WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid multiprocessor combines

  1. An Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique for bioinformatics sequence alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Talal

    2012-07-28

    Sequence alignment algorithms such as the Smith-Waterman algorithm are among the most important applications in the development of bioinformatics. Sequence alignment algorithms must process large amounts of data which may take a long time. Here, we introduce our Adaptive Hybrid Multiprocessor technique to accelerate the implementation of the Smith-Waterman algorithm. Our technique utilizes both the graphics processing unit (GPU) and the central processing unit (CPU). It adapts to the implementation according to the number of CPUs given as input by efficiently distributing the workload between the processing units. Using existing resources (GPU and CPU) in an efficient way is a novel approach. The peak performance achieved for the platforms GPU + CPU, GPU + 2CPUs, and GPU + 3CPUs is 10.4 GCUPS, 13.7 GCUPS, and 18.6 GCUPS, respectively (with the query length of 511 amino acid). © 2010 IEEE.

  2. Critical Task Re-assignment under Hybrid Scheduling Approach in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Gopalakrishnan T R

    2012-01-01

    Embedded hard real time systems require substantial amount of emergency processing power for the management of large scale systems like a nuclear power plant under the threat of an earth quake or a future transport systems under a peril. In order to meet a fully coordinated supervisory control of multiple domains of a large scale system, it requires the scenario of engaging multiprocessor real time design. There are various types of scheduling schemes existing for meeting the critical task assignment in multiple processor environments and it requires the tracking of faulty conditions of the subsystem to avoid system underperformance from failure patterns. Hybrid scheduling usually engages a combined scheduling philosophy comprising of a static scheduling of a set of tasks and a highly pre-emptive scheduling for another set of tasks in different situations of process control. There are instances where highly critical tasks need to be introduced at a least expected catastrophe and it cannot be ensured to meet a...

  3. Climbing depth-bounded adjacent discrepancy search for solving hybrid flow shop scheduling problems with multiprocessor tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Lahimer, Asma; Haouari, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers multiprocessor task scheduling in a multistage hybrid flow-shop environment. The problem even in its simplest form is NP-hard in the strong sense. The great deal of interest for this problem, besides its theoretical complexity, is animated by needs of various manufacturing and computing systems. We propose a new approach based on limited discrepancy search to solve the problem. Our method is tested with reference to a proposed lower bound as well as the best-known solutions in literature. Computational results show that the developed approach is efficient in particular for large-size problems.

  4. Hybrid Scheduling of Embedded Multi-Processor System%嵌入式多处理器系统混合调度机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 慕德俊; 郭蓝天; 黄兴利; 李刘涛

    2015-01-01

    Generic multi-processor systems in high performance computing applications such as Intel, NVIDIA Tesla systems have been developing rapidly, but their cost and power consumption were soaring;low-end hardware, especially in embedded systems that make up the cluster as an alternative to traditional platforms got attention and rapid development.We discuss a low cost infrastructure and implementation of embedded multiprocessor systems, take advantage of platform features to implement a special MIMD structure,which is capable of supporting a hybrid scheduling system adaptable to different working environments, tasks, and conditions.Test results and their analysis show preliminarily that the system can support a variety of hybrid scheduling policy for scheduling and can signifi-cantly improve the processing power of the system.%通用高性能计算机需求不断增加,传统多处理系统得到了快速发展,但其成本和功耗也大幅攀升,以嵌入式系统构成群集替代传统平台成为未来焦点。讨论了一种成本低廉的嵌入式多处理器系统的基本结构与实现,利用平台特性实现了一种特殊MIMD结构,在集中式工作池的基础上能够支持混合调度机制以适应不同工作环境、任务条件需要。试验结果分析表明,该系统能够支持多种调度机制的混合调度策略,更能够较大幅度提升系统的运算能力。

  5. One-Step Programmable Arbiters for Multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1978-01-01

    When processors in a multiprocessor system demand service from a shared bus in an asynchronous mode, a synchronous state arbiter resolves conflicts and allocates resources. Independent of the combination of requests, only one state transition is required from a free to allocated resource...

  6. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  7. Compiling CIL Rewriting Language for Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田新民; 王鼎兴; 等

    1994-01-01

    The high-level Conpiler Intermediate Language CIL is a general-purpose description language of parallel graph rewriting computational model intended for paralled implementation of declarative languages on multiprocessor systems.In this paper,we first outline a new Hybrid Execution Model(HEM) and corresponding parallel abstract machine PAM/TGR based on extended parallel Graph Rewriting Computational Model EGRCM for implementing CIL language on distributed memory multiprocessor systems.Then we focus on the compiling CIL language with various optimizing techniques such as pattern matching,rule indexing,node ordering and compile-time partial scheduling.The experimental results on a 16-node transputer Array demonstrates the effectiveness of our model and strategies.

  8. The art of multiprocessor programming

    CERN Document Server

    Herlihy, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Revised and updated with improvements conceived in parallel programming courses, The Art of Multiprocessor Programming is an authoritative guide to multicore programming. It introduces a higher level set of software development skills than that needed for efficient single-core programming. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the new principles, algorithms, and tools necessary for effective multiprocessor programming. Students and professionals alike will benefit from thorough coverage of key multiprocessor programming issues. This revised edition incorporates much-demanded updates t

  9. Embedded multiprocessors scheduling and synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, Sundararajan

    2009-01-01

    Techniques for Optimizing Multiprocessor Implementations of Signal Processing ApplicationsAn indispensable component of the information age, signal processing is embedded in a variety of consumer devices, including cell phones and digital television, as well as in communication infrastructure, such as media servers and cellular base stations. Multiple programmable processors, along with custom hardware running in parallel, are needed to achieve the computation throughput required of such applications. Reviews important research in key areas related to the multiprocessor implementation of multi

  10. Multiprocessor scheduling with rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartal, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Leonardi, S.; Marchetti-Spaccamela, A. [Universita di Roma (Italy); Sgall, J. [Mathematical Inst., Zitna (Czechoslovakia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We consider a version of multiprocessor scheduling with the special feature that jobs may be rejected for a certain penalty. An instance of the problem is given by m identical parallel machines and a set of n jobs, each job characterized by a processing time and a penalty. In the on-line version the jobs arrive one by one and we have to schedule or reject a job before we have any information about future jobs. The objective is to minimize the makespan of the schedule for accepted jobs plus the sum of the penalties of rejected jobs. The main result is a 1 + {phi} {approx} 2.618 competitive algorithm for the on-line version of the problem, where 0 is the golden ratio. A matching lower bound shows that this is the best possible algorithm working for all m. For fixed m we give improved bounds, in particular for m = 2 we give an optimal {phi} {approx} 1.618 competitive algorithm. For the off-line problem we present a fully polynomial approximation scheme for fixed m and an approximation algorithm which runs in time O(n log n) for arbitrary m and guarantees 2 - 1/m approximation ratio.

  11. Techniques and tools for efficiently modeling multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, T.; Yalamanchili, S.

    1990-01-01

    System-level tools and methodologies associated with an integrated approach to the development of multiprocessor systems are examined. Tools for capturing initial program structure, automated program partitioning, automated resource allocation, and high-level modeling of the combined application and resource are discussed. The primary language focus of the current implementation is Ada, although the techniques should be appropriate for other programming paradigms.

  12. Optimizing tridiagonal solvers for alternating direction methods on Boolean cube multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.T. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US)); Johnsson, S.L. (Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (US))

    1990-05-01

    Sets of tridiagonal systems occur in many applications. Fast Poisson solvers and Alternate Direction Methods make use of tridiagonal system solvers. Network-based multiprocessors provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional supercomputer architectures. The complexity of concurrent algorithms for the solution of multiple tridiagonal systems on Boolean-cube-configured multiprocessors with distributed memory are investigated. Variations of odd-even cyclic reduction, parallel cyclic reduction, and algorithms making use of data transposition with or without substructuring and local elimination, or pipelined elimination, are considered. A simple performance model is used for algorithm comparison, and the validity of the model is verified on an Intel iPSC/1. For many combinations of machine and system parameters, pipelined elimination, or equation transposition with or without substructuring is optimum. Hybrid algorithms that at any stage choose the best algorithm among the considered ones for the remainder of the problem are presented. It is shown that the optimum partitioning of a set of independent tridiagonal systems among a set of processors yields the embarrassingly parallel case.

  13. Shared performance monitor in a multiprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George; Gara, Alan G; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-12-02

    A performance monitoring unit (PMU) and method for monitoring performance of events occurring in a multiprocessor system. The multiprocessor system comprises a plurality of processor devices units, each processor device for generating signals representing occurrences of events in the processor device, and, a single shared counter resource for performance monitoring. The performance monitor unit is shared by all processor cores in the multiprocessor system. The PMU is further programmed to monitor event signals issued from non-processor devices.

  14. A Multiprocessor Operating System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gary M.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a multiprocessor operating system simulator that was developed by the authors in the Fall semester of 1987. The simulator was built in response to the need to provide students with an environment in which to build and test operating system concepts as part of the coursework of a third-year undergraduate operating systems course. Written in C++, the simulator uses the co-routine style task package that is distributed with the AT&T C++ Translator to provide a hierarchy of classes that represents a broad range of operating system software and hardware components. The class hierarchy closely follows that of the 'Choices' family of operating systems for loosely- and tightly-coupled multiprocessors. During an operating system course, these classes are refined and specialized by students in homework assignments to facilitate experimentation with different aspects of operating system design and policy decisions. The current implementation runs on the IBM RT PC under 4.3bsd UNIX.

