) were prepared and rheological and electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Viscosity and electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposites showed minima at certain mixtures of GNP and CB in the epoxy resins.

  16. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study is to biomimetically synthesize hydroxyapatite–hydrophilic polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications. This organic–inorganic hybrid has been structurally characterized and reveals a good microstructural control as seen by the SEM analysis and the nanosize of the particulates is confirmed by AFM ...

  17. Preparation and properties of UV curable organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shichang Lv; Wenfang Shi

    2007-01-01

    The organo-modified layered double hydroxides (LDHs), M-LDH and N-LDH, were obtained by the ionic exchange reaction of a magnesium-aluminium nitrate LDH with modifiers. The LDHs/acrylate organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites were prepared from organo-modified LDHs, and aliphatic polyurethane acrylate oligomer and an acrylate monomer, through a bulk photopolymerization process at the presence of a photoinitiator. The effects of LDHs content in the resin on the dispersion, and the properties of UV cured nanocomposites film were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, FTIR, thermal analysis, pendulum/pencil hardness measurement. With the good solubility in acrylate resins, the organo-modified LDHs are hopefully to be used in adhesives, coating, inks as toughness modifiers, fire-retardant additives. (Author)

  18. Hybrid nanocomposites based on conducting polymer and silicon nanowires for photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehata, Nadia; Ltaief, Adnen; Ilahi, Bouraoui; Salem, Bassem; Bouazizi, Abdelaziz; Maaref, Hassen; Baron, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites based on a nanoscale combination of organic and inorganic semiconductors are a promising way to enhance the performance of solar cells through a higher aspect ratio of the interface and the good processability of polymers. Nanocomposites are based on a heterojunction network between poly (2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyhexyl-oxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) as an organic electron donor and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) as an inorganic electron acceptor. Nanowires (NWs) seem to be a promising material for this purpose, as they provide a large surface area for contact with the polymer and a designated conducting pathway whilst their volume is low. In this paper, silicon nanowires are introduced by mixing them into the polymer matrix. Hybrid nanocomposites films were deposited onto ITO substrate by spin coating method. Optical properties and photocurrent response were investigated. Charge transfer between the polymer and SiNWs has been demonstrated through photoluminescence measurements. The photocurrent density of ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structures have been obtained by J–V characteristics. The J sc value is about 0.39 µA/cm 2 . - Highlights: • SiNWs synthesis by Vapor–Liquid–Solid (VLS) mechanism. • SiNWs contribution to absorption spectra enhancement of MEH-PPV:SiNWs nanocomposites. • Decrease of PL intensity of MEH-PPV by addition of SiNWs. • Charge transfer process was taken place. • ITO/MEH-PPV:SiNWs/Al structure shows a photovoltaic effect, with a FF of 0.32

  19. Microstructure, vertical strain control and tunable functionalities in self-assembled, vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Aiping; Bi, Zhenxing; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films have recently stimulated a significant amount of research interest owing to their novel architecture, vertical interfacial strain control and tunable material functionalities. In this work, the growth mechanisms of VAN thin films have been investigated by varying the composite material system, the ratio of the two constituent phases, and the thin film growth conditions including deposition temperature and oxygen pressure as well as growth rate. It has been shown that thermodynamic parameters, elastic and interfacial energies and the multiple phase ratio play dominant roles in the resulting microstructure. In addition, vertical interfacial strain has been observed in BiFeO 3 (BFO)- and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO)-based VAN thin film systems; the vertical strain could be tuned by the growth parameters and selection of a suitable secondary phase. The tunability of physical properties such as dielectric loss in BFO:Sm 2 O 3 VAN and low-field magnetoresistance in LSMO-based VAN systems has been demonstrated. The enhancement and tunability of those physical properties have been attributed to the unique VAN architecture and vertical strain control. These results suggest that VAN architecture with novel microstructure and unique vertical strain tuning could provide a general route for tailoring and manipulating the functionalities of oxide thin films

  20. Hybrid finite elements nanocomposite characterization by stochastic microstructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva, Milton

    In this thesis the impact of entangled and non-straight fibers in the determination of the effective elastic and thermal properties of polymer nanocomposite (PNC) is addressed. Most of the models in recent studies assume nanotubes to be well dispersed straight fibers with fixed size. Nonetheless experiments reveal that nanotube formation become wavy during the manufacturing process, due to their high aspect ratio and low bending stiffness. Furthermore, experiments also show that nanotubes come in a variety of diameters and lengths. In the thesis an attempt to model the behavior of entangled fibers is made in which the distributions regarding the nanotube length and diameter are incorporated. First, an approach to generate random microstructures is developed. Then, using the finite element (FE) method with embedded fibers, the effective properties are computed for each of the random microstructures. This approach requires only a regular grid for the FE mesh, circumventing the requisite computationally costly and human labor intensive mesh refinement of ordinary FE in order to capture the local morphology of the composite material. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation approach is used to obtain statistics of the computed effective physical properties. The numerical results are found in good agreement with experimental data reported in the open literature.

  1. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  2. Crystallization behaviour of nanostructured hybrid SiO2-TiO2 gel glasses to nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetelina, Gerganova; Yordanka, Ivanova; Yuliya, Vueva; Miranda, Salvado Isabel M; Helena, Fernandes Maria

    2010-04-01

    The crystallization behaviour of hybrid SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites derived from titanosiloxanes by sol-gel method has been investigated depending on the type of siloxane precursor and the pirolysis temperature. The resulting hybrid titanosiloxanes, crosslinked with trimethylsilil isocyanate (nitrogen-modified) or methyltrietoxisilane (carbon-modified), were pirolyzed in an inert atmosphere in the temperature range between 600 to 1100 degrees C in order to form C-(N)-Si-O-TiO2 nanocomposites. By means of XRD, FTIR, 29Si NMR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations have been established that the transformation of the nanostructured SiO2-TiO2 hybrid materials into nanocomposites as well as the crystalline size depend on the titanium content and the type of cross-linking agents used in the synthesizes.

  3. Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica/Alumina Hybrid Membrane Film Nanocomposites using Template Sol-Gel Synthesis of Amphiphilic Triphenylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintang, H. O.; Jalani, M. A.; Yuliati, L.; Salleh, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we reported that by introducing a one-dimensional (1D) substrate with a porous structure such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by using amphiphilic triphenylene (TPC10TEG) as a template in sol-gel synthesis (TPC10TEG/silicahex). For the optical study of the nanocomposites, TPC10TEG/silicahex showed absorption peak at 264 nm due to the ordered and long-range π-π stacking of the disc-like aromatic triphenylene core. Moreover, the hexagonal arrangement of TPC10TEG/silicahex was proven based on their diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 at 2θ = 2.52° and 5.04° and images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. For fabrication of mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid membrane, TPC10TEG/silicahex was drop-casted onto AAO membrane for penetration into the porous structure via gravity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the resulted hybrid nanocomposites showed that the diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 of TPC10TEG/silicahex were still preserved, indicating that the hexagonal arrangements of mesoporous silica were maintained even on AAO substrate. The morphology study on the hybrid nanocomposites using TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed the successful filling of most AAO channels with the TPC10TEG/silicahex nanocomposites.

  4. High-Performance Thin-Film-Nanocomposite Cation Exchange Membranes Containing Hydrophobic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework for Monovalent Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8 offers good hydrothermal, chemical, and thermal stabilities, and is therefore of interest in membrane synthesis. In this work, an interfacial polymerization (IP method was applied by anchoring ZIF-8 to the skin layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN membranes in order to obtain monovalent selectivity in electrodialysis. Organic trimesoyl chloride (TMC, 0.1 wt % solutions and aqueous m-phenyl diamine (MPD, 2% w/v solutions were used during the interfacial polymerization process. A range of polyamine (PA/ZIF-8 based membranes was fabricated by varying the concentration of ZIF-8 in the organic solution. The properties of the primary and modified membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, atomic force microscopy (AFM, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and contact angle measurements. No significant changes of the surface structure of the PA/ZIF-8 based membranes were observed. Nevertheless, the presence of ZIF-8 under the PA layer plays a key role in the separation process. For single salt solutions that were applied in electrodialysis (ED, faster transport of Na+ and Mg2+ was obtained after introducing the ZIF-8 nanoparticles, however, the desalination efficiency remained constant. When the hybrid membranes were applied to electrodialysis for binary mixtures containing Na+ as well as Mg2+, it was demonstrated that the monovalent selectivity and Na+ flux were enhanced by a higher ZIF-8 loading.

  5. Electrochemical study of nitrobenzene reduction using novel Pt nanoparticles/macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yufan; Zeng Lijun; Bo Xiangjie; Wang Huan; Guo Liping

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A one-step microwave-assisted route for rapidly synthesizing Pt nanoparticles ensemble on macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC) has been reported. As a novel electrode material, the excellent electrochemical behavior of nitrobenzene was investigated thoroughly at the PNMPC modified glassy carbon electrode. And moreover, the modified electrode was successfully applied to the determination of nitrobenzene in real samples. Highlights: ► One-step microwave-assisted heating synthesis Pt nanoparticles/macroporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC). ► Catalytic rate constant being 3.14 × 10 4 M −1 s −1 for NB in pH 7.0. ► Sensitive electrochemical detection of NB at the PNMPC/Nafion/GC electrode. ► The electrode showing excellent anti-interference ability and good stability for NB. - Abstract: Novel Pt nanoparticles (PN) ensemble on macroporous carbon (MPC) hybrid nanocomposites (PNMPC) were prepared through a rapidly and simple one-step microwave-assisted heating procedure. The obtained PNMPC was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical methods. The electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) was thoroughly investigated at the PNMPC modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode, and the catalytic rate constant was calculated to be 3.14 × 10 4 M −1 s −1 for NB. A sensitive NB sensor was developed based on the PNMPC/GC electrode, which showed a wide linear range (1–200 μM), low detection limit (50 nM), high sensitivity (6.93 μA μM −1 ), excellent anti-interference ability and good stability. And moreover, the electrode was successfully applied to the determination of NB in real samples.

  6. Structural, morphological and Raman studies on hybridized PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, N.; Jayakumar, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2017-05-01

    Hybridized nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano - barium titanate (BaTiO3) were prepared using the solution casting method for different concentrations of nano-BaTiO3 and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The flower like structure for morphology was observed in SEM. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form.

  7. New approaches to the development of hybrid nanocomposites: from structural materials to high-tech applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasin, V A; Antipov, Evgenii M; Karbushev, V V; Kulichikhin, Valerii G; Karpacheva, Galina P; Talroze, Raisa V; Kudryavtsev, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Current challenges in the development of various polymer nanocomposites and in the study of their properties are considered. Results of studying hybrid structural (polymer–layered silicates, polymer–nanodiamonds) and functional (based on conducting or liquid-crystalline polymers) nanomaterials are presented. Methods of modification of nanoparticles and their dispersion in a polymer matrix, and the role of interactions between a polymer matrix and fillers, as well as of nanoparticle morphology realized in the course of processing, are discussed. The bibliography includes 453 references.

  8. Energy efficient hybrid nanocomposite-based cool thermal storage air conditioning system for sustainable buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Kalaiselvam, S.

    2013-01-01

    The quest towards energy conservative building design is increasingly popular in recent years, which has triggered greater interests in developing energy efficient systems for space cooling in buildings. In this work, energy efficient silver–titania HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-based cool thermal energy storage) system combined with building A/C (air conditioning) system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter design conditions. HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposite particles embedded PCM) used as the heat storage material has exhibited 7.3–58.4% of improved thermal conductivity than at its purest state. The complete freezing time for HiNPCM was reduced by 15% which was attributed to its improved thermophysical characteristics. Experimental results suggest that the effective energy redistribution capability of HiTES system has contributed for reduction in the chiller nominal cooling capacity by 46.3% and 39.6% respectively, under part load and on-peak load operating conditions. The HiTES A/C system achieved 27.3% and 32.5% of on-peak energy savings potential in summer and winter respectively compared to the conventional A/C system. For the same operating conditions, this system yield 8.3%, 12.2% and 7.2% and 10.2% of per day average and yearly energy conservation respectively. This system can be applied for year-round space conditioning application without sacrificing energy efficiency in buildings. - Highlights: • Energy storage is acquired by HiTES (hybrid nanocomposites-thermal storage) system. • Thermal conductivity of HiNPCM (hybrid nanocomposites-PCM) was improved by 58.4%. • Freezing time of HiNPCM was reduced by 15% that enabled improved energy efficiency. • Chiller nominal capacity was reduced by 46.3% and 39.6% in on-peak and part load respectively. • HiTES A/C system achieved appreciable energy savings in the range of 8.3–12.2%

  9. DNA hybridization sensor based on pentacene thin film transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Chand, Rohit; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2011-01-15

    A DNA hybridization sensor using pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) is an excellent candidate for disposable sensor applications due to their low-cost fabrication process and fast detection. We fabricated pentacene TFTs on glass substrate for the sensing of DNA hybridization. The ss-DNA (polyA/polyT) or ds-DNA (polyA/polyT hybrid) were immobilized directly on the surface of the pentacene, producing a dramatic change in the electrical properties of the devices. The electrical characteristics of devices were studied as a function of DNA immobilization, single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA, DNA length and concentration. The TFT device was further tested for detection of λ-phage genomic DNA using probe hybridization. Based on these results, we propose that a "label-free" detection technique for DNA hybridization is possible through direct measurement of electrical properties of DNA-immobilized pentacene TFTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and magneto-dielectric property of (1-x)SBT-xLSMO nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Sarmistha; Bhattacharya, D.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, interest in multiferroic materials has been increasing due to their potential applications. As single-phase multiferroic materials have very low room temperature magnetoelectric coefficient, recent studies have been concentrated on the possibility of attaining a coupling between the two order parameters by designing composites with magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases via stress mediation. Composite thin films with homogenous matrix, composition spread with terminal layers being ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, layer-by-layer growth, superlattices, as well as epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers on suitable substrates are been currently considered. In the present work, a nanostructured composite thin film of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) (ferroelectric layer) and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide (LSMO) (ferromagnetic layer) were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition. Phase separated multiferroic thin films with thickness varying from 50nm to 150nm were deposited from composite target (1-x)SBT-xLSMO with x=0.2, 0.5, 0.8. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction study combined with photo electron spectroscopy with depth profiling was carried out to study the phase separation. Interface quality of the thin film on silicon substrate was studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Influence of film thickness and composition (x) on the electrical property of film was examined using impedance spectroscopy. The composite films exhibited ferroelectric as well as ferromagnetic characteristics at room temperature. A small kink in the dielectric spectra near the Neel temperature of LSMO confirmed the magneto-electric effect in the nanocomposite films

  11. Enhanced Capacitance of Hybrid Layered Graphene/Nickel Nanocomposite for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zaid, Norsaadatul Akmal; Idris, Nurul Hayati

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Ni nanoparticles were directly decorated on graphene (G) nanosheets via mechanical ball milling. Based on transmission electron microscopy observations, the Ni nanoparticles were well dispersed and attached to the G nanosheet without any agglomerations. Electrochemical results showed that the capacitance of a G/Ni nanocomposite was 275 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, which is higher than the capacitance of bare G (145 F g-1) and bare Ni (3 F g-1). The G/Ni electrode also showed superior performance at a high current density, exhibiting a capacitance of 190 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1 and a capacitance of 144 F g-1 at a current density of 10 A g-1. The equivalent series resistance for G/Ni nanocomposites also decreased. The enhanced performance of this hybrid supercapacitor is best described by the synergistic effect, i.e. dual charge-storage mechanism, which is demonstrated by electrical double layer and pseudocapacitance materials. Moreover, a high specific surface area and electrical conductivity of the materials enhanced the capacitance. These results indicate that the G/Ni nanocomposite is a potential supercapacitor.

  12. Elastomer Nanocomposites Based on Butadiene Rubber, Nanoclay and Epoxy-Polyester Hybrid: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Zoghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites based on butadiene rubber (BR, (0, 3, 5 and 7 phr organoclay (Cloisite 15A and (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 phr powder coating wastes, i.e., epoxypolyester hybrid (EPH were prepared using a laboratory-scale internal mixer in order to study the effect of organoclay and EPH content on the mechanical and morphological properties of the nanocomposite samples. Cure characteristics of the prepared compounds including optimum cure time (t90 and scorch time (t5 depicted a decrease in both mentioned factors with increasing nanoclay content and EPH loading.Intercalation of elastomer chains into the silicate layers was determined by d-spacing values calculated according to the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal the intercalation of elastomer chains into the clay galleries. This phenomenon was also confirmed according to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite samples which were observed to be improved with addition of nanoclay and EPH content.

  13. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng, E-mail: cpufengc@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2015-12-15

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC{sub 0–6h} values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes.

  14. Organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides with intercalated phacolysin as ocular delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhiguo; Zhang, Jie; Chi, Huibo; Cao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study was mainly aimed to evaluate the potential use of a novel ocular drug delivery system, organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan derivatives and layered double hydroxides (LDH). Organic polymers of chitosan–glutathione (CG) and pre-activated chitosan–glutathione (CG-2MNA) were successfully synthesized and characterized. LDH with intercalated phacolysin (PCL), including larger hexagonal LDH–PCL (Lh-LDH–PCL), larger spherical LDH–PCL (Ls-LDH–PCL), smaller hexagonal LDH–PCL (Sh-LDH–PCL), CG hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG), and CG-2MNA hybrid LDH–PCL (LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA), were prepared. The nanocomposites with particle size of 107.2–274.9 nm were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron micrographs, etc. In vivo precorneal retention studies showed that the detectable time of all nanocomposites was prolonged from 2 to 6 h in comparison to PCL saline. Accordingly, the AUC 0–6h values of Lh-LDH–PCL, Ls-LDH–PCL, Sh-LDH–PCL, LDH–PCL-CG, and LDH–PCL-CG-2MNA nanocomposites were increased by 2.27-, 2.08-, 3.08-, 4.67-, and 3.36-fold, respectively. The Draize test and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that modified LDH had no eye irritation after single and repeated administration. These results indicated that chitosan derivatives-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs.Graphical AbstractThiolated chitosan-LDH hybrid nanocomposite dispersion could be a promising ocular drug delivery system to improve precorneal retention time of drugs and may facilitate penetration of drugs into tissues of the eyes

  15. Synergistic effect of cellulose nanocrystals/graphene oxide nanosheets as functional hybrid nanofiller for enhancing properties of PVA nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Miri, Nassima; El Achaby, Mounir; Fihri, Aziz; Larzek, Mohamed; Zahouily, Mohamed; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2016-02-10

    Novel functional hybrid nanofillers composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and graphene oxide nanosheets (GON), at different weight ratios (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2), were successfully prepared and characterized, and their synergistic effect in enhancing the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was investigated. Due to the synergistic reinforcement, it was found that the Young's modulus, tensile strength and toughness of the PVA nanocomposite containing 5 wt% hybrid nanofiller (1:2) were significantly improved by 320%, 124% and 159%, respectively; and the elongation at break basically remained compared to the neat PVA matrix. In addition, the glass and melting temperatures as well as the moisture sorption of nanocomposites were also enhanced. This synergistic effect improved the dispersion homogeneity by avoiding the agglomeration phenomenon of nanofillers within the polymer matrix, resulting in nanocomposites with largely enhanced properties compared to those prepared from single nanofiller (CNC or GON). The preparation of these hybrid nanofillers and their incorporation into a polymer provided a novel method for the development of novel multifunctional nanocomposites based on the combination of existing nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  17. Growth and characteristics of PbS/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites for flexible high dielectric thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmar, J.J.L.; Majumder, T.; Mondal, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    PbS/polyvinyl alcohol (PbS/PVA) nanocomposites have been grown by a chemical bath deposition process at various growth temperatures (60–100 °C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study revealed the formation of PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm encapsulated in PVA matrix. Optical band gap of the nanocomposite films have been found to decrease (1.45 eV–0.67 eV) with increase in growth temperature from 60 °C to 100 °C. The impedance measurements have been carried out by depositing the PbS/PVA films on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The room temperature dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity measurements have been carried out for ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices deposited at various growth temperatures. The nanocomposite films demonstrate superior dielectric permittivity compare to pure PVA polymer. The flexibility studies of ITO/PbS/PVA/Al devices have been performed at different bending angles. - Highlights: • PbS nanoparticles of diameter 6–20 nm were grown in polyvinyl (PVA) matrix. • Optical band gap of nanocomposite films was varied from 1.45–0.67 eV. • The nanocomposite thin films demonstrated superior dielectric permittivity. • Flexibility study of thin film devices was performed at various bending angles.

  18. Hybrid ternary rice paper-manganese oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites for flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Kaixi; Wei, Li; Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two-electrode supercapacitors demonstrated high capacitance (260.2 F g-1), energy (9.0 W h kg-1), power (59.7 kW kg-1), and cycle stability (12% drop after 3000 cycles). In addition, the nanocomposites show good strength and excellent mechanical flexibility, and their capacitance shows negligible changes after bending more than 100 times. These findings suggest that opportunities exist to further explore the rich chemistry of cellulose fibers for innovative energy applications.Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two

  19. Synthesis and Mechanical Properties Investigation of Nano TiO2/Glass/Epoxy Hybrid Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Salehi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of epoxy and glass/epoxy filled with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 vol% of TiO2 nanoparticles have been studied using tensile and three-point bending tests. For the TiO2/epoxy nanocomposites, the results showed that the strength and stiffness were improved, though the strain at ultimate strength point and breaking strain decreased. Moreover, the hybrid nanocomposites composed of 4 layers of woven E-glass fabric and TiO2/epoxy matrix were fabricated and cut onaxis and 45° off-axis by water jet. The results of tensile and three-point bending tests indicated a remarkable improvement in the strength and stiffness that could not be related to the mechanical improvement of the matrix. The samples containing 1 vol% nano TiO2 were improved relative to samples without the nanoparticles. The tensile strength of the on-axis and off-axis samples containing 1 vol% TiO2 increased by about 25.9% and 17.9%, in the order given, compared to that of the glass/epoxy specimens. In three-point bending test, the strength of the on-axis and off-axis specimens was improved 26% and 23.2%, respectively. In addition, the tensile stiffness of the onaxis and off-axis samples containing 1 vol% TiO2 increased, respectively, by about 14.4% and 17.5% compared to that of the glass/epoxy specimens. Also for the same on-axis and off-axis samples the three-point bending stiffness increased about 19.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The whole investigation on the microstructure of the hybrid nanocomposites illustrated that stronger interfaces between the fiber and TiO2/epoxy matrix were formed and improvement was noticed on mechanical properties of ternary composite compared to those of the fiber/epoxy composites. The analysis of damage zones of hybrid nanocomposites showed that the surface area of the damaged zone declined considerably due to the brittle behavior of TiO2-filled specimens but the area below the stress-strain curve, showing energy absorption during the test

  20. Increasing the operation temperature of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells: From nanocomposites to hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Among the possible systems investigated for energy production with low environmental impact, polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as electrochemical power sources for application in portable technology and electric vehicles. For practical applications, operating FCs at temperatures above 100 °C is desired, both for hydrogen and methanol fuelled cells. When hydrogen is used as fuel, an increase of the cell temperature produces enhanced CO tolerance, faster reaction kinetics, easier water management and reduced heat exchanger requirement. The use of methanol instead of hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles has several practical benefits such as easy transport and storage, but the slow oxidation kinetics of methanol needs operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at intermediate temperatures. For this reason, new membranes are required. Our strategy to achieve the goal of operating at temperatures above 120 °C is to develop organic/inorganic hybrid membranes. The first approach was the use of nanocomposite class I hybrids where nanocrystalline ceramic oxides were added to Nafion. Nanocomposite membranes showed enhanced characteristics, hence allowing their operation up to 130 °C when the cell was fuelled with hydrogen and up to 145 °C in DMFCs, reaching power densities of 350 mW cm -2. The second approach was to prepare Class II hybrids via the formation of covalent bonds between totally aromatic polymers and inorganic clusters. The properties of such covalent hybrids can be modulated by modifying the ratio between organic and inorganic groups and the nature of the chemical components allowing to reach high and stable conductivity values up to 6.4 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C.

  1. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future. Considering the non-biodegradable nature and potential long-term toxicity concerns of photothermal nanoagents, it is of great interest and importance to develop biodegradable and photothermal nanoparticles with an excellent biocompatibility for their future clinical applications. In our experiments, we fabricated porous silicon-based hybrid nanocomposites via surface initiated polymerization of aniline, which showed an excellent photothermal effect, aqueous dispersibility, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Furthermore, after an efficient loading of DOX molecules, polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites exhibited the remarkable synergistic anticancer

  2. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of hybridized CdS-PVA nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmei; Chen Zhe; Fang Pengfei; Wang Shaojie

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of CdS nanoparticles embedded in poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) matrixes had been prepared and characterized. The -OH groups acted as the coordination sites for cadmium ion aggregations and nanosized CdS particles were successfully grown in situ at these sites with the release of S 2- ions from thioacetamide. The density and size of the nanoparticles were found to be a function of molar quantity of cadmium ion used. X-ray diffraction results showed that the obtained CdS nanoparticles were hexagonal phase. Ionic clustering within the PVA matrix occurred and had provided a confined medium for particles growth in uniform size. The optical properties of the prepared CdS-PVA hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopies. The absorption spectra showed a blue shift as compared to bulk CdS band-gap. The photoluminescence studies indicated the emission peak observed in samples could be assigned to the optical transition of the first excitonic state of the CdS nanoparticles

  3. Impacts of zeolite nanoparticles on substrate properties of thin film nanocomposite membranes for engineered osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Tahereh Mombeini; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Lau, Woei-Jye; Rad, Ali Shokuhi

    2018-04-01

    In this work, microporous substrates modified by zeolite nanoparticles were prepared and used for composite membrane making with the aim of reducing internal concentration polarization (ICP) effect of membranes during engineered osmosis applications. Nanocomposite substrates were fabricated via phase inversion technique by embedding nanostructured zeolite (clinoptilolite) in the range of 0-0.6 wt% into matrix of polyethersulfone (PES) substrate. Of all the substrates prepared, the PES0.4 substrate (with 0.4 wt% zeolite) exhibited unique characteristics, i.e., increased surface porosity, lower structural parameter ( S) (from 0.78 to 0.48 mm), and enhanced water flux. The thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane made of this optimized substrate was also reported to exhibit higher water flux compared to the control composite membrane during forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) test, without compromising reverse solute flux. The water flux of such TFN membrane was 43% higher than the control TFC membrane (1.93 L/m2 h bar) with salt rejection recorded at 94.7%. An increment in water flux is ascribed to the reduction in structural parameter, leading to reduced ICP effect.

  4. Environmental monitoring by thin film nanocomposite sensors for cultural heritage preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baoying; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Perrone, Alessio; Pispas, Stergios; Vainos, Nikos A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental control is a crucial issue in cultural heritage preservation as it especially relates to sensitive artwork and antique object conservation. Storage and transport of artworks and antiques are operations requiring precise control of the environment. Current technology trends lead to miniaturization of environmental sensor devices in which low power dissipation and advanced non-contact or remote monitoring methods appear to offer significant advantages. In the above context, nanocomposite materials represent innovative alternative solutions for high sensitivity temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensing. The control of both of these parameters, together with the exposure to ultraviolet radiation, is important in minimizing aging and deterioration of art and antique objects. New schemes reported here consider the classes of CN x and CoCl 2 nanocomposites. First, CN x thin films are synthesized on Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser ablation of graphite targets in N 2 atmosphere to form capacitive sensors. On the other hand, CoCl 2 polymer matrix composite films are produced by spin coating or casting of the composite polymer/CoCl 2 on planar glass substrates. These latter systems present a new class of optically interrogated photonic sensors featuring powerless sensing head and remote monitoring capabilities. The prototype devices proposed for use in art conservation and museum applications have been tested under controlled environmental conditions and their performance is seen to be comparable, and in some cases superior, to conventional monitoring solutions.

  5. Pentacene-Based Thin Film Transistor with Inkjet-Printed Nanocomposite High-K Dielectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Te Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposite gate insulating film of a pentacene-based thin film transistor was deposited by inkjet printing. In this study, utilizing the pearl miller to crumble the agglomerations and the dispersant to well stabilize the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles in the polymer matrix of the ink increases the dose concentration for pico-jetting, which could be as the gate dielectric film made by inkjet printing without the photography process. Finally, we realized top contact pentacene-TFTs and successfully accomplished the purpose of directly patternability and increase the performance of the device based on the nanocomposite by inkjet printing. These devices exhibited p-channel TFT characteristics with a high field-effect mobility (a saturation mobility of ̃0.58 cm2 V−1 s−1, a large current ratio (>103 and a low operation voltage (<6 V. Furthermore, we accorded the deposited mechanisms which caused the interface difference between of inkjet printing and spin coating. And we used XRD, SEM, Raman spectroscopy to help us analyze the transfer characteristics of pentacene films and the performance of OTFTs.

  6. On the key role of SiO2@POSS hybrid filler in tailoring networking and interfaces in rubber nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Redaelli, M.; D´Arienzo, M.; Brus, Jiří; Di Credico, B.; Geppi, M.; Giannini, L.; Matějka, Libor; Martini, F.; Panattoni, F.; Špírková, Milena; Šlouf, Miroslav; Scotti, R.; Morazzoni, F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 65, February (2018), s. 429-439 ISSN 0142-9418 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : rubber nanocomposites * hybrid materials * POSS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  7. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review focus on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that take advantages of their superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-pre...

  8. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy as a Novel Interfacial Probe for Thin Polymeric Films and Nano-Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Somia; Chen, Hongmin; Maina, Grace; Lee, L. James; Gu, Xiaohong; Jean, Y. C.

    2010-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been developed as a novel probe to characterize the sub-nanometer defect, free volume, profile from the surface, interfaces, and to the bulk in polymeric materials when a variable mono-energy slow positron beam is used. Free-volume hole sizes, fractions, and distributions are measurable as a function of depth at the high precision. PAS has been successfully used to study the interfacial properties of polymeric nanocomposites at different chemical bonding. In nano-scale thin polymeric films, such as in PS/SiO2, and PU/ZnO, significant variations of Tg as a function of depth and of wt% oxide are observed. Variations of Tg are dependent on strong or weak interactions between polymers and nano-scale oxides surfaces.

  9. Enhancement of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation for E. coli sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor Azmy, Noor Azwen [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A., E-mail: ashrif@ukm.edu.my [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Arsad, Norhana [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Idris, Sarada [Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, 43650, UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Radiation Facilities Division, Block 42, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohmad, Abdul Rahman [MEMS-NEMS and Nanoelectronics, Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), 43650 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdul Hamid, Aidil [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 43650 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation for E. coli sensor were fabricated for the first time. • Exposed to gamma radiation leads to the change the microstructure of the films. • The optical behaviors of thin films were found to be gamma dose dependent. • The sensors had a linear response with GO concentration. • The sensors exhibited enhanced sensitivity at higher gamma radiation. - Abstract: The fabricated E. coli sensor of ZnO-rGO nanocomposite thin films by gamma radiation was investigated. Nanocomposite films were prepared via sol–gel method and were irradiated at 10 kGy at room temperature. The surface characteristic of as-prepared samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The proposed structure shows that exposed gamma radiation may change the microstructure of the films occurs as a result of their flexible structure. Uv–vis spectra of nanocomposite were studied to investigate the optical behavior of ZnO-rGO films and the optical energy band gap and Urbach energy were found to be gamma dose dependent. The sensing properties were identified by measuring the changes of conductivity of film using I-V measurement. Upon exposure to E. coli, the radiated ZnO-rGO films (1.00 vol% GO) exhibited higher sensitivity, as much as 4.62 × 10{sup −3}, than un-radiated films, 1.04 × 10{sup −3}. This enhancement of the I-V response was attributed to a positive influence of the gamma radiation in these films. The results prove that our ZnO-rGO nanocomposites thin films by gamma radiation demonstrate a strong performance for the detection of microbiological organisms in water.

  10. Processing and thin film formation of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es-Souni, M.; Kartopu, G.; Habouti, S.; Piorra, A.; Solterbeck, C.H. [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, Kiel University of Applied Sciences, Grenzstr. 3, 24149 Kiel (Germany); Es-Souni, Mar.; Brandies, H.F. [Faculty of Dentistry, Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2}-Pt nanocomposites containing 4 at% Pt have been processed via spin-coating. Film characterization involved XRD, Raman as well as XPS and scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM). After annealing at 500 C the thin films consisted of nanocrystalline anatase and a few nm Pt nanoclusters. Annealing at 600 C resulted in the formation of a high volume fraction of rutile, {proportional_to}70%, and a coarsening of the microstructure, including Pt nanoparticles which attained a mean particle size of up to 11 nm. These results contrasted with those of pure TiO{sub 2} films obtained at 600 C which showed only a limited amount of rutile formation, namely 9%. Raman spectra of Pt-containing samples exhibited a fluorescence emission, as background to the Raman features, which was attributed to photoinduced luminescence from Pt nanoparticles supported by their surface plasmon resonance. Emission intensity being much higher in 600 C film indicated a difference between the two films in terms of the (Pt) particle size and crystallinity, in agreement with the XRD results. XPS investigations revealed different oxidation states of Pt at the surface and in the film interior. The spectra suggested a slight oxidation of Pt at the surface while mainly metallic Pt was revealed in the film interior. The morphology and distribution of the Pt nanoparticles in the films annealed at 600 C were investigated using SSPM. Discrete Pt nanoparticles, mainly distributed in the vicinity of TiO{sub 2} grain boundaries were revealed. Nanocomposite film formation, Pt distribution and morphology are explained in terms of the limited solubility of Pt in the TiO{sub 2} lattice and its higher surface energy in comparison to that of TiO{sub 2}. Both effects are believed to lead to the formation of Pt nanoparticles at the (anatase or rutile) grain boundaries. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Silver Nanowire/MnO2 Nanowire Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites: Materials with High Dielectric Permittivity and Low Dielectric Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Ali Shayesteh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2017-04-26

    This study reports the fabrication of hybrid nanocomposites based on silver nanowire/manganese dioxide nanowire/poly(methyl methacrylate) (AgNW/MnO 2 NW/PMMA), using a solution casting technique, with outstanding dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss. AgNW was synthesized using the hard-template technique, and MnO 2 NW was synthesized employing a hydrothermal method. The prepared AgNW:MnO 2 NW (2.0:1.0 vol %) hybrid nanocomposite showed a high dielectric permittivity (64 at 8.2 GHz) and low dielectric loss (0.31 at 8.2 GHz), which are among the best reported values in the literature in the X-band frequency range (8.2-12.4 GHz). The superior dielectric properties of the hybrid nanocomposites were attributed to (i) dimensionality match between the nanofillers, which increased their synergy, (ii) better dispersion state of AgNW in the presence of MnO 2 NW, (iii) positioning of ferroelectric MnO 2 NW in between AgNWs, which increased the dielectric permittivity of nanodielectrics, thereby increasing dielectric permittivity of the hybrid nanocomposites, (iv) barrier role of MnO 2 NW, i.e., cutting off the contact spots of AgNWs and leading to lower dielectric loss, and (v) AgNW aligned structure, which increased the effective surface area of AgNWs, as nanoelectrodes. Comparison of the dielectric properties of the developed hybrid nanocomposites with the literature highlights their great potential for flexible capacitors.

  12. Application of nonlinear rheology to assess the effect of secondary nanofiller on network structure of hybrid polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Milad; Aliabadian, Ehsan; Shayesteh Zeraati, Ali; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer nanocomposites exhibit excellent electrical properties by forming a percolated network. Adding a secondary filler can significantly affect the CNTs' network, resulting in changing the electrical properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of adding manganese dioxide nanowires (MnO2NWs) as a secondary nanofiller on the CNTs' network structure inside a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix. Incorporating MnO2NWs to PVDF/CNT samples produced a better state of dispersion of CNTs, as corroborated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The steady shear and oscillatory shear flows were employed to obtain a better insight into the nanofiller structure and viscoelastic behavior of the nanocomposites. The transient response under steady shear flow revealed that the stress overshoot of hybrid nanocomposites (two-fillers), PVDF/CNT/MnO2NWs, increased dramatically in comparison to binary nanocomposites (single-filler), PVDF/CNT and PVDF/MnO2NWs. This can be attributed to microstructural changes. Large amplitude oscillatory shear characterization was also performed to further investigate the effect of the secondary nanofiller on the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the samples. The nonlinear rheological observations were explained using quantitative nonlinear parameters [strain-stiffening ratio (S) and shear-thickening ratio (T)] and Lissajous-Bowditch plots. Results indicated that a more rigid nanofiller network was formed for the hybrid nanocomposites due to the better dispersion state of CNTs and this led to a more nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

  13. Enhanced photoluminescence in transparent thin films of polyaniline–zinc oxide nanocomposite prepared from oleic acid modified zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajimol Augustine, M., E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Teresa' s College, Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Jeeju, P.P.; Varma, S.J.; Francis Xavier, P.A. [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: lakshminathcusat@gmail.com [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-07-01

    Oleic acid capped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet chemical route. The chemical oxidative method is employed to synthesize polyaniline (PANI) and PANI/ZnO nanocomposites doped with four different dopants such as orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), hydrochloric acid (HCl), naphthalene-2-sulphonic acid and camphor sulphonic acid (CSA). The samples have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity of PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposites is attempted. The enhanced PL intensity in PANI/ZnO nanocomposites is caused by the presence of nanostructured and highly fluorescent ZnO in the composites. It has been observed that, among the composites, the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} doped PANI/ZnO nanocomposite is found to exhibit the highest PL intensity because of the higher extent of (pi) conjugation and the more orderly arrangement of the benzenoid and quinonoid units. In the present work, transparent thin films of PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposite for which PL intensity is found to be maximum, have been prepared after re-doping with CSA by the spin-coating technique. The XRD pattern of the PANI/ZnO film shows exceptionally good crystallanity compared to that of pure PANI, which suggests that the addition of ZnO nanocrystals helps in enhancing the crystallanity of the PANI/ZnO nanocomposite. There is a significant increase in the PL emission intensity of the PANI/ZnO nanocomposite film making it suitable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Oleic acid capped zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. • Polyaniline/zinc oxide nanocomposites are prepared by in-situ polymerization. • Polyaniline and polyaniline/zinc oxide thin films are deposited using spin-coating. • Enhanced photoluminescence is observed in polyaniline

  14. Comparative study on the mechanical and microstructural characterisation of AA 7075 nano and hybrid nanocomposites produced by stir and squeeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C; Ramanujam, R

    2017-07-01

    In this research work, a comparative evaluation on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of aluminium based single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites was carried out. The manufacture of a single reinforced nanocomposite was conducted with the distribution of 2 wt.% nano alumina particles (avg. particle size 30-50 nm) in the molten aluminium alloy of grade AA 7075; while the hybrid reinforced nanocomposites were produced with of 4 wt.% silicon carbide (avg. particle size 5-10 µm) and 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% nano alumina particles. Three numbers of single reinforced nanocomposites were manufactured through stir casting with reinforcements preheated to different temperatures viz. 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C. The stir cast procedure was extended to fabricate two hybrid reinforced nanocomposites with reinforcements preheated to 500 °C prior to their inclusion. A single reinforced nanocomposite was also developed by squeeze casting with a pressure of 101 MPa. Mechanical and physical properties such as density, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact strength were evaluated on all the developed composites. The microstructural observation was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. On comparison with base alloy, an improvement of 63.7% and 81.1% in brinell hardness was observed for single and hybrid reinforced nanocomposites respectively. About 16% higher ultimate tensile strength was noticed with the squeeze cast single reinforced nanocomposite over the stir cast.

  15. Structure and Optical Properties of Titania-PDMS Hybrid Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Non-Aqueous Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine R. M. Dalod

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are attractive due to the combination of properties from the two distinct types of materials. In this work, transparent titania-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid materials with up to 15.5 vol. % TiO2 content were prepared by an in situ non-aqueous method using titanium (IV isopropoxide and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane as precursors. Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Ultraviolet-visible, ellipsometry and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis allowed to describe in detail the structure and the optical properties of the nanocomposites. Titanium alkoxide was successfully used as a cross-linker and titania-like nanodomains with an average size of approximately 4 nm were shown to form during the process. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites exhibit high transparency and tunable refractive index from 1.42 up to 1.56, depending on the titania content.

  16. Hybrid MoS2/h-BN Nanofillers As Synergic Heat Dissipation and Reinforcement Additives in Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hélio; Trigueiro, João Paulo C; Silva, Wellington M; Woellner, Cristiano F; Owuor, Peter S; Cristian Chipara, Alin; Lopes, Magnovaldo C; Tiwary, Chandra S; Pedrotti, Jairo J; Villegas Salvatierra, Rodrigo; Tour, James M; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Silva, Glaura G; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-09-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and their hybrid (MoS 2 /h-BN) were employed as fillers to improve the physical properties of epoxy composites. Nanocomposites were produced in different concentrations and studied in their microstructure, mechanical and thermal properties. The hybrid 2D mixture imparted efficient reinforcement to the epoxy leading to increases of up to 95% in tensile strength, 60% in ultimate strain, and 58% in Young's modulus. Moreover, an enhancement of 203% in thermal conductivity was achieved for the hybrid composite as compared to the pure polymer. The incorporation of MoS 2 /h-BN mixture nanofillers in epoxy resulted in nanocomposites with multifunctional characteristics for applications that require high mechanical and thermal performance.

  17. Facile Fabrication of MoS2-Modified SnO2 Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Sun, Yan'e; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-06-08

    An ultrasensitive humidity sensor based on molybdenum-disulfide- (MoS2)-modified tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposite has been demonstrated in this work. The nanostructural, morphological, and compositional properties of an as-prepared MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), nitrogen sorption analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed its successful preparation and rationality. The sensing characteristics of the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid film device against relative humidity (RH) were investigated at room temperature. The RH sensing results revealed an unprecedented response, ultrafast response/recovery behaviors, and outstanding repeatability. To our knowledge, the sensor response yielded in this work was tens of times higher than that of the existing humidity sensors. Moreover, the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite film sensor exhibited great enhancement in humidity sensing performances as compared to the pure MoS2, SnO2, and graphene counterparts. Furthermore, complex impedance spectroscopy and bode plots were employed to understand the underlying sensing mechanisms of the MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite toward humidity. The synthesized MoS2/SnO2 hybrid composite was proved to be an excellent candidate for constructing ultrahigh-performance humidity sensor toward various applications.

  18. Highly Controlled Diffusion Drug Release from Ureasil-Poly(ethylene oxide)-Na+-Montmorillonite Hybrid Hydrogel Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Celso R N; Molina, Eduardo F; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V

    2018-06-06

    In this work, we report the effects of incorporation of variable amounts (1-20 wt %) of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) into a siloxane-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid hydrogel prepared by the sol-gel route. The aim was to control the nanostructural features of the nanocomposite, improve the release profile of the sodium diclofenac (SDCF) drug, and optimize the swelling behavior of the hydrophilic matrix. The nanoscopic characteristics of the siloxane-cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) network, the semicrystallinity of the hybrid, and the intercalated or exfoliated structure of the clay were investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry. The correlation between the nanoscopic features of nanocomposites containing different amounts of MMT and the swelling behavior revealed the key role of exfoliated silicate in controlling the water uptake by means of a flow barrier effect. The release of the drug from the nanocomposite displayed a stepped pattern kinetically controlled by the diffusion of SDCF molecules through the mass transport barrier created by the exfoliated silicate. The sustained SDCF release provided by the hybrid hydrogel nanocomposite could be useful for the prolonged treatment of painful conditions, such as arthritis, sprains and strains, gout, migraine, and pain after surgical procedures.

  19. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Muhammad Hanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH incorporated into polyamide (PA selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC. The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  20. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  1. YIG: Bi2O3 Nanocomposite Thin Films for Magnetooptic and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur-E-Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Y3Fe5O12-Bi2O3 composite thin films are deposited onto Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG substrates and their annealing crystallization regimes are optimized (in terms of both process temperatures and durations to obtain high-quality thin film layers possessing magnetic properties attractive for a range of technological applications. The amount of bismuth oxide content introduced into these nanocomposite-type films is controlled by adjusting the RF power densities applied to both Y3Fe5O12 and Bi2O3 sputtering targets during the cosputtering deposition processes. The measured material properties of oven-annealed YIG-Bi2O3 films indicate that cosputtering of YIG-Bi2O3 composites can provide the flexibility of application-specific YIG layers fabrication of interest for several existing, emerging, and also frontier technologies. Experimental results demonstrate large specific Faraday rotation (of more than 1°/µm at 532 nm, achieved simultaneously with low optical losses in the visible range and very narrow peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of around ΔHpp= 6.1 Oe at 9.77 GHz.

  2. Largely enhanced thermal and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites via incorporating C60@graphene nanocarbon hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ping’an; Liu, Lina; Yu, Youming; Huang, Guobo; Guo, Qipeng

    2013-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved to create advanced polymer nanocomposites using nanocarbons including fullerene (C 60 ) and graphene, it remains a major challenge to effectively disperse them in a polymer matrix and to fully exert their extraordinary properties. Here we report a novel approach to fabricate the C 60 @graphene nanocarbon hybrid (C 60 : ∼47.9 wt%, graphene: ∼35.1%) via three-step reactions. The presence of C 60 on a graphene sheet surface can effectively prevent the aggregation of the latter which in turn helps the dispersion of the former in a polymer matrix during melt-processing. C 60 @graphene is found to be uniformly dispersed in a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Compared with pristine C 60 or graphene, C 60 @graphene further improves the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PP. The incorporation of 2.0 wt% C 60 @graphene (relative to PP) can remarkably increase the initial degradation temperature by around 59 ° C and simultaneously enhance the tensile strength and Young’s modulus by 67% and 76%, respectively, all of which are higher than those of corresponding PP/C 60 (graphene) nanocomposites. These significant performance improvements are mainly due to the free-radical-trapping effect of C 60 , and the thermal barrier and reinforcing effects of graphene nanosheets as well as the effective stress load transfer. This work provides a new methodology to design multifunctional nanohybrids for creating advanced materials. (paper)

  3. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  4. Some fundamental and applicative properties of [polymer/nano-SiC] hybrid nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassiba, A; Boucle, J; Makowska-Janusik, M; Errien, N

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites which combine polymer as host matrix and nanocrystals as active elements are promising functional materials for electronics, optics or photonics. In these systems, the physical response is governed by the nanocrystal features (size, surface and defect states), the polymer properties and the polymer-nanocrystal interface. This work reviews some selective nanostructured architectures based on active elements such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals and polymer host matrices. Beyond an overview of some key properties of the nanocrystals, a main part will be devoted to the electro-optical (EO) properties of SiC based hybrid systems where SiC nanocrystals are embedded in polymer matrices of different chemical nature such as poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly-vinylcarbazole (PVK) or polycarbonate. Using this approach, the organic-inorganic interface effects are emphasised with regard to the dielectric or hole transporting behaviour of PMMA and PVK respectively. These effects are illustrated through different EO responses associated with hybrid composites based on PMMA or PVK

  5. Prussian blue-nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposite as hybrid electrode for energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookhakian, M.; Basirun, W.J.; Teridi, Mohd Asri Mat; Mahmoudian, M.R.; Azarang, Majid; Zalnezhad, Erfan; Yoon, G.H.; Alias, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel and inexpensive Prussian blue-N-graphene composite for hybrid battery- supercapacitor. • Prussian blue leads to a significant increase of the capacity. • Prussian blue leads to enhancement of cycling stability of N-graphene. - Abstract: Water-soluble Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) supported on nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) with high dispersion was fabricated for high performance energy storage hybrid electrodes. An efficient loading of the PB NPs and nitrogen doping of graphene were achieved. The structure and morphology of the composite was determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The energy storage performance was assessed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques. The nanocomposite was fabricated as a hybrid battery-supercapacitor electrode and exhibited excellent performance with the highest capacity of 660 C g −1 at 1 A g −1 , which was higher than pure PB NPs and N-graphene electrodes. Moreover, the synergistic effect of N-graphene and the PB NPs prevented the N-graphene from shrinking and swelling and increased the cycle stability to 84.7% retention after 1500 cycles at 6 A g −1 , compared to the pure N-graphene.

  6. Some fundamental and applicative properties of [polymer/nano-SiC] hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiba, A.; Bouclé, J.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Errien, N.

    2007-08-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites which combine polymer as host matrix and nanocrystals as active elements are promising functional materials for electronics, optics or photonics. In these systems, the physical response is governed by the nanocrystal features (size, surface and defect states), the polymer properties and the polymer-nanocrystal interface. This work reviews some selective nanostructured architectures based on active elements such as silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals and polymer host matrices. Beyond an overview of some key properties of the nanocrystals, a main part will be devoted to the electro-optical (EO) properties of SiC based hybrid systems where SiC nanocrystals are embedded in polymer matrices of different chemical nature such as poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), poly-vinylcarbazole (PVK) or polycarbonate. Using this approach, the organic-inorganic interface effects are emphasised with regard to the dielectric or hole transporting behaviour of PMMA and PVK respectively. These effects are illustrated through different EO responses associated with hybrid composites based on PMMA or PVK.

  7. Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on PVDF Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Titania Hybrid Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Al-Saygh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel flexible nanocomposite pressure sensor with a tensile strength of about 47 MPa is fabricated in this work. Nanolayers of titanium dioxide (titania nanolayers, TNL synthesized by hydrothermal method are used to reinforce the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by simple solution mixing. A hybrid composite is prepared by incorporating the TNL (2.5 wt % with reduced graphene oxide (rGO (2.5 wt % synthesized by improved graphene oxide synthesis to form a PVDF/rGO-TNL composite. A comparison between PVDF, PVDF/rGO (5 wt %, PVDF/TNL (5 wt % and PVDF/rGO-TNL (total additives 5 wt % samples are analyzed for their sensing, thermal and dielectric characteristics. The new shape of additives (with sharp morphology, good interaction and well distributed hybrid additives in the matrix increased the sensitivity by 333.46% at 5 kPa, 200.7% at 10.7 kPa and 246.7% at 17.6 kPa compared to the individual PVDF composite of TNL, confirming its possible application in fabricating low cost and light weight pressure sensing devices and electronic devices with reduced quantity of metal oxides. Increase in the β crystallinity percentage and removal of α phase for PVDF was detected for the hybrid composite and linked to the improvement in the mechanical properties. Tensile strength for the hybrid composite (46.91 MPa was 115% higher than that of the neat polymer matrix. Improvement in the wettability and less roughness in the hybrid composites were observed, which can prevent fouling, a major disadvantage in many sensor applications.

  8. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk; Daria Pawlikowska; Jan Subocz; Marek Zenker; Roman Masztak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs) have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along wi...

  9. Structure–property relationships in hybrid dental nanocomposite resins containing monofunctional and multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang WG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Weiguo Wang,1,* Xiang Sun,1,* Li Huang,2,* Yu Gao,1 Jinghao Ban,1 Lijuan Shen,1 Jihua Chen1 1Department of Prosthodontics, 2Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS, have the potential to improve the mechanical properties of the methacrylate-based composites and resins used in dentistry. In this article, nanocomposites of methacryl isobutyl POSS (MI-POSS [bears only one methacrylate functional group] and methacryl POSS (MA-POSS [bears eight methacrylate functional groups] were investigated to determine the effect of structures on the properties of dental resin. The structures of the POSS-containing networks were determined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Monofunctional POSS showed a strong tendency toward aggregation and crystallization, while multifunctional POSS showed higher miscibility with the dimethacrylate monomer. The mechanical properties and wear resistance decreased with increasing amounts of MI-POSS, indicating that the MI-POSS agglomerates act as the mechanical weak point in the dental resins. The addition of small amounts of MA-POSS improved the mechanical and shrinkage properties. However, samples with a higher MA-POSS concentration showed lower flexural strength and flexural modulus, indicating that there is a limited range in which the reinforcement properties of MA-POSS can operate. This concentration dependence is attributed to phase separation at higher concentrations of POSS, which affects the structural integrity, and thus, the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the dental resin. Our results show that resin with 3% MA-POSS is a potential candidate for resin-based dental materials

  10. Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites with excellent decolorization performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junli; Yu, Lin; Sun, Ming; Ye, Fei; Lan, Bang; Diao, Guiqiang; He, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid layered manganese oxide nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled in the presence of CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. The obtained CTAB-Al-MO with the basal spacing of 1.59 nm could be stable at 300 °C for 2 h and also possesses high total pore volumes (0.41 cm³ g −1 ) and high specific BET surface area (161 m 2 g −1 ), which is nine times larger than that of the pristine (19 m 2 g −1 ). Possible formation process for the highly thermal stable CTAB-Al-MO is proposed here. The decolorization experiments of methyl orange showed that the obtained CTAB-Al-MO exhibit excellent performance in wastewater treatment and the decolorization rate could reach 95% within 5 min. - Graphical Abstract: Well-ordered organic–inorganic hybrid LMO nanocomposites (CTAB-Al-MO) with excellent decolorization performance were prepared through a two-step process. Specifically, the MnO 2 nanosheets were self-assembled by CTAB, and subsequently pillared with Keggin ions. Highlights: ► A two-step synthesis method was used to prepare the CTAB-Al-MO. ► The CTAB-Al-MO has the large basal spacing and high specific BET surface area. ► The thermal stability of the well-ordered CTAB-Al-MO could obviously improve. ► The CTAB-Al-MO exhibits excellent oxidation and absorption ability to remove organic pollutants.

  11. TaSiN nanocomposite thin films: Correlation between structure, chemical composition, and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, G.; Oezer, D.; Rivera, M.; Rodil, S.E.; Sanjinés, R.

    2014-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties of fcc-TaN/SiN x nanocomposite thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering have been investigated as function of the N and Si contents. Our studies have been mainly focused on three different types of nanocomposite Ta x Si y N z films based on: nitrogen deficient fcc-TaN 0.88 , nearly stoichiometric fcc-TaN, and over-stoichiometric fcc-TaN 1.2 with the Si contents in the range from 0 to about 15 at.%. The optical properties were investigated by ellipsometric measurements, while the DC. electrical resistivity was measured using the van der Pauw configuration at 300 K. The optical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude–Lorentz model. The results showed that the electronic properties are closely correlated with both the compositional and the structural modifications of the Ta x Si y N z films induced by the addition of Si atoms, and also depending on the stoichiometry of the starting fcc-TaN system. Thus, depending on both the nitrogen and the silicon contents, the fcc-Ta x Si y N z films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10 2 μΩ cm to about 6 × 10 4 μΩ cm. - Highlights: • TaSiN films were grown using dual magnetron sputtering system. • The physical and structural properties were correlated with the deposition parameters. • The electrical properties were influenced by the nitrogen and silicon contents on the films

  12. Thermal-induced SPR tuning of Ag-ZnO nanocomposite thin film for plasmonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in a ZnO matrix were successfully synthesized by RF-magnetron sputtering at room temperature. As prepared Ag-ZnO nanocomposite (NCs) thin films were annealed in vacuum at three different temperatures of 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The structural modifications for as-deposited and annealed films were estimated by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The crystalline behavior preferably along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed in as-deposited Ag-ZnO film and improved significantly with increasing the annealing temperature. The crystallite size of as-deposited film was measured to be 13.6 nm, and increases up to 28.5 nm at higher temperatures. The chemical composition and surface structure of the as-deposited films were estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of Ag nanoparticles with average size of 8.2 ± 0.2 nm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band was observed at the wavelength of ∼565 nm for as-deposited film and a remarkable red shift of ∼22 nm was recorded after the annealing treatment as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the grain growth from 60.38 nm to 79.42 nm for as-deposited and higher temperature annealed film respectively, with no significant change in the surface roughness. Thermal induced modifications such as disordering and lattice defects in Ag-ZnO NCs thin films were carried out by Raman spectroscopy. High quality Ag-ZnO NCs thin films with minimum strain and tunable optical properties could be useful in various plasmonic applications.

  13. Metal (Ag/Ti)-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Nikolaou, Petros; Koutsokeras, Loukas; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Moschovas, Dimitrios; Varotsis, Constantinos; Patsalas, Panos; Kelires, Pantelis; Constantinides, Georgios

    2018-03-30

    This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a-C:H:Me) of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technologies. The a-C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF) plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC) technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti). The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a-C:H:Ag and a-C:H:Ti) exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50%) and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05), properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  14. Metal (Ag/Ti-Containing Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Enhanced Nanoscratch Resistance: Hybrid PECVD/PVD System and Microstructural Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Constantinou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films with embedded metallic nanoparticles (a–C:H:Me of controlled size and concentration. Towards this end, a novel hybrid deposition system is presented that uses a combination of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD technologies. The a–C:H matrix was deposited through the acceleration of carbon ions generated through a radio-frequency (RF plasma source by cracking methane, whereas metallic nanoparticles were generated and deposited using terminated gas condensation (TGC technology. The resulting material was a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film with controlled physical properties and evenly dispersed metallic nanoparticles (here Ag or Ti. The physical, chemical, morphological and mechanical characteristics of the films were investigated through X-ray reflectivity (XRR, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and nanoscratch testing. The resulting amorphous carbon metal nanocomposite films (a–C:H:Ag and a–C:H:Ti exhibited enhanced nanoscratch resistance (up to +50% and low values of friction coefficient (<0.05, properties desirable for protective coatings and/or solid lubricant applications. The ability to form nanocomposite structures with tunable coating performance by potentially controlling the carbon bonding, hydrogen content, and the type/size/percent of metallic nanoparticles opens new avenues for a broad range of applications in which mechanical, physical, biological and/or combinatorial properties are required.

  15. Role of hybrid ratio in microstructural, mechanical and sliding wear properties of the Al5083/Graphitep/Al2O3p a surface hybrid nanocomposite fabricated via friction stir processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafapour Asl, A.; Khandani, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid ratio of each reinforcement phase in hybrid composite can be defined as proportion of its volume to total reinforcement volume of the composite. The hybrid ratio is an important factor which controls the participation extent of each reinforcement phase in overall properties of hybrid composites. Hence, in the present work, surface hybrid nanocomposites of Al5083/Graphite p /Al 2 O 3p with different hybrid ratios were fabricated by friction stir processing method. Subsequently, effect of hybrid ratio on microstructural, mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposite was investigated. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to perform microstructural observation on the samples. Hardness value measurements, tensile and pin on disk dry sliding wear tests were carried out to investigate effect of hybrid ratio on mechanical and tribological properties of the nanocomposites. Microstructural investigations displayed better distribution with less agglomeration of reinforcement for lower volume fraction of reinforcement for both alumina and graphite particles. Hardness value, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and wear rate of the nanocomposites revealed a two stage form along with hybrid ratio variation. The results are discussed based on microstructural observations of the nanocomposites and worn surface analyses.

  16. Pulsed Photoinitiated Fabrication of Inkjet Printed Titanium Dioxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Briley; Luo, Sijun; Riggs, Brian; Ji, Yaping; Adireddy, Shiva; Schroder, Kurt; Farnsworth, Stan; Chrisey, Douglas B; Escarra, Matthew

    2018-05-08

    This work reports a new technique for scalable and low temperature processing of nanostructured-TiO2 thin films, allowing for practical manufacturing of TiO2 based devices such as perovskite solar cells at low temperature or on flexible substrates. Dual layers of dense and mesoporous TiO2/graphitic oxide nanocomposite films are synthesized simultaneously using inkjet printing and pulsed photonic irradiation. Investigation of process parameters including precursor concentration (10-20 wt%) and exposure fluence (4.5-8.5 J/cm2) reveals control over crystalline quality, graphitic oxide phase, film thickness, dendrite density, and optical properties. Raman spectroscopy shows the E¬g peak, characteristic of anatase phase titania, increases in intensity with higher photonic irradiation fluence, suggesting increased crystallinity through higher fluence processing. Film thickness and dendrite density is shown to increase with precursor concentration in the printed ink. The dense base layer thickness was controlled between 20 nm to 80 nm. The refractive index of the films is determined by ellipsometry to be 1.92 +/- 0.08 at 650 nm. Films exhibit an energy weighted optical transparency of 91.1%, in comparison to 91.3% of a thermally processed film, when in situ carbon materials were removed. Transmission and diffuse reflectance are used to determine optical band gaps of the films ranging from 2.98 eV to 3.38 eV in accordance with the photonic irradiation fluence and suggests tunability of TiO2 phase composition. The sheet resistance of the synthesized films is measured to be 14.54 +/- 1.11 Ω/□ and 28.90 +/- 2.24 Ω/□ for films as-processed and after carbon removal, respectively, which is comparable to high temperature processed TiO2 thin films. The studied electrical and optical properties of the light processed films show comparable results to traditionally processed TiO2 while offering the distinct advantages of scalable manufacturing, low-temperature processing

  17. Structural and optical properties of SiC-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozetine, I.; Keffous, A.; Kaci, S.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the deposition of thin films of a SiC-SiO2nanocomposite deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition is carried out by a co-sputtering RF magnetron 13.56 MHz, using two targets a polycristallin 6H-SiC and sprigs of SiO2. In order to study the influence of the deposition time on the morphology, the structural and optical properties of the thin films produced, two series of samples were prepared, namely a series A with a 30 min deposition time and a series B of one hour duration. The samples were investigated using different characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and photoluminescence. The results obtained, reveal an optical gap varies between 1.4 and 2.4 eV depending on the thickness of the film; thus depending on the deposition time. The SIMS profile recorded the presence of oxygen (16O) on the surface, which the signal beneath the silicon signal (28Si) and carbon (12C) signals, which confirms that the oxide (SiO2) is the first material deposited at the interface film - substrate with an a-OSiC structure. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement exhibits two peaks, centred at 390 nm due to the oxide and at 416 nm due probably to the nanocrystals of SiC crystals, note that when the deposition time increases, the intensity of the PL drops drastically, result in agreement with dense and smooth film.

  18. Optimization of nanocomposite Au/TiO2 thin films towards LSPR optical-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. S.; Costa, D.; Domingues, R. P.; Apreutesei, M.; Pedrosa, P.; Martin, N.; Correlo, V. M.; Reis, R. L.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P.; Sampaio, P.; Borges, J.; Vaz, F.

    2018-04-01

    Nanomaterials based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) phenomena are revealing to be an important solution for several applications, namely those of optical biosensing. The main reasons are mostly related to their high sensitivity, with label-free detection, and to the simplified optical systems that can be implemented. For the present work, the optical sensing capabilities were tailored by optimizing LSPR absorption bands of nanocomposite Au/TiO2 thin films. These were grown by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The main deposition parameters changed were the number of Au pellets placed in the Ti target, the deposition time, and DC current applied to the Ti-Au target. Furthermore, the Au NPs clustering, a key feature to have biosensing responses, was induced by several post-deposition in-air annealing treatments at different temperatures, and investigated via SEM analysis. Results showed that the Au/TiO2 thin films with a relatively low thickness (∼100 nm), revealing concentrations of Au close to 13 at.%, and annealed at temperatures above 600 °C, had the most well-defined LSPR absorption band and thus, the most promising characteristics to be explored as optical sensors. The NPs formation studies revealed an incomplete aggregation at 300 and 500 ⁰C and well-defined spheroidal NPs for higher temperatures. Plasma treatment with Ar led to a gradual blue-shift of the LSPR absorption band, which demonstrates the sensitivity of the films to changes in the dielectric environment surrounding the NPs (essential for optical sensing applications) and the exposure of the Au nanoparticles (crucial for a higher sensitivity).

  19. A Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with MCM-41 Silica Nanoparticles for Brackish Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kadhom

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membranes containing MCM-41 silica nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP process. An m-phenylenediamine (MPD aqueous solution and an organic phase with trimesoyl chloride (TMC dissolved in isooctane were used in the IP reaction, occurring on a nanoporous polysulfone (PSU support layer. Isooctane was introduced as the organic solvent for TMC in this work due to its intermediate boiling point. MCM-41 silica NPs were loaded in MPD and TMC solutions in separate experiments, in a concentration range from 0 to 0.04 wt %, and the membrane performance was assessed and compared based on salt rejection and water flux. The prepared membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR analysis. The results show that adding MCM-41 silica NPs into an MPD solution yields slightly improved and more stable results than adding them to a TMC solution. With 0.02% MCM-41 silica NPs in the MPD solution, the water flux was increased from 44.0 to 64.1 L/m2·h, while the rejection virtually remained the same at 95% (2000 ppm NaCl saline solution, 25 °C, 2068 kPa (300 psi.

  20. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I D /I G . Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  1. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santra, T S; Liu, C H [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T K [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T K [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  2. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-07

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g., sensing, energy conversion) of these materials influences other properties. One challenge is to understand the effects of nanoparticles on the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer films. A new mechanism that contributes to an enhancement of the viscosity of nanoscale thick polymer/nanoparticle films is identified. We show that while the viscosities of neat homopolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, polymer/nanoparticle films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were comparable to the bulk values. These results - NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics - suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for nanoscale applications.

  3. Nanocomposite copolymer thin-film sensor for detection of escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Prafull; Misra, S. C. K.; Yadav, Maneesha; Bawa, S. S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of human diseases associated with microbial contaminated water are infectious in nature and the associated pathogen includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Water contaminated with bacteria can cause a number of food-borne and water-borne diseases. The waterborne transmission is highly effective means of spreading infectious agents to a large portion of population; this includes water and milk too. Waterborne infections are recognized as resulting either from ingestion of contaminated water or ice, food items, which have, came into contact with microbial contaminated water (occurring through bathing and recreational activities) etc. The detection of E. coli in food and water is normally carried out by culturing methods, which normally take 3-6 days, These methods are complicated and time-consuming in spite of their correctness, and cannot easily meet inspection demands on E. coli. Hence, an establishment of rapid detection methods for E. coli is strongly required. We have developed highly sensitive and cost effective solid sate sensors prepared from vacuum evaporated thin films of nanocomposite copolymer detection of presence of E. coli vapors in the air within 20 seconds. These sensors operate at room temperature. The preparation, optical, electrical, and structural characterization and behavioral acceptance test on the microorganism sensing properties of these sensors are reported here.

  4. Confinement Effects on Host Chain Dynamics in Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Kyle J. [Department; Glynos, Emmanouil [Department; Maroulas, Serafeim-Dionysios [Department; Narayanan, Suresh [Advanced; Sakellariou, Georgios [Department; Green, Peter F. [Department; National

    2017-09-06

    Incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within a polymer host to create polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) while having the effect of increasing the functionality (e.g.: sensing, energy conversion) of these materials, introduces additional complications with regard to the processing-morphology-function behavior. A primary challenge is to understand and control the viscosity of a PNC with decreasing film thickness confinement for nanoscale applications. Using a combination of X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) and X-ray standing wave based resonance enhanced XPCS to study the dynamics of neat poly-2-vinyl pyridine (P2VP) chains and the nanoparticle dynamics, respectively, we identified a new mechanism that dictates the viscosity of PNC films in the nanoscale regime. We show that while the viscosities of neat P2VP films as thin as 50 nm remained the same as the bulk, PNC films containing P2VP brush-coated gold NPs, spaced 50 nm apart, exhibited unprecedented increases in viscosities of over an order of magnitude. For thicker films or more widely separated NPs, the chain dynamics and viscosities were equal to the bulk values. These results -NP proximities and suppression of their dynamics -suggest a new mechanism by which the viscosities of polymeric liquids could be controlled for 2D and 3D nanoscale applications.

  5. A Thin Film Nanocomposite Membrane with MCM-41 Silica Nanoparticles for Brackish Water Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhom, Mohammed; Yin, Jun; Deng, Baolin

    2016-12-06

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes containing MCM-41 silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the interfacial polymerization (IP) process. An m -phenylenediamine (MPD) aqueous solution and an organic phase with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) dissolved in isooctane were used in the IP reaction, occurring on a nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) support layer. Isooctane was introduced as the organic solvent for TMC in this work due to its intermediate boiling point. MCM-41 silica NPs were loaded in MPD and TMC solutions in separate experiments, in a concentration range from 0 to 0.04 wt %, and the membrane performance was assessed and compared based on salt rejection and water flux. The prepared membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) analysis. The results show that adding MCM-41 silica NPs into an MPD solution yields slightly improved and more stable results than adding them to a TMC solution. With 0.02% MCM-41 silica NPs in the MPD solution, the water flux was increased from 44.0 to 64.1 L/m²·h, while the rejection virtually remained the same at 95% (2000 ppm NaCl saline solution, 25 °C, 2068 kPa (300 psi)).

  6. Amorphous Carbon Gold Nanocomposite Thin Films: Structural and Spectro-ellipsometric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel-Gonzalez, Z., E-mail: zeuzmontiel@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Mendoza-Galvan, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, 76010 Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico); Rodriguez-Fernandez, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Spectroscopic Ellipsometry was used to determine the optical and structural properties of amorphous carbon:gold nanocomposite thin films deposited by dc magnetron co-sputtering at different deposition power. The incorporation of gold as small particles distributed in the amorphous carbon matrix was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction, Rutherford Backscattering measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Based on these results, an optical model for the films was developed using the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium with the Drude-Lorentz model representing the optical response of gold and the Tauc-Lorentz model for the amorphous carbon. The gold volume fraction and particle size obtained from the fitting processes were comparable to those from the physical characterization. The analysis of the ellipsometric spectra for all the samples showed strong changes in the optical properties of the carbon films as a consequence of the gold incorporation. These changes were correlated to the structural modification observed by Raman Spectroscopy, which indicated a clustering of the sp{sup 2} phase with a subsequent decrease in the optical gap. Finally, measurements of Reflection and Transmission Spectroscopy were carried out and Transmission Electron Microscopy images were obtained in order to support the ellipsometric model results.

  7. Comparative Study of the Photocatalytic Activity of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Their Hybrid Metal Nanocomposites on the Photodegradation of Malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mamdouh Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to synthesize different semiconductor nanoparticles and their metal-hybrid nanocomposites such as TiO2, Au/TiO2, ZnO, and Au/ZnO. The morphology and crystal structure of the prepared nanomaterials are characterized by the TEM and XRD, respectively. These materials are used as catalysts for the photodegradation of Malathion which is one of the most commonly used pesticides in the developing countries. The degradation of 10 ppm Malathion under ultraviolet (UV and visible light in the presence of the different synthesized nanocomposites was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and UV-Visible Spectra. A comprehensive study is carried out for the catalytic efficiency of the prepared nanoparticles. Different factors influencing the catalytic photodegradation are investigated, as different light source, surface coverage, and nature of the organic contaminants. The results indicate that hybrid nanocomposite of the semiconductor-metal hybrid serves as a better catalytic system compared with semiconductor nanoparticles themselves.

  8. Nanostructured SnO{sub 2} encapsulated guar-gum hybrid nanocomposites for electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Priya [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Srivastava, Manish [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Verma, Ranjana [Solar Energy Material Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784 028 (India); Kumar, Manish [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, D., E-mail: dkumar@dce.ac.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Singh, Jay, E-mail: jay_singh143@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Chemistry & Polymer Technology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles encapsulated in to guar gum (GG) biopolymer as the organic–inorganic hybrid materials for the determination of hydrazine. The organic–inorganic hybrid combines the perfunctory strength offered by the inorganic SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with flexible binding sites provided by the organic biopolymer (GG) solution by the ultrasonication. The phase identification, crystalline size, surface morphology and optical properties of prepared SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites has been investigated through FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, TEM, UV–Vis, and PL techniques. The colloidal solution of SnO{sub 2} and GG is electrophoretically deposited (EPD) onto the indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate and studied for the electrooxidation of hydrazine. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linearity between the current response and the hydrazine concentration has been obtained in the range of 2–22 mM, with a low detection limit of 2.76 mM and a high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. Based on the linear increase in amperometric current, a sensitive hydrazine electrochemical sensor is constructed. The proposed SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows a good response time (35 s), reproducibility, and long-term stability. The obtained results suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG nanocomposites electrode provides a favorable sensing platform for the electrochemical studies. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies are used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. - Graphical abstract: Synthesis of sol–gel derived tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles grafted in to gaur gum (GG) organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposite for determination of hydrazine (HZ). Under optimized experimental conditions, SnO{sub 2}-GG/ITO electrode shows, linearity 2–22 mM, and detection limit 2.769 mM with high sensitivity of 5.72 μA cm{sup −2}. The results clearly suggest that SnO{sub 2}-GG

  9. Influence of miscibility phenomenon on crystalline polymorph transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic rubber/clay nanocomposite hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules.

  10. Influence of miscibility phenomenon on crystalline polymorph transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride/acrylic rubber/clay nanocomposite hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani

    Full Text Available In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF and acrylic rubber(ACM was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules.