  15. Combined photovoltaic and thermal hybrid collector systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Solar energy collectors that produce both electric and thermal energy are an attractive alternative to individual thermal and photovoltaic collectors for certain applications and climates. Economic results from a system analysis indicate that hybrid collector systems are attractive in small buildings that have substantial heating loads. Passively cooled photovoltaic panels are best suited for structures located in regions where year-round air conditioning and small, low-grade, thermal energy demands predominate. Hybrid collectors are to be tested according to ASHRAE standards and a full-system experiment incorporating a photovoltaic array installed at the Solar Energy Research Facility of the University of Texas will be conducted by Lincoln Laboratory.

  16. BEE COLONIES APPLIED TO MULTIPROCESSOR SCHEDULING

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, Nouman

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the high performance, we need to have an efficient scheduling of a parallelprogram onto the processors in multiprocessor systems that minimizes the entire executiontime. This problem of multiprocessor scheduling can be stated as finding a schedule for ageneral task graph to be executed on a multiprocessor system so that the schedule length can be minimize [10]. This scheduling problem is known to be NP- Hard.In multi processor task scheduling, we have a number of CPU’s on ...

  17. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents), 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass,...

  18. ATAMM enhancement and multiprocessor performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, John W.; Mielke, Roland R.; Som, Sukhamoy; Obando, Rodrigo; Malekpour, Mahyar R.; Jones, Robert L., III; Mandala, Brij Mohan V.

    1991-01-01

    ATAMM (Algorithm To Architecture Mapping Model) enhancement and multiprocessor performance evaluation is discussed. The following topics are included: the ATAMM model; ATAMM enhancement; ADM (Advanced Development Model) implementation of ATAMM; and ATAMM support tools.

  19. The structural robustness of multiprocessor computing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Andronaty

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The model of the multiprocessor computing system on the base of transputers which permits to resolve the question of valuation of a structural robustness (viability, survivability is described.

  20. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  2. Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjan van Zanten; Dick van der Steen; Dennis Koole; Ing. Erik Puik; Patrick Wit; Pascal Muller; Leo van Moergestel; Arjan Groenewegen; John-Jules Meyer; Daniël Telgen

    2013-01-01

    Author supplied Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture Dani¨el Telgen 12? , Leo van Moergestel 1 , Erik Puik 1 , Pascal Muller 1 , Arjan Groenewegen 1 , Dick van der Steen 1 , Dennis Koole 1 , Patrick de Wit 1 , Arjen van Zanten 1 , and John-Jules

  3. Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Daniël; Moergestel, Leo van; Puik, Erik; Muller, Pascal; Groenewegen, Arjan; Steen, Dick van der; Koole, Dennis; Wit, Patrick; Zanten, Arjan van; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Author supplied Combining Performance and Flexibility for RMS with a Hybrid Architecture Dani¨el Telgen 12? , Leo van Moergestel 1 , Erik Puik 1 , Pascal Muller 1 , Arjan Groenewegen 1 , Dick van der Steen 1 , Dennis Koole 1 , Patrick de Wit 1 , Arjen van Zanten 1 , and John-Jules Meyer 2 1 Departm

  4. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  5. Combining Online and Hybrid Teaching Environments in German Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Lucrecia

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we briefly offer the main characteristics of a hybrid design for Face-to-Face (FtF) and online German courses in the degree of Translation and Interpreting that combines the textbook with activities moderated with technology. We particularly focus on the activities designed for practicing oral production at level A2.2., where we…

  6. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  7. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  8. Buffered banks in multiprocessor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, K.A.; Robbins, S. [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A memory design based on logical banks is analyzed for shared memory multiprocessor systems. In this design, each physical bank is replaced by a logical bank consisting of a fast register and subbanks of slower memory. The subbanks are buffered by input and output queues which substantially reduce the effective cycle time when the reference rate is below saturation. The principal contribution of this work is the development of a simple analytical model which leads to scaling relationships among the efficiency, the bank cycle time, the number of processors, the size of the buffers, and the granularity of the banks. These scaling relationships imply that if the interconnection network has sufficient bandwidth to support efficient access using high-speed memory, then lower-speed memory can be substituted with little additional interconnection cost. The scaling relationships are shown to hold for a full datapath vector simulation based on the Cray Y-MP architecture. The model is used to develop design criteria for a system which supports 192 independent reference streams, and the performance of this system is evaluated by simulation over a range of loading conditions. 22 refs.

  9. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  10. A reconfigurable optoelectronic interconnect technology for multi-processor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.C.; Cheng, J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Zolper, J.C.; Klem, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a new optical interconnect architecture and the integrated optoelectronic circuit technology for implementing a parallel, reconfigurable, multiprocessor network. The technology consists of monolithic array`s of optoelectronic switches that integrate vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with three-terminal heterojunction phototransistors, which effectively combined the functions of an optical transceiver and an optical spatial routing switch. These switches have demonstrated optical switching at 200 Mb/s, and electrical-to-optical data conversion at > 500 Mb/s, with a small-signal electrical-to-optical modulation bandwidth of {approximately} 4 GHz.

  11. Energy-aware scheduling on multiprocessor platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Multiprocessor platforms play important roles in modern computing systems, and appear in various applications, ranging from energy-limited hand-held devices to large data centers. As the performance requirements increase, energy-consumption in these systems also increases signi cantly. Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS), which allows processors to dynamically adjust the supply voltage and the clock frequency to operate on di erent power/energy levels, is considered an e ective way to achieve the goal of energy-saving. This book surveys existing works that have been on energy-aware task scheduling on DVFS multiprocessor platforms. Energy-aware scheduling problems are intrinsically optimization problems, the formulations of which greatly depend on the platform and task models under consideration. Thus, Energy-aware Scheduling on Multiprocessor Platforms covers current research on this topic and classi es existing works according to two key standards, namely, homogeneity/heterogeneity of multi processo...

  12. Architectural ideotype of pear seedling in five hybrid combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile GHIDRA

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The architectural ideotype - type of growing - was studied in a topcross experiment with five hybrid combinations in which Cluj 72-2-100 selection, typical spur, was used as a maternal tester. The analyzed seedlings were at the end of their sixth year of vegetation. There were no significant differences among the five hybrid combinations concerning the distributions of F1 seedling in the four accepted ideotypes (columnar, spur, standard, and weeping. A high variability was found for ideotype (between 18.8% in Cluj 72-2-100 x Napoca and 34.4% in Cluj 72-2-100 x Red Bartlett. The participation rate of genotype in the phenotypic manifestation of this character is relatively low. The coefficient of heritability in broad sense was 0.29 and the coefficient of heritability in narrow sense was very low, 0.001.

  13. Compiler-directed cache management in multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hoichi; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.

    1990-01-01

    The necessity of finding alternatives to hardware-based cache coherence strategies for large-scale multiprocessor systems is discussed. Three different software-based strategies sharing the same goals and general approach are presented. They consist of a simple invalidation approach, a fast selective invalidation scheme, and a version control scheme. The strategies are suitable for shared-memory multiprocessor systems with interconnection networks and a large number of processors. Results of trace-driven simulations conducted on numerical benchmark routines to compare the performance of the three schemes are presented.

  14. Realtime multiprocessor for mobile ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jungeblut

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC. The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

  15. Scheduling with communication for multiprocessor computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verriet, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Multiprocessor scheduling houdt zich bezig met de planning van de uitvoering van computer-programma s op een parallelle computer. Een computerprogramma kan worden gezien als een collectie instructies die gegroepeerd zijn in taken. Een parallelle computer is een computer met meerdere processoren

  16. Scalable MPEG-4 Encoder on FPGA Multiprocessor SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hännikäinen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available High computational requirements combined with rapidly evolving video coding algorithms and standards are a great challenge for contemporary encoder implementations. Rapid specification changes prefer full programmability and configurability both for software and hardware. This paper presents a novel scalable MPEG-4 video encoder on an FPGA-based multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSOC. The MPSOC architecture is truly scalable and is based on a vendor-independent intellectual property (IP block interconnection network. The scalability in video encoding is achieved by spatial parallelization where images are divided to horizontal slices. A case design is presented with up to four synthesized processors on an Altera Stratix 1S40 device. A truly portable ANSI-C implementation that supports an arbitrary number of processors gives 11 QCIF frames/s at 50 MHz without processor specific optimizations. The parallelization efficiency is 97% for two processors and 93% with three. The FPGA utilization is 70%, requiring 28 797 logic elements. The implementation effort is significantly lower compared to traditional multiprocessor implementations.

  17. Scalable MPEG-4 Encoder on FPGA Multiprocessor SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulmala Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High computational requirements combined with rapidly evolving video coding algorithms and standards are a great challenge for contemporary encoder implementations. Rapid specification changes prefer full programmability and configurability both for software and hardware. This paper presents a novel scalable MPEG-4 video encoder on an FPGA-based multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSOC. The MPSOC architecture is truly scalable and is based on a vendor-independent intellectual property (IP block interconnection network. The scalability in video encoding is achieved by spatial parallelization where images are divided to horizontal slices. A case design is presented with up to four synthesized processors on an Altera Stratix 1S40 device. A truly portable ANSI-C implementation that supports an arbitrary number of processors gives 11 QCIF frames/s at 50 MHz without processor specific optimizations. The parallelization efficiency is 97% for two processors and 93% with three. The FPGA utilization is 70%, requiring 28 797 logic elements. The implementation effort is significantly lower compared to traditional multiprocessor implementations.