  11. Influence of Miscibility Phenomenon on Crystalline Polymorph Transition in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Acrylic Rubber/Clay Nanocomposite Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules. PMID:24551141

  12. Morphological and Wear behaviour of new Al-SiCmicro-SiCnano hybrid nanocomposites fabricated through powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sajjad; Tanwir Alam, Md; Aziz, Tariq; Ansari, Akhter H.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, aluminium matrix composites reinforced with 10 wt% SiC micro particles along with x% SiC nano particles (x = 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt%) were fabricated through powder metallurgy. The fabricated hybrid composites were characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and elemental mapping. The relative density, hardness and wear behaviour of all hybrid nanocomposites were studied. The influence of various control factors like SiC reinforcement, sliding distance (300, 600, 900 and 1200 m) and applied load (20, 30 and 40 N) were explored using pin-on-disc wear apparatus. The uniform distribution of micro and nano SiC particles in aluminium matrix is confirmed by elemental maps. The hardness and wear test results showed that properties of the hybrid composite containing 5 wt% nano SiC was better than other hybrid composites. Additionally, the wear loss of all hybrid nanocomposites increases with increasing sliding distance and applied load. The identification of wear phenomenon were studied through the SEM images of worn surface.

  13. Structure-processing-property correlations in thin films of conjugated polymer nanocomposites and blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, Arvind

    Conjugated polymers have found several applications in recent years, in energy conversion and storage devices such as organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, batteries, and super capacitors. Thin films of polymers used for these applications need to be mechanically and thermally stable to withstand the harsh operating conditions. Although there is significant information on the optoelectronic properties of many of these polymers, there are only few studies on their mechanical properties. There is little information in the literature on how processing of these films influence mechanical properties. In the first part of this study, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) films were prepared by thermolytic conversion of poly[p -phenylene (tetrahydrothiophenium)ethylene chloride] precursor films, at different temperatures and the kinetics of reaction was investigated using thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of the films, studied using nanoindentation, showed a dependence on the extent of conversion and chemical composition of the films. The presence of chemical defects (e.g., carbonyl groups, detected using FTIR spectroscopy), was also found to have a noticeable effect on the modulus and hardness of the films. The storage modulus, E', and plasticity decreased with an increase in conversion, whereas the loss modulus, E", showed the opposite trend. Both the precursor and the fully-converted PPV films were found to have significantly lower E" than E', consistent with the glassy nature of the polymers at room temperature. In the second part of the study, polyacetylene films were synthesized by acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precursor films. The kinetics of this reaction was monitored by thermogravimetry. The chemical structure of the conjugated polymer films was characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy. Polyacetylene films incorporated with 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid

  14. Helix-sense-selective co-precipitation for preparing optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huajun; Li, Weifei; Shi, Yan; Deng, Jianping

    2017-05-25

    Constructing optically active helical polymer based nanomaterials without using expensive and limited chirally helical polymers has become an extremely attractive research topic in both chemical and materials science. In this study, we prepared a series of optically active helical polymer nanoparticles/graphene oxide (OAHPNs/GO) hybrid nanocomposites through an unprecedented strategy-the co-precipitation of optically inactive helical polymers and chirally modified GO. This approach is named helix-sense-selective co-precipitation (HSSCP), in which the chirally modified GO acted as a chiral source for inducing and further stabilizing the predominantly one-handed helicity in the optically inactive helical polymers. SEM and TEM images show quite similar morphologies of all the obtained OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites; specifically, the chirally modified GO sheets were uniformly decorated with spherical polymer nanoparticles. Circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the preferentially induced helicity in the helical polymers and the optical activity of the nanocomposites. The established HSSCP strategy is thus proven to be widely applicable and is expected to produce numerous functional OAHPNs/GO nanocomposites and even the analogues.

  15. Visible photoenhanced current-voltage characteristics of Au : TiO2 nanocomposite thin films as photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N; Amiri, M; Moshfegh, A Z

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of annealing temperature and concentration of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrochemical properties of sol-gel deposited Au : TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films is studied. Various gold concentrations have been added to the TiO 2 thin films and their properties are compared. All the deposited samples are annealed at different temperatures. The optical density spectra of the films show the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of the Au : TiO 2 films decreases with increasing Au concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanocomposite films is studied by x-ray diffractometry indicating the formation of gold nanocrystals in the anatase TiO 2 nanocrystalline thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the presence of gold in the metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 are stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the Au : TiO 2 samples are characterized using a compartment cell containing H 2 SO 4 and KOH as cathodic and anodic electrolytes, respectively. It is found that the addition of Au nanoparticles in TiO 2 films enhances the photoresponse of the layer and the addition of gold nanocrystals with an optimum value of 5 mol% resulted in the highest photoelectrochemical activity. Moreover, the photoresponse of the samples is also enhanced with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  16. Low temperature superparamagnetic nanocomposites obtained by Fe(acac3-SiO2-PVA hybrid xerogel thermolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Ianasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe(acac3/silica/PVA hybrid xerogel nanocomposite was obtained by one pot acid catalysed sol-gel synthesis using the homogeneous mixture of iron(III acetylacetonate (Fe(acac3, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Nominal composition ratio of iron oxide/silica was 15/85 (weight percent. Nitric acid was used as catalyst. Another sample of Fe(acac3/silica xerogel without PVA addition was prepared in the similar processing conditions. Based on thermal analysis studies, the thermal behaviour of both xerogel samples was unveiled and it allowed choosing the optimal calcination temperatures in order to obtain iron oxide silica magnetic nanocomposite samples. The two xerogel (with and without PVA samples were thermally treated, in air, at 220, 260 and 300 °C and characterized by different techniques. XRD investigations revealed phase composition evolution with calcination temperature, from cubic spinel phase (maghemite to hexagonal stable hematite containing nanocomposite of 10–20 nm average crystallite size. These findings were confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Up to 300 °C, the surface area and total pores volume increased with temperature for all samples. By calcination at the same temperature, the hybrid xerogel containing PVA resulted in significantly higher magnetization and free volume values in comparison with the sample without PVA.

  17. Crafting semiconductor organic-inorganic nanocomposites via placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with nanocrystals for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lei; Lin, Zhiqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-08-22

    Semiconductor organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells incorporating conjugated polymers (CPs) and nanocrystals (NCs) offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion with low-cost fabrication. The CP-based photovoltaic devices are complimented by an extensive set of advantageous characteristics from CPs and NCs, such as lightweight, flexibility, and solution-processability of CPs, combined with high electron mobility and size-dependent optical properties of NCs. Recent research has witnessed rapid advances in an emerging field of directly tethering CPs on the NC surface to yield an intimately contacted CP-NC nanocomposite possessing a well-defined interface that markedly promotes the dispersion of NCs within the CP matrix, facilitates the photoinduced charge transfer between these two semiconductor components, and provides an effective platform for studying the interfacial charge separation and transport. In this Review, we aim to highlight the recent developments in CP-NC nanocomposite materials, critically examine the viable preparative strategies geared to craft intimate CP-NC nanocomposites and their photovoltaic performance in hybrid solar cells, and finally provide an outlook for future directions of this extraordinarily rich field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Effect of stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, G. C.; Pappa, E. J.; Portan, D. V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Kollia, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of both the stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites. Four types of multilayered hybrid nanocomposites were manufactured and tested: Nitinol- CNTs (carbon nanotubes)- Acrylic resin; Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs; Surface treated Nitinol- CNTs- Acrylic resin and Surface treated Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs. Surface treatment of Nitinol plies was realized by means of the electrochemical anodization. Surface topography of the anodized nitinol sheets was investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that the overall thermal response of the manufactured multilayered nano-composites was greatly influenced by both the anodization and the stacking sequence. A theoretical model for the prediction of the overall thermal conductivity has been developed considering the nature of the different layers, their stacking sequence as well as the interfacial thermal resistance. Thermal conductivity and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements were conducted, to verify the predicted by the model overall thermal conductivities. In all cases, a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results was found.

  19. The modification of nanocomposite hybrid polymer surfaces by exposure to oxygen containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ashley; Zimmermann, Katherine; Augustine, Brian; Hughes, Chris; Chusuei, Charles

    2006-11-01

    The wetting properties of the surfaces of the nanocomposite hybrid polymer poly[(propylmethacryl-heptaisobutyl- polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane)-co-(methylmethacrylate)] (POSS-PMMA)has been studied before and after exposure to plasmas containing oxygen. The contact angle of water droplets on the surface showed a substantial decrease after plasma exposure indicating an increase in the hydrophilicity of the surface. A model was developed in which the plasma preferentially removed organic material including both the PMMA backbone and isobutyl groups from the corners of the POSS cages leaving behind a surface characterized by the silicon oxide-like POSS material. Measurements of surface concentrations of oxygen, silicon, and carbon by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed an increase in the amount of oxygen and silicon compared to carbon and the appropriate chemical shifts were observed in the XPS data to support the model of Si-O enrichment on the surface. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements also supported the model and these results will be presented.

  20. Microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of recycled cellulose fiber-halloysite-epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2012-02-26

    Epoxy hybrid-nanocomposites reinforced with recycled cellulose fibers (RCF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have been fabricated and investigated. The dispersion of HNTs was studied by synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influences of RCF/HNTs dispersion on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of these composites have been characterized in terms of flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, impact toughness, impact strength, and thermogravimetric analysis. The fracture surface morphology and toughness mechanisms were investigated by SEM. Results indicated that mechanical properties increased because of the addition of HNTs into the epoxy matrix. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact toughness increased by 20.8, 72.8, 56.5, and 25.0%, respectively, at 1 wt% HNTs load. The presence of RCF dramatically enhanced flexural strength, fracture toughness, impact strength, and impact toughness of the composites by 160%, 350%, 444%, and 263%, respectively. However, adding HNTs to RCF/epoxy showed only slight enhancements in flexural strength and fracture toughness. The inclusion of 5 wt% HNTs into RCF/epoxy ecocomposites increased the impact toughness by 27.6%. The presence of either HNTs or RCF accelerated the thermal degradation of neat epoxy. However, at high temperature, samples reinforced with RCF and HNTs displayed better thermal stability with increased char residue than neat resin. © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  1. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, J. M.; Kelley, M. J.; Haglund, R. F.

    2014-07-01

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer:nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er:YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering nanocomposite.

  2. Bibliography: Sandia Laboratories hybrid microcircuit and related thin film technology (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, J.A.

    1975-12-01

    Sandia originated documents (94) describing aspects of technology development related to hybrid microcircuits and thin films are summarized. Authors, titles, and abstracts are given for each unclassified document. The papers are categorized according to the various technologies involved in hybrid microcircuit production

  3. Nanocomposite/Hybrid Materials of Electroactive Polymers With Inorganic Oxides for Biosensor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yen

    2001-01-01

    As proposed, we have successfully synthesized new electroactive and electronically conductive polyaniline polymethacrylate-silica nanocomposites and fabricated biosensor devices, aimed for detecting...

  4. Simultaneous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soils by hybrid bio-nanocomposites of fungal hyphae and nano-hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Liang, Lifen; Yang, Weichun; Shi, Wei; Tong, Yunping; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae. Moreover, the Aspergillus niger-based bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) was superior to the Penicillium Chrysogenum F1-based bio-nanocomposite (PCHP) in immobilization of Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils. In addition, the results of XRD showed that one of the potential mechanisms of metal immobilization by the hybrid bio-nanocomposites was dissolution of n-HAPs followed by precipitation of new metal phosphate minerals. Our results suggest that the hybrid bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) can be recognized as a promising soil amendment candidate for effective remediation on the soils simultaneously contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  6. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials for super-capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouki, M.; Tran-Van, F.; Sarrazin, C.; Chevrot, C. [Cergy-Pontoise Univ., Lab. de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), EA 2528 95 (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d' Electrochimie Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, UMR 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); De, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    2004-07-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials chemically synthesized from colloid particles of iron oxide in aqueous solution have been processed to realize electrode materials for super-capacitor applications. The performances have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvano-static techniques in a three-electrode cell. The capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PPy hybrid nano-composite doped with para-toluene-sulfonate reaches 47 mAh/g in PC/NEt{sub 4}BF{sub 4} with a good stability during cycling (loss of 3% after 1000 cycles). Transmission Electronic Microscopy indicates a porous nano-structure with spherical particles in a range of 400-500 nm which ensures a good accessibility of the electrolyte in the bulk of the electro-active hybrid material. Preliminary studies with room temperature ionic liquid show promising results since the specific capacitance reaches 427 F/g in 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis((tri-fluoro-methyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI). (authors)

  7. Origin of open recoil curves in L1_0-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Rajan; Kapoor, Akanksha; Lamba, S.; Annapoorni, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1_0–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1_0-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1_0) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  8. Probing localized strain in solution-derived YB a2C u3O7 -δ nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roger; Gazquez, Jaume; Mundet, Bernat; Coll, Mariona; Obradors, Xavier; Puig, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced pinning due to nanoscale strain is unique to the high-Tc cuprates, where pairing may be modified with lattice distortion. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the defect landscape is required for a broad range of applications. However, determining the type and distribution of defects and their associated strain constitutes a critical task, and for this aim, real-space techniques for atomic resolution characterization are necessary. Here, we use scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study the atomic structure of individual defects of solution-derived YB a2C u3O7 (YBCO) nanocomposites, where the inclusion of incoherent secondary phase nanoparticles within the YBCO matrix dramatically increases the density of Y1B a2C u4O8 (Y124) intergrowths, the commonest defect in YBCO thin films. The formation of the Y124 is found to trigger a concatenation of strain-derived interactions with other defects and the concomitant nucleation of intrinsic defects, which weave a web of randomly distributed nanostrained regions that profoundly transform the vortex-pinning landscape of the YBCO nanocomposite thin films.

  9. Origin of open recoil curves in L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Rajan [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kapoor, Akanksha [M. Tech Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lamba, S. [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi 110068 (India); Annapoorni, S., E-mail: annapoornis@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1{sub 0}–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1{sub 0}) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  10. Synthesis of hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laera, A. M.; Resta, V.; Ferrara, M. C.; Schioppa, M.; Piscopiello, E.; Tapfer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties. In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular, in hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). However, applications of hybrid nanocomposites in photovoltaic devices require a homogeneous and highly dense dispersion of NCs in polymer in order to guarantee not only an efficient charge separation, but also an efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. In previous works, we demonstrated that cadmium thiolate complexes are suitable precursors for the in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS. Here, we show that the soluble [Cd(SBz) 2 ] 2 ·(1-methyl imidazole) complex can be efficiently annealed in a conjugated polymer obtaining a nanocomposite with a regular and compact network of NCs. The proposed synthetic strategies require annealing temperatures well below 200 °C and short time for the thermal treatment, i.e., less than 30 min. We also show that the same complex can be used to synthesize CdS NCs in mesoporous TiO 2 . The adsorption of cadmium thiolate molecule in TiO 2 matrix can be obtained by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequent thermal annealing. The use of NCs, quantum dots, as sensitizers of TiO 2 matrices represents a very promising alternative to common dye-sensitized solar cells and an interesting solution for heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  11. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamborova, Irena [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Zajicova, Veronika, E-mail: veronika.zajicova@tul.cz [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Karpiskova, Jana [Institute of Novel Technologies and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic); Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan [Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovations, Studentska 1402/2, 461 17 Liberec 1 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol-gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 Degree-Sign C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  12. New type of protective hybrid and nanocomposite hybrid coatings containing silver and copper with an excellent antibacterial effect especially against MRSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šlamborová, Irena; Zajícová, Veronika; Karpíšková, Jana; Exnar, Petr; Stibor, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemics spread many types of pathogenic bacterial strains, especially strains of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which are being increasingly reported in many geographical areas [1]. This is becoming to be a serious global problem, particularly in hospitals. Not only are antibiotics proving to be increasingly ineffective but also the bacteria responsible for more than 70% of hospital-acquired bacterial infections are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them. In this study, hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 based on TMSPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, MMA (methyl methacrylate), TEOS (tetraethyl orthosilicate) and IPTI (titanium isopropoxide) containing silver and copper ions with or without nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were prepared by the sol–gel method. They were deposited on glass, poly(methyl methacrylate) and cotton using dip-coating or spin-coating, and then cured at 150 °C for 3 h or, in the case of poly(methyl methacrylate), at 100 °C for 4.5 h. The morphology and microstructure of these hybrid coatings were examined by SEM. The abrasion resistance was tested using a washability tester and found to depend heavily on the curing temperature. Seven types of bacterial strains were used to determine the profile of antibacterial activity, namely Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — MRSA (CCM 4223), MRSA-2 (CCM 7112), Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris (according to ALE-G18, CSNI). All the samples were tested by irradiating with either a UV-A or a daylight fluorescent lamp. All types of hybrid coating A1 and nanocomposite hybrid coating A2 were found to possess an excellent antibacterial effect, including against the pathogenic bacterial strains of MRSA, which present a dangerous threat on a global scale.

  13. Hard TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using pulsed high energy density plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Z.A.; Rawat, R.S.; Tan, K.S.; Kumar, A.K.; Ahmad, R.; Hussain, T.; Kloc, C.; Chen, Z.; Shen, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The energetic ions and electron beams are used to synthesize TiC x /SiC/a-C:H films. •As-deposited crystalline and hard nanocomposite TiC x /SiC/a-C:H films are synthesized. •Very high average deposition rates of 68 nm/shot are achieved using dense plasma focus. •The maximum hardness of 22 GPa is achieved at the surface of the film. -- Abstract: Thin films of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H were synthesized on Si substrates using a complex mix of high energy density plasmas and instability accelerated energetic ions of filling gas species, emanated from hot and dense pinched plasma column, in dense plasma focus device. The conventional hollow copper anode of Mather type plasma focus device was replaced by solid titanium anode for synthesis of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using CH 4 :Ar admixture of (1:9, 3:7 and 5:5) for fixed 20 focus shots as well as with different number of focus shots with fixed CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio 3:7. XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiC x /SiC phases for thin film synthesized using different number of focus shots with CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio fixed at 3:7. SEM results showed that the synthesized thin films consist of nanoparticle agglomerates and the size of agglomerates depended on the CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio as well as on the number of focus shots. Raman analysis showed the formation of polycrystalline/amorphous Si, SiC and a-C for different CH 4 :Ar ratio as well as for different number of focus shots. The XPS analysis confirmed the formation of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H composite thin film. Nanoindentation results showed that the hardness and elastic modulus values of composite thin films increased with increasing number of focus shots. Maximum values of hardness and elastic modulus at the surface of the composite thin film were found to be about 22 and 305 GPa, respectively for 30 focus shots confirming the successful synthesis of hard composite TiC x /SiC/a-C:H coatings

  14. Evaluation of clay hybrid nanocomposites of different chain length as reinforcing agent for natural and synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, A.A.; Akelah, A.M.; Rehab, A.; El-Sabbagh, S.H.; El Nashar, D.E.; Koriem, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The modified organo-clay (MMT-ATBN) markedly reinforce natural and synthetic rubbers. → The reinforcing efficiency of the organo-clay is much higher than HAF carbon black. → The reinforcing efficiency of MMT modified with different alkylamines greatly depend on the chain length. → The good compatibility of modified organo-clay with NBR can be attributed to the chemical nature. -- Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites are one of the highly discussed research topics in recent time. It has been reported in the present paper the preparation and the properties of different nanoclays based on sodium montmorillonite (bentonite) and some organic amines of varying chain lengths (dodecylamine, hexadecylamine and octadecylamine) beside amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN). The hybrid clays have been characterized with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Wide angle X-ray diffractions (WXRD), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). X-ray results showed that the intergallery distance of the clay is increased as a result of the intercalation of the amines and ATBN. The nanocomposite clays were incorporated in natural and synthetic rubbers (NR, SBR and NBR). The physico-mechanical properties are greatly improved with loading low concentrations of the nanocomposite clays compared with carbon black.

  15. A hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer coated quantum dot nanocomposite optosensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of salbutamol in animal feeds and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksawong, Phannika; Chullasat, Kochaporn; Nurerk, Piyaluk; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Davis, Frank; Bunkoed, Opas

    2017-08-01

    A hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated quantum dot (QD) nanocomposite was synthesized and applied as a fluorescence probe for the highly sensitive and selective determination of salbutamol. The hybrid MIP-coated QD nanocomposite was synthesized via a copolymerization process in the presence of thioglycolic acid capped CdTe QDs with salbutamol as a template, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the functional monomer, and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a cross-linker. The optimum molar ratio of template, monomer, and cross-linker was 1:6:20. The fluorescence intensity of the hybrid MIP-coated QDs was efficiently quenched after salbutamol rebound to the recognition sites, as a result of charge transfer from QDs to salbutamol. The synthesized hybrid MIP-coated QD nanocomposite showed high sensitivity and good selectivity toward salbutamol. Under the optimal recognition conditions, the fluorescence intensity was quenched linearly with increasing concentration of salbutamol in the range from 0.10 to 25.0 μg L -1 , with a detection limit of 0.034 μg L -1 . The hybrid optosensor developed was successfully applied in the determination of salbutamol in animal feeds and meat samples. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained in the range from 85% to 98%, with a standard deviation of less than 8%. Furthermore, the accuracy of the hybrid MIP-coated QD nanocomposite was investigated by comparison with a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method, with the results obtained with two methods agreeing well with each other. The advantages of this sensing method are simplicity, rapidity, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and good selectivity. Graphical Abstract The synthesis of hybrid MIP-coated QDs nanocomposite.

  16. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic metal-polyimide hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Woo [Nano-Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Haweoulgog-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: swkim@kist.re.kr; Yoon, Chong S. [Division of Advanced Materials Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Although there are a lot of demands for suppression of unwanted high-frequency electromagnetic noise in highly integrated electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebook computers, electromagnetic thin films that effectively work in the high-frequency range have still been underdeveloped. Soft magnetic metal-polyimide (PI) hybrid films with high electrical resistivity were prepared by thermal imidization and selective oxidation between the metal alloy layer and polyamic acid (PAA) layer. Electromagnetic properties of the hybrid thin films in the radio-frequency range were characterized by using the microstrip line method and were correlated with their material parameters. Although anisotropy field of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was two times lower than that of the NiFe hybrid film, the saturation magnetization of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was three times higher than that of the NiFe hybrid film. The CoFe/NiFe hybrid film showed higher power loss in the frequency range of 3-6 GHz compared to the NiFe hybrid film. The high power loss of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was caused by high relative permeability and high ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency due to high saturation magnetization.

  17. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of soft magnetic metal-polyimide hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Yoon, Chong S.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are a lot of demands for suppression of unwanted high-frequency electromagnetic noise in highly integrated electronic devices such as mobile phones and notebook computers, electromagnetic thin films that effectively work in the high-frequency range have still been underdeveloped. Soft magnetic metal-polyimide (PI) hybrid films with high electrical resistivity were prepared by thermal imidization and selective oxidation between the metal alloy layer and polyamic acid (PAA) layer. Electromagnetic properties of the hybrid thin films in the radio-frequency range were characterized by using the microstrip line method and were correlated with their material parameters. Although anisotropy field of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was two times lower than that of the NiFe hybrid film, the saturation magnetization of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was three times higher than that of the NiFe hybrid film. The CoFe/NiFe hybrid film showed higher power loss in the frequency range of 3-6 GHz compared to the NiFe hybrid film. The high power loss of the CoFe/NiFe hybrid film was caused by high relative permeability and high ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency due to high saturation magnetization

  18. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, V.; Mohan Raj, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  19. Self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic hybrid nanocomposite coatings on Al with excellent corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, V., E-mail: alaguraj2@rediffmail.com; Mohan Raj, R., E-mail: chem_mohan@rediffmail.com

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) coatings were formed on Al by anodization and electro-polymerisation techniques. • The superhydrophobic coating was fabricated on copolymer by electrodeposition of zinc stearate. • The superhydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphologies and chemical components on surface is the key factor. • Ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate coated Al has excellent corrosion resistance and good self-cleaning performance. - Abstract: Protective ceramic-PANI, ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coatings were formed on Al surface by the processes involving anodization, electropolymerisation and electrodeposition under optimum conditions. The prepared nanocomposite coatings were evaluated by ATR-IR and XRD studies. SEM studies performed on nanocomposite coatings reveal that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating shows a cauliflower-like cluster with crack-free morphology compared to ceramic-PANI and ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD) nanocomposite coatings. The mechanical properties of different nanocomposite coatings were measured using Vicker microhardness tester and Taber Abrasion tester. The ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite has higher mechanical stability. The corrosion resistance of the coatings measured by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, shows that ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coated aluminum has higher corrosion resistance than other coatings and bare Al. Wettability studies prove that superhydrophobic nature of ceramic-poly(Ani-co-oPD)-zinc stearate nanocomposite coating with contact angle of 155.8° is responsible for good self-cleaning property and excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  20. Hybrid composite thin films composed of tin oxide nanoparticles and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid thin films consisting of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles and cellulose. SnO 2 nanoparticle loaded cellulose hybrid thin films were fabricated by a solution blending technique, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dispersion agent. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed uniform dispersion of the SnO 2 nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. Reduction in the crystalline melting transition temperature and tensile properties of cellulose was observed due to the SnO 2 nanoparticle loading. Potential application of these hybrid thin films as low cost, flexible and biodegradable humidity sensors is examined in terms of the change in electrical resistivity of the material exposed to a wide range of humidity as well as its response–recovery behavior. (paper)

  1. Hybrid Nanocomposites of 2D Black Phosphorous Nanosheets Encapsulated in PMMA Polymer Material: New Platforms for Advanced Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesio, Francesca; Passaglia, Elisa; Cicogna, Francesca; Costantino, Federica; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Heun, Stefan

    2018-04-12

    Hybrid materials, containing a 2D filler embedded in a polymeric matrix, are an interesting platform for several applications, because of the variety of properties that the filler can impart to the polymer matrix when dispersed at the nanoscale. Moreover, novel properties could arise from the interaction between the two. Mostly the bulk properties of these materials have been studied so far, especially focusing on how the filler changes the polymeric matrix properties. Here we propose a complete change of perspective by using the hybrid nanocomposite material as a platform suitable to engineer the properties of the filler and to exploit its potential in the fabrication of devices. As a proof of concept of the versatility and potentiality of the new method, we applied this approach to prepare black phosphorus nanocomposites through its dispersion in poly (methyl methacrylate). Black phosphorus is a very interesting 2D material, whose application have so far been limited by its very high reactivity to oxygen and water. In this respect, we show that electronic-grade black phosphorus flakes, already embedded in a protecting matrix since their exfoliation from the bulk material, are endowed with significant increased stability, and can be further processed into devices without degrading their properties. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  2. EFFECT OF IMMERSION TEMPERATURE ON THE WATER UPTAKE OF POLYPROPYLENE/WOOD FLOUR/ORGANOCLAY HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/wood flour/organoclay hybrid nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an internal mixer at 190 oC and 60 rpm rotor speed. Then samples were fabricated by injection molding. Effects of immersion temperature on the water uptake of hybrid nanocomposite were investigated. To meet this objective, water absorption of samples was determined after 24 h immersion in distilled water at different temperatures (25, 50, 75, and 100 °C. Results indicated that immersion temperature had a significant influence on the water absorption of composites. By increasing the temperature, water absorption increases as well. The maximum water absorption of composite is decreased by increasing the nanoclay and compatibilizer content. The morphology of nanoclay was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of morphology on water absorption was also evaluated. Due to inadequate compatibilizer, exfoliated morphology of nanoclay was not obtained, but there was evidence of intercalation. The order of intercalation for samples containing 3 phc was higher than that of 6 phc at the same PP-g-MA content due to some agglomerations of organoclay.

  3. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  4. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflori, Magdalena; Simionescu, Bogdana; Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina; Olaru, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed

  5. Investigations of LRE-HRE-TM thin films for hybrid recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhen; Lin, Gengqi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2005-09-01

    Light rare earth-heavy rare earth-transition metal (LRE-HRE-TM) thin films are a kind of important recording media. A lot of researches have been carried out on the LRE-HRE-TM thin films to improve its properties for data storage application and fruitful results have been achieved. This report gives a glance on the evolution of the research on LRE-HRE-TM recording media. At the same time, combined with the hybrid recording technology, some experimental results obtained on LRE-HRE-TM recording media are discussed, which suggest the promising prospect of the LRE-HRE-TM media in hybrid recording application.

  6. Tribological and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline-TiC/a-C nanocomposite thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Jindřich; Novák, P.; Čerstvý, R.; Soukup, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2010), s. 244-248 ISSN 0734-2101 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : nc-TiC/a-C nanocomposite * friction * mechanical properties * magnetron sputtering * wear Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.291, year: 2010

  7. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  8. Developing the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a SnO2-doped graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposite as a photo-anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Ragu; Chen, Tse-Wei; Chen, Shen-Ming; Rwei, Syang-Peng; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan

    2018-05-01

    Tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs) doped on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) sheets for application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The effective incorporation of SnO2 on the surface of GO sheets were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology of the GO/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. This current study involvement with the effect of different photo-anodes such as GO, SnO2, and GO/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the triiodide electrolyte based DSSCs. Remarkably, GO/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite based photo-anode for DSSC observed PCE of 8.3% and it is about 12% higher than that of un-doped TiO2 photo-anode. The equivalent short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 16.67 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.77 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.65 respectively. The achieved results propose that the hybrid nanocomposite is an appropriate photo-anodic material for DSSCs applications.

  9. Ternary hybrid polymeric nanocomposites through grafting of polystyrene on graphene oxide-TiO{sub 2} by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bansal, Ankushi; Behera, Babita; Jain, Suman L.; Ray, Siddharth S., E-mail: ssray@iip.res.in

    2016-04-01

    A ternary hybrid of graphene oxide-titania-polystyrene (GO-TiO{sub 2}-PS) nanocomposite is developed where polystyrene composition is regulated by controlling growth of polymer chains and nanoarchitectonics is discussed. Graphene Oxide-TiO{sub 2} (GO-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite is prepared by in-situ hydrothermal method and the surface is anchored with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide to activate GO-TiO{sub 2} as initiator for polymerization. In-situ grafting of polystyrene through surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI- ATRP) on this Br-functionalized nano-composite initiator yields GO-TiO{sub 2}-PS ternary hybrid. Varying the monomer amount and keeping the concentration of initiator constant, polystyrene chain growth is regulated with narrow poly-dispersivity to achieve desired composition. This composite is well characterized by various analytical techniques like FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM, TEM, and TGA. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of ternary hybrid of GO-TiO{sub 2} with polystyrene. • PS is surface grafted on GO-TiO{sub 2}. • Polymer chain lengths are well regulated by SI-ATRP living polymerization. • Thermal stability of this hybrid is relatively high.

  10. Ternary hybrid polymeric nanocomposites through grafting of polystyrene on graphene oxide-TiO_2 by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bansal, Ankushi; Behera, Babita; Jain, Suman L.; Ray, Siddharth S.

    2016-01-01

    A ternary hybrid of graphene oxide-titania-polystyrene (GO-TiO_2-PS) nanocomposite is developed where polystyrene composition is regulated by controlling growth of polymer chains and nanoarchitectonics is discussed. Graphene Oxide-TiO_2 (GO-TiO_2) nanocomposite is prepared by in-situ hydrothermal method and the surface is anchored with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide to activate GO-TiO_2 as initiator for polymerization. In-situ grafting of polystyrene through surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI- ATRP) on this Br-functionalized nano-composite initiator yields GO-TiO_2-PS ternary hybrid. Varying the monomer amount and keeping the concentration of initiator constant, polystyrene chain growth is regulated with narrow poly-dispersivity to achieve desired composition. This composite is well characterized by various analytical techniques like FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM, TEM, and TGA. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of ternary hybrid of GO-TiO_2 with polystyrene. • PS is surface grafted on GO-TiO_2. • Polymer chain lengths are well regulated by SI-ATRP living polymerization. • Thermal stability of this hybrid is relatively high.

  11. Investigation on the Optical and Surface Morphology of Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV:ZnO Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Zayana Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of red color poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV containing different weight percent of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by spin-coating techniques. The MEH-PPV:ZnO solutions were spin coated onto silicon and glass substrates. The spun MEH-PPV:ZnO thin films were then used to investigate optical properties by using ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL. The morphologies were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, while the identification of ZnO in the final product was determined by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The UV-Vis absorption band increases, while the optical bandgap decreases when the amount of ZnO nanoparticles increases. ZnO nanoparticles apparently have no effect on the conjugation segments of MEH-PPV. PL spectra show that the emission peak increases and slightly red shift as ZnO concentration increases. Based on SEM images of MEH-PPV:ZnO nanocomposite thin films, ZnO nanoparticles form agglomerated regions.

  12. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, Yusuf [Department of Electricity and Energy, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Orujalipoor, Ilghar [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Huang, Yen-Chih; Jeng, U-Ser [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ide, Semra [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactive growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.

  13. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel model of photothermal diffusion (PTD) for polymer nano-composite semiconducting of thin circular plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Kh.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, theoretical discussions for a novel mathematical-physical Photothermal diffusion (PTD) model in the generalized thermoelasticity theory with photothermal processes and chemical action are introduced. The mean idea of this model depends on the interaction between quasi-particles (plasma waves) that depends on the kind of the used materials, the mechanical forces acting on the surface, the generalized thermo and mass diffusion (due to coupling of temperature fields with thermal waves and chemical potential) and the elastic waves. The one dimensional Laplace transforms is used to obtain the exact solution for some physical and chemical quantities for a thin circular plate of a semiconducting polymer nanocomposite such as silicon (Si). New variables are deduced and discussed. The obtained results of the physical quantities are presented analytically and illustrated graphically with some important applications.

  15. 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Thin Films for Flexible UV-Visible Photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Dhinesh Babu

    2017-02-13

    Flexible 2D inorganic MoS and organic g-CN hybrid thin film photodetectors with tunable composition and photodetection properties are developed using simple solution processing. The hybrid films fabricated on paper substrate show broadband photodetection suitable for both UV and visible light with good responsivity, detectivity, and reliable and rapid photoswitching characteristics comparable to monolayer devices. This excellent performance is retained even after the films are severely deformed at a bending radius of ≈2 mm for hundreds of cycles. The detailed charge transfer and separation processes at the interface between the 2D materials in the hybrid films are confirmed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with broadband capability.

  16. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  17. Effect of titanium oxide-polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M. [LGS Innovations, 15 Vreeland Rd., Florham Park, NJ 07932 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St. Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Maliakal, Ashok, E-mail: maliakal@lgsinnovations.com [LGS Innovations, 15 Vreeland Rd., Florham Park, NJ 07932 (United States); Sidorenko, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Sciences, 600 South 43rd St., Philadelphia, PA 191034 (United States); Thayumanavan, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 710 N. Pleasant St. Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide-polystyrene core-shell nanocomposite (TiO{sub 2}-PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO{sub 2}-PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as {alpha}-sexithiophene ({alpha}-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100 Multiplication-Sign higher on TiO{sub 2}-PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for {alpha}-sexithiophene ({alpha}-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO{sub 2}-PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO{sub 2}-PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2 Multiplication-Sign ) increase in mobility with increasing TiO{sub 2}-PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation

  18. Effect of titanium oxide–polystyrene nanocomposite dielectrics on morphology and thin film transistor performance for organic and polymeric semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Maliakal, Ashok; Sidorenko, Alexander; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that organic thin film transistors with pentacene deposited on gate dielectrics composed of a blend of high K titanium oxide–polystyrene core–shell nanocomposite (TiO 2 –PS) with polystyrene (PS) perform with an order of magnitude increase in saturation mobility for TiO 2 –PS (K = 8) as compared to PS devices (K = 2.5). The current study finds that this performance enhancement can be translated to alternative small single crystal organics such as α-sexithiophene (α-6T) (enhancement factor for field effect mobility ranging from 30-100× higher on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics as compared to homogenous PS dielectrics). Interestingly however, in the case of semicrystalline polymers such as (poly-3-hexylthiophene) P3HT, this dramatic enhancement is not observed, possibly due to the difference in processing conditions used to fabricate these devices (film transfer as opposed to thermal evaporation). The morphology for α-sexithiophene (α-6T) grown by thermal evaporation on TiO 2 –PS/PS blended dielectrics parallels that observed in pentacene devices. Smaller grain size is observed for films grown on dielectrics with higher TiO 2 –PS content. In the case of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) devices, constructed via film transfer, morphological differences exist for the P3HT on different substrates, as discerned by atomic force microscopy studies. However, these devices only exhibit a modest (2×) increase in mobility with increasing TiO 2 –PS content in the films. After annealing of the transferred P3HT thin film transistor (TFT) devices, no appreciable enhancement in mobility is observed across the different blended dielectrics. Overall the results support the hypothesis that nucleation rate is responsible for changes in film morphology and device performance in thermally evaporated small molecule crystalline organic semiconductor TFTs. The increased nucleation rate produces organic polycrystalline films with small grain

  19. Theoretical studies on the possible sensitizers of DSSC: Nanocomposites of graphene quantum dot hybrid phthalocyanine/tetrabenzoporphyrin/tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins/cis-tetrabenzodiazaporphyrins/tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrins and their Cu-metallated macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang

    2018-04-01

    The feasibility of nanocomposites of cir-coronene graphene quantum dot (GQD) with phthalocyanine, tetrabenzoporphyrin, tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins, cis-tetrabenzodiazaporphyrins, tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrins and their Cu-metallated macrocycles as a sensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Based on the first principles density functional theory (DFT), the geometrical structures of the separate GQD and 10 macrocycles, and their hybridized nanocomposites are fully optimized. The energy stabilities of the obtained structures are confirmed by harmonic frequency analysis. The optical absorptions of the optimized structures are calculated with time-dependent DFT. The feasibility of the nanocomposites as the sensitizer of DSSC is examined by the charge spatial separation, the electron transfer, the molecular orbital energy levels of the nanocomposites and the electrolyte, and the conduction band minimum of TiO2 electrode. The results demonstrate that all the nanocomposites have enhanced absorptions in the visible light range, and their molecular orbital energies satisfy the requirement of sensitizers. However, only two of the ten considered nanocomposites demonstrate significantly charge spatial separation. The GQD-Cu-TBP is identified as the most favorable candidate sensitizer of DSSC by the most enhanced in optical absorption, obvious charge spatial separation, suitable LUMO energy levels and driving force for electron transfer, and low recombination rate of electron and hole.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of hybridized graphene @ gold nanorods nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ning, Tingyin; Han, Yanshun; Sheng, Yingqiang; Li, Chonghui; Zhao, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhengyi; Man, Baoyuan; Jiao, Yang; Jiang, Shouzhen

    2018-03-01

    The methods of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and seed-mediated growth were used to obtain graphene and gold nanorods (GNRs), respectively. We fabricate graphene @ gold nanorods (G@GNRs) nanocomposites by successively using dropping and transferring methods Through SEM, Raman spectra and TEM analysis, the number of graphene layers is 6-7. The diameter of gold nanorods (GNRs) is about 10 nm and the average aspect ratio is 6.5. In addition, we systematically investigate their nonlinear optical responses by using open-aperture Z-scan technique. In contrast with graphene and GNRs, the G@GNRs nanocomposites exhibit excellent nonlinear optical response with a modulation depth of about 51% and a saturable intensity of about 6.23 GW/cm2. The results suggest that the G@GNRs nanocomposites could potentially be used as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation.