  18. Simulation Analysis of Data Sharing in Shared Memory Multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Arch86] J. Archibald and J. Baer, "An Evaluation of Cache Coherence So lutions in Shared-Bus Multiprocessors", ACM Transactions on Computer Systen...Agarwal and A. Gupta, "Memory-Refer ence Olaracteristics of Multiprocessor Applications under MACH", Proceedings of the 1 988 ACM Sigmerrics Conference on...Evaluation of Cache Coherence Solutions in Shared-Bus Multiprocessors", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 4, 4 (November 1986), 273-298. [Baro85

  19. Academic training: Advanced lectures on multiprocessor programming

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2011-01-01

    Academic Training Lecture - Regular Programme 31 October 1, 2 November 2011 from 11:00 to 12:00 -  IT Auditorium, Bldg. 31   Three classes (60 mins) on Multiprocessor Programming Prof. Dr. Christoph von Praun Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences Nuremberg, Germany This is an advanced class on multiprocessor programming. The class gives an introduction to principles of concurrent objects and the notion of different progress guarantees that concurrent computations can have. The focus of this class is on non-blocking computations, i.e. concurrent programs that do not make use of locks. We discuss the implementation of practical non-blocking data structures in detail. 1st class: Introduction to concurrent objects 2nd class: Principles of non-blocking synchronization 3rd class: Concurrent queues Brief Bio of Christoph von Praun Christoph worked on a variety of analysis techniques and runtime platforms for parallel programs. Hist most recent research studies programming models an...

  20. Models and formal verification of multiprocessor system-on-chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Madsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this article we develop a model for applications running on multiprocessor platforms. An application is modelled by task graphs and a multiprocessor system is modelled by a number of processing elements, each capable of executing tasks according to a given scheduling discipline. We present a d...... could verify a smart-phone application consisting of 103 tasks executing on 4 processing elements....

  1. Temporal Partitioning and Multi-Processor Scheduling for Reconfigurable Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popp, Andreas; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    This poster presentation outlines a proposed framework for handling mapping of signal processing applications to heterogeneous reconfigurable architectures. The methodology consists of an extension to traditional multi-processor scheduling by creating a separate HW track for generation of groups...... of tasks that are handled similarly to SW processes in a traditional multi-processor scheduling context....

  2. Dynamically Reconfigurable FFTs for Cognitive Radio on a Multiprocessor Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Walters, K.H.G.; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiprocessor platforms have been proposed as an enabling technology for Cognitive Radio. In this paper, we explore various FFT implementations on a multiprocessor prototype platform as building components for OFDM based Cognitive Radio. The results show that our FFT implementations on the multipro

  3. Resource Allocation Model for Modelling Abstract RTOS on Multiprocessor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Resource Allocation is an important problem in RTOS's, and has been an active area of research. Numerous approaches have been developed and many different techniques have been combined for a wide range of applications. In this paper, we address the problem of resource allocation in the context of...... of modelling an abstract RTOS on multiprocessor SoC platforms. We discuss the implementation details of a simplified basic priority inheritance protocol for our abstract system model in SystemC....

  4. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  5. A Hybrid Combination Scheme for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel hybrid combination scheme in cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS, which utilizes the diversity of reporting channels to achieve better throughput performance. Secondary users (SUs with good reporting channel quality transmit quantized local observation statistics to fusion center (FC, while others report their local decisions. FC makes the final decision by carrying out hybrid combination. We derive the closed-form expressions of throughput and detection performance as a function of the number of SUs which report local observation statistics. The simulation and numerical results show that the hybrid combination scheme can achieve better throughput performance than hard combination scheme and soft combination scheme.

  6. A multiprocessor airborne lidar data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. W.; Bailey, S. A.; Heath, G. E.; Piazza, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    A new multiprocessor data acquisition system was developed for the existing Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL). This implementation simultaneously utilizes five single board 68010 microcomputers, the UNIX system V operating system, and the real time executive VRTX. The original data acquisition system was implemented on a Hewlett Packard HP 21-MX 16 bit minicomputer using a multi-tasking real time operating system and a mixture of assembly and FORTRAN languages. The present collection of data sources produce data at widely varied rates and require varied amounts of burdensome real time processing and formatting. It was decided to replace the aging HP 21-MX minicomputer with a multiprocessor system. A new and flexible recording format was devised and implemented to accommodate the constantly changing sensor configuration. A central feature of this data system is the minimization of non-remote sensing bus traffic. Therefore, it is highly desirable that each micro be capable of functioning as much as possible on-card or via private peripherals. The bus is used primarily for the transfer of remote sensing data to or from the buffer queue.

  7. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-02-23

    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  8. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ferreira Leão; Lisete Chamma Davide; José Marcello Salabert de Campos; Antonio Vander Pereira; Fernanda de Oliveira Bustamante

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and pearl millet (P. glaucum). Tetraploid (AAA'B) and pentaploid (AA'A'BB) chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB) and pearl millet (AA) were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaplo...

  9. Parallel Execution of Prolog on Shared—Memory Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高耀清; 王鼎兴; 等

    1993-01-01

    Logic programs offer many opportunities for the exploitation of parallelism.But the parallel execution of a task incurs various overheads.This paper focuses on the issues relevant to parallelizing Prolog on shared-memory multiprocessors efficiently.

  10. Approximation algorithm for multiprocessor parallel job scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松乔; 黄金贵; 陈建二

    2002-01-01

    Pk|fix|Cmax problem is a new scheduling problem based on the multiprocessor parallel job, and it is proved to be NP-hard problem when k≥3. This paper focuses on the case of k=3. Some new observations and new techniques for P3|fix|Cmax problem are offered. The concept of semi-normal schedulings is introduced, and a very simple linear time algorithm Semi-normal Algorithm for constructing semi-normal schedulings is developed. With the method of the classical Graham List Scheduling, a thorough analysis of the optimal scheduling on a special instance is provided, which shows that the algorithm is an approximation algorithm of ratio of 9/8 for any instance of P3|fix|Cmax problem, and improves the previous best ratio of 7/6 by M.X.Goemans.

  11. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  12. Marketing image categorization using hybrid human-machine combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasambandam, Nathan; Madhu, Himanshu

    2012-03-01

    Marketing instruments with nested, short-form, symbol loaded content need to be studied differently. Image classification in the Web2.0 world can dynamically use a configurable amount of internal and external data as well as varying levels of crowd-sourcing. Our work is one such examination of how to construct a hybrid technique involving learning and crowd-sourcing. Through a parameter called turkmix and a multitude of crowd-sourcing techniques available we show that we can control the trend of metrics such as precision and recall on the hybrid categorizer.

  13. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  14. Aligning multiple protein sequences by parallel hybrid genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Dinh; Yoshihara, Ikuo; Yamamori, Kunihito; Yasunaga, Moritoshi

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a parallel hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the sum-of-pairs multiple protein sequence alignment. A new chromosome representation and its corresponding genetic operators are proposed. A multi-population GENITOR-type GA is combined with local search heuristics. It is then extended to run in parallel on a multiprocessor system for speeding up. Experimental results of benchmarks from the BAliBASE show that the proposed method is superior to MSA, OMA, and SAGA methods with regard to quality of solution and running time. It can be used for finding multiple sequence alignment as well as testing cost functions.

  15. Power Adaptation Based on Truncated Channel Inversion for Hybrid FSO/RF Transmission With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.

  16. Analysis of Photonic Networks for a Chip Multiprocessor Using Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil, Shoaib A; Hendry, Gilbert; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Lee, Benjamin G.; Mohiyuddin, Marghoob; Jain, Ankit; Bergman, Keren; Carloni, Luca; Kubiatowicz, John; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2009-01-31

    As multiprocessors scale to unprecedented numbers of cores in order to sustain performance growth, it is vital that these gains are not nullified by high energy consumption from inter-core communication. With recent advances in 3D Integration CMOS technology, the possibility for realizing hybrid photonic-electronic networks-on-chip warrants investigating real application traces on functionally comparable photonic and electronic network designs. We present a comparative analysis using both synthetic benchmarks as well as real applications, run through detailed cycle accurate models implemented under the OMNeT++ discrete event simulation environment. Results show that when utilizing standard process-to-processor mapping methods, this hybrid network can achieve 75X improvement in energy efficiency for synthetic benchmarks and up to 37X improvement for real scientific applications, defined as network performance per energy spent, over an electronic mesh for large messages across a variety of communication patterns.

  17. Pipelined multiprocessor system-on-chip for multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Haris

    2014-01-01

    This book describes analytical models and estimation methods to enhance performance estimation of pipelined multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs).  A framework is introduced for both design-time and run-time optimizations. For design space exploration, several algorithms are presented to minimize the area footprint of a pipelined MPSoC under a latency or a throughput constraint.  A novel adaptive pipelined MPSoC architecture is described, where idle processors are transitioned into low-power states at run-time to reduce energy consumption. Multi-mode pipelined MPSoCs are introduced, where multiple pipelined MPSoCs optimized separately are merged into a single pipelined MPSoC, enabling further reduction of the area footprint by sharing the processors and communication buffers. Readers will benefit from the authors’ combined use of analytical models, estimation methods and exploration algorithms and will be enabled to explore billions of design points in a few minutes.   ·         Describes the ...