  1. Organic thin film transistor integration: a hybrid approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, F. M

    2011-01-01

    .... Her research interests are in the field of nanoand thin-film technology for applications in large area and flexible electronics, including displays, sensors, photovoltaics, circuits and systems. Dr. Li has co-authored a book entitled CCD Image Sensors in Deep-Ultraviolet (2005), and has published articles in various scientific journals. Arokia Nathan holds the...

  2. The Preparation of Graphene Reinforced Poly(vinyl alcohol Antibacterial Nanocomposite Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Cheng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylated melamine grafted polyvinyl benzylchloride (mm-g-PvBCl was prepared which was used as additive in poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and graphene nanosheets (GNs were used to reinforce the mechanical strength. Using casting method, antimicrobial nanocomposite films were prepared with the polymeric biocide loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA characterization revealed the 2.0 wt% of graphene content in resultant nanocomposites films. XRD showed that the resultant GNs 2 theta was changed from 16.6 degree to 23.3 degree. Using Japanese Industry Standard test methods, the antimicrobial efficiency for the loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt% was 92.0%, 95.8%, and 97.1%, respectively, against gram negative bacteria E. coli and 92.3%, 99.6%, and 99.7%, respectively, against the gram positive S. aureus. These results indicate the prepared nanocomposite films are the promising materials for the food and drink package applications.

  3. Fabrication of graphene-nanoflake/poly(4-vinylphenol) polymer nanocomposite thin film by electrohydrodynamic atomization and its application as flexible resistive switching device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Kyoung-Hoan, E-mail: khna@dankook.ac.kr [College of Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper describes synthesis of graphene/poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) nanocomposite and deposition of thin film by electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) for fabrication flexible resistive switching device. EHDA technique proved its viability for thin film deposition after surface morphology analyses by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and non-destructive 3D Nano-profilometry, as the deposited films were, devoid of abnormalities. The commercially available graphene micro-flakes were exfoliated and broken down to ultra-small (20 nm–200 nm) nano-flakes by ultra-sonication in presence of N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). These graphene nanoflakes with PVP nanocomposite, were successfully deposited as thin films (thickness ~140±7 nm, R{sub a}=2.59 nm) on indium–tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Transmittance data revealed that thin films are up to ~87% transparent in visible and NIR region. Resistive switching behaviour of graphene/PVP nanocomposite thin film was studied by using the nanocomposite as active layer in Ag/active layer/ITO sandwich structure. The resistive switching devices thus fabricated, showed characteristic OFF to ON (high resistance to low resistance) transition at low voltages, when operated between ±3 V, characterized at 10 nA compliance currents. The devices fabricated by this approach exhibited a stable room temperature, low power current–voltage hysteresis and well over 1 h retentivity, and R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON}≈35:1. The device showed stable flexibility up to a minimum bending diameter of 1.8 cm.

  4. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, P.O. Box MG 07, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A. [Molecular Biology Center, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 76201, Bucharest 5 (Romania); Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Gyorgy, E., E-mail: egyorgy@cin2.es [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CSIC-CIN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  5. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S.; Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A.; Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N.; Gyorgy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: ► Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. ► Laser immobilization. ► Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  6. A novel CuO-N-doped graphene nanocomposite-based hybrid electrode for the electrochemical detection of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sathiyanathan; Kollu, Pratap; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala

    2017-10-01

    We report a catalyst of N-doped graphene CuO nanocomposite, for the non-enzymatic electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. The hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized by copper sulfate, cetyl ammonium bromide and graphite as starting materials. The synthesized composites were characterized with the techniques like X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope to study the crystalline phase and morphological structure. Based on this composite, a non-enzymatic glucose sensor was constructed. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods were done to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of glucose in alkaline medium. For glucose detection, the fabricated sensor showed a linear response over a wide range of concentration from 3 to 1000 µM, with sensitivity of 2365.7 µA mM-1 cm-2 and a fast response time of 5 s. The designed sensor exhibited negligible current response to the normal concentration of common interferents in the presence of glucose. All these favorable advantages of the fabricated glucose sensor suggest that it may have good potential application in biological samples, food and other related areas.

  7. Thin hybrid pixel assembly fabrication development with backside compensation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, R., E-mail: richard.bates@glasgow.ac.uk [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Buttar, C.; McMullen, T.; Cunningham, L.; Ashby, J.; Doherty, F. [Experimental Particle Physics Group, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pares, G.; Vignoud, L.; Kholti, B. [CEA Leti, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, F38054, Grenoble (France); Vahanen, S. [Advacam Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland)

    2017-02-11

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments will both replace their entire tracking systems for operation at the HL-LHC in 2026. This will include a significantly larger pixel systems, for example, for ATLAS approximately 15 m{sup 2}. To keep the tracker material budget low it is crucial to minimize the mass of the pixel modules via thinning both the sensor and readout chip to about 150 μm each. The bump yield of thin module assemblies using solder based bump bonding can be problematic due to wafer bowing during solder reflow at high temperature. A new bump-bonding process using backside compensation on the readout chip to address the issue of low yield will be presented. The objective is to compensate dynamically the stress of the front side stack by adding a compensating layer to the backside of the wafer. A SiN and Al:Si stack has been chosen for the backside layer. The bow reducing effect of applying a backside compensation layer will be demonstrated using the FE-I4 wafer. The world's first results from assemblies produced from readout wafers thinned to 100 μm with a stress compensation layer are presented with bond yields close to 100% measured using the FE-I4 readout chip.

  8. Hybrid density functional study on the mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the ultrathin hybrid layered nanocomposite g-C3N4/BiOCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Yuanxu; Ren, Fengzhu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the origin of the high photocatalytic performance of experimentally synthesized g-C3N4/ BiOCl, we studied its geometry structure, electronic structure, and photocatalytic properties by means of hybrid density-functional theory (DFT). The calculated band alignment of g-C3N4 and few-layer BiOCl sheets clearly shows that g-C3N4/ BiOCl is a standard type-II nanocomposite. The density of states, Bader charge, partial charge density, charge density difference, and the effective masses show that electron-hole pair can be effectively separated in the g-C3N4/BiOCl interface. The calculated absorption coefficients indicate an obvious redshift of the absorption edge. The band gap of g-C3N4/BiOCl can be modulated by external electric field, and a semiconductor-semimetal transition is observed. The type-II vdW heterostructure is still maintained during the changes of external electric field. Especially, when the electric field reaches to +0.7 V/Å, the impurity states have been eliminated with the band gap of 2.3 eV. An analysis of optical properties shows that the absorption coefficient in the visible-light region is enhanced considerably as the electric-field strength increases. Our calculation results suggest that the ultrathin hybrid layered g-C3N4/BiOCl nanocomposite may have significant advantages for visible-light photocatalysis.

  9. Non-equibiaxial deformation of W/Cu nanocomposite thin films on stretchable substrate: Effect of loading path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, Pierre-Olivier, E-mail: pierre.olivier.renault@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Le Bourhis, Eric; Goudeau, Philippe [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Université de Poitiers, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, Dominique [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Faurie, Damien [LSPM, CNRS-Université Paris13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2013-12-31

    In situ biaxial tensile tests were carried out on W/Cu nanocomposite thin films deposited on a polyimide cruciform substrate. A biaxial testing machine developed on the DiffAbs beamline at the French SOLEIL synchrotron allows for scrutinizing the mechanical behaviour of crystalline thin films at the micro-scale and the macro-scale using simultaneously synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. Both strain analyses have been performed for two controlled non-equibiaxial loading paths: loading ratios of 0.8 and 0.33. The mechanical response is analysed and compared for the two loading ratios. - Highlights: • Non-equibiaxial tensile tests are performed on metallic film-substrate composite. • Two different loading paths have been performed. • Applied strains are measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and image correlation. • Lattice strain and elastic stress–true strain curves are plotted. • The different mechanical behaviours in the two directions of applied load are revealed.

  10. Thermal stability of nanocomposite CrC/a-C:H thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, G.; Mayrhofer, P.H.; Patscheider, J.; Mitterer, C.

    2007-01-01

    The thermal stability of low-friction Me-C/a-C:H coatings is important for their potential applications in the tool and automotive industry. Recently we showed that CrC x /a-C:H coatings prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering of a Cr target in Ar + CH 4 glow discharges exhibit a nanocomposite structure where metastable fcc CrC nanocrystals are encapsulated by an a-C:H phase. Here, we present the structural evolution of these nanocomposite CrC/a-C:H coatings during annealing. High-temperature X-ray diffraction in vacuum and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with thermo-gravimetric analysis in Ar atmosphere indicate decomposition of the formed metastable fcc CrC phase and subsequent formation of Cr 3 C 2 and Cr 7 C 3 and structural transformation of the a-C:H matrix phase towards higher sp 2 bonding contents at temperatures above 450 deg. C. Combined DSC and mass spectrometer analysis as well as elemental profiling after annealing in vacuum by elastic recoil detection analysis relate this transformation to the loss of bonded hydrogen at temperatures above 200 deg. C. Due to these structural changes the coefficient of friction depends on the annealing temperature of the nanocomposite a-C:H coatings and shows a minimum of ∼ 0.13 for T = 200 deg. C. The more complex tribochemical reactions, influenced by the hydrogen loss from the coating during in-situ high temperatures ball-on disc tests, result in coefficient of friction values below 0.05 for T < 120 deg. C

  11. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunming, E-mail: su.chunming@epa.gov

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of engineered MNPs. • MNPs and their hybrids explored for use in energy, analytical chemistry, and catalysis. • Surface modification to MNPs allow biocompatible applications. • Adsorptive and separative removal of a wide range of contaminants from aquatic environments. • Active remediation and natural attenuation of contaminants in soil and groundwater using MNPs. - Abstract: This review focuses on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition and combustion, hydrothermal process, emulsion, microbial process, and green approaches. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for constructing chemical/biosensors and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are designed as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dyes, oil, arsenic, phosphate, molybdate, fluoride, selenium, Cr(VI), heavy metal cations, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or catalyze chemical oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization.

  12. Environmental implications and applications of engineered nanoscale magnetite and its hybrid nanocomposites: A review of recent literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental impact of engineered MNPs. • MNPs and their hybrids explored for use in energy, analytical chemistry, and catalysis. • Surface modification to MNPs allow biocompatible applications. • Adsorptive and separative removal of a wide range of contaminants from aquatic environments. • Active remediation and natural attenuation of contaminants in soil and groundwater using MNPs. - Abstract: This review focuses on environmental implications and applications of engineered magnetite (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles (MNPs) as a single phase or a component of a hybrid nanocomposite that exhibits superparamagnetism and high surface area. MNPs are synthesized via co-precipitation, thermal decomposition and combustion, hydrothermal process, emulsion, microbial process, and green approaches. Aggregation/sedimentation and transport of MNPs depend on surface charge of MNPs and geochemical parameters such as pH, ionic strength, and organic matter. MNPs generally have low toxicity to humans and ecosystem. MNPs are used for constructing chemical/biosensors and for catalyzing a variety of chemical reactions. MNPs are used for air cleanup and carbon sequestration. MNP nanocomposites are designed as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and flocculants for water treatment. Conjugated MNPs are widely used for adsorptive/separative removal of organics, dyes, oil, arsenic, phosphate, molybdate, fluoride, selenium, Cr(VI), heavy metal cations, radionuclides, and rare earth elements. MNPs can degrade organic/inorganic contaminants via chemical reduction or catalyze chemical oxidation in water, sediment, and soil. Future studies should further explore mechanisms of MNP interactions with other nanomaterials and contaminants, economic and green approaches of MNP synthesis, and field scale demonstration of MNP utilization.

  13. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangari, Vijaya K; Mohammad, Ghouse M; Jeelani, Shaik; Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Singh, Shree Ram; Pillai, Shreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of ∼ 80 μm size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 μg demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 ± 6.72 mm, 19.4 ± 3.64 mm, 21.9 ± 4.33 mm, and 24.1 ± 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 ± 2.13 mm, 28.6 ± 4.27 mm, 22.6 ± 1.27 mm, and 27.0 ± 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 μg were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial strains tested. Further, the

  14. Synthesis of Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles and fabrication of their Nylon-6 polymer nanocomposite fibers for antimicrobial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangari, Vijaya K; Mohammad, Ghouse M; Jeelani, Shaik [Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hundley, Angel; Vig, Komal; Singh, Shree Ram; Pillai, Shreekumar, E-mail: rangariv@tuskegee.edu [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL 36104 (United States)

    2010-03-05

    Ag-coated CNTs hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation of dimethylformamide (DMF) and silver (I) acetate precursors in the presence of CNTs. The morphology of Ag/CNTs was characterized using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The Nylon-6 powder and 1 wt% Ag/CNTs mixture was dispersed uniformly using a noncontact spinning technique. The dried mixture was melted in a single screw extrusion machine and then extruded through an orifice. Extruded filaments were later stretched and stabilized by sequentially passing them through a set of tension adjusters and a secondary heater. The Nylon-6/Ag/CNT hybrid polymer nanocomposite (HPNC) fibers, which were of {approx} 80 {mu}m size, were tested for their tensile properties. The failure stress and modulus of the extruded HPNC fibers (doped with 1% Ag/CNTs) was about 72.19 % and 342.62% higher than the neat extruded Nylon-6 fiber, respectively. DSC results indicated an increase in the thermal stability and crystallization for HPNC fibers. The antibacterial activity of the Ag-coated CNTs, commercial Ag, neat Nylon-6 and plain CNTs were evaluated. Ag-coated CNTs at 25 {mu}g demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against four common bacterial pathogens as tested by the Kirby-Bauer assay. The mean diameters of the zones of inhibition were 27.9 {+-} 6.72 mm, 19.4 {+-} 3.64 mm, 21.9 {+-} 4.33 mm, and 24.1 {+-} 4.14 mm, respectively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. By comparison, those obtained using the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin-clavulanic acid were 37.7 {+-} 2.13 mm, 28.6 {+-} 4.27 mm, 22.6 {+-} 1.27 mm, and 27.0 {+-} 1.41 mm, respectively, for the same strains. The zones of inhibition obtained for Nylon-6 Ag-coated CNT powder at 25 {mu}g were also high, ranging from 15.2 to 25.3 mm in contrast to commercial silver or neat Nylon-6, which did not inhibit the bacterial

  15. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  16. Fabrication and electrical characterizations of graphene nanocomposite thin film based heterojunction diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Ishrat; Shah, Mutabar; Iqbal, Mahmood; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Shah Haider

    2017-11-01

    The use of graphene in electronic devices is becoming attractive due to its inherent scalability and is thus well suited for flexible electronic devices. Here we present the electrical characterization of heterojunction diode, based on the nanocomposite of graphene (G) with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), at room temperature. The diode was fabricated by depositing nanocomposite on the n-Si substrate. The current - voltage (I - V) characteristic of the fabricated junction shows rectifying behavior similar to a Schottky junction. The junction parameters such as ideality factor (n), series resistance (Rs), and barrier height (ϕb) has been extracted, using various methods, from the experimentally obtained I - V data. The measured values of n, Rs and ϕb are 3.86, 45 Ω and 0.367 eV, respectively, as calculated from the I - V curve. The numerical values of these parameters calculated by different methods are in good agreement with each other showing the consistency of the applied calculating techniques. The conduction mechanism of the fabricated diode seems to have been dominated by the Trap Charge Limited Conduction (TCLC) behavior. The energy distribution of interface states density determined from forward bias I - V characteristic shows an exponential decrease with bias from 27 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 at (Ec - 0.345) eV to 3 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1at (Ec - 0.398) eV.

  17. One-step route to a hybrid TiO2/TixW1−xN nanocomposite by in situ selective carbothermal nitridation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë Schnepp, Martin J Hollamby, Masahiko Tanaka, Yoshitaka Matsushita, Yoshio Katsuya and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide/nitride nanocomposites have many existing and potential applications, e.g. in energy conversion or ammonia synthesis. Here, a hybrid oxide/nitride nanocomposite (anatase/TixW1−xN was synthesized by an ammonia-free sol–gel route. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction, complemented with electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, was used to study the structure, composition and mechanism of formation of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite contained nanoparticles (<5 nm diameter of two highly intermixed phases. This was found to arise from controlled nucleation and growth of a single oxide intermediate from the gel precursor, followed by phase separation and in situ selective carbothermal nitridation. Depending on the preparation conditions, the composition varied from anatase/TixW1−xN at low W content to an isostructural mixture of Ti-rich and W-rich TixW1−xN at high W content. In situ selective carbothermal nitridation offers a facile route to the synthesis of nitride-oxide nanocomposites. This conceptually new approach is a significant advance from previous methods, which generally require ammonolysis of a pre-synthesized oxide.

  18. Thin film hybrid Josephson junctions with Co doped Ba-122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Stefan; Doering, Sebastian; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Grosse, Veit; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Iida, Kazumasa; Kurth, Fritz; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Moench, Ingolf [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Integrative Nanowissenschaften, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Josephson junctions are a strong tool to investigate fundamental superconducting properties, such as gap behaviour, dependencies from external fields and the order parameter symmetry. Finding secure values enables the possibility of theoretical descriptions to understand the physical processes within the new iron-based superconductors. Based on Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) layers produced via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O{sub 3} substrates, we manufactured superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (S-N-S) junctions structures by using photolithography, ion beam etching as well as insulating SiO{sub 2} layers. We present working Ba-122/Au/PbIn thin film Josephson junctions with different contact areas and barrier thicknesses, their temperature dependence and response to microwave irradiation. The calculated I{sub c}R{sub N} product is in the range of a couple of microvolts.

  19. Studying the Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Cellulose Nanofiber/Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Yahyavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials have recently attracted much attention because of their desirable and unique physical and mechanical properties. Today, many studies have focused on the preparation of high performance new nanocomposites made of biobased and biodegradable materials as both the matrix and reinforcement phases. Because of biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and biological safety in the body, hydroxyapatite-polyvinyl alcohol composites are vastly used in medical applications, specially in the bone tissue regeneration. The properties of a new generation of nanocomposites consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and cellulose nanofibers, dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol matrix, were investigated. The percentage by weight of each component in the final formulation and the time of ultrasonication were studied as factors affecting the physical and mechanical properties. Tensile strength, elastic modulus and resistance to water dissolution were evaluated. The results showed that by increasing the percentage by weight of PVA and cellulose nanofibers and ultrasonication time, the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased and the resistance to water dissolution and weight loss decreased. On the other hand, with increasing the amount of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the final formulation, the elastic modulus and resistance to water solubility increased, while the tensile strength decreased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM micrographs were used to find exact correlations between the observed physical and mechanical properties and the structural morphology.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of hybrid montmorillonite/zinc oxide reinforced carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Younes; Fathi-Achachlouei, Bahram; Yousefi, Ali Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based nanocomposite films containing sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (5%wt) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (1, 2, 3 and 4%wt) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated via casting method. The results revealed that addition of NPs decreased water vapor permeability of the films by about 53%, while moisture content, density and glass transition temperature increased. The nanomaterials enhanced resistance of the nanocomposites against tensile stress at the expense of elongation at break. Nano-ZnO was very effective than nanoclay in UV-light blocking (99% vs. 60%) associated with sacrificing the films transparency. Formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of CMC and MMT was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy. According to the XRD analysis, clay nanolayers formed an exfoliated structure in the nanocomposites, whereas ZnO NPs raised crystallinity. SEM micrographs showed well-dispersed MMT and ZnO NPs through the films surface. Antibacterial test showed that vulnerability of Gram-positive S. aureus toward ZnO NPs was more than that of Gram-negative E. Coli. In conclusion, simultaneous incorporation of MMT and ZnO NPs improved the functional characteristics of CMC film and extended the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability Study of Flexible 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene Thin-Film Transistors with a Cross-Linked Poly(4-vinylphenol/Yttrium Oxide Nanocomposite Gate Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the electrical and mechanical stability of flexible 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylehtynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs that were fabricated on polyimide (PI substrates using cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol (c-PVP and c-PVP/yttrium oxide (Y2O3 nanocomposite films as gate insulators. Compared with the electrical characteristics of TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP insulators, the TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators exhibited enhancements in the drain current and the threshold voltage due to an increase in the dielectric capacitance. In electrical stability experiments, a gradual decrease in the drain current and a negative shift in the threshold voltage occurred during prolonged bias stress tests, but these characteristic variations were comparable for both types of TFT. On the other hand, the results of mechanical bending tests showed that the characteristic degradation of the TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators was more critical than that of the TFTs with c-PVP insulators. In this study, the detrimental effect of the nanocomposite insulator on the mechanical stability of flexible TIPS-pentacene TFTs was found to be caused by physical adhesion of TIPS-pentacene molecules onto the rough surfaces of the c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulator. These results indicate that the dielectric and morphological properties of polymeric nanocomposite insulators are significant when considering practical applications of flexible electronics operated at low voltages.

  2. EPR and rheological study of hybrid interfaces in gold-clay-epoxy nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Verislav; Velichkova, Hristiana; Ivanov, Evgeni; Kotsilkova, Rumiana; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Cangiotti, Michela; Fattori, Alberto; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2014-11-11

    With the aim to obtain new materials with special properties to be used in various industrial and biomedical applications, ternary "gold-clay-epoxy" nanocomposites and their nanodispersions were prepared using clay decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), at different gold contents. Nanocomposites structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rheology and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used in order to evaluate the molecular dynamics in the nanodispersions, as well as dynamics at interfaces in the nanocomposites. The percolation threshold (i.e., the filler content related to the formation of long-range connectivity of particles in the dispersed media) of the gold nanoparticles was determined to be ϕp = 0.6 wt % at a fixed clay content of 3 wt %. The flow activation energy and the relaxation time spectrum illustrated the presence of interfacial interactions in the ternary nanodispersions around and above the percolation threshold of AuNPs; these interfacial interactions suppressed the global molecular dynamics. It was found that below ϕp the free epoxy polymer chains ratio dominated over the chains attracted on the gold surfaces; thus, the rheological behavior was not significantly changed by the presence of AuNPs. While, around and above ϕp, the amount of the bonded epoxy polymer chains on the gold surface was much higher than that of the free chains; thus, a substantial increase in the flow activation energy and shift in the spectra to higher relaxation times appeared. The EPR signals of the nanocomposites depended on the gold nanoparticle contents and the preparation procedure thus providing a fingerprint of the different nanostructures. The EPR results from spin probes indicated that the main effect of the gold nanoparticles above ϕp, was to form a more homogeneous, viscous and polar clay-epoxy mixture at the nanoparticle surface. The knowledge

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Silica/Polyamide-imide Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional silica/polyamide-imide composite films were prepared via simple ultrasonic blending, after the silica nanoparticles were modified by cationic surfactant—cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and thermomechanical analysis (TMA. CTAB-modified silica nanoparticles were well dispersed in the polyamide-imide matrix, and the amount of silica nanoparticles to PAI was investigated to be from 2 to 10 wt%. Especially, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CET continuously decreased with the amount of silica particles increasing. The high thermal stability and low coefficient of thermal expansion showed that the nanocomposite films can be widely used in the enamel wire industry.

  4. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paszkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along with the increasing content of carbon nanofillers. However, one could observe greater improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity when only MWCNTs have been incorporated. Moreover, the improvement in tensile properties and thermal stability has been observed when carbon nanofillers have been mixed with LDPE. At the same time, the increasing content of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/GNPs caused an increase in the melt viscosity with only little effect on phase transition temperatures.

  5. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Low Density Polyethylene-Based Nanocomposites Reinforced by MWCNT or Hybrid MWCNT/Graphene Nanoplatelets with Improved Thermo-Oxidative Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Szymczyk, Anna; Pawlikowska, Daria; Subocz, Jan; Zenker, Marek; Masztak, Roman

    2018-04-22

    In this paper, the electrical and thermal conductivity and morphological behavior of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) + graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) hybrid nanocomposites (HNCs) have been studied. The distribution of MWCNTs and the hybrid of MWCNTs/GNPs within the polymer matrix has been investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the thermal and electrical conductivity of the LDPE-based nanocomposites increased along with the increasing content of carbon nanofillers. However, one could observe greater improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity when only MWCNTs have been incorporated. Moreover, the improvement in tensile properties and thermal stability has been observed when carbon nanofillers have been mixed with LDPE. At the same time, the increasing content of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/GNPs caused an increase in the melt viscosity with only little effect on phase transition temperatures.

  6. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2016-11-07

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  7. Hybrid Perovskite Thin-Film Photovoltaics: In Situ Diagnostics and Importance of the Precursor Solvate Phases

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim; Sheikh, Arif D.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Hu, Hanlin; Yu, Liyang; Zhao, Kui; Kim, Taesoo; El Tall, Omar; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef M.; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskite semiconductors attract a great deal of attention, but little is known about their formation process. The one-step spin-coating process of perovskites is investigated in situ, revealing that thin-film formation is mediated by solid-state precursor solvates and their nature. The stability of these intermediate phases directly impacts the quality and reproducibility of thermally converted perovskite films and their photovoltaic performance.

  8. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Evolution of the surface plasmon resonance of Au:TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with annealing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, J., E-mail: joelborges@fisica.uminho.pt [Universidade do Minho, Centro/Departamento de Física (Portugal); Buljan, M.; Sancho-Parramon, J.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Siketic, Z. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute (Croatia); Scherer, T.; Kübel, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility - KNMF (Germany); Bernstorff, S. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy); Cavaleiro, A. [University of Coimbra, SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department (Portugal); Vaz, F.; Rolo, A. G. [Universidade do Minho, Centro/Departamento de Física (Portugal)

    2014-12-15

    This paper reports on the changes in the structural and morphological features occurring in a particular type of nanocomposite thin-film system, composed of Au nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in a host TiO{sub 2} dielectric matrix. The structural and morphological changes, promoted by in-vacuum annealing experiments of the as-deposited thin films at different temperatures (ranging from 200 to 800 °C), resulted in a well-known localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) phenomenon, which gave rise to a set of different optical responses that can be tailored for a wide number of applications, including those for optical-based sensors. The results show that the annealing experiments enabled a gradual increase of the mean grain size of the Au NPs (from 2 to 23 nm), and changes in their distributions and separations within the dielectric matrix. For higher annealing temperatures of the as-deposited films, a broad size distribution of Au NPs was found (sizes up to 100 nm). The structural conditions necessary to produce LSPR activity were found to occur for annealing experiments above 300 °C, which corresponded to the crystallization of the gold NPs, with an average size strongly dependent on the annealing temperature itself. The main factor for the promotion of LSPR was the growth of gold NPs and their redistribution throughout the host matrix. On the other hand, the host matrix started to crystallize at an annealing temperature of about 500 °C, which is an important parameter to explain the shift of the LSPR peak position to longer wavelengths, i.e. a red-shift.

  10. Influence of flow rate on different properties of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Santra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN thin films were deposited on pyrex glass substrate using different flow rate of haxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO based liquid precursor with nitrogen gas as a glow discharged decomposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. The significant influence of different precursor flow rates on refractive index and thickness of the DLN films was measured by using spectroscopic filmatrics and DEKTAK profilometer. Optical transparency of the DLN thin films was analyzed by UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer. FTIR spectroscopy, provides the information about shifted bonds like SiC2, Si-C, Si-O, C-C, Si-H, C-H, N-H, and O-H with different precursor flow rate. We have estimated the hardness of the DLN films from Raman spectroscopy using Gaussian deconvolution method and tried to investigate the correlation between hardness, refractive index and thickness of the films with different precursor flow rates. The composition and surface morphology of the DLN films were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM respectively. We have analyzed the hardness by intensity ratio (ID/IG of D and G peaks and correlates with hardness measurement by nanoindentation test where hardness increases from 27.8 μl/min to 80.6μl/min and then decreases with increase of flow rate from 80.6μl/min to 149.5μl/min. Finally, we correlates different parameters of structural, optical and tribological properties like film-thickness, refractive index, light transmission, hardness, surface roughness, modulus of elasticity, contact angle etc. with different precursor flow rates of DLN films.

  11. Preparation and characterization of B-C-N hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Md. Nizam; Shimoyama, Iwao; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Nath, Krishna G.; Nagano, Masamitsu

    2006-06-01

    Two dimensional thin films composed of boron, carbon and nitrogen (B-C-N hybrid) were synthesized by ion beam deposition, and their electronic and geometrical structures were characterized by core-level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. B-C-N hybrid thin films were grown from ion beam plasma of borazine on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) at various temperatures. The films were characterized in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). XPS study suggested that B, N and C atoms in the deposited films were in a wide variety of chemical bonds e.g., B-C, B-N, N-C, and B-C-N. It was found that B-C-N hybrid formation was enhanced at high temperature, and that the B-C-N component was dominantly synthesized at low boron content. In the NEXAFS spectra, the resonance peaks from B 1s to unoccupied π * -like orbitals were clearly observed. The polarization dependence of the B 1s → π * resonance peaks confirmed that the highly oriented graphite-like B-C-N hybrids surely exist at low boron content. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  13. Plasmonic nanocomposite thin film enabled fiber optic sensors for simultaneous gas and temperature sensing at extreme temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Paul R; Buric, Michael P; Brown, Thomas D; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Baltrus, John; Andio, Mark

    2013-10-07

    Embedded sensors capable of operation in extreme environments including high temperatures, high pressures, and highly reducing, oxidizing and/or corrosive environments can make a significant impact on enhanced efficiencies and reduced greenhouse gas emissions of current and future fossil-based power generation systems. Relevant technologies can also be leveraged in a wide range of other applications with similar needs including nuclear power generation, industrial process monitoring and control, and aviation/aerospace. Here we describe a novel approach to embedded sensing under extreme temperature conditions by integration of Au-nanoparticle based plasmonic nanocomposite thin films with optical fibers in an evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy configuration. Such sensors can potentially enable simultaneous temperature and gas sensing at temperatures approaching 900-1000 °C in a manner compatible with embedded and distributed sensing approaches. The approach is demonstrated using the Au/SiO2 system deposited on silica-based optical fibers. Stability of optical fibers under relevant high temperature conditions and interactions with changing ambient gas atmospheres is an area requiring additional investigation and development but the simplicity of the sensor design makes it potentially cost-effective and may offer a potential for widespread deployment.

  14. PANI-Ag-Cu Nanocomposite Thin Films Based Impedimetric Microbial Sensor for Detection of E. coli Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PANI-Ag-Cu nanocomposite thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposited on the glass substrate using spin coating technique. Polyaniline was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of nitric acid. The films were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The performance of the sensor was conducted using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to obtain the change in impedance of the sensor film before and after incubation with E. coli bacteria in water. The peaks in XRD pattern confirm the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles in face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis shows the stretching of N–H in the polyaniline structure. The absorption band from UV-Visible spectroscopy shows high peaks between 400 nm and 500 nm which indicate the presence of Ag and Cu nanoparticles, respectively. Impedance analysis indicates that the change in impedance of the films decreases with the presence of E. coli. The sensitivity on E. coli increases for the sample with high concentration of Cu.

  15. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  16. High-performance polyamide thin-film-nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes containing hydrophobic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2015-02-01

    A hydrophobic, hydrothermally stable metal-organic framework (MOF) - zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was successfully incorporated into the selective polyamide (PA) layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes for water desalination. The potential advantages of ZIF-8 over classic hydrophilic zeolite used in TFNs include: i) theoretically faster water transport within the framework and ii) better compatibility with the PA matrix. The TFN membranes were characterized with SEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, water contact angle measurements and reverse osmosis tests under 15.5bar hydraulic pressure with 2000ppm NaCl solution. Lab-made, nano-sized (~200nm) ZIF-8 increased water permeance to 3.35±0.08L/m2·h·bar at 0.4% (w/v) loading, 162% higher than the pristine PA membranes; meanwhile, high NaCl rejection was maintained. The TFN surface was less crosslinked and more hydrophilic than that of the pristine PA. A filler encapsulation mechanism was proposed for the effects of filler on TFN membrane surface morphology and properties. This study experimentally verified the potential use of ZIF-8 in advanced TFN RO membranes.

  17. Organic/hybrid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.; Ge, Wangyao

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most exciting materials research in the 21st century attempts to resolve the challenge of simulating, synthesizing, and characterizing new materials with unique properties designed from first principles. Achievements in such development for organic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials make them important options for electronic and/or photonic devices because they can impart multi-functionality, flexibility, transparency, and sustainability to emerging systems, such as wearable electronics. Functional organic materials include small molecules, oligomers, and polymers, while hybrid materials include inorganic nanomaterials (such as zero-dimensional quantum dots, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, or two-dimensional nanosheets) combined with organic matrices. A critically important step to implementing new electronic and photonic devices using such materials is the processing of thin films. While solution-based processing is the most common laboratory technique for organic and hybrid materials, vacuum-based deposition has been critical to the commercialization of organic light emitting diodes based on small molecules, for example. Therefore, it is desirable to explore vacuum-based deposition of organic and hybrid materials that include larger macromolecules, such as polymers. This review article motivates the need for physical vapor deposition of polymeric and hybrid thin films using matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), which is a type of pulsed laser deposition. This review describes the development of variations in the MAPLE technique, discusses the current understanding of laser-target interactions and growth mechanisms for different MAPLE variations, surveys demonstrations of MAPLE-deposited organic and hybrid materials for electronic and photonic devices, and provides a future outlook for the technique.

  18. Hybrid thin films derived from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane and monodispersed colloidal silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid thin films containing nano-sized inorganic domains were synthesized from UV-curable acrylate-modified waterborne polyurethane (WPU-AC and monodispersed colloidal silica with coupling agent. The coupling agent, 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (MSMA, was bonded onto colloidal silica first, and then mixed with WPU-AC to form a precursor solution. This precursor was spin coated, dried and UV-cured to generate the hybrid films. The silica content in the hybrid thin films was varied from 0 to 30 wt%. Experimental results showed the aggregation of silica particles in the hybrid films. Thus, the silica domain in the hybrid films was varied from 30 to 50 nm by the different ratios of MSMAsilica to WPU-AC. The prepared hybrid films from the crosslinked WPU-AC/MSMA-silica showed much better thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure WPU-AC.

  19. Label-free amino acid detection based on nanocomposites of graphene oxide hybridized with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Xu, Gang; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2016-03-15

    Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles (GO/GNPs) were synthesized for label-free detections of amino acids. Interactions between the composites and amino acids were investigated by both naked-eye observation and optical absorption spectroscopy. The GO/GNPs composites displayed apparent color changes and absorption spectra changes in presences of amino acids including glutamate, aspartate, and cysteine. The interaction mechanisms of the composites and amino acids were discussed and explored with sulfhydryl groups and non-α-carboxylic groups on the amino acids. Sensing properties of the composites were tested, while pure gold particles were used as the control. The results suggested that the GO/GNPs composites had better linearity and stability in dose-dependent responses to the amino acids than those of the particles, especially in detections for acidic amino acids. Therefore, the nanocomposites platform can provide a convenient and efficient approach for label-free optical detections of important molecules such as amino acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of Polyimides in Molecular-Scale Confinement for Low-Density Hybrid Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Scott G; Fostvedt, Jade I; Koerner, Hilmar; Baur, Jeffery W; Lionti, Krystelle; Volksen, Willi; Dubois, Geraud; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we exploit a confinement-induced molecular synthesis and a resulting bridging mechanism to create confined polyimide thermoset nanocomposites that couple molecular confinement-enhanced toughening with an unprecedented combination of high-temperature properties at low density. We describe a synthesis strategy that involves the infiltration of individual polymer chains through a nanoscale porous network while simultaneous imidization reactions increase the molecular backbone stiffness. In the extreme limit where the confinement length scale is much smaller than the polymer's molecular size, confinement-induced molecular mechanisms give rise to exceptional mechanical properties. We find that polyimide oligomers can undergo cross-linking reactions even in such molecular-scale confinement, increasing the molecular weight of the organic phase and toughening the nanocomposite through a confinement-induced energy dissipation mechanism. This work demonstrates that the confinement-induced molecular bridging mechanism can be extended to thermoset polymers with multifunctional properties, such as excellent thermo-oxidative stability and high service temperatures (>350 °C).

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri - 574 199 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  2. Friction-stir processing of an AA8026-TiB{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposite: Microstructural developments and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandari, H.; Taheri, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodabakhshi, F., E-mail: farzadkhodabakhshi83@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Boulevard, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-13

    In this study, micro- and nano-sized TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were incorporated separately and simultaneously through the AA8026 aluminum base alloy during multi-pass friction stir processing (FSP) with 100% overlapping to fabricate metal matrix mono and hybrid nanocomposites. Various FSP conditions including different rotational speeds (w), traverse velocities (v), and processing pass numbers were assessed to attain a homogenous distribution of reinforcing particles through the Al-metal matrix. Moreover, the impacts of size (micro or nano) and type of reinforcement particles (TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the process-ability of single and hybrid nanocomposite systems were examined. Microstructures of different zones and distributions of reinforcing ceramic particles through the Al-matrix under various processing conditions were studied and characterized by using optical (OM), scanning (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, respectively. The main mechanical characteristics of the prepared nanocomposites, such as, indentation Vickers hardness, tensile properties, and wear resistance were measured and compared for all of the various processing conditions. By optimization of the FSP parameters, as a rotational speed of 1600 rpm and a traverse velocity of 40 mm/min after 4 passes, a uniform AA8026-TiB{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hybrid nanocomposite was attained with significant improvements (~70–100%) in the different mechanical properties. As a result, the tensile yield strength of ~270 MPa, elongation of ~4.5%, and indentation Vickers hardness of ~141 HV were obtained. Also, the average wear rate was reduced from the 21×10{sup −3} mg/m value for the AA8026 base alloy down to 2.6×10{sup −3} mg/m for the best processed nanocomposite. A direct relationship between the wear rate and the indentation hardness resistance was demonstrated. Finally, effects of FSP processing conditions and reinforcement particles (type and

  3. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of hybrid nanfluids prepared with magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of magnetic nanodiamond-cobalt oxide (ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite material; preparation of nanofluids and estimation of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity has been explained experimentally in this paper. The nanocomposite material has been synthesized by using in-situ growth technique and chemical coprecipitation between cobalt chloride and sodium borohydrate. The various techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS and VSM have been used to confirm the ND and Co3O4 phase of synthesized nanocomposite. The hybrid nanofluids have been prepared by dispersing synthesized ND-Co3O4 nanocomposite in water, ethylene glycol/water mixtures. The thermal properties such as thermal conductivity and viscosity have been measured experimentally at different weight concentrations and temperatures. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity enhancements are about 16%, 9%, 14%, 11% and 10% for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Similarly the viscosity enhancements are about 1.45-times, 1.46-times, 1.15-times, 1.19-times, and 1.51-times for water, EG, 20:80%, 40:60%, and 60:40% EG/W based nanofluids at 0.15 wt% concentrations and at 60 °C respectively. Based on the experimental data new correlations for thermal conductivity and viscosity have been developed.

  4. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, T; Zoschke, K; Rothermund, M; Oppermann, H; Woehrmann, M; Ehrmann, O; Lang, K D; Huegging, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump deposition process the glass-readout chip stack is diced in one step. Finally the glass carrier chip is released by laser illumination after flip chip assembly of the readout chip onto sensor tile. The results of the flip chip assembly process development for the ATLAS IBL upgrade are described more in detail. The new ATLAS FEI4B chip with a size of 20 × 19 mm 2 is flip chip bonded with a thickness of only 150 μm, but the capability of this technology has been demonstrated on hybrid modules with a reduced readout chip thickness of down to 50 μm which is a major step for ultra-thin electronic systems

  5. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Camarchia, Vittorio, E-mail: vittorio.camarchia@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco [Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pandolfi, Paolo [Politronica Inkjet Printing S.r.l., C/O i3p, Corso Castelfidardo 30/A, 10129 Torino (Italy); Pirri, Candido Fabrizio [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  6. Hybrid Ag-based inks for nanocomposite inkjet printed lines: RF properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Camarchia, Vittorio; Quaglia, Roberto; Pirola, Marco; Pandolfi, Paolo; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer–silver nanocomposite conductive ink for RF fast prototyping. • Reduction of the sintering temperature. • Improved printing resolution. • State-of-the-art electrical conductivity. • Good RF performances. - Abstract: The development of highly conductive Ag nanoparticle (NP)-based inkjet printed (IP) connections is a fundamental process for the success of next-generation digitally printed electronics. This is true both at low frequency and at RF, considering the increasing integration of heterogeneous technologies and the use of flexible substrates. Ink-based technologies provide and form at liquid state the functional material that is then delivered to solid via a sintering process to achieve NP coalescence and electrical percolation. Sintering must be performed at very low temperatures (depending on the substrate choice) to be compatible with previous process steps, to preserve the geometry and fulfill the requirements in term of electrical conductivity, as well as to reduce production costs. While IP, as additive technology, is now well settled for DC or low frequency applications, few results on electrical characterization at RF or microwave frequencies are present due to low conductivity, poor geometry definition and low reproducibility. Hence, a good setup of ink formulation and technological realization is fundamental to enable system performance assessment in the high frequency regime. In this paper we propose a breakthrough: we present a nanocomposite ink, whose thermal and DC electrical properties are extremely interesting and competitive with pure-metallic ink systems. Introducing a copolymer in the formulation, we obtained a reduction of the overall sintering temperature, if compared to the pristine NP suspension, along with improved printing resolution together with very good electrical conductivity. The RF characterization has been performed in the range 1–6 GHz on geometries printed on sintered alumina and on a power

  7. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  8. Welding of Thin Steel Plates by Hybrid Welding Process Combined TIG Arc with YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Suga, Yasuo; Koike, Takashi

    TIG arc welding and laser welding are used widely in the world. However, these welding processes have some advantages and problems respectively. In order to improve problems and make use of advantages of the arc welding and the laser welding processes, hybrid welding process combined the TIG arc with the YAG laser was studied. Especially, the suitable welding conditions for thin steel plate welding were investigated to obtain sound weld with beautiful surface and back beads but without weld defects. As a result, it was confirmed that the shot position of the laser beam is very important to obtain sound welds in hybrid welding. Therefore, a new intelligent system to monitor the welding area using vision sensor is constructed. Furthermore, control system to shot the laser beam to a selected position in molten pool, which is formed by TIG arc, is constructed. As a result of welding experiments using these systems, it is confirmed that the hybrid welding process and the control system are effective on the stable welding of thin stainless steel plates.

  9. Me-Si-C (Me= Nb, Ti or Zr) : Nanocomposite and Amorphous Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Tengstrand, Olof

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates thin films of the transition metal carbide systems Ti-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, and Zr-Si-C, deposited at a low substrate temperature (350 °C) with dc magnetron sputtering in an Ar discharge. Both the electrical and mechanical properties of these systems are highly affected by their structure. For Nb-Si-C, both the ternary Nb-Si-C and the binary Nb-C are studied. I show pure NbC films to consist of crystalline NbC grains embedded in a matrix of amorphous carbon. The best combina...

  10. Cr(OH)3-NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite: a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue and malachite green from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Farzin; Nekouei, Shahram; Keshtpour, Farzaneh; Noorizadeh, Hossein; Wang, Shaobin

    2017-11-01

    In this article, Cr(OH) 3 nanoparticle-modified cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as a novel hybrid nanocomposite (Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC) was prepared by a simple procedure and used as a sorbent for adsorptive removal of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. Different kinetic models were tested, and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found more suitable for the MB and MG adsorption processes. The BET and Langmuir models were more suitable for the adsorption processes of MB and MG. Thermodynamic studies suggested that the adsorption of MB and MG onto Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC nanocomposite was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The maximum adsorption capacities for MB and MG were reached 106 and 104 mg/g, respectively, which were almost two times higher than unmodified CNC. The chemical stability and leaching tests of the Cr(OH) 3 -NPs-CNC hybrid nanocomposite showed that only small amounts of chromium were leached into the solution.

  11. Determination of grafting conversion degree in PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites obtained through reactive processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Otavio; Repenning, Gustavo B.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Ricardo V.B.; Canto, Leonardo B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) - PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS - with different grafting degrees were prepared by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene monomer as radical transfer agent. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using triple-detector and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1 H) analyses were used together to determine the conversion degree of PS-graft-POSS as a function of the reactive processing conditions adopted. GPC was employed to evaluate the effects of grafting (PS-graft-POSS) and PS chains degradation (β scission) that occur simultaneously during processing on the variation of average molecular masses and distributions for each PS/POSS sample. PS/POSS systems processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular weights (M w ) and lower polydispersity indexes (M w /M n ), as a result of higher grafting (PS-graft-POSS) conversion (28-40%) and lower PS chain degradation level, as compared to PS/POSS systems processed without styrene in which the degree of grafting conversion was around 25-28%. (author)

  12. Enhancement of bioactivity of titanium carbonitride nanocomposite thin films on steels with biosynthesized hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thampi VV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available VV Anusha Thampi,1 P Dhandapani,2 Geetha Manivasagam, B Subramanian11Electrochemical Materials Science Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi, 2Corrosion and Materials Protection Division, Central Electrochemical Reserach Institute, Karaikudi, 3Centre for Bio-Materials Science and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, IndiaAbstract: Thin films of titanium carbonitride (TiCN were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering on medical grade steel. The biocompatibility of the coating was further enhanced by growing hydroxyapatite crystals over the TiCN-coated substrates using biologically activated ammonia from synthetic urine. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was determined in simulated body fluid. In addition, hemocompatibility was assessed by monitoring the attachment of platelets on the coating using SEM. The wettability of the coatings was measured in order to correlate with biocompatibility results. Formation of a coating with granular morphology and the preferred orientation was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The hydroxyapatite coating led to a decrease in thrombogenicity, resulting in controlled blood clot formation, hence demonstrating the hemocompatibility of the coating.Keywords: titanium carbonitride thin films, magnetron sputtering, ureolytic bacteria, biocompatibility

  13. Preparation and antibacterial effect of silver-hydroxyapatite/titania nanocomposite thin film on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Anchun [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: moanchun@163.com; Liao Juan [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xu Wei [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Arrail-Dental, Shanghai 200122 (China); Xian Suqin [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bai Shi [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The composite which contains Ag{sup +} and nanosized hydroxyapatite with TiO{sub 2} was deposited onto titanium by dipping method. The morphology, chemical components and structures of the thin film were characterized by XRD, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were utilized to test the antibacterial effect. XRD results demonstrated that the films have characteristic diffraction peaks of pure HA. EDX results showed that the deposited films consisted of Ca, P, Ti, O and Ag, all of which distribute uniformly. With regard to the antibacterial effect, 98% of S. aureus and more than 99% of E. coli were killed after 24 h incubation and pictures of SEM showed obviously fewer cells on the surface with coating.

  14. Electrical characteristics of ZnO nanorods reinforced polymer nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Snigdha; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics National Institute Technology Silchar Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanorods have been prepared by simple chemical method, which is used to fabricate organic bistable devices (OBDs). OBDs are fabricated by incorporating different weight percent (wt %) of chemically synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the spin coated ZnO+PMMA nanocomopsite thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate showed current hysteresis behaviour, which is an indication of memory effect. The samples exhibit two distinct resistance states, ON and OFF states, characterised by relatively low and high resistance of the OBDs, respectively. It is also observed that with change in ZnO dopant concentration the value of ON/OFF current changes. Higher ON/OFF current ratio is desired for practical applications. Current conduction mechanism of the devices has been explained invoking various existing models, and it has been found that the trapped-charge-limited conduction mechanism was dominant in our samples.

  15. Enhancement of bioactivity of titanium carbonitride nanocomposite thin films on steels with biosynthesized hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, V V Anusha; Dhandapani, P; Manivasagam, Geetha; Subramanian, B

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of titanium carbonitride (TiCN) were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering on medical grade steel. The biocompatibility of the coating was further enhanced by growing hydroxyapatite crystals over the TiCN-coated substrates using biologically activated ammonia from synthetic urine. The coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the coatings was determined in simulated body fluid. In addition, hemocompatibility was assessed by monitoring the attachment of platelets on the coating using SEM. The wettability of the coatings was measured in order to correlate with biocompatibility results. Formation of a coating with granular morphology and the preferred orientation was confirmed by SEM and X-ray diffraction results. The hydroxyapatite coating led to a decrease in thrombogenicity, resulting in controlled blood clot formation, hence demonstrating the hemocompatibility of the coating.

  16. Andreev reflexion studies on planar hybrid SNS-junctions based on 122-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Sebastian; Schmidt, Stefan; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Kurth, Fritz; Iida, Kazumasa; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the properties of iron-based superconductors, we prepared hybrid junctions in thin film technique. Therefore two geometries were prepared, a planar SNS-junction and an edge junction. The base electrode was made of Ba(Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}){sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films, a sputtered gold layer acts as normal barrier for the planar junction and for the counter electrode we used the conventional superconductor lead. We measured the electrical properties of each electrode, as well as the junctions itself. To obtain information about the order parameter symmetry, we show the differential conductance and compare with different variations of an extended BTK-model. We show differences and commonalities between the results of both junction geometries.

  17. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures.

  18. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.; Mé ndez-Garcí a, Celia; Kim, Chang-H.; Bauer, Stefan; Ibá ñ ez, Ana B.; Zimmerman, Sabrina; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cann, Isaac K.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2016-01-01

    Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, we found that optimal conditions for biological treatment of thin stillage were similar for both mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified different microbial communities in mesophilic and thermophilic reactors and these differences in the microbial communities could be linked to the composition of the thin stillage.

  19. Surface characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) based nanocomposite thin films containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.; Haynes, V.; Wheeler-Jones, R.; Sly, J.; Perks, R.M.; Piccirillo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based nanocomposite electron beam resists have been demonstrated by spin coating techniques. When TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were directly dispersed into the PMMA polymer matrix, the resulting nanocomposites produced poor quality films with surface roughnesses of 322 and 402 nm respectively. To improve the surface of the resists, the oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated in toluene and methanol. Using the zeta potential parameter, it was found that the stabilities of the toluene/oxide nanoparticle suspensions were 7.7 mV and 19.4 mV respectively, meaning that the suspension was not stable. However, when the TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were encapsulated in methanol the zeta potential parameter was 31.9 mV and 39.2 mV respectively. Therefore, the nanoparticle suspension was stable. This method improved the surface roughness of PMMA based nanocomposite thin films by a factor of 6.6 and 6.4, when TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 were suspended in methanol before being dispersed into the PMMA polymer.

  20. Surface characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) based nanocomposite thin films containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, S., E-mail: Scott.Lewis@Manchester.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Technology Group, University of Manchester, Turing Building, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Haynes, V. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Technology Group, University of Manchester, Turing Building, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wheeler-Jones, R. [Institute of Advanced Materials and Energy Systems, Cardiff School of Engineering, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Sly, J. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Microelectronics and Nanostructures group, The University of Manchester, Sackville St Building, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Perks, R.M. [Institute of Advanced Materials and Energy Systems, Cardiff School of Engineering, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Piccirillo, L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Technology Group, University of Manchester, Turing Building, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based nanocomposite electron beam resists have been demonstrated by spin coating techniques. When TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were directly dispersed into the PMMA polymer matrix, the resulting nanocomposites produced poor quality films with surface roughnesses of 322 and 402 nm respectively. To improve the surface of the resists, the oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated in toluene and methanol. Using the zeta potential parameter, it was found that the stabilities of the toluene/oxide nanoparticle suspensions were 7.7 mV and 19.4 mV respectively, meaning that the suspension was not stable. However, when the TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were encapsulated in methanol the zeta potential parameter was 31.9 mV and 39.2 mV respectively. Therefore, the nanoparticle suspension was stable. This method improved the surface roughness of PMMA based nanocomposite thin films by a factor of 6.6 and 6.4, when TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were suspended in methanol before being dispersed into the PMMA polymer.

  1. Poly(4-vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate) / titanium dioxide nanocomposite gate insulators for 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Piao, Shanghao; Kim, Sohee; Choi, Hyoungjin [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(4-vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate) / titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite insulators were fabricated for application in 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-Pn) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The capacitance of the fabricated capacitors with this nanocomposite insulator increased with increasing content of the high-dielectric-constant TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Nonetheless, particle aggregates, which were invariably produced in the insulator at higher TiO{sub 2} contents, augmented gate-leakage currents during device operation while the rough surface of the insulator obstructed charge transport in the conducting channel of the TIPS-Pn TFTs. These results suggest a significant effect of the morphological characteristics of nanocomposite insulators on TFT performance, as well as on their dielectric properties. Herein, the optimal particle composition was determined to be approximately 1.5 wt%, which contributed to characteristic improvements in the drain current, field-effect mobility, and threshold voltage of TIPS-Pn TFTs.

  2. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  3. Performance comparison of hybrid resistive switching devices based on solution-processable nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Krishna; Roppolo, Ignazio; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Chiappone, Annalisa; Bocchini, Sergio; Perrone, Denis; Pirri, Candido Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Carlo; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    The present work compares the influence of different polymer matrices on the performance of planar asymmetric Resistive Switching Devices (RSDs) based on silver nitrate and Ionic Liquid (IL). PolyVinyliDene Fluoride-HexaFluoroPropylene (PVDF-HFP), PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO), PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) and a blend of PVDF-HFP and PEO were used as matrices and compared. RSDs represent perhaps the most promising electron device to back the More than Moore development, and our approach through functional polymers enables low temperature processing and gives compatibility towards flexible/stretchable/wearable equipment. The switching mechanism in all the four sample families is explained by means of a filamentary conduction. A huge difference in the cyclability and the On/Off ratio is experienced when changing the active polymers and explained based on the polymer crystallinity degree and general morphology of the prepared nanocomposite. It is worth noting that all the RSDs discussed here present good switching behaviour with reasonable endurance. The current study displays one of the most cost-effective and effortless ways to produce an RSD based on solution-processable materials.

  4. Rheology of polyaniline-dinonylnaphthalene disulfonic acid (DNNDSA) montmorillonite clay nanocomposites in the sol state: shear thinning versus pseudo-solid behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Ashesh; Nandi, Arun K

    2008-04-01

    The melt rheology of polyaniline (PANI)-dinonylnaphthalenedisulfonic acid (DNNDSA) gel nanocomposites (GNCs) with organically modified (modified with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide)-montmorillonite (om-MMT) clay has been studied for three different clay concentrations at the temperature range 120-160 degrees C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dc-conductivity data (approximately 10(-3) S/cm) indicate that the PANI-DNNDSA melt is in sol state and it is not de-doped at that condition. The WAXS data indicate that in GNC-1 sol clay tactoids are in exfoliated state but in the other sols they are in intercalated state. The zero shear viscosity (eta0), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") increase than that of pure gel in the GNCs. The pure sol and the sols of gel nanocomposites (GNCs) exhibit Newtonian behavior for low shear rate (clay concentration and the power law index (n) decreases with increase in clay concentration in the GNCs indicating increased shear thinning for the clay addition. Thus the sols of om-clay nanocomposites of PANI-DNNDSA system are easily processible. The storage modulus (G') of GNC sols are higher than that of pure PANI-DNNDSA sol, GNC1 sol shows a maximum of 733% increase in storage modulus and the percent increase decreases with increase in temperature. Exfoliated nature of clay tactoids has been attributed for the above dramatic increase of G'. The PANI-DNNDSA sol nanocomposites behave as a pseudo-solid at higher frequency where G' and loss modulus (G") show a crossover point in the frequency sweep experiment at a fixed temperature. The crossover frequency decreases with increase in clay concentration and it increases with increase in temperature for GNC sols. The pseudo-solid behavior has been explained from jamming or network formation of clay tactoids under shear. A probable explanation of the two apparently contradictory phenomena

  5. The properties of nanocomposite aluminium-silicon based thin films deposited by filtered arc deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendavid, A.; Martin, P.J.; Takikawa, H

    2002-12-02

    Thin films of aluminium silicon oxynitride have been deposited on conducting (100) silicon wafers by filtered arc deposition (FAD) under nitrogen and/or oxygen gas flow. The influence of the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio on the crystal structure, optical and mechanical properties has been investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that the film structure comprised of an AlN crystallite with amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiO{sub x}. The optical properties over the range of 350-800 nm were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry and found to be strongly dependent on N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flow ratio. The refractive index values of the films were measured to be in the range of 2.2-1.64 at a wavelength of 670 nm for oxygen flow range of 0-100%. The hardness of the films was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen content in the film. The hardness range of the films was between 10 and 22 GPa and for the stress between 0.3 and 1.2 GPa.

  6. Low temperature excitonic spectroscopy and dynamics as a probe of quality in hybrid perovskite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Som; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Chen, Yen-Chang; Lin, Oliver; Gopinathan, Ajay; Tung, Vincent C; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2016-10-19

    We have developed a framework for using temperature dependent static and dynamic photoluminescence (PL) of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (PVSKs) to characterize lattice defects in thin films, based on the presence of nanodomains at low temperature. Our high-stability PVSK films are fabricated using a novel continuous liquid interface propagation technique, and in the tetragonal phase (T > 120 K), they exhibit bi-exponential recombination from free charge carriers with an average PL lifetime of ∼200 ns. Below 120 K, the emergence of the orthorhombic phase is accompanied by a reduction in lifetimes by an order of magnitude, which we establish to be the result of a crossover from free carrier to exciton-dominated radiative recombination. Analysis of the PL as a function of excitation power at different temperatures provides direct evidence that the exciton binding energy is different in the two phases, and using these results, we present a theoretical approach to estimate this variable binding energy. Our findings explain this anomalous low temperature behavior for the first time, attributing it to an inherent fundamental property of the hybrid PVSKs that can be used as an effective probe of thin film quality.

  7. Self-regulated growth of LaVO3 thin films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Dedon, Liv R.; Martin, Lane W.

    2015-01-01

    LaVO 3 thin films were grown on SrTiO 3 (001) by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. A volatile metalorganic precursor, vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP), and elemental La were co-supplied in the presence of a molecular oxygen flux. By keeping the La flux fixed and varying the VTIP flux, stoichiometric LaVO 3 films were obtained for a range of cation flux ratios, indicating the presence of a self-regulated growth window. Films grown under stoichiometric conditions were found to have the largest lattice parameter, which decreased monotonically with increasing amounts of excess La or V. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering measurements were carried out to confirm film compositions. Stoichiometric growth of complex vanadate thin films independent of cation flux ratios expands upon the previously reported self-regulated growth of perovskite titanates using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, thus demonstrating the general applicability of this growth approach to other complex oxide materials, where a precise control over film stoichiometry is demanded by the application

  8. Hierarchical hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a noble metal free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Li, Yingjun; Li, Yetong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Huang, Keke [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab. of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO catalysts are synthesized by using a two-step method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: Novel nickel nitride (Ni{sub 3}N) nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (N-RGOs) are synthesized via a facile strategy including hydrothermal and subsequent calcination methods, in which the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (RGOs) are simultaneously doped with nitrogen species. By varying the content of the RGOs, a series of Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO nanocomposites are obtained. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO-30% hybrid nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline condition (0.1 M KOH). Furthermore, this hybrid catalyst also demonstrates high tolerance to methanol poisoning. The RGO containing rich N confers the nanocomposite with large specific surface area and high electronic conduction ability, which can enhance the catalytic efficiency of Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic activity can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ni{sub 3}N and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide. In addition, the sufficient contact between Ni{sub 3}N nanoparticles and the N-RGO nanosheets simultaneously promotes good nanoparticle dispersion and provides a consecutive activity sites to accelerate electron transport continuously, which further enhance the ORR performance. The Ni{sub 3}N/N-RGO may be further an ideal candidate as efficient and inexpensive noble metal-free ORR electrocatalyst in fuel cells.

  9. Enhanced extraction and purification of plasmid DNA from escherichia coli by applying a hybrid magnetic nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J. da; Chavez-Guajardo, A.E.; Medina-llamas, J.C.; Alcaraz-Espinoza, J.J.; Melo, C.P. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Plasmid DNA (pDNA), a special kind of nucleic acid usually found in bacteria, is a small molecule physically distinct from chromosomal DNA that can replicate independently. This genetic material has been used in a wide set of biotechnological methodologies, such as genetic engineering, production of recombinant drugs and gene therapy, among others. In all these applications, the extraction and purification of pDNA appears as a crucial step. In this work, we describe the synthesis of a polyaniline and maghemite (PANI/?-Fe2O3) magnetic nanocomposite (MNC) and its use in a new Escherichia coli (E. coli) pDNA extraction and purification protocol. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and magnetic measurements to characterize the MNC, which was synthesized through an emulsion polymerization method. The yield, purity and quality of the pDNA extracted by using our proposed MNC protocol were evaluated through UV-Vis, agarose gel electrophoreses and PCR techniques, respectively. After comparing our results to those obtained by use of a commercial kit (Promega Wizard Plus SV Minipreps), we suggest that the novel protocol here proposed appears as a competitive alternative methodology. Not only the purification step can be completed within only 10 min, but the high adsorption capacity of the MNC results in pDNA yields that are almost twice the best values obtained by using the commercial kit. Hence, this new MNC methodology can be of general interest and find widespread use in different types of biomedical applications. (author)

  10. Colored ultra-thin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency for decorative PV applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Jay

    2015-10-01

    This talk will describe an approach to create architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film-based hybrid photovoltaics [1]. Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. Recently we introduced dual-function solar cells based on ultra-thin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances [1,2]. The angle-insensitive behavior is the result of an interesting phase cancellation effect in the optical cavity with respect to angle of light propagation [3]. In order to produce the desired optical effect, the semiconductor layer should be ultra-thin and the traditional doped layers need to be eliminated. We adopted the approach of employing charge transport/blocking layers used in organic solar cells to meet this demand. We showed that the ultra-thin (6 to 31 nm) undoped amorphous silicon/organic hybrid solar cell can transmit desired wavelength of light and that most of the absorbed photons in the undoped a-Si layer contributed to the extracted electric charges. This is because the a-Si layer thickness is smaller than the charge diffusion length, therefore the electron-hole recombination is strongly suppressed in such ultra-thin layer. Reflective colored PVs can be made in a similar fashion. Light-energy-harvesting colored signage was demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Our work provides a guideline for optimizing a photoactive layer thickness in high efficiency hybrid PV design, which can be

  11. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamminga, Machteld E; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H; Blake, Graeme R; Palstra, Thomas T M; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2018-04-18

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 ) using two different soft lithography techniques. Notably, both techniques yield microstructures with very high aspect ratios in the range of 1.5-1.8. X-ray diffraction reveals a strong preferential orientation of the crystallites along the c-axis in both patterned structures, when compared to nonpatterned, drop-casted thin films. Furthermore, (time-resolved) photoluminescence (PL) measurements reveal that the optical properties of (C 6 H 5 CH 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 are conserved upon patterning. We find that the larger grain sizes of the patterned films with respect to the nonpatterned film give rise to an enhanced PL lifetime. Thus, our results demonstrate easy and cost-effective ways to manufacture patterns of 2D organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites, while even improving their optical properties. This demonstrates the potential use of color-tunable 2D hybrids in optoelectronic devices.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of graphene nanosheets-modified polyaniline hybrid nanocomposites by an in situ chemical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Ying; Wang, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid material of polyaniline protonated with hydrochloric acid and conductive graphene nanosheets (PANi/GNs) has been prepared by an in situ chemical polymerization method. The interactions between PANi and GNs in the hybrid composites are investigated by utilizing XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis and Raman. It is found that the PANi are adsorbed on the surface of the GNs, and the morphology of PANi transforms from twist structure to extended structure after the GNs are introduced. The thermoelectric (TE) properties of PANi/GNs composites have been investigated in the range from 323 K to 453 K. The electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of PANi/GNs composites are obviously higher than those of the PANi, while the thermal conductivity of the composites still keeps relatively low values even with high GNs content, resulting in the increase in dimensionless figure of merit (ZT). A highest ZT value of 1.95 × 10 −3 has been obtained for the composite containing 30 wt % GNs at 453 K, which is about 70 times higher than that obtained from the PANi. - Highlights: ► PANi adsorbed on the surface of the GNs possesses more extended structure. ► Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of PANi/GNs composites are superior to those of PANi. ► Thermal conductivity of the composites still keeps relatively low values

  13. Facile synthesis of graphene oxide @ mesoporous carbon hybrid nanocomposites for lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Chengkun; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel design and synthesis of GO@Meso-C using GO@MOF-5 as precursor. • GO@Meso-C hybrid material as a host material was applied for sulfur cathode. • Electrochemical performances were improved in sulfur cathode using Go@Meso-C. - Abstract: We present a design and synthesis of a hierarchical architecture of graphene oxide @ mesoporous carbon (GO@Meso-C) using graphene oxide @ metal-organic framework hybrid materials (GO@MOF-5) as both the template and precursor. Active sulfur is encapsulated into the GO@Meso-C matrix prepared via carbonize GO@MOF-5 polyhedrons for high performance lithium sulfur battery. The initial and 100th cycle discharge capacity of GO@Meso-C/S sulfur cathode are as high as 1122 mAh g −1 and 820 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 0.2 C. The remarkably high special capacity and capacity retention rate indicate that the GO@Meso-C is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium sulfur battery applications

  14. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  15. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of an aluminum metal matrix nanocomposite by the hybridization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidindi Sita Rama Raju

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix plays a prominent role in improving the composite strength. In the present investigation, two types of launching vehicles, such as aluminum powder (primary and CNTs (secondary, are considered to uniformly carry and launch ultra-fine nanoparticles (13 nm into molten metal. The use of a secondary launching vehicle is identified to promote strengthening compared to a regular primary vehicle, as indicated by the good distribution observed from electron micrographs. CNTs are responsible for hybridizing the composite and also assist strengthening by anchoring to the matrix through the destroyed outer-walls and their axial orientation with the matrix. These results help us in attaining a strength of 197 MPa and a hardness of 93 BHN, with a minimal loss in ductility for the H-3 sample.

  16. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto

    2017-11-30

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  17. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Perovskite–Polymer Nanocomposites: Toward the Enhancement of Structural and Electrical Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Privitera, Alberto; Righetto, Marcello; de Bastiani, Michele; Carraro, Francesco; Rancan, Marzio; Armelao, Lidia; Granozzi, Gaetano; Bozio, Renato; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic perovskite nanoparticles (NPs) have garnered remarkable research attention because of their promising photophysical properties. New and interesting properties emerge after combining perovskite NPs with semiconducting materials. Here, we report the synthesis and investigation of a composite material obtained by mixing CH3NH3PbBr3 nanocrystals with the semiconducting polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By the combination of structural techniques and optical and magnetic spectroscopies we observed multiple effects of the perovskite NPs on the P3HT: (i) an enlargement of P3HT crystalline domains, (ii) a strong p-doping of the P3HT, and (iii) an enhancement of interchain order typical of H-aggregates. These observations open a new avenue toward innovative perovskite NP-based applications.

  18. Effect of reduced graphene oxide-carbon nanotubes hybrid nanofillers in mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Kadambinee; Mahakul, Prakash C.; Subramanyam, B. V. R. S.; Raiguru, Jagatpati; Das, Sonali; Alam, Injamul; Mahanandia, Pitamber

    2018-03-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have tremendous interest as reinforcing fillers due to their excellent physical properties. However, their reinforcing effect in polymer matrix is limited due to agglomeration of graphene and CNTs within the polymer matrix. Mechanical properties by the admixture of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and CNTs in Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by solution mixing method has been investigated. The prepared samples are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The hybrid composite shows improvement in the mechanical properties compared to rGO/PMMA and MWCNTs/PMMA composites due to better interaction between rGO-MWCNTs and polymer matrix.

  19. Target swapping in PLD: An efficient approach for CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with enhanced luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Nupur, E-mail: n1saxena@gmail.com [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Pragati, E-mail: pkumar.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Nano Sciences and Materials, Central University of Jammu, Rahya-Suchani (Bagla), Samba, 181143 Jammu, J& K (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-06-15

    A novel synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} (i.e. 1%Ag doped CdS/SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS, CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO{sub 2} are used to deposit CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency ratio of 2:8 laser pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO{sub 2} in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (i.e. 2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS/ CdS:Ag(1%) nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Highly intense and broad red emission is achieved from CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The efficiencies of emission from pristine CdS:SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites are found to be enhanced by approximately two times as compared to sole nanocrystalline CdS and CdS:Ag(1%) thin films respectively and further enhanced upto 7 times on annealing the nanocomposite systems at 500 °C. - Graphical abstract: A modified synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free undoped &1% Ag doped CdS/SiO{sub 2} (deposit CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS or CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO{sub 2} are used to deposit CdS/SiO{sub 2} and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency of 2:8 pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO{sub 2} in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Intense and broad red emission is

  20. Target swapping in PLD: An efficient approach for CdS/SiO2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO2 nanocomposite thin films with enhanced luminescent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Nupur; Kumar, Pragati; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    A novel synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 (i.e. 1%Ag doped CdS/SiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS, CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO 2 are used to deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency ratio of 2:8 laser pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO 2 in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (i.e. 2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS/ CdS:Ag(1%) nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Highly intense and broad red emission is achieved from CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites. The efficiencies of emission from pristine CdS:SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites are found to be enhanced by approximately two times as compared to sole nanocrystalline CdS and CdS:Ag(1%) thin films respectively and further enhanced upto 7 times on annealing the nanocomposite systems at 500 °C. - Graphical abstract: A modified synthesis method for luminescent and by-products (like CdO) free undoped &1% Ag doped CdS/SiO 2 (deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition is reported. Targets of CdS or CdS:Ag(1%) and SiO 2 are used to deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposite thin films by swapping them at a frequency of 2:8 pulses/sec. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis ensures the ratio of CdS to SiO 2 in nanocomposite as 21:79 which is nearly same as the ratio of incident pulses/sec (2:8) on the two targets. Transmission electron micrographs visualize the formation of CdS nanocrystals in nanocomposite systems after annealing at 500 °C. Intense and broad red emission is achieved from deposit CdS/SiO 2 and CdS:Ag(1%)/SiO 2 nanocomposites. The efficiency of

  1. Multilevel structures of Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon nanocomposites derived from hybrid V-MOFs for long-life and cheap lithium ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Liu, Jinhua; Zhang, Chuanjiang; Fang, Leyong

    2017-10-01

    The Li3V2(PO4)3/phosphorus-doped carbon (LVP/P-C) nanocomposites with multilevel structures (such as spheroidal, foam, prism and flower-like structures) are synthesized via one-pot in-situ synthesis using hybrid vanadium metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) as precursor. The structure and morphology of the LVP/P-C nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and element mapping. The results show that the multilevel structures are generated from the assemblies of the hybrid surfactant templates in the glass fiber drawing wastewater (GFDW) and the hybrid V-MOFs. The structure of LVP/P-C nanocomposite is controlled by V-MOFs. The nanocomposites exhibit a long service life, a discharge capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at 10 C with 90% capacity retention after 1100 cycles. The high cycling stability is attributed to the multilevel structures, which is ideal for making rechargeable lithium ion batteries. More importantly, our results have demonstrated that GFDW can be transformed into treasure of multilevel structure nanocomposites for cheap Li ion batteries.