  18. Ordered fast fourier transforms on a massively parallel hypercube multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Charles; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Design alternatives for ordered Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithms were examined on massively parallel hypercube multiprocessors such as the Connection Machine. Particular emphasis is placed on reducing communication which is known to dominate the overall computing time. To this end, the order and computational phases of the FFT were combined, and the sequence to processor maps that reduce communication were used. The class of ordered transforms is expanded to include any FFT in which the order of the transform is the same as that of the input sequence. Two such orderings are examined, namely, standard-order and A-order which can be implemented with equal ease on the Connection Machine where orderings are determined by geometries and priorities. If the sequence has N = 2 exp r elements and the hypercube has P = 2 exp d processors, then a standard-order FFT can be implemented with d + r/2 + 1 parallel transmissions. An A-order sequence can be transformed with 2d - r/2 parallel transmissions which is r - d + 1 fewer than the standard order. A parallel method for computing the trigonometric coefficients is presented that does not use trigonometric functions or interprocessor communication. A performance of 0.9 GFLOPS was obtained for an A-order transform on the Connection Machine.

  19. Partitioning the Conventional DBT System for Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Hui Ma; Hai-Bing Guan; Er-Zhou Zhu; Hong-Bo Yang; Yin-Dong Yang; A-Lei Liang

    2011-01-01

    Noticeable performance improvement via ever-increasing transistors is gradually trapped into a predicament since software cannot logically and efficiently utilize hardware resource, such as multi-core resource. This is an inevitable problem in dynamic binary translation (DBT) system as well. Though special purpose hardware as aide tool, through some interfaces, provided by DBT enables the system to achieve higher performance, the limitation of it is significant, that is, it is impossible to be used widely by another one. To overcome this drawback, we focus on building compatible software architecture to acquire higher performance without platform dependence. In this paper, we propose a novel multithreaded architecture for DBT system through partitioning distinct function module, which is to adequately utilize multiprocessors resource. This new architecture devides couples the common DBT system (DBTs) working routine into dynamic translation, optimization, and translated code execution phases, and then ramifies them into different threads to enable them concurrently executed. In this new architecture, several efficient novel methods are presented to cope with intractable work that puzzles most researchers, such as communication mechanism, cache layout, and mutual exclusion between threads. Experimental results using SPECint 2000 indicate that this new architecture for DBT system can achieve higher performance-speed up the traditional DBT system by about average 10.75%, with better CPU utilization.

  20. Improved Approximations for Multiprocessor Scheduling Under Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Crutchfield, Christopher; Fineman, Jeremy T; Karger, David R; Scott, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents improved approximation algorithms for the problem of multiprocessor scheduling under uncertainty, or SUU, in which the execution of each job may fail probabilistically. This problem is motivated by the increasing use of distributed computing to handle large, computationally intensive tasks. In the SUU problem we are given n unit-length jobs and m machines, a directed acyclic graph G of precedence constraints among jobs, and unrelated failure probabilities q_{ij} for each job j when executed on machine i for a single timestep. Our goal is to find a schedule that minimizes the expected makespan, which is the expected time at which all jobs complete. Lin and Rajaraman gave the first approximations for this NP-hard problem for the special cases of independent jobs, precedence constraints forming disjoint chains, and precedence constraints forming trees. In this paper, we present asymptotically better approximation algorithms. In particular, we give an O(loglog min(m,n))-approximation for indep...

  1. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  2. Coscheduling Technique for Symmetric Multiprocessor Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, A B; Jette, M A

    2000-09-18

    Coscheduling is essential for obtaining good performance in a time-shared symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) cluster environment. However, the most common technique, gang scheduling, has limitations such as poor scalability and vulnerability to faults mainly due to explicit synchronization between its components. A decentralized approach called dynamic coscheduling (DCS) has been shown to be effective for network of workstations (NOW), but this technique is not suitable for the workloads on a very large SMP-cluster with thousands of processors. Furthermore, its implementation can be prohibitively expensive for such a large-scale machine. IN this paper, they propose a novel coscheduling technique based on the DCS approach which can achieve coscheduling on very large SMP-clusters in a scalable, efficient, and cost-effective way. In the proposed technique, each local scheduler achieves coscheduling based upon message traffic between the components of parallel jobs. Message trapping is carried out at the user-level, eliminating the need for unsupported hardware or device-level programming. A sending process attaches its status to outgoing messages so local schedulers on remote nodes can make more intelligent scheduling decisions. Once scheduled, processes are guaranteed some minimum period of time to execute. This provides an opportunity to synchronize the parallel job's components across all nodes and achieve good program performance. The results from a performance study reveal that the proposed technique is a promising approach that can reduce response time significantly over uncoordinated time-sharing and batch scheduling.

  3. Genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass and pearl millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira Leão

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genomic behavior of hybrid combinations between elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum and pearl millet (P. glaucum. Tetraploid (AAA'B and pentaploid (AA'A'BB chromosome races resulting from the backcross of the hexaploid hybrid to its parents elephant grass (A'A'BB and pearl millet (AA were analyzed as to chromosome number and DNA content. Genotypes of elephant grass, millet, and triploid and hexaploid induced hybrids were compared. Pentaploid and tetraploid genomic combinations showed high level of mixoploidy, in discordance with the expected somatic chromosome set. The pentaploid chromosome number ranged from 20 to 34, and the tetraploid chromosome number from 16 to 28. Chromosome number variation was higher in pentaploid genomic combinations than in tetraploid, and mixoploidy was observed among hexaploids. Genomic combinations 4x and 5x are mixoploid, and the variation of chromosome number within chromosomal race 5x is greater than in 4x.

  4. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.; Barradas, A.M.C.; Boer, de J.; Moroni, L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Habibovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), ele

  5. Administering the Hybrid Department: A National Survey of Combined Communications/Theatre Arts Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Royer, Ellen

    1998-01-01

    Studies characteristics of hybrid speech/theater departments that describe themselves as highly cooperative and collegial. Presents perceived advantages and disadvantages of having a combined speech/theater department and results of questions pertaining to administrative difficulties in combined departments. Discusses alternative theories about…

  6. Combined Optimal Sizing and Control for a Hybrid Tracked Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Peng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal sizing and control of a hybrid tracked vehicle is presented and solved in this paper. A driving schedule obtained from field tests is used to represent typical tracked vehicle operations. Dynamics of the diesel engine-permanent magnetic AC synchronous generator set, the lithium-ion battery pack, and the power split between them are modeled and validated through experiments. Two coupled optimizations, one for the plant parameters, forming the outer optimization loop and one for the control strategy, forming the inner optimization loop, are used to achieve minimum fuel consumption under the selected driving schedule. The dynamic programming technique is applied to find the optimal controller in the inner loop while the component parameters are optimized iteratively in the outer loop. The results are analyzed, and the relationship between the key parameters is observed to keep the optimal sizing and control simultaneously.

  7. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Müller; Elmar Wings

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional h...

  8. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Müller; Elmar Wings

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional h...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid ARQ with Code Combining in Packet-Oriented CDMA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENQingchun; FANPingzhi

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an extended SNR (signal to noise ratio) concept is proposed to explicate the contribution of code combining to the performance improvement of hybrid ARQ (Automatic repeat request) over the additive white Gaussian noise channel. By extending the Pursley's SNR analysis to hybrid ARQ with code combining in packet-oriented CDMA (Code division multiple access)system, the extended SNR formula is derived, which describes explicitly the SNR variation of the code symbol involved in code combining. It is revealed that the extended SNR formula includes Pursley's SNR formula as a specialcase. Moreover, it is shown that the effective SNR of the combined symbol is increased by a coefficient, which is proportional to the number of repeated replicas involved in the code combining. Based on the extended SNR formula and the resultant SNR variation, a quasi-analytical approximation method is proposed for the performance evaluation of hybrid ARQ with code combining. The residual error rates, average transmission number together with throughput performance are presented by means of numerical analysis and through simulations. It is validated that the extended SNR formula and the resultant quasi-analytical approximations offer a simplified routine to estimate the performance of hybrid ARQ with code combining, particularly for the applications whose reliability performance with respect to the FEC counterpart system could be numerically calculated or evaluated through simulations.

  10. Hybrid Combined Cycles with Biomass and Waste Fired Bottoming Cycle - a Literature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Miroslav P.