  2. An insight into the mechanism of charge transfer properties of hybrid organic (MEH-PPV): Inorganic (TiO2) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Tanu; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Mehta, Aarti; Sharma, Shailesh N.

    2016-01-01

    Now a days, inorganic nanoparticles are gaining importance and are potential candidate in different organic electronic device application like (LEDs, PVs) due to their novel properties and confinement in Nano-dimensions. [1, 2] In the present work, we have compared the properties of titanium di oxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by using two different chemical routes aqueous and ethanol respectively. These synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) for phase confirmation. It was observed that synthesized nanoparticles are in anatase phase for both preparation routes. Morphological information was collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which confirms that particles are almost spherical in shape and distributed uniformly which is further ensured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was also used for further confirmation of size distribution of as-synthesized nanoparticles. Optical properties were also investigated by photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy and calculated bandgap was found to be in the range of 3.3-3.5eV for TiO 2 (aq/eth) nanoparticles. The increase in bandgap values with respect to bulk (3.2 eV) confirms that as- synthesized nanoparticles are confined in nanodimensions. As synthesized nanoparticles were interacted with MEHPPV polymer (donor) matrix to make their respective MEHPPV: TiO 2 nanocomposites and to confirm the charge transfer mechanism from polymer to nanoparticles. It can be observed from photoluminescence (PL) quenching experiments that continuous quenching obtained for respective nanocomposites confirms better charge transfer from polymer to inorganic TiO 2 nanoparticles respectively. Because of, better quenching and simultaneously enhanced charge transfer of respective nanocomposites, ensures that these nanocomposites are greatly applicable for photovoltaics (PVs) especially in Hybrid Solar cells (HSCs).

  3. Ultra-sensitive determination of epinephrine based on TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters supported on reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jianbo, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Luo, Chuannan, E-mail: chm_lijianbo@yeah.net

    2016-07-01

    A highly efficient and sensitive electrochemical sensor for EP based on reduced graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid nanocomposites loaded TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters modified glassy carbon electrode was developed. The surface nature and morphology of the nanocomposite film and the electrochemical properties of the sensor were characterized by Raman spectra, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Carbon nanomaterials were widely used in sensing due to its large electroactive surface area, fast electron transport and strong adsorption capacity. Meanwhile, TiO{sub 2}-Au nano-clusters could accelerate the electron transfer, increase reactive site and extend electrochemical response window. The nanocomposite film could greatly enhance the response sensitivity and decrease the overpotential. The resulting sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity toward EP. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. pH 6.0, 0.1 M PBS, preconcentration for 110 s), Differential pulse voltammetry was employed to detect ultra-trace amounts of EP. The result of a wide linear range of 1.0–300 nM and limited of detection 0.34 nM (S/N = 3) were obtained. The constructed sensor exhibited excellent accuracy and precision, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%. The nanocomposite film sensor was successfully used to accurately detect the content of EP in practical samples, and the recoveries for the standards added are 97%–105%. - Highlights: • The three dimensional composite materials rGO/CNTs were successful synthesized. • High conductivity and catalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-Au nanoclusters were synthesized. • The sensor displays a wide linear range, low detection limit and good stability.

  4. Application of YAG Laser TIG Arc Hybrid Welding to Thin AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewon; Kim, Jongcheol; Hasegawa, Yu; Suga, Yasuo

    A magnesium alloy is said to be an ecological material with high ability of recycling and lightweight property. Especially, magnesium alloys are in great demand on account of outstanding material property as a structural material. Under these circumstances, research and development of welding process to join magnesium alloy plates are of great significance for wide industrial application of magnesium. In order to use it as a structure material, the welding technology is very important. TIG arc welding process is the most ordinary process to weld magnesium alloy plates. However, since the heat source by the arc welding process affects the magnesium alloy plates, HAZ of welded joint becomes wide and large distortion often occurs. On the other hand, a laser welding process that has small diameter of heat source seems to be one of the possible means to weld magnesium alloy in view of the qualitative improvement. However, the low boiling point of magnesium generates some weld defects, including porosity and solidification cracking. Furthermore, precise edge preparation is very important in butt-welding by the laser welding process, due to the small laser beam diameter. Laser/arc hybrid welding process that combines the laser beam and the arc is an effective welding process in which these two heat sources influence and assist each other. Using the hybrid welding, a synegistic effect is achievable and the disadvantages of the respective processes can be compensated. In this study, YAG laser/TIG arc hybrid welding of thin magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheets was investigated. First of all, the effect of the irradiation point and the focal position of laser beam on the quality of a weld were discussed in hybrid welding. Then, it was confirmed that a sound weld bead with sufficient penetration is obtained using appropriate welding conditions. Furthermore, it was made clear that the heat absorption efficiency is improved with the hybrid welding process. Finally, the tensile tests

  5. Preparation of polymer nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties using hybrid of graphene and partially wrapped multi-wall carbon nanotube as nanofiller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao You; Jiang-Yong-Quan Cao; Si-Chong Chen; Yu-Zhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Triblock copolymer of poly(p-dioxanone) and polyethylene glycol end-capped with pyrene moieties ((Py-PPDO)2-b-PEG) was synthesized and used as modifier for multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).Nano-aggregates ((Py-PPDO)2-b-PEG@NWCNTs) with shish-kebab like partially wrapped morphology and very good stability were obtained by incorporating the copolymer with MWCNTs.The bare MWCNT sections of (Py-PPDO)2-b-PEG@MWCNTs were able to induce π-π interactions with graphene (GE) and resulted in a novel GE/(Py-PPDO)2-b-PEG@MWCNTs hybrid.The dispersity of GE in solution or polymer matrix was therefore greatly improved.The PCL nanocomposite films using GE/(Py-PPDO)2-b-PEG@MWCNTs as hybrid nanofiller exhibited obviously improved mechanical properties especially at very low hybrid nanofiller content.The influence of the nanofiller content and feed ratio of GE/ MWCNTs on the mechanical properties of composites films was evaluated.When the feed ratio of GE to MWCNTs is 2:8 and the total loading of nanofiller is only 0.01 wt%,the tensile strength of the composite film increased by 163% and the elongation at break increased by 17% compared to those of neat PCL These results can be attributed to fine dispersion of the nanofillers in PCL matrix and the hybrid interactions between GE and MWCNTs.Therefore,this work provides a novel method for preparing polymer nanocomposites with high mechanical performance and low nanofiller loading.

  6. Synthesis, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Au/CdS Hybrid Nanocomposites Stabilized by Branched Polymer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor (Au/CdS nanocomposites were synthesized in the solution of branched D-g-PAA polymer. TEM and DLS of Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites revealed complicated nanocomposite structure consisting of the Au nanoparticles (NPs of 6 nm in size surrounded by small CdS NPs with size of 3 nm. These nanocomposites formed the aggregates-clusters with average size of 50–800 nm. Absorption spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites consist of the bands of excitons in CdS NPs and surface plasmons in Au ones. The surface plasmon band of gold NPs is red shifted and broadened in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites comparing to the one of Au NPs in Au/D-g-PAA proving the fact of close location of CdS and Au NPs in the synthesized Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites. The PL spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites originate from the radiative transitions in excitons in CdS NPs. The 4-fold increase of intensity of free exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA that is due to PL enhancement by local field of surface plasmons of Au NPs. Also, the 12-fold decrease of intensity of localized exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA. Most probably, it is due to passivation of the surface of CdS NPs carried out by the Au ones.

  7. Irradiation induced crossover from 1D to 3D transport behaviors of PEDOT-titanium dioxide hybrid nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmah, Smritimala [Department of Physics, Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Management and Technology, Guwahati 781017, Assam (India); Kumar, A. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2012-12-15

    Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile oxidative polymerization approach using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid as a dopant and ammonium peroxydisulfate as an oxidant and irradiated with 90 MeV O{sup 7+} ions at the fluences of 5 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 11}, 5 x 10{sup 11}, and 1 x 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2} using 15UD Pelletron accelerator under high vacuum. X-ray diffraction studies show that microstrain and domain crystallite size of the nanocomposites increases with the increase of ion fluence resulting in highly ordered PEDOT-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. Thermogravimmetric analysis shows that the thermal stability of the nanocomposites increases with the increase of irradiation fluences which can be attributed to the crosslinking of polymer chains due to high electronic energy deposition. Scanning electron micrographs show that there is grain growth after swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation resulting highly dense and less porous microstructure of nanocomposite films. DC conductivity of unirradiated nanocomposites exhibits Mott's 1D variable range hopping (VRH) mechanism. However, there is cross over to 3D VRH mechanism at higher irradiation fluence of 5 x 10{sup 11} and 1 x 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup -2}. There is an enhancement in the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites upon SHI irradiation correlating crosslinking with DC conductivity of the nanocomposites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Synthesis of polydopamine-functionalized magnetic graphene and carbon nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites as an adsorbent for the fast determination of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Jin, Rongrong; Luo, Chen; Song, Guoxin; Hu, Yaoming; Cheng, Hefa

    2018-04-01

    A novel adsorbent made of polydopamine-functionalized magnetic graphene and carbon nanotubes hybrid nanocomposite was synthesized and applied to determine 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by magnetic solid phase extraction in water samples. FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy consistently indicate that the synthesized adsorbents are made of core-shell nanoparticles well dispersed on the surface of graphene and carbon nanotubes. The major factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including the pH value of samples, the amount of adsorbent, adsorption time and desorption time, type and volume of desorption solvent, were systematically optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, a linear response was obtained for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between concentrations of 10 and 500 ng/L with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9958 to 0.9989, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were between 0.1 and 3.0 ng/L. Satisfactory results were also obtained when applying these magnetic graphene/carbon nanotubes/polydopamine hybrid nanocomposites to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in several environmental aqueous samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A thin-film silicon/silicon hetero-junction hybrid solar cell for photoelectrochemical water-reduction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasudevan, R.A.; Thanawala, Z; Han, L.; Buijs, Thom; Tan, H.; Deligiannis, D.; Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Smith, W.A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell consisting of a thin-film, nanocrystalline silicon top junction and a siliconheterojunction bottom junction is proposed as a supporting solar cell for photoelectrochemical applications.Tunneling recombination junction engineering is shown to be an important consideration

  10. MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.X.; Pogrebnyakov, A.V.; Xu, S.Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E.C.; Zhuang, C.G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D.R.; Redwing, J.M.; Liu, Z.K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D.G.; Weng, X.J.; Dickey, E.C.; Chen, Y.B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X.Q.; Cybart, S.A.; Dynes, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T c due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2 . The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H c2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions

  11. Structural and electrical manifestation of aging in thin-film Fe-Ta-O nanocomposite prepared by plasma jet technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobotka, P.; Vávra, I.; Fendrych, František; Chayka, Oleksandr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 7 (2004), s. 1493-1499 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : nanocomposite fils Fe-Ta-O * plasma jet * tunneling * electrical transport * magnetoresistance * ageing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2004

  12. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  13. Hybrid Thin Film Organosilica Sol-Gel Coatings To Support Neuronal Growth and Limit Astrocyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeletti, Larissa Brentano; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch; He, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated. In vitro neural cultures using PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons both reveal that, among these different types of hybrid organosilica, the introduction of aminopropyl groups drastically transforms the silica into robust neural permissive substrate, supporting neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, when this organosilica is cultured with astrocytes, a key type of glial cells responsible for glial scar response toward neural implants, such cell growth promoting effect is not observed. These findings highlight the potential of organo-group-bearing silica sol-gel to function as advanced coating materials to selectively modulate cell response and promote neural integration with implantable sensing devices.

  14. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  15. Two-dimensional photonic crystal bandedge laser with hybrid perovskite thin film for optical gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyungrae [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Seunghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungjae [Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heonsu, E-mail: hsjeon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biophysics and Chemical Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-02

    We report optically pumped room temperature single mode laser that contains a thin film of hybrid perovskite, an emerging photonic material, as gain medium. Two-dimensional square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) backbone structure enables single mode laser operation via a photonic bandedge mode, while a thin film of methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) spin-coated atop provides optical gain for lasing. Two kinds of bandedge modes, Γ and M, are employed, and both devices laser in single mode at similar laser thresholds of ∼200 μJ/cm{sup 2} in pulse energy density. Polarization dependence measurements reveal a clear difference between the two kinds of bandedge lasers: isotropic for the Γ-point laser and highly anisotropic for the M-point laser. These observations are consistent with expected modal properties, confirming that the lasing actions indeed originate from the corresponding PhC bandedge modes.

  16. Microstructure, Magnetic, and Magnetoresistance Properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3:CuO Nanocomposite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Wang, Han; Misra, Shikhar; Zhang, Bruce; Qi, Zhimin; Sun, Xing; Huang, Jijie; Wang, Haiyan

    2018-02-14

    (La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 ) 0.67 :(CuO) 0.33 (LSMO:CuO) nanocomposite thin films were deposited on SrTiO 3 (001), LaAlO 3 (001), and MgO (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition, and their microstructure as well as magnetic and magnetoresistance properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that LSMO:CuO films grow as highly textured self-assembled vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN), with a systematic domain structure and strain tuning effect based on the substrate type and laser deposition frequency. A record high low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) value of ∼80% has been achieved in LSMO:CuO grown on LaAlO 3 (001) substrate under high frequency. Detailed analysis indicates that both the strain state and the phase boundary effect play a significant role in governing the overall LFMR behavior.

  17. Nanotechnology : emerging applications of cellulose-based green magnetic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Lei Liu; Ilker S. Bayer; Abhijit Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a new type of nanocomposite – cellulose based hybrid nanocomposites, which adopts cellulose nanofibers as matrices, has been intensively developed. Among these materials, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cellulosic fibers and magnetic nanoparticles have recently attracted much attention due to their potential novel applications in biomedicine,...

  18. Enhanced electrochemical performance of in situ reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites using redox-additive aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Madhabi; Kumar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polyaniline nanotubes (PAniNTs) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ reduction of GO. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites are characterized by HRTEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The electrical and electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites are investigated for different RGO concentrations by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 448.71 F g-1 is obtained for 40 wt.% of RGO-PAniNTs nanocomposite as compared to 194.92 F g-1 for pure PAniNTs in 1 M KCl electrolyte. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrode, KI is used as redox-additive with 1 M KCl electrolyte. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 876.43 F g-1 and an improved cyclic stability of 91% as compared to 79% without KI after 5000 cycles is achieved for an optimized 0.1 M KI concentration. This is attributed to the presence of different ionic species of I- ions that give rise to a number of possible redox reactions improving the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. This improved capacitive performance is compared with that of catechol redox-additive in 1 M KCl electrolyte, and that of KI and catechol redox-additives added to 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  19. Fast-LPG Sensors at Room Temperature by α-Fe2O3/CNT Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Chaitongrat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present performance of a room temperature LPG sensor based on α-Fe2O3/CNT (carbon nanotube nanocomposite films. The nanocomposite film was fabricated via the metallic Fe catalyst particle on CNTs in which both the catalyst particles and the CNT were simultaneously synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD synthesis and were subsequently annealed in air to create α-Fe2O3. These methods are simple, inexpensive, and suitable for large-scale production. The structure, surface morphologies, and LPG response of nanocomposite films were investigated. Raman spectroscopy and XPS analysis showed the formation of α-Fe2O3 on small CNTs (SWNTs. Morphological analysis using FE-SEM and AFM revealed the formation of the porous surface along with roughness surface. Additionally, the sensing performance of α-Fe2O3/CNTs showed that it could detect LPG concentration at lower value than 25% of LEL with response/recovery time of less than 30 seconds at room temperature. These results suggest that the α-Fe2O3/CNTs films are challenging materials for monitoring LPG operating at room temperature.

  20. Research Update: Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films and solar cells by vapor phase reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shen Shen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress in deposition techniques for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP thin films, this new class of photovoltaic (PV technology has achieved material quality and power conversion efficiency comparable to those established technologies. Among the various techniques for HOIP thin films preparation, vapor based deposition technique is considered as a promising alternative process to substitute solution spin-coating method for large-area or scale-up preparation. This technique provides some unique benefits for high-quality perovskite crystallization, which are discussed in this research update.

  1. The Enhanced Formaldehyde-Sensing Properties of P3HT-ZnO Hybrid Thin Film OTFT Sensor and Further Insight into Its Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Tai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film transistor (TFT having an organic–inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT-zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles’ hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology.

  2. Modeling and Optimization of NLDH/PVDF Ultrafiltration Nanocomposite Membrane Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi-Oskoui, Samira; Khataee, Alireza; Vatanpour, Vahid

    2017-07-10

    In this research, MgAl-CO 3 2- nanolayered double hydroxide (NLDH) was synthesized through a facile coprecipitation method, followed by a hydrothermal treatment. The prepared NLDHs were used as a hydrophilic nanofiller for improving the performance of the PVDF-based ultrafiltration membranes. The main objective of this research was to obtain the optimized formula of NLDH/PVDF nanocomposite membrane presenting the best performance using computational techniques as a cost-effective method. For this aim, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for modeling and expressing the relationship between the performance of the nanocomposite membrane (pure water flux, protein flux and flux recovery ratio) and the affecting parameters including the NLDH, PVP 29000 and polymer concentrations. The effects of the mentioned parameters and the interaction between the parameters were investigated using the contour plot predicted with the developed model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and water contact angle techniques were applied to characterize the nanocomposite membranes and to interpret the predictions of the ANN model. The developed ANN model was introduced to genetic algorithm (GA) as a bioinspired optimizer to determine the optimum values of input parameters leading to high pure water flux, protein flux, and flux recovery ratio. The optimum values for NLDH, PVP 29000 and the PVDF concentration were determined to be 0.54, 1, and 18 wt %, respectively. The performance of the nanocomposite membrane prepared using the optimum values proposed by GA was investigated experimentally, in which the results were in good agreement with the values predicted by ANN model with error lower than 6%. This good agreement confirmed that the nanocomposite membranes prformance could be successfully modeled and optimized by ANN-GA system.

  3. Substrate effects on photoluminescence and low temperature phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaee, S. A.; Harriman, T. A.; Han, G. S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lucca, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the effects of substrates on the low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra and phase transition in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films. Structural characterization at room temperature with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy indicated that while the chemical structure of films deposited on glass and quartz was similar, the glass substrate induced strain in the perovskite films and suppressed the grain growth. The luminescence response and phase transition of the perovskite thin films were studied by PL spectroscopy. The induced strain was found to affect both the room temperature and low temperature PL spectra of the hybrid perovskite films. In addition, it was found that the effects of the glass substrate inhibited a tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition such that it occurred at lower temperatures.

  4. Tunable optical properties of plasmonic Au/Al2O3 nanocomposite thin films analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry accounting surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Jyoti; Mourya, Satyendra; Malik, Gaurav; Chandra, Ramesh

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have fabricated plasmonic gold/alumina nanocomposite (Au/Al 2 O 3 NC) thin films on a glass substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron co-sputtering. The influence of the film thickness (∼10-40  nm) on the optical and other physical properties of the samples was investigated and correlated with the structural and compositional properties. The X-ray diffractometer measurement revealed the formation of Au nanoparticles with average crystallite size (5-9.2 nm) embedded in an amorphous Al 2 O 3 matrix. The energy-dispersive X ray and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of Au/Al 2 O 3 NC quantitatively and qualitatively and it was observed that atomic% of Au increased by increasing thickness. The optical constants of the plasmonic Au/Al 2 O 3 NC thin films were examined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wide spectral range of 246-1688 nm, accounting the surface characteristics in the optical stack model, and the obtained results are expected to be unique. Additionally, a thickness-dependent blueshift (631-590 nm) of surface plasmon resonance peak was observed in the absorption spectra. These findings of the plasmonic Au/Al 2 O 3 NC films may allow the design and fabrication of small, compact, and efficient devices for optoelectronic and photonic applications.

  5. Colossal Terahertz Magnetoresistance at Room Temperature in Epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Nanocomposites and Single-Phase Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Hughes, J; Mosley, C D W; Jones, S P P; Lees, M R; Chen, A; Jia, Q X; Choi, E-M; MacManus-Driscoll, J L

    2017-04-12

    Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) is demonstrated at terahertz (THz) frequencies by using terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy to examine vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs) and planar thin films of La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 . At the Curie temperature (room temperature), the THz conductivity of the VAN was dramatically enhanced by over 2 orders of magnitude under the application of a magnetic field with a non-Drude THz conductivity that increased with frequency. The direct current (dc) CMR of the VAN is controlled by extrinsic magnetotransport mechanisms such as spin-polarized tunneling between nanograins. In contrast, we find that THz CMR is dominated by intrinsic, intragrain transport: the mean free path was smaller than the nanocolumn size, and the planar thin-film exhibited similar THz CMR to the VAN. Surprisingly, the observed colossal THz magnetoresistance suggests that the magnetoresistance can be large for alternating current motion on nanometer length scales, even when the magnetoresistance is negligible on the macroscopic length scales probed by dc transport. This suggests that colossal magnetoresistance at THz frequencies may find use in nanoelectronics and in THz optical components controlled by magnetic fields. The VAN can be scaled in thickness while retaining a high structural quality and offers a larger THz CMR at room temperature than the planar film.

  6. Measurement of radiation induced transients in hybrid microcircuits by magnetic thin film sensor/recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Vindelov, K.E.; Brown, T.G.; Miller, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Magnetic thin film transient current sensor/recorders were modified to make two types of nuclear test measurements, transient currents in hybrid microcircuits and internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP) fields. The measurements were made possible by the invention of split-domain sensor/recorders which can measure bilateral currents and can be reset and readout on location. The sensor/recorders were used in two underground nuclear tests and numerous calibration tests in radiation-simulation machines. The data showed that the nuclear environment had negligible effect on the sensor/recorder's operation and the recorded informations on the sensor/recorders were the signals intended to be monitored. Also, the experimental data agreed with the theoretical analysis in controlled experiments. The data were examined first by on location readout with a magnetic tape viewer and later by Kerr magneto-optic readout in the laboratory. To translate the data into current readings, we reconstructed facsimile data (on each of the sensor/recorders) in the laboratory by current pulses with the same pulse width as the radiation event. An additional check on the accuracy of the data was made by using both the sensor/recorder and the conventional pickup-oscilloscope-camera technique to monitor the same current lead in a simulated radiation environment. Over five runs were made, and the agreement among the two measurement methods was within 25%. The data collectively implied that the measurements were reliable and dependable

  7. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Amreen A. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Kar, Rajib [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Patil, Dinkar S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping in PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector.

  8. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Amreen A.; Pal, Arup R.; Kar, Rajib; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H 2 SO 4 doping in PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector

  9. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin; Huang, JianJang

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response

  10. Indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin film transistors with a hybrid-channel structure for defect suppression and mobility improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huang-Kai; Su, Liang-Yu; Hung, Chia-Chin [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, JianJang, E-mail: jjhuang@cc.ee.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, we explore an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor structure with a vacuum annealed IGZO thin film inserted between the dielectric and typical channel layers. The device demonstrates a better subthreshold swing and field-effect mobility due to the suppression of defects in the channel and the channel/dielectric interface. The hybrid channel structure also exhibits the flexibility of adjusting the threshold voltage. The superior carrier mobility was then verified from the transient response of the inverter circuit constructed by the devices. - Highlights: • Additional in-situ annealed In–Ga–ZnO film was inserted in thin film transistor (TFT). • Traps are suppressed and field effect mobility is improved in the TFT. • An inverter with the device structure has a better transient response.

  11. Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of nanoclay filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, H.

    2013-01-01

    Recycled cellulose fibre (RCF) reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites were successfully synthesized with different weight percentages (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of organoclay platelets (30B). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water absorption on the physical and mechanical properties of the RCF reinforced epoxy/clay nanocomposites. TEM images indicated a well-intercalated structure of nanoclay/epoxy matrix with some exfoliated regions. Water absorption was found to decrease as the clay content increased. The flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness significantly decreased as a result of water absorption. However, the properties of impact strength and impact toughness were found to increase after exposing to water. The addition of nanoclay slightly minimized the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties. SEM images showed that water absorption severely damaged the cellulose fibres and the bonding at fibres-matrix interfaces in wet composites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hybrid Perovskite Thin Film Formation: From Lab Scale Spin Coating to Large Area Blade Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Munir, Rahim

    2017-11-22

    Our reliance on semiconductors is on the rise with the ever growing use of electronics in our daily life. Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as a prime alternative to current standard and expensive semiconductors because of its use of abundant elements and the ease of solution processing. This thesis has shed light on the ink-to-solid conversion during the one-step solution process of hybrid perovskite formulations from DMF. We utilize a suite of in situ diagnostic probes including high speed optical microscopy, optical reflectance and absorbance, and grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS), all performed during spin coating, to monitor the solution thinning behavior, changes in optical absorbance, and nucleation and growth of crystalline phases of the precursor and perovskite. The starting formulation experiences solvent-solute interactions within seconds of casting, leading to the formation of a wet gel with nanoscale features visible by in situ GIWAXS. The wet gel subsequently gives way to the formation of ordered precursor solvates (equimolar iodide and chloride solutions) or disordered precursor solvates (equimolar bromide or 3:1 chloride), depending upon the halide and MAI content. The ordered precursor solute phases are stable and retain the solvent for long durations, resulting in consistent conversion behavior to the perovskite phase and solar-cell performance. In this thesis, we develop a firm understanding of the solvent engineering process in which an anti-solvent is used during the coating process through the solvent mixture of GBL and DMSO in different ratios. It has been shown that solvent engineering produce pin hole-free films, justifying its wide adoption across the field. We then translate our learnings from the lab scale spin coating process to the industrial friendly blade coating process. Here we compare the ink solidification and film formation mechanisms of CH3NH3PbI3 in solutions we used to

  13. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  14. A Novel ZnO-Methylene Blue Nanocomposite Matrix for Biosensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Saha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid matrix of zinc oxide-methylene blue (ZnO-MB has been successfully developed for biosensing application. The introduction of methylene blue into the ZnO thin film leads to reduction in the charge transfer resistance and suggests an increase in the electron transfer capacity of the composite. Glucose oxidase (GOx was chosen as the model enzyme and effectively immobilized on the surface of hybrid ZnO-MB nanocomposite matrix. Electrochemical measurements were employed to study biosensing response of the GOx/ZnO-MB/ITO bioelectrode as a function of glucose concentration. The low oxidation potential (−0.23 V of the hybrid bioelectrode, in a mediatorless electrolyte, makes it resistant against interference from other bio-molecules. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (2.65 mM indicates that immobilized GOx retains its enzymatic activity significantly on the surface of nanocomposite hybrid matrix that results in an enhanced affinity towards its substrate (glucose. The ZnO-MB nanocomposite hybrid matrix, exhibiting enhanced sensing response (0.2 μAmM−1cm−2 with long shelf-life (>10 weeks, has potential for the realization of an integrated biosensing device.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  16. Nanocomposite Thin Film of Poly(3-aminobenzoic acid and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated through an Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphawadee Netsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite thin films of poly(3-aminobenzoic acid (PABA and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs are successfully fabricated through an electrochemical method. The composite mixtures containing 50 mM of 3-aminobenzoic acid with various concentrations of MWNTs (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL in 0.5 M H2SO4 were prepared and used in this study. Cyclic voltammetry (CV was used for fabrication and monitoring the electropolymerization of the composite thin films with potential range of 0 to 1100 mV for 5 cycles at scan rate of 20 mV/s on indium tin oxide- (ITO-coated glass substrate. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were employed to characterize the obtained composite thin films. It was found that MWNTs can enhance the peak current of CV traces of the PABA/MWNTs composite thin films without affecting the UV-vis absorption spectra. The surface morphology of the thin films can be studied using AFM and SEM techniques.

  17. Clay/Polyaniline Hybrid through Diazonium Chemistry: Conductive Nanofiller with Unusual Effects on Interfacial Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlassi, Khouloud; Chandran, Sarath; Poothanari, Mohammed A; Benna-Zayani, Mémia; Thomas, Sabu; Chehimi, Mohamed M

    2016-04-12

    The concept of conductive network structure in thermoset matrix without sacrificing the inherent mechanical properties of thermoset polymer (e.g., epoxy) is investigated here using "hairy" bentonite fillers. The latter were prepared through the in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of 4-diphenylamine diazonium (DPA)-modified bentonite (B-DPA) resulting in a highly exfoliated bentonite-DPA/polyaniline (B-DPA/PANI). The nanocomposite filler was mixed with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), and the curing agent (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) (DDS) at high temperature in order to obtain nanocomposites through the conventional melt mixing technique. The role of B-DPA in the modification of the interface between epoxy and B-DPA/polyaniline (B-DPA/PANI) is investigated and compared with the filler B/PANI prepared without any diazonium modification of the bentonite. Synergistic improvement in dielectric properties and mechanical properties points to the fact that the DPA aryl groups from the diazonium precursor significantly modify the interface by acting as an efficient stress transfer medium. In DPA-containing nanocomposites, unique fibril formation was observed on the fracture surface. Moreover, dramatic improvement (210-220%) in fracture toughness of epoxy composite was obtained with B-DPA/PANI filler as compared to the weak improvement of 20-30% noted in the case of the B/PANI filler. This work shows that the DPA diazonium salt has an important effect on the improvement of the interfacial properties and adhesion of DGEBA and clay/PANI nanofillers.

  18. Large-scale complementary macroelectronics using hybrid integration of carbon nanotubes and IGZO thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haitian; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Jialu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-13

    Carbon nanotubes and metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for p-type and n-type thin-film transistors, respectively; however, realizing sophisticated macroelectronics operating in complementary mode has been challenging due to the difficulty in making n-type carbon nanotube transistors and p-type metal oxide transistors. Here we report a hybrid integration of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors to achieve large-scale (>1,000 transistors for 501-stage ring oscillators) complementary macroelectronic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates. This approach of hybrid integration allows us to combine the strength of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors, and offers high device yield and low device variation. Based on this approach, we report the successful demonstration of various logic gates (inverter, NAND and NOR gates), ring oscillators (from 51 stages to 501 stages) and dynamic logic circuits (dynamic inverter, NAND and NOR gates).

  19. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2-CNTs Hybrid Nanocomposites with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuisheng; Dai, Weili

    2017-03-03

    SnO2 nanoparticles coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared via a simple microwave-hydrothermal route. The as-obtained SnO2-CNTs composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2-CNTs for degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2-CNTs nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 due to the rapid transferring of electrons and the effective separation of holes and electrons on SnO2-CNTs.

  20. Optical band gap tuning and electrical properties of polyaniline and its nanocomposites for hybrid solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Choudhary, R. B.; Kandulna, R.

    2018-05-01

    Hcl doped conducting polyaniline-CdS nanocomposite has been prepared via In-situ polymerization in which cadmium nitrate was used as a source for cadmium. The structural morphology was investigated using FESEM and the presence of fibrous polyaniline and CdS nanoparticles. The synthesis of CdS and polyaniline was confirmed using the XRD analysis. I-V characteristic was used to explore the electrical behavior of PANI and its nanocoposites. Optical properties were studied and minimum band gap with highest band absorbance was found for synergistic concentration PANI-CdS (10%) for solar cells application.

  1. Photoluminescence and electrochemical properties of transparent CeO{sub 2}-ZnO nanocomposite thin films prepared by Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, Z.K.; Ghodsi, F.E.; Mazloom, J. [University of Guilan, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Namjoo Ave, P.O. Box 41335-1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of CeO{sub 2}-ZnO with different molar ratios of Zn/Ce (=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel route. Various spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques were applied to investigate the films. XRD patterns of all the samples exhibited the peaks corresponding to cubic fluorite structure of ceria and the (101) and (103) peaks of ZnO with hexagonal structure was just observed in the sample with molar ratio of 1. EDS confirmed the presence of constituent of element in the samples. FESEM images of the films showed a surface composed of nanograins. AFM analysis revealed that root mean square roughness was enhanced as molar ratio of Zn/Ce increased. Moreover, fractal dimension of surfaces were calculated by cube counting approach. Optical measurements indicated that the film with molar ratio of 1 has the highest transmission and lowest reflectivity. The optical band gap values varied between 2.95 and 3.42 eV. The compositional dependence of refractive index and extinction coefficient were reported. The UV and blue emission appeared in PL spectra. The highest photoluminescence emission intensity was observed in the 1:1 molar ratio sample. The cyclic voltammetry measurements indicated the highest charge density (9.75 mC cm{sup -2}) and diffusion coefficient (3.507 x 10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}) belonged to the Ce/Zn (1:1) thin film. (orig.)

  2. Solid-State Thin-Film Supercapacitors with Ultrafast Charge/Discharge Based on N-Doped-Carbon-Tubes/Au-Nanoparticles-Doped-MnO2 Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiying; Wang, Shang; Sun, Hongyu; Luo, Jun; Xiao, Jian; Xiao, JunWu; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-13

    Although carbonaceous materials possess long cycle stability and high power density, their low-energy density greatly limits their applications. On the contrary, metal oxides are promising pseudocapacitive electrode materials for supercapacitors due to their high-energy density. Nevertheless, poor electrical conductivity of metal oxides constitutes a primary challenge that significantly limits their energy storage capacity. Here, an advanced integrated electrode for high-performance pseudocapacitors has been designed by growing N-doped-carbon-tubes/Au-nanoparticles-doped-MnO2 (NCTs/ANPDM) nanocomposite on carbon fabric. The excellent electrical conductivity and well-ordered tunnels of NCTs together with Au nanoparticles of the electrode cause low internal resistance, good ionic contact, and thus enhance redox reactions for high specific capacitance of pure MnO2 in aqueous electrolyte, even at high scan rates. A prototype solid-state thin-film symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) device based on NCTs/ANPDM exhibits large energy density (51 Wh/kg) and superior cycling performance (93% after 5000 cycles). In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device assembled from NCTs/ANPDM and Fe2O3 nanorods demonstrates ultrafast charge/discharge (10 V/s), which is among the best reported for solid-state thin-film supercapacitors with both electrodes made of metal oxide electroactive materials. Moreover, its superior charge/discharge behavior is comparable to electrical double layer type supercapacitors. The ASC device also shows superior cycling performance (97% after 5000 cycles). The NCTs/ANPDM nanomaterial demonstrates great potential as a power source for energy storage devices.

  3. Corrosion behavior of TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films on AISI 316L stainless steel prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, H., E-mail: hoch2020@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmiri, M., E-mail: mshahmiri@iust.ac.ir [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Z. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box: 14857-3311, West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method by a dip coating technique. Different techniques such as differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were carried out in order to characterize the structure of the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of uncoated and coated specimens in a 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. It was found that to obtain desirable structure in coatings, the coatings should be calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C for one and half hour. NiTiO{sub 3}, anatase and rutile were the phases obtained in different calcination conditions in air atmosphere. The results of corrosion tests indicated that with increasing the dipping times from 2 to 4, the corrosion current density first decreases but when increasing the dipping times to 6, it increases. Also the corrosion current density decreased from 186.7 nA.cm{sup -2} (uncoated steel) to 34.21 nA.cm{sup -2} (80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO) and corrosion potential increased from - 150.2 mV (uncoated steel) to - 107.3 mV (67%TiO{sub 2}-33%NiO). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NiO thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different compositions, annealing times and temperatures resulted in various phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having different compositions showed various surface morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having a composition of 80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO showed a good corrosion protection.

  4. Embedded layer of Ag nanoparticles prepared by a combined PECVD/PVD process producing SiOxCy-Ag nanocomposite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Laurent; Cayron, Cyril; Jouve, Michel; Maury, Francis

    2012-01-13

    Structural properties of SiO(x)C(y)-Ag nanocomposite thin films prepared by a dual process PVD-PECVD in the same reactor have been investigated. The experimental results have demonstrated the influence of a PECVD process carried out at room temperature for the growth of a dielectric matrix on the size and the distribution density of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) deposited beforehand by magnetron sputtering. The plasma during the growth of the encapsulation SiO(x)C(y) layer caused a diffusion of silver from NPs through the SiO(x)C(y) matrix associated with a decrease in the average size of nanoparticles and an increase of their distribution density. Silver diffusion is blocked at a barrier interface to form a buried layer of individual Ag NPs which, for instance, can find plasmonic applications. Silver also diffuses toward the outer surface inducing antibacterial properties. In both cases initial Ag NPs act as reservoirs for multifunctional properties of advanced nanostructured films.