    2002-02-01

    Biomass is one of the main natural resources in Sweden. The present low-CO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the Swedish electricity production system (hydro and nuclear) can be retained only by expansion of biofuel applications for energy purposes. Domestic Swedish biomass resources are vast and renewable, but not infinite. They must be utilized as efficiently as possible, in order to make sure that they meet the conditions for sustainability in the future. Application of efficient power generation cycles at low costs is essential for meeting this challenge. This applies also to municipal solid waste incineration with energy extraction, which should be preferred to its dumping in landfills. Hybrid dual-fuel combined cycle units are a simple and affordable way to increase the electric efficiency of biofuel energy utilization, without big investments, uncertainties or loss of reliability arising from complicated technologies. Configurations of such power cycles are very flexible and reliable. Their potential for high electric efficiency in condensing mode, high total efficiency in combined heat and power mode and unrivalled load flexibility is explored in this project. The present report is a literature study that concentrates on certain biomass utilization technologies, in particular the design and performance of hybrid combined cycle power units of various configurations, with gas turbines and internal combustion engines as topping cycles. An overview of published literature and general development trends on the relevant topic is presented. The study is extended to encompass a short overview of biomass utilization as an energy source (focusing on Sweden), history of combined cycles development with reference especially to combined cycles with supplementary firing and coal-fired hybrid combined cycles, repowering of old steam units into hybrid ones and combined cycles for internal combustion engines. The hybrid combined cycle concept for municipal solid waste

  11. Joint Adaptive Modulation and Combining for Hybrid FSO/RF Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, we present and analyze a new transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on joint adaptive modulation and adaptive combining. Specifically, the data rate on the FSO link is adjusted in discrete manner according to the FSO link\\'s instantaneous received signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). If the FSO link\\'s quality is too poor to maintain the target bit-error-rate, the system activates the RF link along with the FSO link. When the RF link is activated, simultaneous transmission of the same modulated data takes place on both links, where the received signals from both links are combined using maximal ratio combining scheme. In this case, the data rate of the system is adjusted according to the instantaneous combined SNRs. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed adaptive hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the spectral and outage performances of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed adaptive hybrid FSO/RF system with that of switch-over hybrid FSO/RF and FSO-only systems employing the same adaptive modulation schemes. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. Experimental evaluation of multiprocessor cache-based error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Bob; Fuchs, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Several variations of cache-based checkpointing for rollback error recovery in shared-memory multiprocessors have been recently developed. By modifying the cache replacement policy, these techniques use the inherent redundancy in the memory hierarchy to periodically checkpoint the computation state. Three schemes, different in the manner in which they avoid rollback propagation, are evaluated. By simulation with address traces from parallel applications running on an Encore Multimax shared-memory multiprocessor, the performance effect of integrating the recovery schemes in the cache coherence protocol are evaluated. The results indicate that the cache-based schemes can provide checkpointing capability with low performance overhead but uncontrollable high variability in the checkpoint interval.

  13. Facile preparation of hybrid core-shell nanorods for photothermal and radiation combined therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yaoyao; Li, Erdong; Cheng, Xiaju; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Shuanglong; Ge, Cuicui; Gu, Hongwei; Pan, Yue

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy.The hybrid platinum@iron oxide core-shell nanorods with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied for combined therapy. These hybrid nanorods exhibit a good photothermal effect on cancer cells upon irradiation with a NIR laser. Furthermore, due to the presence of a high atomic number element (platinum core), the hybrid nanorods show a synergistic effect between photothermal and radiation therapy. Therefore, the as-prepared core-shell nanorods could play an important role in facilitating synergistic therapy between photothermal and radiation therapy to achieve better therapeutic efficacy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09102k

  14. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  15. An Architecture for Hybrid Manufacturing Combining 3D Printing and CNC Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Müller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. Additive manufacturing processes are often combined with subtractive manufacturing processes to create hybrid manufacturing because it is useful for manufacturing complex parts, for example, 3D printed sensor systems. Currently, several CNC machines are required for hybrid manufacturing: one machine is required for additive manufacturing and one is required for subtractive manufacturing. Disadvantages of conventional hybrid manufacturing methods are presented. Hybrid manufacturing with one CNC machine offers many advantages. It enables manufacturing of parts with higher accuracy, less production time, and lower costs. Using the example of fused layer modeling (FLM, we present a general approach for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into a numerical control for machine tools. The resulting CNC architecture is presented and its functionality is demonstrated. Its application is beyond the scope of this paper.

  16. Combining ptychographical algorithms with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenberg, A P; Coene, W M J; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P

    2016-12-01

    In this article we combine the well-known Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE) with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm. The important insight is that the HIO feedback function should be kept strictly separate from the reconstructed object, which is done by introducing a separate feedback function per probe position. We have also combined HIO with floating PIE (fPIE) and extended PIE (ePIE). Simulations indicate that the combined algorithm performs significantly better in many situations. Although we have limited our research to a combination with HIO, the same insight can be used to combine ptychographical algorithms with any phase retrieval algorithm that uses a feedback function.

  17. COARSE-MESH-ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT OF BILINEAR Q4-PLANE ELEMENT BY THE COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小平; 周天孝

    2003-01-01

    The combined hybrid finite element method is of an intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh-accuracy of lower order displacement schemes. It was confirmed that the combined hybrid scheme without energy error leads to enhancement of accuracy at coarse meshes, and that the combination parameter plays an important role in the enhancement. As an improvement of conforming bilinear Q4-plane element, the combined hybrid method adopted the most convenient quadrilateral displacements-stress mode, i. e.,the mode of compatible isoparametric bilinear displacements and pure constant stresses. By adjusting the combined parameter, the optimized version of the combined hybrid element was obtained and numerical tests indicated that this parameter-adjusted version behaves much better than Q4-element and is of high accuracy at coarse meshes. Due to elimination of stress parameters at the elemental level, this combined hybrid version is of the same computational cost as that of Q4 -element.

  18. A hybrid BCI speller paradigm combining P300 potential and the SSVEP blocking feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Qi, Hongzhi; Wan, Baikun; Yin, Tao; Liu, Zhipeng; Ming, Dong

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proved to be more effective in mental control by combining another channel of physiologic control signals. Among those studies, little attention has been paid to the combined use of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and P300 potential, both providing the fastest and the most reliable EEG based BCIs. In this paper, a novel hybrid BCI speller is developed to elicit P300 potential and SSVEP blocking (SSVEP-B) distinctly and simultaneously with the same target stimulus. Approach. Twelve subjects were involved in the study and every one performed offline spelling twice in succession with two different speller paradigms for comparison: hybrid speller and control P300-speller. Feature analysis was adopted from the view of time domain, frequency domain and spatial distribution; the performances were evaluated by character accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). Main results. Signal analysis of the hybrid paradigm shows that SSVEPs are an evident EEG component during the nontarget phase but are dismissed and replaced by P300 potentials after target stimuli. The absence of an SSVEP, called SSVEP-B, mostly appearing in channel Oz, presents a sharp distinction between target responses and nontarget responses. The r2 value of SSVEP-B in channel Oz is comparable to that of P300 in channel Cz. Compared with the control P300-speller, the hybrid speller achieves significantly higher accuracy and ITR with combined features. Significance. The results indicate that the combination of P300 with an SSVEP-B improves target discrimination greatly; the proposed hybrid paradigm is superior to the control paradigm in spelling performance. Thus, our findings provide a new approach to improve BCI performances.

  19. Chip-Multiprocessor Hardware Locks for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    and may void a task set's schedulability. In this paper we present a hardware locking mechanism to reduce the synchronization overhead. The solution is implemented for the chip-multiprocessor version of the Java Optimized Processor in the context of safety-critical Java. The implementation is compared...

  20. Geometric Algorithms for Private-Cache Chip Multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajwani, Deepak; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We study techniques for obtaining efficient algorithms for geometric problems on private-cache chip multiprocessors. We show how to obtain optimal algorithms for interval stabbing counting, 1-D range counting, weighted 2-D dominance counting, and for computing 3-D maxima, 2-D lower envelopes, and 2...

  1. Communication aware multiprocessor binding for shared memory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adyanthaya, S.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Voeten, J.; Schiffelers, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a three-step binding algorithm for applications in the form of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) of tasks with deadlines, that need to be bound to a shared memory multiprocessor platform. The aim of the algorithm is to obtain a good binding that results in low makespans of the schedules of t

  2. Multi-Constraint multi-processor Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrouzian, A.R.B.; Goswami, D.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Ara, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a Multi-Constraint Resource Allocation (MuCoRA) method for applications from multiple domains onto multi-processors. In particular, we address a mapping problem for multiple throughput-constrained streaming applications and multiple latency-constrained feedback control application

  3. Hybrid simulations : combining atomistic and coarse-grained force fields using virtual sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rzepiela, Andrzej J.; Louhivuori, Martti; Peter, Christine; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid simulations, in which part of the system is represented at atomic resolution and the remaining part at a reduced, coarse-grained, level offer a powerful way to combine the accuracy associated with the atomistic force fields to the sampling speed obtained with coarse-grained (CG) potentials. I

  4. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come for p...