  5. Carbon nanotube ensembled hybrid nanocomposite electrode for direct electrochemical detection of epinephrine in pharmaceutical tablets and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteshwara Reddy, K; Satyanarayana, M; Yugender Goud, K; Vengatajalabathy Gobi, K; Kim, Hern

    2017-10-01

    An efficient electrochemical sensor for selective detection of the neurotransmitter, epinephrine (Epn), has been fabricated with the aid of a functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube-chitosan biopolymer nanocomposite (Chit-fCNT) electrode. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) were successfully functionalized with the aid of nitric acid and confirmed by the Raman spectral data. Functionalized carbon nanotubes (fCNT) were dispersed in chitosan solution and the resulting bio-nanocomposite was used for the fabrication of sensor surface by drop and cast method. Electrochemical characteristics of the fabricated sensor were understood using cyclic, differential pulse voltammetry (CV, DPV) and electrochemical impedance analysis for the detection of Epn in phosphate buffer (pH7.4). CV and impedance analysis revealed that the Chit-fCNT modified electrode enhances the electrodic reaction of Epn and facilitated the electron transfer more readily compared to that of bare electrode. Applying DPV for the detection of Epn, achieved 30nM as the lowest detection limit in the determination range of 0.05-10μM and the analytical time as low as 10s. Selective determination of Epn against the coexistence of a number of biological electroactive interferents and reproducible results for the determination of Epn were demonstrated. The present biosensor has been found efficient for successful direct determination of Epn from pharmaceutical adrenaline formulations and urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing the Heat Transfer Efficiency in Graphene-Epoxy Nanocomposites Using a Magnesium Oxide-Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fei-Peng; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Chak-Yin; Liu, Sheng-Peng; Yin, Le; Law, Wing-Cheung

    2015-07-08

    Composite materials, such as organic matrices doped with inorganic fillers, can generate new properties that exhibit multiple functionalities. In this paper, an epoxy-based nanocomposite that has a high thermal conductivity and a low electrical conductivity, which are required for the use of a material as electronic packaging and insulation, was prepared. The performance of the epoxy was improved by incorporating a magnesium oxide-coated graphene (MgO@GR) nanomaterial into the epoxy matrix. We found that the addition of a MgO coating not only improved the dispersion of the graphene in the matrix and the interfacial bonding between the graphene and epoxy but also enhanced the thermal conductivity of the epoxy while preserving the electrical insulation. By adding 7 wt % MgO@GR, the thermal conductivity of the epoxy nanocomposites was enhanced by 76% compared with that of the neat epoxy, and the electrical resistivity was maintained at 8.66 × 10(14) Ω m.

  7. Solid-State Densification of Spun-Cast Self-Assembled Monolayers for Use in Ultra-Thin Hybrid Dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel O; Acton, Orb; Weidner, Tobias; Cernetic, Nathan; Baio, Joe E; Castner, David G; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-15

    Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO x (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7×10 -8 A cm -2 and capacitance density of 0.62 µF cm -2 at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 .

  8. General Space-Confined On-Substrate Fabrication of Thickness-Adjustable Hybrid Perovskite Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Xuan; Ge, Qian-Qing; Shi, Yang; Liu, Jie; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Ma, Jing-Yuan; Ding, Jie; Yan, Hui-Juan; Hu, Jin-Song; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-12-21

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite single-crystalline thin films (SCTFs) are promising for enhancing photoelectric device performance due to high carrier mobility, long diffusion length, and carrier lifetime. However, bulk perovskite single crystals available today are not suitable for practical device application due to the unfavorable thickness. Herein, we report a facile space-confined solution-processed strategy to on-substrate grow various hybrid perovskite SCTFs in a size of submillimeter with adjustable thicknesses from nano- to micrometers. These SCTFs exhibit photoelectric properties comparable to bulk single crystals with low defect density and good air stability. The clear thickness-dependent colors allow fast visual selection of SCTFs with a suitable thickness for specific device application. The present substrate-independent growth of perovskite SCTFs opens up opportunities for on-chip fabrication of diverse high-performance devices.

  9. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu3+ doped SiO2–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei; Caiut, José Maurício Almeida; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu 3+ . The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu 3+ doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and 29 Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu 3+ ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu 3+ site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu 3+ ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ -doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu 3+ coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ in heat treated sample.

  10. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Caiut, José Maurício Almeida [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino, E-mail: vhsarmento@ufs.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu{sup 3+}. The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and {sup 29}Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu{sup 3+} site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu{sup 3+} ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu{sup 3+} coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} in heat treated sample.

  11. Ultra-tough and strong, hybrid thin films based on ionically crosslinked polymers and 2D inorganic platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dong Hwan; Choi, Suji; Kim, Jaeyun; nanobiomaterials lab Team

    Integration of high strength and toughness tend to be mutually exclusive and synthesized hybrid films with superior mechanical properties have been difficult to fabricate controllable shapes and various scales. Although diverse synthesized hybrid films consisting of organic matrix and inorganic materials with brick-and-mortar structure, show improved mechanical properties, these films are still limited in toughness and fabrication methods. Herein, we report ultra-tough and strong hybrid thin films with self-assembled uniform microstructures with controllable shapes and various scale based on hydrogel-mediated process. Ca2+-crosslinking in alginate chains and well-aligned alumina platelets in alginate matrix lead to a synergistic enhancement of strength and toughness in the resulting film. Consequentially, Ca2+-crosslinked Alg/Alu films showed outstanding toughness of 29 MJ m-3 and tensile strength of 160 MPa. Furthermore, modifying Alu surface with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), tensile strength was further improved up to 200 MPa. Our results suggest an alternative approach to design and processing of self-assembled hydrogel-mediated hybrid films with outstanding mechanical properties.

  12. Tailoring the vortex pinning strength of YBCO thin films by systematic incorporation of hybrid artificial pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Alok K; Matsumoto, Kaname; Horide, Tomoya; Saini, Shrikant; Mele, Paolo; Ichinose, Ataru; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hybrid (columnar and spherical together) artificial pinning centers (APCs) on the vortex pinning properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) thin films is investigated in detail on the basis of variation of critical current density (J C ) with applied magnetic field and also with the orientation of the applied magnetic field at 65 K and 77 K. Premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets are used for the deposition of the YBCO films which consist of self-assembled BaSnO 3 nanocolumns (1D APCs); on the other hand, for the deposition of the YBCO films with hybrid APCs (BaSnO 3 nanocolumns together with Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles), the surface of the premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets are modified by putting a thin Y 2 O 3 sectored piece on the premixed YBCO + BaSnO 3 composite targets by means of silver paste. F pmax value increases systematically with incorporation of 1D and 1D and 3D APCs and it also shifts towards higher applied magnetic fields. Films with 1D APCs exhibit a strong J C peak at Θ = 0° (H//c-axis) whereas films consisting of hybrid APCs exhibit enhanced J C at all the investigated angular regimes. A possible mechanism of vortex pinning in samples with hybrid APCs is also discussed suggesting the role of 1D and 3D APCs. (paper)

  13. Synthesis and electrical characterization of low-temperature thermal-cured epoxy resin/functionalized silica hybrid-thin films for application as gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Moonkyong, E-mail: nmk@keri.re.kr [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); System on Chip Chemical Process Research Center, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Taec [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Cheol [HVDC Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Dong [Creative and Fundamental Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 642-120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-31

    Thermal-cured hybrid materials were synthesized from homogenous hybrid sols of epoxy resins and organoalkoxysilane-functionalized silica. The chemical structures of raw materials and obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal resistance of the hybrids was enhanced by hybridization. The interaction between epoxy matrix and the silica particles, which caused hydrogen bonding and van der Waals force was strengthened by organoalkoxysilane. The degradation temperature of the hybrids was improved by approximately 30 °C over that of the parent epoxy material. The hybrid materials were formed into uniformly coated thin films of about 50 nm-thick using a spin coater. An optimum mixing ratio was used to form smooth-surfaced hybrid films. The electrical property of the hybrid film was characterized, and the leakage current was found to be well below 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of thermal-curable hybrid materials using epoxy resin and silica. • The thermal stability was enhanced through hybridization. • The insulation property of hybrid film was investigated as gate dielectrics.

  14. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  15. A highly sensitive NADH sensor based on a mycelium-like nanocomposite using graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes to co-immobilize poly(luminol) and poly(neutral red) hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Lin, Kuo; Yu Lai, Szu; Ming Chen, Shen

    2014-08-21

    Hybridization of poly(luminol) (PLM) and poly(neutral red) (PNR) has been successfully performed and further enhanced by a conductive and steric hybrid nanotemplate using graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The morphology of the PLM-PNR-MWCNT-GO mycelium-like nanocomposite is studied by SEM and AFM and it is found to be electroactive, pH-dependent, and stable in the electrochemical system. It shows electrocatalytic activity towards NADH with a high current response and low overpotential. Using amperometry, it has been shown to have a high sensitivity of 288.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to NADH (Eapp. = +0.1 V). Linearity is estimated in a concentration range of 1.33 × 10(-8) to 1.95 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.33 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Particularly, it also shows another linear range of 2.08 × 10(-4) to 5.81 × 10(-4) M with a sensitivity of 151.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The hybridization and activity of PLM and PNR can be effectively enhanced by MWCNTs and GO, resulting in an active hybrid nanocomposite for determination of NADH.

  16. Self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell particulate nanocomposites through DNA-DNA hybridization and magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Srinivasan, Gopalan, E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu, E-mail: chavez@oakland.edu [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (United States); Lochbiler, Thomas A.; Panda, Manashi; Chavez, Ferman A., E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu, E-mail: chavez@oakland.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Multiferroic composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are of importance for studies on mechanical strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric subsystems. This work is on DNA-assisted self-assembly of superstructures of such composites with nanometer periodicity. The synthesis involved oligomeric DNA-functionalized ferroelectric and ferromagnetic nanoparticles, 600 nm BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) and 200 nm NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO), respectively. Mixing BTO and NFO particles, possessing complementary DNA sequences, resulted in the formation of ordered core-shell heteronanocomposites held together by DNA hybridization. The composites were imaged by scanning electron microscopy and scanning microwave microscopy. The presence of heteroassemblies along with core-shell architecture is clearly observed. The reversible nature of the DNA hybridization allows for restructuring the composites into mm-long linear chains and 2D-arrays in the presence of a static magnetic field and ring-like structures in a rotating-magnetic field. Strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling in as-assembled composites is evident from static magnetic field H induced polarization and low-frequency magnetoelectric voltage coefficient measurements. Upon annealing the nanocomposites at high temperatures, evidence for the formation of bulk composites with excellent cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic subsystems is obtained by H-induced polarization and low-frequency ME voltage coefficient. The ME coupling strength in the self-assembled composites is measured to be much stronger than in bulk composites with randomly distributed NFO and BTO prepared by direct mixing and sintering.

  17. Chitosan-doped-hybrid/TiO2 nanocomposite based sol-gel coating for the corrosion resistance of aluminum metal in 3.5% NaCl medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Balaji; M G, Sethuraman

    2017-11-01

    The study outlines the role of chitosan, a biopolymer on corrosion behavior of Hy/nano-TiO 2 based sol-gel coating over aluminum metal. In this study organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIP) in acidic solution. Chitosan was doped into sol-gel matrix and self-assembled over aluminum substrate. The resultant chitosan-doped-Hy/nano-TiO 2 sol-gel coating was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The as-tailored aluminum substrate was evaluated for corrosion resistance in neutral medium. The protection ability of these coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) measurements in 3.5% NaCl medium. The EIS and PP results showed that chitosan-doped- Hy/nano-TiO 2 sol-gel coating exhibited better protection from corrosion than the undoped Hy/TiO 2 nanocomposite coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhi, Mehdi; Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Ai, Jafar; Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit

  19. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  20. Photoelectrochemical properties of hierarchical nanocomposite structure: Carbon nanofibers/TiO.sub.2./sub./ZnO thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Štěpán; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kmentová, Hana; Klusoň, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Gregora, Ivan; Morozová, Magdalena; Čada, Martin; Petráš, D.; Dytrych, Pavel; Slater, M.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-14 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thin layers * hollow cathode * TiO 2 * ZnO * CNFs * IPCE * photocatalysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  1. High-frequency magnetoimpedance in nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasov, Alexey [Moscow State Institute of Radioengineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow 117454 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: alexey_yurasov@mail.ru; Granovsky, Alexander [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Tarapov, Sergey [Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov 61085 (Ukraine); Clerc, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille 13453 (France)

    2006-05-15

    The transmission of millimeter-range electromagnetic waves (30-50 GHz) through a magnetic nanocomposite thin film exhibiting tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is calculated. The relative change of transmission coefficient in an applied magnetic field due to the magnetorefractive effect is approximately linear with TMR and strongly depends on nanocomposite resistivity and film thickness. The obtained results are in a good agreement with experiment.

  2. High-frequency magnetoimpedance in nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurasov, Alexey; Granovsky, Alexander; Tarapov, Sergey; Clerc, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of millimeter-range electromagnetic waves (30-50 GHz) through a magnetic nanocomposite thin film exhibiting tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is calculated. The relative change of transmission coefficient in an applied magnetic field due to the magnetorefractive effect is approximately linear with TMR and strongly depends on nanocomposite resistivity and film thickness. The obtained results are in a good agreement with experiment

  3. Solid-state densification of spun-cast self-assembled monolayers for use in ultra-thin hybrid dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, Daniel O.; Acton, Orb [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weidner, Tobias [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cernetic, Nathan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Baio, Joe E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Castner, David G. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ma, Hong, E-mail: hma@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y., E-mail: ajen@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid processing of SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric is obtained utilizing a single wet processing step. - Abstract: Ultra-thin self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-oxide hybrid dielectrics have gained significant interest for their application in low-voltage organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). A [8-(11-phenoxy-undecyloxy)-octyl]phosphonic acid (PhO-19-PA) SAM on ultrathin AlO{sub x} (2.5 nm) has been developed to significantly enhance the dielectric performance of inorganic oxides through reduction of leakage current while maintaining similar capacitance to the underlying oxide structure. Rapid processing of this SAM in ambient conditions is achieved by spin coating, however, as-cast monolayer density is not sufficient for dielectric applications. Thermal annealing of a bulk spun-cast PhO-19-PA molecular film is explored as a mechanism for SAM densification. SAM density, or surface coverage, and order are examined as a function of annealing temperature. These SAM characteristics are probed through atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). It is found that at temperatures sufficient to melt the as-cast bulk molecular film, SAM densification is achieved; leading to a rapid processing technique for high performance SAM-oxide hybrid dielectric systems utilizing a single wet processing step. To demonstrate low-voltage devices based on this hybrid dielectric (with leakage current density of 7.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} A cm{sup -2} and capacitance density of 0.62 {mu}F cm{sup -2} at 3 V), pentacene thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are fabricated and yield sub 2 V operation and charge carrier mobilites of up to

  4. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO1, (PPy/ErGO1, (PAni/GO1 and (PPy/GO1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g−1 as compared with constituents (∼70 F g−1 at discharge current density of 0.3 A g−1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting and conducting polymers (semiconducting backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (reactivity of surface ion

  5. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanju, E-mail: sanju.gupta@wku.edu; Price, Carson [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd., Bowling Green, KY 42101-3576 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO){sub 1}, (PPy/ErGO){sub 1}, (PAni/GO){sub 1} and (PPy/GO){sub 1}. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, C{sub s}, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent C{sub s} of ≥350 F g{sup −1} as compared with constituents (∼70 F g{sup −1}) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g{sup −1} that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine

  6. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of graphene/polymer hybrid thin films as supercapacitors: Physical-chemical interfacial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju; Price, Carson

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid electrode comprising an electric double-layer capacitor of graphene nanosheets and a pseudocapacitor of the electrically conducting polymers namely, polyaniline; PAni and polypyrrole; PPy are constructed that exhibited synergistic effect with excellent electrochemical performance as thin film supercapacitors for alternative energy. The hybrid supercapacitors were prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on controlled electrochemical polymerization followed by reduction of graphene oxide electrochemically producing ErGO, for establishing intimate electronic contact through nanoscale architecture and chemical stability, producing a single bilayer of (PAni/ErGO)1, (PPy/ErGO)1, (PAni/GO)1 and (PPy/GO)1. The rationale design is to create thin films that possess interconnected graphene nanosheets (GNS) with polymer nanostructures forming well-defined tailored interfaces allowing sufficient surface adsorption and faster ion transport due to short diffusion distances. We investigated their electrochemical properties and performance in terms of gravimetric specific capacitance, Cs, from cyclic voltammograms. The LbL-assembled bilayer films exhibited an excellent Cs of ≥350 F g-1 as compared with constituents (˜70 F g-1) at discharge current density of 0.3 A g-1 that outperformed many other hybrid supercapacitors. To gain deeper insights into the physical-chemical interfacial processes occurring at the electrode/electrolyte interface that govern their operation, we have used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) technique in feedback and probe approach modes. We present our findings from viewpoint of reinforcing the role played by heterogeneous electrode surface composed of nanoscale graphene sheets (conducting) and conducting polymers (semiconducting) backbone with ordered polymer chains via higher/lower probe current distribution maps. Also targeted is SECM imaging that allowed to determine electrochemical (re)activity of surface ion adsorption sites

  7. Bibliography: Sandia Laboratories hybrid microcircuits and related thin film technology (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, J.A.

    1975-12-01

    Hybrid circuit applications for nuclear weapons have been considered at Sandia since the mid-60's. However a major commitment was made in 1970 to develop a limited but well understood set of technologies for weapon applications. Development of these technologies and related studies have been documented in a number of publications. This bibliography lists the publications from 1968 to mid-1977 for reference by hybrid designers, users, or technologists

  8. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO_2 thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, R.; Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G.; Chaussé, A.; Andrieux, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO_2) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO_2 layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  9. Highly reliable photosensitive organic-inorganic hybrid passivation layers for a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Haruka; Nonaka, Toshiaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-07-01

    We report the fabrication of a photosensitive hybrid passivation material on amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that greatly enhance its stability and improve its electrical characteristics. The hybrid passivation based on polysilsesquioxane is transparent and fabricated using a simple solution process. Because the passivation is photosensitive, dry etching was never performed during TFT fabrication. TFTs passivated with this material had a small threshold voltage shift of 0.5 V during positive bias stress, 0.5 V during negative bias stress, and -2.5 V during negative bias illumination stress. Furthermore, TFTs passivated by this layer were stable after being subjected to high relative humidity stress — confirming the superb barrier ability of the passivation. Analysis of secondary ion mass spectrometry showed that a large amount of hydrogen, carbon, and fluorine can be found in the channel region. We show that both hydrogen and fluorine reduced oxygen vacancies and that fluorine stabilized weak oxygen and hydroxide bonds. These results demonstrate the large potential of photosensitive hybrid passivation layers as effective passivation materials.

  10. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  11. Determination of spallation residues in thin target: toward an hybrid reactor lead target simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Boudard, A.; Fernandez, B.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W.; Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Pereira, J.; Czajkowski, S.

    2001-01-01

    The production of spallation primary residual nuclei in thin target has been studied by measurement of isotopic yields distributions for several systems. Issues relevant for the design of accelerator-driven systems are presented. Monte-Carlo code abilities to reproduce data are studied in details; it is shown that calculations do not reproduce data in a satisfactory way. Future work orientations leading to an improvement of thin targets calculations and ultimately to a thick target simulation are discussed. (author)

  12. Determination of spallation residues in thin target: toward an hybrid reactor lead target simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Bernas, M.; Rejmund, F.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J. [Paris-11 Univ., 91- Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.; Ricciardi, M.V.; Schmidt, K.H. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt (Germany); Boudard, A.; Fernandez, B.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C.; Wlazlo, W. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Pereira, J. [University of Santiago de Compostella (Spain); Czajkowski, S. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CENBG, CNRS-IN2P3, 33 - Gradignan (France)

    2001-07-01

    The production of spallation primary residual nuclei in thin target has been studied by measurement of isotopic yields distributions for several systems. Issues relevant for the design of accelerator-driven systems are presented. Monte-Carlo code abilities to reproduce data are studied in details; it is shown that calculations do not reproduce data in a satisfactory way. Future work orientations leading to an improvement of thin targets calculations and ultimately to a thick target simulation are discussed. (author)

  13. Flip chip assembly of thinned chips for hybrid pixel detector applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, T; Woehrmann, M; Rothermund, M; Huegging, F; Ehrmann, O; Oppermann, H; Lang, K.D

    2014-01-01

    There is a steady trend to ultra-thin microelectronic devices. Especially for future particle detector systems a reduced readout chip thickness is required to limit the loss of tracking precision due to scattering. The reduction of silicon thickness is performed at wafer level in a two-step thinning process. To minimize the risk of wafer breakage the thinned wafer needs to be handled by a carrier during the whole process chain of wafer bumping. Another key process is the flip chip assembly of thinned readout chips onto thin sensor tiles. Besides the prevention of silicon breakage the minimization of chip warpage is one additional task for a high yield and reliable flip chip process. A new technology using glass carrier wafer will be described in detail. The main advantage of this technology is the combination of a carrier support during wafer processing and the chip support during flip chip assembly. For that a glass wafer is glue-bonded onto the backside of the thinned readout chip wafer. After the bump depo...

  14. Light tuning DC and AC electrical properties of ZnO-rGO based hybrid nanocomposite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Debarati; Mandal, S. K.; Deb, Debajit; Rakshit, J. K.; Dey, P.; Roy, J. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the electrical and optoelectrical properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO):reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite film prepared through the sol gel process on a glass substrate under dark and illumination conditions of light. The bandgap of the composite film is decreased from the pure ZnO nanofilm due to the formation of a Zn-O-C bond in the composite film. The linear behavior in the Current-Voltage curve is attributed to Ohmic contact between ZnO and rGO grains. The photocurrent of the composite film is found to increase with an increase in light intensity having two different slopes, indicating an enhancement of the mobility of carriers and dissociation rate of excitons. The observed decrement of the impedance value with the intensity of light may be due to the flow of charge carriers and the presence of the light dependent relaxation process in the system. Nyquist plots have been fitted using a parallel combination of grain boundary resistances and grain boundary capacitance at different intensities of light. The relaxation frequency is observed to shift towards the high frequency regime. Carrier transit time has been calculated from relaxation frequency showing opposite behavior with the intensity of light. These results indicate the higher generations of photogenerated carriers at the interface between rGO and ZnO grains and an enhancement of the charge transport process due to the increment of the mobility of charge carriers in the system.

  15. A quantum hybrid with a thin antenna at the vertex of a wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.carlone@unina.it [Università “Federico II” di Napoli, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni “R. Caccioppoli”, MSA, via Cinthia, I-80126, Napoli (Italy); Posilicano, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.posilicano@uninsubria.it [DiSAT, Università dell' Insubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100, Como (Italy)

    2017-03-26

    We study the spectrum, resonances and scattering matrix of a quantum Hamiltonian on a “hybrid surface” consisting of a half-line attached by its endpoint to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. At the boundary of the wedge, outside the vertex, homogeneous Dirichlet conditions are imposed. The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. - Highlights: • Spectral characterization of a quantum Hamiltonian on “hybrid surface” consisting of a halfline attached to the vertex of a concave planar wedge. • The system is tunable by varying the measure of the angle at the vertex. • Relation between the conduction properties inside the hybrid and formation of resonances. • Easy generalization of the results to more complicated structures.

  16. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J; Méndez-García, Celia; Kim, Chang-H; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Zimmerman, Sabrina; Hong, Pei-Ying; Cann, Isaac K; Mackie, Roderick I

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35-37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15-21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, we found

  17. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.

    2016-06-06

    Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35–37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15–21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Conclusions Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

  18. One-Pot Hybrid SnO2 /Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Formation through Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Gianvito; Scarpellini, Alice; Palazon, Francisco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-06-20

    The localized in situ formation of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films is presented. This is achieved by the photoinduced conversion of the tin acetate precursor included in polymeric films, through controlled UV or visible pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm, respectively. The evolution of the formation of nanoparticles is followed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and shows that their growth is affected in different ways by the laser pulses at the two applied wavelengths. This, in combination with electron microscopy analysis, reveals that, depending on the irradiation wavelength, the size of the nanoparticles in the final nanocomposites differs. This difference is attributed to distinct mechanistic pathways that lead to the synthesis of small nanoparticles (from 1.5 to 4.5 nm) at λ=355 nm, whereas bigger ones (from 5 to 16 nm) are formed at λ=532 nm. At the same time, structural studies with both X-ray and electron diffraction measurements demonstrate the crystallinity of SnO 2 nanoparticles in both cases, whereas XPS analysis confirms the light-induced oxidation of tin acetate into SnO 2 . Taken all together, it is demonstrated that the pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm leads to the formation of SnO 2 nanoparticles with defined features highly dispersed in PMMA solid matrices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta/sub 2/N (100 ohms/square) resistors is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta/sub 2/N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta/sub 2/N + Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta/sub 2/N + Ti + Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure

  20. Micropatterned 2D Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films with Enhanced Photoluminescence Lifetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Hong Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Blake, Graeme R.; Palstra, Thomas T.M.; Ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2018-01-01

    The application of luminescent materials in display screens and devices requires micropatterned structures. In this work, we have successfully printed microstructures of a two-dimensional (2D), orange-colored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite ((C6H5CH2NH3)2PbI4) using two different soft

  1. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  2. Development of a hybrid sputtering/evaporation process for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, M.; Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A.; Lorenzi, B.; Caccamo, L.; Miglio, L. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Solar Energy Research Center MIB-SOLAR, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Moneta, R.; Marchionna, S.; Meschia, M. [Voltasolar s.r.l, Turate (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we report a new method for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} deposition for solar cell application. Differently from the common co-evaporation process, an alterative approach for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} has been tested: the sputtering deposition of metal elements combined with the selenium evaporation. We have studied the relationships between the growth parameters of our hybrid sputtering/evaporation method and the chemical-physical properties of the CIGS films. The cells are completed with a CdS buffer layer deposited by chemical bath deposition and ZnO + ITO deposited by RF sputtering. Test solar cells of 0.5 cm{sup 2} have shown an efficiency of 10% and 2.5% on glass and stainless steel substrate respectively. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes/polymer composite thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod Mulbagal; Gilshteyn, Evgenia; Yagafarov, Timur; Alekseeva, Alena; Anisimov, Anton; Sergeev, Oleg; Neumueller, Alex; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert

    2018-01-09

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and a thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high quality SWCNTs with an enhanced conductivity by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with different SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit Jsc, open-circuit Voc, and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5G direct illumination. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Enhanced efficiency of hybrid amorphous silicon solar cells based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanna, Pramod M.; Gilshteyn, Evgenia P.; Yagafarov, Timur; Aleekseeva, Alena K.; Anisimov, Anton S.; Neumüller, Alex; Sergeev, Oleg; Bereznev, Sergei; Maricheva, Jelena; Nasibulin, Albert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple approach to fabricate hybrid solar cells (HSCs) based on a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film and thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Randomly oriented high-quality SWCNTs with conductivity enhanced by means of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate are used as a window layer and a front electrode. A series of HSCs are fabricated in ambient conditions with varying SWCNT film thicknesses. The polymethylmethacrylate layer drop-casted on fabricated HSCs reduces the reflection fourfold and enhances the short-circuit J sc , open-circuit V oc , and efficiency by nearly 10%. A state-of-the-art J-V performance is shown for SWCNT/a-Si HSC with an open-circuit voltage of 900 mV and an efficiency of 3.4% under simulated one-sun AM 1.5 G direct illumination.

  5. The study of structural properties of carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles and application of nano-composite thin film as H₂S gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, R; Rashidi, Ali M; Alaie, M; Mohammadzadeh, R; Izadi, N

    2014-11-01

    Nano-composite of multiwall carbon nanotube, decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-MWCNT), was synthesized using the sol-gel method. NiFe2O4-MWCNTs were characterized using different methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of the crystallites is 23.93 nm. The values of the saturation magnetization (MS), coercivity (HC) and retentivity (MR) of NiFe2O4-MWCNTs are obtained as 15 emu g(-1), 21Oe and 5 emu g(-1), respectively. In this research, NiFe2O4-MWCNT thin films were prepared with the spin-coating method. These thin films were used as the H2S gas sensor. The results suggest the possibility of the utilization of NiFe2O4-MWCNT nano-composite, as the H2S detector. The sensor shows appropriate response towards 100 ppm of H2S at 300°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth and characterization of MMA/SiO2 hybrid low-k thin films for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have successfully incorporated MMA monomer and eliminated the polymerization step to lower the dielectric constant of deposited thin film. The presence of peak of C=C bond in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and carbon peak in energy dispersive (EDAX) spectra confirms the incorporation of carbon in the film ...

  7. Synthesis of Ag-doped hydrogenated carbon thin films by a hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci., Vol. 37, No. 7, December 2014, pp. 1669–1676. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Synthesis of ... PVD–PECVD deposition process ... Processing parameters (working pressure, .... prepared using the hydrocarbon ion beam without oper- .... Figure 5. Comparison of FTIR spectra obtained from the DLC and Ag-DLC thin.

  8. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    We obtained experimentally strong plasmon interactions between localized surface plasmon with delocalized surface plasmon polaritons in a new nanosystem of silver semishells island film arrays arranged as a closed-packing structure coupled to an adjacent thin silver film. We show that plasmon int...

  9. Hybrid thin-film solar cells comprising mesoporous titanium dioxide and conjugated polymers; Hybride Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus mesoporoesem Titandioxid und konjugierten Polymeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schattauer, Sylvia

    2010-12-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to study the active components and their interactions in so called organic hybrid solar cells. These consist of a thin inorganic titanium dioxide layer, combined with a polymer layer. In general, the efficiency of these hybrid solar cells is determined by the light absorption in the donor polymer, the dissociation of excitons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and polymer, as well as the generation and extraction of free charge carriers. To optimize the solar cells, the physical interactions between the materials are modified and the influences of various preparation parameters are systematically investigated. Among others, important findings regarding the optimal use of materials and preparation conditions as well as detailed investigations of fundamental factors such as film morphology and polymer infiltration are presented in more detail. First, a variety of titanium dioxide layer were produced, from which a selection for use in hybrid solar cells was made. The obtained films show differences in surface structure, film morphology and crystallinity, depending on the way how the TiO{sub 2} layer has been prepared. All these properties of the TiO{sub 2} films may strongly affect the performance of the hybrid solar cells, by influencing e.g. the exciton diffusion length, the efficiency of exciton dissociation at the hybrid interface, and the carrier transport properties. Detailed investigations were made for mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer following a new nanoparticle synthesis route, which allows to produce crystalline particles during the synthesis. As donor component, conjugated polymers, either derivatives of cyclohexylamino-poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) or a thiophene are used. The preparation routine also includes a thermal treatment of the TiO{sub 2} layers, revealing a temperature-dependent change in morphology, but not of the crystal structure. The effects on the solar cell properties have been documented and

  10. Activated carbon/manganese dioxide hybrid electrodes for high performance thin film supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yunseok; Jo, Jeongdai; Jang, Hyunjung; Kim, Inyoung; Kang, Dongwoo; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2014-06-01

    We combine the activated carbon (AC) and the manganese dioxide (MnO2) in a AC/MnO2 hybrid electrode to overcome the low capacitance of activated carbon and MnO2 by exploiting the large surface area of AC and the fast reversible redox reaction of MnO2. An aqueous permanganate (MnO4 -) is converted to MnO2 on the surface of the AC electrode by dipping the AC electrode into an aqueous permanganate solution. The AC/MnO2 hybrid electrode is found to display superior specific capacitance of 290 F/g. This shows that supercapacitors classified as electric double layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors can be combined together.

  11. Hybrid AC EL structures with thin protective ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, E; Dikov, H; Kolentsov, K; Yourukova, L; Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V

    2008-01-01

    Alternating current hybrid electroluminescent Al/SnO 2 /ZnS: Cu/ZnO/Al structures with blue emission have been prepared. In these ZnO films are used as protective layers. The optical properties of different RF magnetron sputtered ZnO films have been studied. The voltage - brightness characteristics of AC EL structures with a ZnO protective film and conventional structures with a TiO 2 protective layer are compared. The investigation shows that the brightness of the structures with a ZnO protective film is higher. The improved characteristics of these new hybrid structures could be used in preparing various systems for representation of permanent or variable light information

  12. Singlet-Fission-Sensitized Hybrid Thin-Films For Next-Generation Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This grant enabled the acquisition of equipment for the fabrication of organic and nanocrystal based photovoltaic (PV... Photovoltaics . The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 singlet fission, nanocrystal, triplet, hybrid, photovoltaic REPORT

  13. Solvent-Assisted Gel Printing for Micropatterning Thin Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Beomjin; Hwang, Ihn; Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Eui Hyuk; Cha, Soonyoung; Lee, Jinseong; Kang, Han Sol; Cho, Suk Man; Choi, Hyunyong; Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-27

    While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties. A variety of micropatterns of a perovskite film are fabricated by either microimprinting or transfer-printing a thin spin-coated precursor film in soft-gel state with a topographically prepatterned elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by thermal treatment for complete conversion of the precursor film to a perovskite one. The key materials development of our solvent-assisted gel printing is to prepare a thin precursor film with a high-boiling temperature solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide. The residual solvent in the precursor gel film makes the film moldable upon microprinting with a patterned PDMS mold, leading to various perovskite micropatterns in resolution of a few micrometers over a large area. Our nondestructive micropatterning process does not harm the intrinsic photoelectric properties of a perovskite film, which allows for realizing arrays of parallel-type photodetectors containing micropatterns of a perovskite film with reliable photoconduction performance. The facile transfer of a micropatterned soft-gel precursor film on other substrates including mechanically flexible plastics can further broaden its applications to flexible photoelectric systems.

  14. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yige; Wang Li; Li Huanrong; Liu Peng; Qin Dashan; Liu Binyuan; Zhang Wenjun; Deng Ruiping; Zhang Hongjie

    2008-01-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data. - Graphical abstract: Novel stable luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid titania thin film with high transparency activated by in-situ formed lanthanide complexes have been obtained at room temperature via a simple one-pot synthesis approach by using TTFA-modified titanium precursor with amphiphilic triblock copolymer P123. The obtained hybrid thin film displays bright red (or green), near-monochromatic luminescence due to the in-situ formed lanthanide complex

  15. Electrochemical and structural characterization of nanocomposite Agy:TiNx thin films for dry bioelectrodes: the effect of the N/Ti ratio and Ag content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, P.; Machado, D.; Fiedler, P.; Alves, E.; Barradas, N.P.; Haueisen, J.; Vaz, F.; Fonseca, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag y :TiN x thin films were sputtered with different N/Ti atomic ratios and Ag contents. • The electroactive area increases (1000-fold) with increasing N/Ti atomic ratios. • The films display impedances <10 kΩ at the 1–50 Hz interval (EEG range). • No Ag surface segregation was visible in the under-stoichiometric samples. • The samples with N/Ti atomic ratio = 0.3 (15 at.% Ag) and 0.7 (32 at.% Ag) are the most appropriate for bioelectrode applications. - ABSTRACT: Ag y :TiN x nanocomposite thin films sputtered with different N/Ti atomic ratios and Ag atomic contents were characterized from the structural and morphological points of view. Their electrochemical behaviour was studied in a synthetic sweat solution, aiming at selecting a suitable material for biolectrode applications. An increase of the N/Ti atomic ratio, which is accompanied by an increase of the Ag atomic content, leads to a substantial increase of the roughness and porosity of the samples, especially for N/Ti ratios >0.2. For N/Ti atomic ratios up to 0.3 (15 at.% Ag) no metallic Ag segregation is visible in the TiN x matrix. Hence, the possible formation of TiAg and Ti 2 Ag intermetallics or even a Ag/TiAg/Ti 2 Ag phase mixture, although not demonstrated, should not be disregarded. As for the N/Ti atomic ratio = 0.7 (32 at.% Ag) sample, the Ag phases are predominantly concentrated near the interface with the substrate. The amount of Ag phases at the surface of the films remains somewhat low for all TiN under-stoichiometric films, even for Ag atomic contents up to 32 at.%. When the TiN x matrix reaches the stoichiometric condition (sample with N/Ti atomic ratio = 1 and 20 at.% Ag), Ag segregation occurs and metallic Ag aggregates are visible at the surface of the film, leading to a substantially different electrochemical behaviour. The impedance of the Ag y :TiN x films in synthetic sweat solution is mainly ruled by the roughness/porosity variation, thus the higher the N

  16. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  17. Controlled Distribution and Clustering of Silver in Ag-DLC Nanocomposite Coatings Using a Hybrid Plasma Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D

    2016-08-17

    Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed.

  18. Ferromagnetism carried by highly delocalized hybrid states in Sc-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Benali Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-05-29

    We present first-principles results for Sc-doped ZnOthin films. Neighboring Sc atoms in the surface and/or subsurface layers are found to be coupled ferromagnetically, where only two of the possible configurations induce spin polarization. In the first configuration, the polarization is carried by the Sc d states as expected for transition metaldoping. However, there is a second configuration which is energetically favorable. It is governed by polarized hybrid states of the Zns, O p, and Sc d orbitals. Such highly delocalized states can be an important ingredient for understanding the magnetism of dopedZnOthin films.