  5. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  6. A Hybrid Approach to Combine Physically Based and Data-Driven Models in Simulating Sediment Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewagudde, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for hybrid modelling of sedimentation in a coastal basin or large shallow lake where physically based and data driven approaches are combined. This research was broken down into three blocks. The first block explores the possibility of approxim

  7. HybridArc: A novel radiation therapy technique combining optimized dynamic arcs and intensity modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada); Thomas, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    This investigation focuses on possible dosimetric and efficiency advantages of HybridArc-a novel treatment planning approach combining optimized dynamic arcs with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beams. Application of this technique to two disparate sites, complex cranial tumors, and prostate was examined. HybridArc plans were compared with either dynamic conformal arc (DCA) or IMRT plans to determine whether HybridArc offers a synergy through combination of these 2 techniques. Plans were compared with regard to target volume dose conformity, target volume dose homogeneity, sparing of proximal organs at risk, normal tissue sparing, and monitor unit (MU) efficiency. For cranial cases, HybridArc produced significantly improved dose conformity compared with both DCA and IMRT but did not improve sparing of the brainstem or optic chiasm. For prostate cases, conformity was improved compared with DCA but not IMRT. Compared with IMRT, the dose homogeneity in the planning target volume was improved, and the maximum doses received by the bladder and rectum were reduced. Both arc-based techniques distribute peripheral dose over larger volumes of normal tissue compared with IMRT, whereas HybridArc involved slightly greater volumes of normal tissues compared with DCA. Compared with IMRT, cranial cases required 38% more MUs, whereas for prostate cases, MUs were reduced by 7%. For cranial cases, HybridArc improves dose conformity to the target. For prostate cases, dose conformity and homogeneity are improved compared with DCA and IMRT, respectively. Compared with IMRT, whether required MUs increase or decrease with HybridArc was site-dependent.

  8. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  9. Research Update: Hybrid energy devices combining nanogenerators and energy storage systems for self-charging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Jaewoo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Choi, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for nanogenerators as energy harvesting devices utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric properties. Most recently, self-charging power units using both nanogenerators and energy storage systems have begun to be investigated for portable and wearable electronics to be used in our daily lives. This review focuses on these hybrid devices with self-charging combined with energy harvesting storage systems based on the most recent reports. In this research update, we will describe the materials, device structures, integration, applications, and research progress up to the present on hybrid devices.

  10. Outage Analysis of Practical FSO/RF Hybrid System With Adaptive Combining

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless transmission. We present and analyze a transmission scheme for the hybrid FSO/RF communication system based on adaptive combining. Specifically, only FSO link is active as long as the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the FSO receiver is above a certain threshold level. When it falls below this threshold level, the RF link is activated along with the FSO link and the signals from the two links are combined at the receiver using a dual-branch maximal ratio combiner. Novel analytical expression for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the received SNR for the proposed hybrid system is obtained. This CDF expression is used to study the system outage performance. Numerical examples are presented to compare the outage performance of the proposed hybrid FSO/RF system with that of the FSO-only and RF-only systems. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  11. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  12. FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION COMBINED WITH IMMUNOFLUORESCENT STAINING FOR RAPID DETECTION OF Nmyc AMPLIFICATION IN NEUROBLASTOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei王伟; Marianne Ifversen; ZHAO Chun-ting赵春亭; WANG Hong-yi汪洪毅; ZHAO Hong-guo赵洪国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method to improve the detection of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of neuroblastoma patients and analysis of cytogenetic aberration. Methods: Immunofluorescent staining was performed using a cocktail of primary monoclonal neuroblastoma antibodies (14.G2a, 5.1H11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied with fluorescent probes specific for Nmyc genes afterwards. A novel computer assisted scanning system for automatic search, image analysis and repositioning of these positive cells was developed. Fifty-six bone marrow and peripheral blood samples from 7 patients were evaluated by this method. Results: Fluorescence in situ hybridization can be combined with immunofluorescent staining in detecting Nmyc amplification in neuroblastoma patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results correlated well with data obtained by conventional cytogenetic procedures. Conclusion: The technique described allows search of tumor cells in the bone marrow as well as detection of Nmyc amplification in interphase nuclei.

  13. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  14. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests. PMID:28336857

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Roland; Abbasi, Mahdi; Figuli, Roxana; Rigdahl, Mikael; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2017-01-24

    The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate) (EBA) nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP) and carbon black (CB). The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  16. "Hybrid" and combined percutaneous and surgical intervention to treat selected cardiac patients: a new strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presbitero, P; Gallotti, R; Belli, G; Franciosi, G; Maiello, L; Nicolini, F; Manasse, E; Citterio, E; Carcagnì, A; Foresti, A

    1999-01-01

    The term "hybrid revascularization" describes the combined use of minimally-invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass and percutaneous coronary revascularization in selected cases. The theoretical advantage of a less invasive surgical intervention must be weighted against the need for additional percutaneous procedures, with their own risks and limitations. We describe our initial experience with hybrid revascularization at the Istituto Clinico Humanitas in Milan. From 7/97 to 10/98, twelve patients underwent hybrid revascularization or a combined percutaneous and surgical intervention. A "classic" hybrid approach, consisting of minimally-invasive direct coronary artery bypass to the left anterior descending coronary artery and angioplasty or stenting of arteries in the right coronary artery or circumflex territories, was used in nine patients. In three patients, myocardial revascularization could be completed with percutaneous procedures after bypass surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (in two patients because of severe aortic calcification) or valve surgery in a patient with two previous bypass operations. In-hospital complications were observed in three patients. Two required urgent median sternotomy (one for impending cardiac tamponade, one for conversion to bypass on extra-corporeal circulation). One patient developed atheroembolism after percutaneous intervention: after hospital discharge, there was a recurrence of symptoms, clinical deterioration with renal failure and eventually death. At a mean follow-up of 152 +/- 91 days (range 17 to 283) after minimally-invasive surgery and 166 +/- 122 days (range 13 to 397) after angioplasty, all surviving patients are well and free of anginal symptoms. Closer collaboration between surgical and interventional operators may offer a novel approach to effective treatment of difficult patient subsets. However, our initial experience suggests that a cautious evaluation of possible risks and benefits must carefully

  17. Hybrid curation of gene–mutation relations combining automated extraction and crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, John D.; Doughty, Emily; Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mishra, Rajashree; Aberdeen, John; Tresner-Kirsch, David; Wellner, Ben; Kann, Maricel G.; Lu, Zhiyong; Hirschman, Lynette

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article describes capture of biological information using a hybrid approach that combines natural language processing to extract biological entities and crowdsourcing with annotators recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to judge correctness of candidate biological relations. These techniques were applied to extract gene– mutation relations from biomedical abstracts with the goal of supporting production scale capture of gene–mutation–disease findings as an open source resource for personalized medicine. Results: The hybrid system could be configured to provide good performance for gene–mutation extraction (precision ∼82%; recall ∼70% against an expert-generated gold standard) at a cost of $0.76 per abstract. This demonstrates that crowd labor platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk can be used to recruit quality annotators, even in an application requiring subject matter expertise; aggregated Turker judgments for gene–mutation relations exceeded 90% accuracy. Over half of the precision errors were due to mismatches against the gold standard hidden from annotator view (e.g. incorrect EntrezGene identifier or incorrect mutation position extracted), or incomplete task instructions (e.g. the need to exclude nonhuman mutations). Conclusions: The hybrid curation model provides a readily scalable cost-effective approach to curation, particularly if coupled with expert human review to filter precision errors. We plan to generalize the framework and make it available as open source software. Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/hybrid-curation-of-gene-mutation-relations-combining-automated PMID:25246425

  18. Queueing analysis of a canonical model of real-time multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C. M.; Shin, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    A logical classification of multiprocessor structures from the point of view of control applications is presented. A computation of the response time distribution for a canonical model of a real time multiprocessor is presented. The multiprocessor is approximated by a blocking model. Two separate models are derived: one created from the system's point of view, and the other from the point of view of an incoming task.

  19. System Study on Hydrothermal Gasification Combined with a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Toonssen, Richard; Aravind, P.V.; Smit, Gerton; Woudstra, Nico; Verkooijen, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The application of wet biomass in energy conversion systems is challenging, since in most conventional systems the biomass has to be dried. Drying can be very energy intensive especially when the biomass has a moisture content above 50 wt% on a wet basis. The combination of hydrothermal biomass gasification and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) gas turbine (GT) hybrid system could be an efficient way to convert very wet biomass into electricity. Therefore, thermodynamic evalu...

  20. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heberle; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a combined heat and power generation (CHP) case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency...

  1. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    Gandzha S.A.; Kiessh I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  2. Energy-Aware Task Partitioning on Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Elsayed; Shalan, Mohamed; Elewi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Efficient task partitioning plays a crucial role in achieving high performance at multiprocessor plat forms. This paper addresses the problem of energy-aware static partitioning of periodic real-time tasks on heterogeneous multiprocessor platforms. A Particle Swarm Optimization variant based on Min-min technique for task partitioning is proposed. The proposed approach aims to minimize the overall energy consumption, meanwhile avoid deadline violations. An energy-aware cost function is proposed to be considered in the proposed approach. Extensive simulations and comparisons are conducted in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The achieved results demonstrate that the proposed partitioning scheme significantly surpasses previous approaches in terms of both number of iterations and energy savings.

  3. Algorithms for semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the classical multiprocessor scheduling problems, it is assumed that the problems are considered in off-line or on-line environment. But in practice, problems are often not really off-line or on-line but somehow in between. This means that, with respect to the on-line problem, some further information about the tasks is available, which allows the improvement of the performance of the best possible algorithms. Problems of this class are called semi on-line ones. The authors studied two semi on-line multiprocessor scheduling problems, in which, the total processing time of all tasks is known in advance, or all processing times lie in a given interval. They proposed approximation algorithms for minimizing the makespan and analyzed their performance guarantee. The algorithms improve the known results for 3 or more processor cases in the literature.

  4. Using Pin as a Memory Reference Generator for Multiprocessor Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C

    2005-10-22

    In this paper we describe how we have used Pin to generate a multithreaded reference stream for simulation of a multiprocessor on a uniprocessor. We have taken special care to model as accurately as possible the effects of cache coherence protocol state, and lock and barrier synchronization on the performance of multithreaded applications running on multiprocessor hardware. We first describe a simplified version of the algorithm, which uses semaphores to synchronize instrumented application threads and the simulator on every memory reference. We then describe modifications to that algorithm to model the microarchitectural features of the Itanium2 that affect the timing of memory reference issue. An experimental evaluation determines that while cycle-accurate multithreaded simulation is possible using our approach, the use of semaphores has a negative impact on the performance of the simulator.

  5. Advanced lectures on multiprocessor programming (1/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Three classes (60 mins) on Multiprocessor Programming Prof. Dr. Christoph von Praun Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences Nuremberg, Germany This is an advanced class on multiprocessor programming. The class gives an introduction to principles of concurrent objects and the notion of different progress guarantees that concurrent computations can have. The focus of this class is on non-blocking computations, i.e. concurrent programs that do not make use of locks. We discuss the implementation of practical non-blocking data structures in detail. 1st class: Introduction to concurrent objects 2nd class: Principles of non-blocking synchronization 3rd class: Concurrent queues Brief Bio of Christoph von Praun Christoph worked on a variety of analysis techniques and runtime platforms for parallel programs. Hist most recent research studies programming models and tools that support transactional synchronization. In prior work, which he also did at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Height...

  6. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Máximo Bertoia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were: (i to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits; (ii to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and (iii to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses (without reciprocals among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes (G, environments (E, and their interactions (GEI. Heritability (H2, and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield (EY and harvest index (HI. High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  7. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis; Máximo; Bertoia; Mónica; Beatriz; Aulicino

    2014-01-01

    Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were:(i) to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits;(ii) to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and(iii) to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses(without reciprocals) among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes(G), environments(E), and their interactions(GEI). Heritability(H2), and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield(EY) and harvest index(HI). High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  8. Thermal Balancing Policy for Multiprocessor Stream Computing Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Mulas, Fabrizio; Atienza, David; Acquaviva, Andrea; Carta, Salvatore; Benini, Luca; Micheli, Giovanni De

    2009-01-01

    Die-temperature control to avoid hotspots is increasingly critical in Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoCs) for stream computing. In this context, thermal balancing policies based on task migration are a promising approach to re-distribute power dissipation and even out temperature gradients. Since stream computing applications require strict quality of service and timing constraints, the real-time performance impact of thermal balancing policies must be carefully evaluated. In this pa...

  9. Cache as point of coherence in multiprocessor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Ceze, Luis H.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Phlip; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2016-11-29

    In a multiprocessor system, a conflict checking mechanism is implemented in the L2 cache memory. Different versions of speculative writes are maintained in different ways of the cache. A record of speculative writes is maintained in the cache directory. Conflict checking occurs as part of directory lookup. Speculative versions that do not conflict are aggregated into an aggregated version in a different way of the cache. Speculative memory access requests do not go to main memory.

  10. Modelling parallel programs and multiprocessor architectures with AXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Fineman, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    AXE, An Experimental Environment for Parallel Systems, was designed to model and simulate for parallel systems at the process level. It provides an integrated environment for specifying computation models, multiprocessor architectures, data collection, and performance visualization. AXE is being used at NASA-Ames for developing resource management strategies, parallel problem formulation, multiprocessor architectures, and operating system issues related to the High Performance Computing and Communications Program. AXE's simple, structured user-interface enables the user to model parallel programs and machines precisely and efficiently. Its quick turn-around time keeps the user interested and productive. AXE models multicomputers. The user may easily modify various architectural parameters including the number of sites, connection topologies, and overhead for operating system activities. Parallel computations in AXE are represented as collections of autonomous computing objects known as players. Their use and behavior is described. Performance data of the multiprocessor model can be observed on a color screen. These include CPU and message routing bottlenecks, and the dynamic status of the software.

  11. A hybrid method for flood simulation in small catchments combining hydrodynamic and hydrological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellos, Vasilis; Tsakiris, George

    2016-09-01

    The study presents a new hybrid method for the simulation of flood events in small catchments. It combines a physically-based two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the hydrological unit hydrograph theory. Unit hydrographs are derived using the FLOW-R2D model which is based on the full form of two-dimensional Shallow Water Equations, solved by a modified McCormack numerical scheme. The method is tested at a small catchment in a suburb of Athens-Greece for a storm event which occurred in February 2013. The catchment is divided into three friction zones and unit hydrographs of 15 and 30 min are produced. The infiltration process is simulated by the empirical Kostiakov equation and the Green-Ampt model. The results from the implementation of the proposed hybrid method are compared with recorded data at the hydrometric station at the outlet of the catchment and the results derived from the fully hydrodynamic model FLOW-R2D. It is concluded that for the case studied, the proposed hybrid method produces results close to those of the fully hydrodynamic simulation at substantially shorter computational time. This finding, if further verified in a variety of case studies, can be useful in devising effective hybrid tools for the two-dimensional flood simulations, which are lead to accurate and considerably faster results than those achieved by the fully hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining physical and statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Huang, Chang-Wei; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Chen, Shing-Ru; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive temperature measurement of tissues deep inside the body has great potential for clinical applications, such as temperature monitoring during thermal therapy and early diagnosis of diseases. We developed a novel method for both temperature estimation and thermal mapping that uses ultrasound B-mode radiofrequency data. The proposed method is a hybrid that combines elements of physical and statistical models to achieve higher precision and resolution of temperature variations and distribution. We propose a dimensionless combined index (CI) that combines the echo shift differential and signal intensity difference with a weighting factor relative to the distance from the heat source. In vitro experiments verified that the combined index has a strong linear relationship with temperature variation and can be used to effectively estimate temperature with an average relative error thermal therapy and could easily be integrated into existing ultrasound systems. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic comparison of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by combination of suppression subtractive hybridization and DNA microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Dongsheng; Qin, Long

    2006-01-01

    a combination of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and comparative genomic hybridization with DNAs from a diverse panel of Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. SSH followed by BLAST analysis revealed 112 SSH fragments specific to strain ATCC29833, compared to the genomic sequence data of Y...

  14. Multi-drug delivery system based on alginate/calcium carbonate hybrid nanoparticles for combination chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Long; Wang, Chao-Qun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Cheng, Si-Xue

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy to prepare nano-sized drug carriers for co-delivery of multiple types of drugs in combination chemotherapy was developed. Inorganic/organic hybrid alginate/CaCO3 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation in an aqueous solution under very mild conditions. A hydrophilic drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and a hydrophobic drug (paclitaxel, PTX) were co-encapsulated in the hybrid nanoparticles. For comparison, PTX loaded nanoparticles and DOX loaded nanoparticles were also prepared. The measurement based on dynamic light scattering indicated all nanoparticles had a mean size less than 200 nm with a relatively narrow size distribution. The morphology of the nanoparticles was observed by TEM. The in vitro drug release study showed that the release of DOX and PTX from the dual drug loaded nanoparticles could be effectively sustained. The tumor cell inhibitory effect of the drug loaded nanoparticles was evaluated in HeLa cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. The dual drug loaded nanoparticles exhibited significantly enhanced cell uptake and nuclear localization as compared with the single drug loaded nanoparticles. As a result, the dual drug loaded nanoparticles had a significantly enhanced cell inhibitory effect, especially for drug resistant tumor cells. These results indicated that alginate/CaCO3 hybrid nanoparticles have promising applications for the co-delivery of drugs with different physicochemical properties in combination chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance.

  15. Development of a Hybrid Atomic Force Microscopic Measurement System Combined with White Light Scanning Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotang Hu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system’s dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system’s good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method.

  16. Combined hybrid functional and DFT+U calculations for metal chalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aras, Mehmet; Kılıç, Çetin, E-mail: cetin-kilic@gyte.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2014-07-28

    In the density-functional studies of materials with localized electronic states, the local/semilocal exchange-correlation functionals are often either combined with a Hubbard parameter U as in the LDA+U method or mixed with a fraction of exactly computed (Fock) exchange energy yielding a hybrid functional. Although some inaccuracies of the semilocal density approximations are thus fixed to a certain extent, the improvements are not sufficient to make the predictions agree with the experimental data. Here, we put forward the perspective that the hybrid functional scheme and the LDA+U method should be treated as complementary, and propose to combine the range-separated Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional with the Hubbard U. We thus present a variety of HSE+U calculations for a set of II-VI semiconductors, consisting of zinc and cadmium monochalcogenides, along with comparison to the experimental data. Our findings imply that an optimal value U{sup *} of the Hubbard parameter could be determined, which ensures that the HSE+U{sup *} calculation reproduces the experimental band gap. It is shown that an improved description not only of the electronic structure but also of the crystal structure and energetics is obtained by adding the U{sup *} term to the HSE functional, proving the utility of HSE+U{sup *} approach in modeling semiconductors with localized electronic states.