  19. Analysis of transmittance properties in 1D hybrid dielectric photonic crystal containing superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Osswa; Zaghdoudi, Jihene; Kanzari, Mounir

    2018-06-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method (TMM), we investigate theoretically the transmittance properties of a defective hybrid dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal that contains a superconducting material as a defect layer. The considered hybrid photonic structure is: H(LH) 7(HLSLH) P H(LH) 7 , where H is the high refractive index dielectric, L is the low refractive index dielectric, S is the superconducting material and P is the repetitive number. The results show that the variation of the number and the positions of the transmissions modes depend strongly on the repetitive number P, the temperature T and the thickness of the layer S. An improvement of the spectral response is obtained with the exponential gradation of layer thicknesses dj =d0 + βejα , where d0 is the initial thickness of the layer j, α and β are two particular constants for each material. In addition, the effect of the incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations on the transmittance spectrum is discussed. As a result, we propose a tunable narrow stop-band polychromatic filter that covers the visible wavelength.

  20. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO{sub 2} thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, R., E-mail: richarddrevet@yahoo.fr [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Chaussé, A. [Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Andrieux, M. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO{sub 2} layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  1. Thermoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid energy generation from thermopower waves in core-shell structured carbon nanotube-PZT nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Shin, Dongjoon; Seo, Byungseok; Choi, Wonjoon

    2017-02-10

    There is an urgent need to develop a suitable energy source owing to the rapid development of various innovative devices using micro-nanotechnology. The thermopower wave (TW), which produces a high specific power during the combustion of solid fuel inside micro-nanostructure materials, is a unique energy source for unusual platforms that cannot use conventional energy sources. Here, we report on the significant enhancement of hybrid energy generation of pyroelectrics and thermoelectrics from TWs in carbon nanotube (CNT)-PZT (lead zirconate titanate, P(Z 0.5 -T 0.5 )) composites for the first time. Conventional TWs use only charge carrier transport driven by the temperature gradient along the core materials to produce voltage. In this study, a core-shell structure of CNTs-PZTs was prepared to utilize both the temperature gradient along the core material (thermoelectrics) and the dynamic change in the temperature of the shell structure (pyroelectrics) induced by TWs. The dual mechanism of energy generation in CNT-PZT composites amplified the average peak and duration of the voltage up to 403 mV and 612 ms, respectively, by a factor of 2 and 60 times those for the composites without a PZT layer. Furthermore, dynamic voltage measurements and structural analysis in repetitive TWs confirmed that CNT-PZT composites maintain the original performance in multiple TWs, which improves the reusability of materials. The advanced TWs obtained by the application of a PZT layer as a pyroelectric material contributes to the extension of the usable energy portion as well as the development of TW-based operating devices.

  2. All-optically tunable EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces hybridized with thin phase change material layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, Emilija; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), a pump-induced narrow transparency window within the absorption region of a probe, had offered new perspectives in slow-light control in atomic physics. For applications in nanophotonics, the implementation on chip-scaled devices has later been obtained by mimicking this effect by metallic metamaterials. High losses in visible and near infrared range of metal-based metamaterialls have recently opened a new field of all-dielectric metamaterials; a proper configuration of high refractive index dielectric nanoresonators can mimick this effect without losses to get high Q, slow-light response. The next step would be the ability to tune their optical response, and in this work we investigate thin layers of phase change materials (PCM) for all-optical control of EIT-like all-dielectric metamaterials. PCM can be nonvolatively and reversibly switched between two stable phases that differ in optical properties by applying a visible laser pulse. The device is based on Si nanoresonators covered by a thin layer of PCM GeTe; optical and transient thermal simulations have been done to find and optimize the fabrication parameters and switching parameters such as the intensity and duration of the pulse. We have found that the EIT-like response can be switched on and off by applying the 532nm laser pulse to change the phase of the upper GeTe layer. We strongly believe that such approach could open new perspectives in all-optically controlled slow-light metamaterials.

  3. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10 3 and 1.4 × 10 3 , respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10 4 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  4. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  5. Solar absorption and thermal emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube/nickel oxide nanocomposite thin films synthesized by sol-gel process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/nickel oxide (NiO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a sol–gel process and coated on an aluminium substrate. The MWCNTs were chemically functionalized and then added into NiO alcogels, and magnetic...

  6. ArF Excimer Laser-induced Deposition of Ag/C Nanocomposite Thin Films in the Presence of n-Hexane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondal, M.A.; Fajgar, Radek; Chang, X.; Shen, K.; Xu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 311, AUG 30 (2014), s. 95-100 ISSN 0169-4332 Grant - others:NNSFCH(CN) 51172044; NSFJP(CN) BK2011617; KFUPM(CN) RG 1311-1 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ArF excimer laser * nanocomposite * laser deposition Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  7. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  8. Synthesis of water-dispersible poly-l-lysine-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-(GO-MWCNTs) nanocomposite hybrid with a large surface area for high-efficiency removal of tartrazine and Pb(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Wan, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhou, Chunhua

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a novel, effective and environment-friendly methods was used to prepare poly-l-lysine (PLL)-functionalized magnetic Fe 3 O 4 -(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite with large surface area and abundant hydroxyl and amino groups. The as-prepared PLL-Fe 3 O 4 -(GO-MWCNTs) nanocomposite was systematically characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, VSM and EDX. The PLL-Fe 3 O 4 -(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite exhibited excellent adsorption performance for the removal of a dye (tartrazine) and a heave metal (Pb(II)). The result showed that adsorption of Pb(II) reached equilibrium in 30min and adsorption of tartrazine reached equilibrium in approximately 60min. Most importantly, PLL-Fe 3 O 4 -(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid possesses high adsorption capacity, rapid separation, and less time-consuming. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was 1038.42mgg -1 for Pb(II) and 775.19mgg -1 for tartrazine under the optimal conditions. These two pollutants removal were found to obey Langmuir adsorption model, while the kinetics of adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. A possible adsorption mechanism has been proposed where the chelation between PLL and Pb(II) or electrostatic interaction between GO and tartrazine. These results demonstrated the potential applications of PLL-Fe 3 O 4 -(GO-MWCNTs) hybrid composite in deep-purification of polluted water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  10. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  11. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  12. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  13. Organic-inorganic hybrid thin film solar cells using conducting polymer and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwan Jung, Hyung; Ho Kim, Dong; Su Kim, Chang; Bae, Tae-Sung; Bum Chung, Kwun; Yoon Ryu, Seung

    2013-05-01

    We employed poly(styrenesulfonate)-doped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) as a p-layer on textured fluorine-tin-oxide (FTO) glass in pin-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells (a-Si:H SCs). An amorphous tungsten oxide (WO3) layer and gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) 10 nm in size were included to prevent the degradation and to increase short-circuit current by the Plasmon effect, respectively, between the PEDOT:PSS and intrinsic-Si layer. The energy band between PEDOT:PSS and WO3 was meaningfully adjusted by Au-NPs. The p-type PEDOT:PSS layer in these organic-inorganic hybrid a-Si:H SCs results in an increased conversion efficiency from ˜2.42% to ˜5.49% and an increased open-circuit voltage from ˜0.29 V to ˜0.56 V. PEDOT:PSS on textured FTO glass is sufficiently showing that it can replace the p-type Si layer in pin-type a-Si:H SCs.

  14. Insightful understanding of the role of clay topology on the stability of biomimetic hybrid chitosan-clay thin films and CO2-dried porous aerogel microspheres

    OpenAIRE

    Frindy, Sana; Primo Arnau, Ana Maria; Qaiss, Abou el Kacem; Bouhfid, Rachid; Lahcini, Mohamed; García Gómez, Hermenegildo; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Three natural clay-based microstructures, namely layered montmorillonite (MMT), nanotubular halloysite (HNT) and micro-fibrillar sepiolite (SP) were used for the synthesis of hybrid chitosan-clay thin films and porous aerogel microspheres. At a first glance, a decrease in the viscosity of the three gel forming solutions was noticed as a result of breaking the mutual polymeric chains interaction by the clay microstructure. Upon casting, chitosan-clay films displayed enhanced hydrophilicit...

  15. Tunable flux pinning landscapes achieved by functional ferromagnetic Fe2O3:CeO2 vertically aligned nanocomposites in YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chen-Fong; Huang, Jijie; Lee, Joon-Hwan; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chen, Li; Chen, Aiping; Su, Qing; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional ferromagnetic (Fe 2 O 3 ) x :(CeO 2 ) 1−x vertically aligned nanocomposites (VAN). • An ordered arrangement of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoinclusions. • Significant in-field improvement of J c (H//c) in both VAN nanolayer capped and buffered samples. • T c above 90 K and the J c sf maximized at 3.07 MA/cm 2 (75 K) and 9.2 MA/cm 2 (65 K) for 30% Fe 2 O 3 sample. - Abstract: Functional ferromagnetic (Fe 2 O 3 ) x :(CeO 2 ) 1−x vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) layers were deposited as either buffer or cap layers for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ (YBCO) thin films. The composition of Fe 2 O 3 dopants in the VAN nanolayers is controlled at 10%, 30% and 50% in order to create different arrangements of Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanopillars and therefore to tune the flux pining landscapes. The composition variation provides tunable and ordered arrangements of magnetic nanodopants and interfacial defects as pinning centers in the YBCO thin films. The superconducting property measurements show that most doped samples obtain a T c above 90 K and the J c sf measured at 75 K and 65 K maximized at 3.07 MA/cm 2 and 9.2 MA/cm 2 for 30% Fe 2 O 3 VAN doped sample. As the temperature decreased to 5 K, the sample with 50% Fe 2 O 3 VAN doped sample show the best pinning effect due to pronounced magnetic pinning effects. This work demonstrates the tunable density of magnetic pinning centers can be achieved by VAN to meet the specific pinning requirement

  16. Synthesis and photophysical properties of pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} hybrids in solutions and doped-PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; He, Wen-Li; Yu, Hong-Yu [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Hong-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Qian, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djqian@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2} (nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr) hybrids were synthesized and characterized using thermogravimetry, infrared, UV–vis absorption and, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM). The organic substituents immobilized on the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids accounted for approximately 10% of the total weight. Polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200) was found to be the most suitable solvent to suspend the nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids compared to other commonly used organic solvents. FETEM images indicated an average SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle diameter of approximately 12 nm and a 1- to 2-nm thick organic species functionalization layer. Several emission peaks were recorded at wavelengths of 380–580 nm and were designated as emissions arising from either the monomer or excimer of the pyrene substituents. Excimer formation was concentration and solvent polarity dependent, with higher concentrations and a stronger solvent polarity benefiting excimer formation. Further, nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were doped in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films; fluorescence spectra indicated that the excimer could be formed almost exclusively from neighboring nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids. Time-resolved fluorescence decays revealed that the emission lifetimes of nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr monomers and excimers were approximately 190 ns and 65–100 ns in the PEG200 solution, respectively, which was shortened to 0.45 ns to tens of ns in doped PMMA thin films, depending on the nano-hybrid concentration. Thus, the present study not only provides a method to prepare luminescent nano-materials but also a route to investigate excimer formation in solutions and thin films. - Highlights: • Luminescent pyrene-functionalized nano-SiO{sub 2}Pyr hybrids were prepared. • A 1- to 2- nm thick organic functionalization layer on nano-SiO{sub 2} was observed. • Formation of pyrene excimer was concentration and solvent

  17. Preparation and characterization of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid thin-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Shi, Yi; Chen, Haitian; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-08-24

    In the work described in this paper, we have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid thin-film electrodes. These hybrid nanostructured films, with advantages of mechanical flexibility, uniform layered structures, and mesoporous surface morphology, were produced by using a filtration method. Here, manganese dioxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films worked as the positive electrode, and indium oxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films served as the negative electrode in a designed ASC. In our design, charges can be stored not only via electrochemical double-layer capacitance from SWNT films but also through a reversible faradic process from transition-metal-oxide nanowires. In addition, to obtain stable electrochemical behavior during charging/discharging cycles in a 2 V potential window, the mass balance between two electrodes has been optimized. Our optimized hybrid nanostructured ASCs exhibited a superior device performance with specific capacitance of 184 F/g, energy density of 25.5 Wh/kg, and columbic efficiency of approximately 90%. In addition, our ASCs exhibited a power density of 50.3 kW/kg, which is 10-fold higher than obtained in early reported ASC work. The high-performance hybrid nanostructured ASCs can find applications in conformal electrics, portable electronics, and electrical vehicles.

  18. Photophysical properties and energy transfer mechanism of PFO/Fluorol 7GA hybrid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali, E-mail: alasbahibandar@gmail.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sana' a University (Yemen); Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji, E-mail: hafizhj@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin; Flaifel, Moayad Husein [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    Photophysical properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl) (PFO)/2-butyl-6- (butylamino)benzo [de] isoquinoline-1,3-dione (Fluorol 7GA) and energy transfer between them have been investigated. In this work, both PFO and Fluorol 7GA act as donor and acceptor, respectively. Based on the absorption and luminescence measurements, the photophysical and energy transfer properties such as fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}), fluorescence lifetime (τ), radiative rate constant (k{sub r}), non-radiative rate constant (k{sub nr}), quenching rate constant (k{sub SV}), energy transfer rate constant (k{sub ET}), energy transfer probability (P{sub DA}), energy transfer efficiency (η), critical concentration of acceptor (C{sub o}), energy transfer time (τ{sub ET}) and critical distance of energy transfer (R{sub o}) were calculated. Large values of k{sub SV}, k{sub ET} and R{sub o} suggested that Förster-type energy transfer was the dominant mechanism for the energy transfer between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules. It was observed that the Förster energy transfer together with the trapping process are crucial for performance improvement in ITO/(PFO/Fluorol7GA)/Al device. -- Highlights: • The efficient of energy transfer from PFO to Fluorol 7GA was evidenced. • The resonance energy transfer (Förster type) is the dominant mechanism. • Hsu et al. model was used to calculate Φ{sub f}, τ, k{sub r} and k{sub nr} of PFO thin film. • Several of the photophysical and energy transfer properties were calculated. • Trapping process and Förster energy transfer led to improve the device performance.

  19. Tuning the Structure and Ionic Interactions in a Thermochemically Stable Hybrid Layered Titanate-Based Nanocomposite for High Temperature Solid Lubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; Lubbers, Roy; Veldhuis, Sjoerd; Narygina, Olga; Lette, Walter; Schipper, Dirk J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2017-01-01

    Solid inorganic lubricants are thermally stable but they are often limited by their lack of deformability, while organic lubricants have limitations in terms of thermal stability. In this study, a novel solid organic–inorganic nanocomposite lubricant that synergistically combines the

  20. Synthesis of co-polymer-grafted gum karaya and silica hybrid organic–inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite for the highly effective removal of methylene blue

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the adsorption behavior of the nanosilica-containing hydrogel nanocomposite of gum karaya grafted with poly(acrylic acid-acrylamide) (GK-cl-P(AA-co-AAM)) in the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous...

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic property of hybrid graphitic C3N4 and graphitic ZnO nanocomposite: the effects of interface and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Liang, Shuhua; Sun, Shaodong; Zheng, Xing; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-05-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we present a potential new way to improve the photocatalytic efficiency of the g-C3N4 sheet by coupling with the g-ZnO sheet to form heterojunction nanostructure followed by the addition of N atom at an atomic level. The result indicates the g-C3N4/g-ZnO heterojunction is a staggered band alignment (type II) structure and a polarized field is generated by the electrons transfer across the interface simultaneously, which facilitate the separation of e‑–h+ pairs and promote the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, a great difference in energy levels between redox potentials and band edges of the C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposite ensures that the water splitting/CO2 reduction reaction is energetically favored. In addition, through the incorporation of nitrogen dopant, the g-C3N4/N-g-ZnO nanocomposite displays desirable properties. The N-derived doping peak causes a decrease of the band gap width of the g-C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposite, resulting in the enhanced optical absorption from UV into visible light. This theoretical predictions provide insightful outlooks in understanding the effects of interface and doping on the enhanced photocatalytic property of the g-C3N4/g-ZnO nanocomposites, which will assist in engineering highly efficient g-C3N4-based photocatalysts.

  2. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters in...

  3. Hybrid Nanocomposite Photovoltaics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop an innovative solar cell design that combines nanotechnology with conducting polymer...

  4. Tribology of polymeric nanocomposites friction and wear of bulk materials and coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in a

  5. Phase and electrical properties of PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles by a hybrid sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.

  6. A Novel Hybrid Ultramicrotomy/FIB-SEM Technique: Preparation of Serial Electron-Transparent Thin Sections of a Hayabusa Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    the sample connected by an interior tab. tab. Sections are lifted out, attached to TEM grids and thinned to electron transparency. TEM analyses show that our hybrid technique preserves both interior and edge features, including surface modifications from exposure to the space environment, such as damaged rims that form in response to solar wind implantation effects and adhering grains. In addition, the FIB sections provide larger areas that are free of fractures and chatter effects in comparison to the microtome thin sections, thus enabling more accurate measurements of solar flare particle track densities that are used to determine the surface exposure age of the particles.

  7. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bhavana, E-mail: bgupta1206@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mehta, Minisha, E-mail: mehta.mini@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Melvin, Ambrose [Catalysis Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Pune 411008 (India); Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq{sup −1} and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes.

  8. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Mehta, Minisha; Melvin, Ambrose; Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq −1 and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes

  9. Preparation and properties of hybrid monodispersed magnetic α-Fe2O3 based chitosan nanocomposite film for industrial and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay; Srivastava, M; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2011-01-01

    In this study, hydrothermally prepared magnetic α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were dispersed in chitosan (CH) solution to fabricate nanocomposite film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were pure α-Fe2O3 with rhombohedral structures, and the fabrication of CH did not result in a phase change. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that the hexagonal and spherical monodispersed α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were encapsulated into the spherical dumb shaped CH-α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite film with a mean diameter of ∼87 and ∼110 nm respectively. The α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and CH-α-Fe2O3 nanocomposite film were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic measurements revealed that the saturated magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr) of the pure α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles reached 0.573 emu/g and 0.100 emu/g respectively and the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of weak ferromagnetic before and after coating with CH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of sulphone based organic–inorganic hybrid epoxy nanocomposites for advanced engineering applications—Study of the mechanical, thermomechanical, XRD, EDS and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shree Meenakshi, K.; Pradeep Jaya Sudhan, E.; Menon, Prathibha G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel sulphone based tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites were developed for aerospace applications. ► Nano-reinforcements were incorporated and curing was done. ► Excellent results were obtained in the mechanical studies. The nanocomposites developed were flame retardant and hydrophobic. - Abstract: A study was made in the present investigation on sulphone containing tetraglycidyl epoxy nanocomposites to find its suitability for use in high performance applications. The synthesis and characterization of the sulphone tetraglycidyl epoxy resin denoted as ‘B’ was done as reported in our previous study. Nanoclay and POSS-amine nano-reinforcements denoted as N1 and N2 were incorporated into the synthesized epoxy resin. Curing was done with diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) and bis(3-aminophenyl) phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO) curing agents denoted as X and Y respectively. In our current research, we continue this research and study the mechanical, thermo-mechanical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), viscosity, epoxy equivalent weight (EEW) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies.

  11. Nature-Inspired Green Procedure for Improving Performance of Protein-Based Nanocomposites via Introduction of Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Stablized Graphene/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicun Jin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein isolate (SPI provides a potential alternative biopolymer source to fossil fuels, but improving the mechanical properties and water resistance of SPI composites remains a huge challenge. Inspired by the synergistic effect of natural nacre, we developed a novel approach to fabricate high-performance SPI nanocomposite films based on 2D graphene (G nanosheets and 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC using a casting method. The introduction of web-like NFC promoted the uniform dispersion of graphene/CNTs in the biopolymer matrix, as well as a high extent of cross-linkage combination between the fillers and SPI matrix. The laminated and cross-linked structures of the different nanocomposite films were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM images. Due to the synergistic interactions of π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding between the nanofillers and SPI chains, the tensile strength of SPI/G/CNT/NFC film significantly increased by 78.9% and the water vapor permeability decreased by 31.76% in comparison to neat SPI film. In addition, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis light barrier performance, thermal stability, and hydrophobicity of the films were significantly improved as well. This bioinspired synergistic reinforcing strategy opens a new path for constructing high-performance nanocomposites.

  12. Metal Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Søren Vang; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2014-01-01

    We have made SU-8 gold nanoparticle composites in two ways, ex situ and in situ, and found that in both methods nanoparticles embedded in the polymer retained their plasmonic properties. The in situ method has also been used to fabricate a silver nanocomposite which is electrically conductive. Th...

  13. clay nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work deals with the synthesis of specialty elastomer [fluoroelastomer and poly (styrene--ethylene-co-butylene--styrene (SEBS)]–clay nanocomposites and their structure–property relationship as elucidated from morphology studies by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray ...

  14. Antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for controlled growth of hybrid CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop antisolvent-assisted powder engineering for the controlled growth of hybrid inorganic-organic CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3 perovskite thin films. The powders, which are used as the precursors for solution processing, are synthesized by pouring a MAPbI3 precursor solution into various antisolvents, such as dichloromethane, chloroform, diethyl ether, and toluene. Two types of powders having different colors are obtained, depending on the antisolvent used. The choice of the antisolvent used for synthesizing the powders strongly influences not only the phases of the powders but also the morphology and structure of the thin films subsequently fabricated by solution processing. This, in turn, affects the photovoltaic performance.

  15. Synthesis of hybrid chitosan/calcium aluminosilicate using a sol-gel method for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnahrawy, Amany Mohamed [Department of Solid State, Physics Division, National Research Center (NRC), Giza 12622, Cairo (Egypt); Kim, Yong Soo, E-mail: yskim2@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, Ahmed I., E-mail: Ahmed_ali_2010@helwan.edu.eg [Department of Physics and Energy Harvest-Storage Research Center (EHSRC), University of Ulsan, Ulsan 44610 (Korea, Republic of); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Industrial Education & Technology, Helwan University, Cairo 11281 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Hybrid chitosan (CS)/calcium aluminosilicate nanocomposites thin films and membranes were prepared using a sol–gel method with three different concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5, 7 and 10 mol. %). The prepared nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of the prepared samples were analyzed by UV/Vis spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The optical parameters revealed an increase in both the refractive index and band gap of the nanocomposites with increasing Al concentration. In addition, the PL spectra revealed a blue shift that was consistent with an increase in the optical band gap. These results suggest that CS/calcium aluminosilicate in two different forms can be a good candidate for optical sensors applications. - Highlights: • We show a large specific surface area of hybrid CS/calcium aluminosilicate thin films and membranes using sol-gel method. • Inorganic SiO{sub 2}-based phase are perfectly embedded onto chitosan matrix has a reliable stability. • CS/calcium aluminosilicate could be usable for optical sensors, planar waveguide, and bio-sensing.

  16. Novel hybrid light-emitting devices based on MAPbBr3 nanoplatelets:PVK nanocomposites and zinc oxide nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Ping; Chang, Chun-Kai; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Chang, Che-Yu; Chao, Yu-Chiang

    2018-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrate inverted perovskite light-emitting devices (PeLEDs) based on zinc oxide nanorod arrays (ZnO NAs) as the electron transport layer and methylammonium lead bromide nanoplatelets (MAPbBr3 NPLs) as the emissive material for the first time. The polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) was inserted between the ZnO NAs and the MAPbBr3 NPLs layer to reduce the energy barrier and improve the electron injection efficiency. Besides, different weight ratios of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) were blended with MAPbBr3 NPLs to make evenly dispersed nanocomposite films, thereby enhancing the performance of devices. Meanwhile, the photoluminescence of MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK nanocomposite film was increased due to reduced self-quenching and prolonged carrier lifetime. Inverted PeLEDs with the configuration of ITO/PEIE-modified ZnO NAs/MAPbBr3 NPLs:PVK/TFB/Au were fabricated and evaluated, using TFB as the hole transport layer. The current density of the devices containing PVK matrix was significantly suppressed compared to those without PVK. Herein, the best device revealed a max brightness of 495 cd m-2 and a low turn-on voltage of 3.1 V that shows potential use in light-emitting applications.

  17. Quantum dots and nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Herman Sander

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as semiconducting nanoparticles, are promising zero-dimensional advanced materials because of their nanoscale size and because they can be engineered to suit particular applications such as nonlinear optical devices (NLO), electro-optical devices, and computing applications. QDs can be joined to polymers in order to produce nanocomposites which can be considered a scientific revolution of the 21st century. One of the fastest moving and most exciting interfaces of nanotechnology is the use of QDs in medicine, cell and molecular biology. Recent advances in nanomaterials have produced a new class of markers and probes by conjugating semiconductor QDs with biomolecules that have affinities for binding with selected biological structures. The nanoscale of QDs ensures that they do not scatter light at visible or longer wavelengths, which is important in order to minimize optical losses in practical applications. Moreover, at this scale, quantum confinement and surface effects become very important and therefore manipulation of the dot diameter or modification of its surface allows the properties of the dot to be controlled. Quantum confinement affects the absorption and emission of photons from the dot. Thus, the absorption edge of a material can be tuned by control of the particle size. This paper reviews developments in the myriad of possibilities for the use of semiconductor QDs associated with molecules producing novel hybrid nanocomposite systems for nanomedicine and bioengineering applications.

  18. Photocatalytic removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by magnetically separable flower-like BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shengwang [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Hou, Song; Wan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Qiang [Heilongjiang Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Harbin 150056 (China); Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gao, Jianfeng [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: xujian@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • A novel BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanocomposites was prepared for the first time. • BiOBr-BiOI-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) displays superior photocatalytic activity for TBBPA. • Good magnetic property makes it easy for the material’s recovery from solution. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was proposed. • Superoxide radical is the dominant ROS in TBBPA degradation. - Abstract: A novel flower-like three-dimensional BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized using a simple in situ co-precipitation method at room temperature. The hybrid composites were characterized by a couple of techniques including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy, photoluminescence technique, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were perfectly loaded on the surface of BiOBr/BiOI microspheres. The recyclable magnetic BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was employed to degrade TBBPA under visible light irradiation. The optimal removal efficiency of the ternary BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (2:2:0.5) nanocomposite reached up to 98.5% for TBBPA in aqueous solution. The superior photocatalytic activity of BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was mainly ascribed to large surface area and appropriate energy gaps, resulting in the effective adsorption and separation of electrons-hole pairs. The photogenerated reactive species determined by free radicals trapping experiments revealed that the excellent catalytic activity was primarily driven by ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radical. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics and a detailed mechanism were also proposed. Result demonstrated that the BiOBr/BiOI/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} can be magnetically recycled, and maintain high photocatalytic activity after reuse over five cycles. It

  19. Synthesis and luminescence properties of hybrid organic-inorganic transparent titania thin film activated by in- situ formed lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yige; Wang, Li; Li, Huanrong; Liu, Peng; Qin, Dashan; Liu, Binyuan; Zhang, Wenjun; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie

    2008-03-01

    Stable transparent titania thin films were fabricated at room temperature by combining thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)-modified titanium precursors with amphiphilic triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) copolymers. The obtained transparent titania thin films were systematically investigated by IR spectroscopy, PL emission and excitation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. IR spectroscopy indicates that TTFA coordinates the titanium center during the process of hydrolysis and condensation. Luminescence spectroscopy confirms the in-situ formation of lanthanide complexes in the transparent titania thin film. TEM image shows that the in-situ formed lanthanide complexes were homogeneously distributed throughout the whole thin film. The quantum yield and the number of water coordinated to lanthanide metal center have been theoretically determined based on the luminescence data.

  20. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  1. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ε-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  2. Fabrication of new magnetite-graphene nanocomposite and comparison of its laser-hyperthermia properties with conventionally prepared magnetite-graphene hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyebi, Ahmad; Moradi, Shahab; Azizi, Fatemeh; Outokesh, Mohammad; Shadanfar, Kamran; Mousavi, Seyed Sadjad

    2017-01-01

    A single step supercritical method was introduced for synthesis of “magnetite - reduced graphene oxide (M-rGO)” composite in supercritical methanol. Modified surface, smaller size, lesser cytotoxicity, and homogenous dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles on the graphene surface were advantages of this new M-rGO composite in comparison to the materials synthesized by conventional wet chemical method (M-GO). Nanocomposites were injected in tissue equivalent phantoms of agarose gel in 10 mg/g dosage, and were irradiated by a 1600 mW laser beam at wavelength of 800–810 nm. The M-rGO and M-GO were found to be the most and the least efficient samples for increasing the temperature of the phantom. As for mathematical analysis of the heating process, a heat transfer model was developed and solved by the COMSOL Multiphysics software. Results showed an appreciable agreement with the experiments and revealed enhancement in thermal conductivity and light absorption coefficient of tissue by injecting of M-rGO sample. Our findings showed that M-rGO is a promising material for laser hyperthermia, which can deposit adequate heat dose with desirable effect in the tumorous cells in a short period. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 -rGO with modified surface, smaller size and lesser cytotoxicity in supercritical methanol. • Development of a heat transfer model for prediction of tissue temperature in hyperthermia process. • Enhancement in thermal conductivity and light absorption coefficient of tissue by injecting of new magnetic Fe 3 O 4 -rGO. • Application of the nanocomposits in efficient laser hyperthermia in the tumorous cells.

  3. Fabrication of new magnetite-graphene nanocomposite and comparison of its laser-hyperthermia properties with conventionally prepared magnetite-graphene hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayyebi, Ahmad [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Shahab [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, Fatemeh [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Outokesh, Mohammad, E-mail: Outokesh@sharif.ir [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadanfar, Kamran [Medical Committee of Handball Federation of Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyed Sadjad [Department of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    A single step supercritical method was introduced for synthesis of “magnetite - reduced graphene oxide (M-rGO)” composite in supercritical methanol. Modified surface, smaller size, lesser cytotoxicity, and homogenous dispersion of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on the graphene surface were advantages of this new M-rGO composite in comparison to the materials synthesized by conventional wet chemical method (M-GO). Nanocomposites were injected in tissue equivalent phantoms of agarose gel in 10 mg/g dosage, and were irradiated by a 1600 mW laser beam at wavelength of 800–810 nm. The M-rGO and M-GO were found to be the most and the least efficient samples for increasing the temperature of the phantom. As for mathematical analysis of the heating process, a heat transfer model was developed and solved by the COMSOL Multiphysics software. Results showed an appreciable agreement with the experiments and revealed enhancement in thermal conductivity and light absorption coefficient of tissue by injecting of M-rGO sample. Our findings showed that M-rGO is a promising material for laser hyperthermia, which can deposit adequate heat dose with desirable effect in the tumorous cells in a short period. - Highlights: • Synthesis of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-rGO with modified surface, smaller size and lesser cytotoxicity in supercritical methanol. • Development of a heat transfer model for prediction of tissue temperature in hyperthermia process. • Enhancement in thermal conductivity and light absorption coefficient of tissue by injecting of new magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-rGO. • Application of the nanocomposits in efficient laser hyperthermia in the tumorous cells.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of 5 vol.% (Al2O3p + 8 vol.% (Al2O3f/A336 Hybrid Micron and Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Luyang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composites are fabricated by adding two reinforcements into matrix materials so that the expected excellent properties can be achieved through the combined advantages of short fibres, and different size particles (micron or nano, which provide a high degree of design freedom. In this paper, hybrid preforms were produced with the different size reinforcement of the Al2O3 particles and short fibres. The Al-Si alloy-based hybrid composites reinforced by 5 vol. % Al2O3 particles and 8 vol. % Al2O3 fibres were fabricated by preform-squeezing casting route. The structure and performance of composite materials were studied with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The results show that the reinforcements, both particles and fibres, distribute homogeneously in the matrix materials, and the properties of composites are found to improve in comparison with the matrix Al-Si alloy.

  5. Supplementary Material for: Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35–37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15–21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Conclusions Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and

  6. Solvent-induced crystallization for hybrid perovskite thin-film photodetector with high-performance and low working voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Shuzhen; Fan, Peng; Pan, Anlian; Wu, Runsheng; Yang, Junliang

    2017-01-01

    Organometal trihalide perovskites have emerged as a class of solution-processed semiconductors exhibiting remarkable optoelectronic properties. Using a high-quality perovskite thin film prepared by solvent-induced crystallization method and adopting a novel device configuration based on photon recycling effect, a perovskite thin-film photodetector has been constructed with the highest external quantum efficiency of 4.1  ×  10 4 % and responsivity of 219 A W −1 at a low bias of 1 V so far. The device working mechanism was further disclosed based on energy band bending model. The high-performance and low working-voltage perovskite thin-film photodetector will find potential applications in photodetection and optoelectronic integrated circuits. (paper)

  7. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F., E-mail: nilpereira@mackenzie.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Curso de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  8. Study of alteration in the mechanical properties in hybrid nanocomposite of polypropylene/sisal fibers/mineral clay irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Nilson C.; Terence, Mauro C.; Miranda, Leila F.

    2009-01-01

    A new material class formed with reinforced filler, hybrid of organic and inorganic materials provides the technological development of materials with modified properties. And among great numbers of properties that can be modified by presence of hybrid filler to stand out the tension resistance. Polymer shows behavior of tensions and deformation that are not related of simple form. The answer of this material at mechanicals solicitations depends of structural factors and externals variables. As structural factors can be, for example, molecular weight, ramifications and crosslink. As external variables can be, for example, temperature, time or velocity of deformation, kind of solicitation and others. This work was possible to verify as nanostructures materials behavior, mechanically, after were submitted gamma radiation. This work utilized as polymeric matrix, recycled polypropylene, and as hybrid filler, a mixture of montimorillonite mineral clay with natural sisal fibers. It is known that form to magnify the tensile resistance is increase the number of crosslink of principal chain for gamma radiation. After irradiation the polypropylene was crosslinked structures that are result recombination of radicals formed during process of irradiation. It.s known that radicals formed occur preferentially in the amorphous region of polymer. Considering that polymeric matrix polypropylene, without addition fillers suffer strong structural influence when irradiated, was possible verify change in the extension, tensile strength and also maxim tensile in rupture, when this matrix was incorporated with fillers hybrids. (author)

  9. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl 2 O 4 )] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF 6 in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl 2 O 4 exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO 2 coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl 2 O 4 ] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator

  10. Nano-Protrusive Gold Nanoparticle-Hybridized Polymer Thin Film as a Sensitive, Multipatternable, and Antifouling Biosensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Byung-Soo; Ghang, Hyun-Gu; Song, Hyunjoon; Yang, Sung Yun

    2018-04-25

    Hybrid films consisting of anisotropic octahedral gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polymers had their surfaces functionalized and were immobilized on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors for biomolecule detection. Specifically, carboxylated octahedral AuNPs (C-Oh-AuNPs) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were assembled as ultrathin films by using a layer-by-layer process. The ionic strength generated from the functional groups of C-Oh-AuNP and PAH influenced the composition, its surface morphology, and the reactivity of the film toward further chemical reactions such as the synthesis of spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs). We were thus able to control the size and the structure of the C-Oh-AuNP and S-AuNPs converted to nano-raspberry-shaped particles. This hierarchical AuNP hybrid film exhibits much more sensitive and stable detection of biomolecules than regular flat chip systems, and this result may be due to the SPR of the AuNP at its surface being able to markedly enhance the local optical field of the chip. The micropatterning of the hybrid coating was also studied by using a soft lithographic patterning method. We, in particular, worked on creating multiplex patterns having different combinations of shapes and fluorescent colors. We expect our hybrid coating system with multicode biomolecular arrays to be used as a powerful platform for biosensor applications.

  11. Facile Growth of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin-Film by One-Step Pulsed Hybrid Electrophoretic and Electroplating Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Wei; Thomas, Stuart R.; Hsu, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Wen-Chi; Chen, Yu-Ze; Wang, Yi-Chung; Wang, Zhiming M.; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The use of costly and rare metals such as indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) based solar cells has motivated research into the use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) as a suitable replacement due to its non-toxicity, abundance of compositional elements and excellent optical properties (1.5 eV direct band gap and absorption coefficient of ~104 cm−1). In this study, we demonstrate a one-step pulsed hybrid electrodeposition method (PHED), which combines electrophoretic and electroplating deposition to deposit uniform CZTS thin-films. Through careful analysis and optimization, we are able to demonstrate CZTS solar cells with the VOC, JSC, FF and η of 350 mV, 3.90 mA/cm2, 0.43 and 0.59%, respectively. PMID:26902556

  12. Separation performance and interfacial properties of nanocomposite rev