  17. Linear and Nonlinear Rheology Combined with Dielectric Spectroscopy of Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites for Semiconductive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kádár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear and nonlinear oscillatory shear, extensional and combined rheology-dielectric spectroscopy of hybrid polymer nanocomposites for semiconductive applications were investigated in this study. The main focus was the influence of processing conditions on percolated poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate (EBA nanocomposite hybrids containing graphite nanoplatelets (GnP and carbon black (CB. The rheological response of the samples was interpreted in terms of dispersion properties, filler distortion from processing, filler percolation, as well as the filler orientation and distribution dynamics inside the matrix. Evidence of the influence of dispersion properties was found in linear viscoelastic dynamic frequency sweeps, while the percolation of the nanocomposites was detected in nonlinearities developed in dynamic strain sweeps. Using extensional rheology, hybrid samples with better dispersion properties lead to a more pronounced strain hardening behavior, while samples with a higher volume percentage of fillers caused a drastic reduction in strain hardening. The rheo-dielectric time-dependent response showed that in the case of nanocomposites containing only GnP, the orientation dynamics leads to non-conductive samples. However, in the case of hybrids, the orientation of the GnP could be offset by the dispersing of the CB to bridge the nanoplatelets. The results were interpreted in the framework of a dual PE-BA model, where the fillers would be concentrated mainly in the BA regions. Furthermore, better dispersed hybrids obtained using mixing screws at the expense of filler distortion via extrusion processing history were emphasized through the rheo-dielectric tests.

  18. Performance of astronomical beam combiner prototypes fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Askari; Leite, A M P; Alexandre, D; Reynaud, F; Marques, P V S; Garcia, P J V; Moreira, P J

    2010-04-26

    Integrated optics coaxial two, three and four telescope beam combiners have been fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology for astronomical applications. Temporal and spectral analyses of the output interferometric signal have been performed, and their results are in mutual good agreement. The results of the characterization method employed are cross-checked using contrast measurements obtained independently, demonstrating that the chromatic differential dispersion is the main contributer to contrast reduction. The mean visibility of the fabricated devices is always higher than 95 %, obtained using a source with spectral bandwidth of 50 nm. These results show the capability of hybrid sol-gel technology for fast prototyping of complex chip designs used in astronomical applications.

  19. Quality-Driven Model-Based Design of MultiProcessor Embedded Systems for Highlydemanding Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozwiak, Lech; Madsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    opportunities have been created. The traditional applications can be served much better and numerous new sorts of embedded systems became technologically feasible and economically justified. Various monitoring, control, communication or multi-media systems that can be put on or embedded in (mobile, poorly...... unusual silicon and system complexity. The combination of the huge complexity with the stringent application requirements results in numerous serious design and development challenges, such as: accounting in design for more aspects and changed relationships among aspects, complex multi-objective MPSo......The recent spectacular progress in modern nano-dimension semiconductor technology enabled implementation of a complete complex multi-processor system on a single chip (MPSoC), global networking and mobile wire-less communication, and facilitated a fast progress in these areas. New important...

  20. Implementation of 3D Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation on a Cluster of Symmetric Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷咏梅; 蒋英; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to parallelize 3D lattice Monte Carlo algorithms used in the numerical simulation of polymer on ZiQiang 2000-a cluster of symmetric multiprocessors(SMPs).The combined load for cell and energy calculations over the time step is balanced together to form a single spatial decomposition.Basic aspects and strategies of running Monte Carlo calculations on parallel computers are studied.Different steps involved in porting the software on a parallel architecture based on ZiQiang 2000 running under Linux and MPI are described briefly.It is found that parallelization becomes more advantageous when either the lattice is very large or the model contains many cells and chains.

  1. Hybrid simulations: combining atomistic and coarse-grained force fields using virtual sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepiela, Andrzej J; Louhivuori, Martti; Peter, Christine; Marrink, Siewert J

    2011-06-14

    Hybrid simulations, in which part of the system is represented at atomic resolution and the remaining part at a reduced, coarse-grained, level offer a powerful way to combine the accuracy associated with the atomistic force fields to the sampling speed obtained with coarse-grained (CG) potentials. In this work we introduce a straightforward scheme to perform hybrid simulations, making use of virtual sites to couple the two levels of resolution. With the help of these virtual sites interactions between molecules at different levels of resolution, i.e. between CG and atomistic molecules, are treated the same way as the pure CG-CG interactions. To test our method, we combine the Gromos atomistic force field with a number of coarse-grained potentials, obtained through several approaches that are designed to obtain CG potentials based on an existing atomistic model, namely iterative Boltzmann inversion, force matching, and a potential of mean force subtraction procedure (SB). We also explore the use of the MARTINI force field for the CG potential. A simple system, consisting of atomistic butane molecules dissolved in CG butane, is used to study the performance of our hybrid scheme. Based on the potentials of mean force for atomistic butane in CG solvent, and the properties of 1:1 mixtures of atomistic and CG butane which should exhibit ideal mixing behavior, we conclude that the MARTINI and SB potentials are particularly suited to be combined with the atomistic force field. The MARTINI potential is subsequently used to perform hybrid simulations of atomistic dialanine peptides in both CG butane and water. Compared to a fully atomistic description of the system, the hybrid description gives similar results provided that the dielectric screening of water is accounted for. Within the field of biomolecules, our method appears ideally suited to study e.g. protein-ligand binding, where the active site and ligand are modeled in atomistic detail and the rest of the protein

  2. Edge turbulence measurement in Heliotron J using a combination of hybrid probe system and fast cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, N., E-mail: nishino@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Zang, L. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [JAEA, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizuuchi, T.; Ohshima, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasajima, K.; Sha, M. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Mukai, K. [NIFS, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Lee, H.Y. [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The hybrid probe system (a combination of Langmuir probes and magnetic probes), fast camera and gas puffing system were installed at the same toroidal section to study edge plasma turbulence/fluctuation in Heliotron J, especially blob (intermittent filament). Fast camera views the location of the probe head, so that the probe system yields the time evolution of the turbulence/fluctuation while the camera images the spatial profile. Gas puff at the same toroidal section was used to control the plasma density and simultaneous gas puff imaging technique. Using this combined system the filamentary structure associated with magnetic fluctuation was found in Heliotron J at the first time. The other kind of fluctuation was also observed at another experiment. This combination measurement enables us to distinguish MHD activity and electro-static activity.

  3. Cyclic executive for safety-critical Java on chip-multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    , that uses model checking to find a static schedule, if one exists at all, which gives an implementation of a table driven multiprocessor scheduler. To evaluate the proposed cyclic executive for multiprocessors we have implemented it in the context of safety-critical Java on a Java processor....

  4. A system-level design method for cognitive radio on a reconfigurable multi-processor architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The future trend of software defined radio (SDR) platforms moves toward reconfigurable Multiprocessor System-on−Chips (MPSoCs). However, there is a gap between the modelling of the dynamic radio applications and the optimized implementation of the application on reconfigurable multiprocessor archite

  5. An integrated hybrid system for genetic analysis combining EWOD sample preparation and magnetic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Des; Dinca, Mihai; Aherne, Margaret; Galvin, Paul [Tyndall National Institute, University College, Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Jary, Dorothee; Peponnet, Christine [CEA-LETI, Department of Technology for Biology and Health, 17 Avenue Des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Cardosa, Filipe; Freitas, Paolo, E-mail: des.brennan@tyndall.ie [INESC-MN, Rua Alves Redol, 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-08-17

    Over the last decade microelectronic technologies have delivered significant advances in devices for point of care diagnostics. Complex microfluidic systems integrate components such as valves, pumps etc. to manipulate liquids. In recent years, the drive is to combine biochemical protocols in a single system, delivering 'sample in answer out'. An Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) device offers the possibility to move and manipulate 64nl volumes implementing biochemical processes, while the magnetic sensor facilitates hybridisation detection. We outline an injection molding approach where EWOD and magnetic devices are integrated into a hybrid microfluidic system with the potential to implement 'sample in answer out' biological protocols.

  6. An integrated hybrid system for genetic analysis combining EWOD sample preparation and magnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Des; Jary, Dorothee; Peponnet, Christine; Cardosa, Filipe; Freitas, Paolo; Dinca, Mihai; Aherne, Margaret; Galvin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Over the last decade microelectronic technologies have delivered significant advances in devices for point of care diagnostics. Complex microfluidic systems integrate components such as valves, pumps etc. to manipulate liquids. In recent years, the drive is to combine biochemical protocols in a single system, delivering "sample in answer out". An Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) device offers the possibility to move and manipulate 64nl volumes implementing biochemical processes, while the magnetic sensor facilitates hybridisation detection. We outline an injection molding approach where EWOD and magnetic devices are integrated into a hybrid microfluidic system with the potential to implement "sample in answer out" biological protocols.

  7. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandzha S.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric machine. The machine was modeled using Solidworks program for creating design and Maxwell program for the magnetic field analysis. The result of tests is shown as well.

  8. Combining ability studies for yield and yield components trait in hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Padmavathi, P.V. Satyanarayana , Lal Ahamed M.,Y. Ashoka Rani and V. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifty two hybrids were generated from crossing four CMS lines and thirteen restorer lines in line x tester design. Crosses along with parents were evaluated for yield and yield component traits during rabi, 2011 at RARS, Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Predominance of non additive gene action was recorded for all the characters. Among CMS lines APMS 9A andAPMS 10A and in testers viz., MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1, MTU II -187-6-1-1, MTU II-143-26-2, MTU II-290-42-1 and MTU II-283-7-1-1 were found to be good general combiners for grain yield and yield component traits. The crosses APMS 10A x MTU II-290-42-1, APMS 6A x MTU II -187-6-1-1 and PMS 6A x MTU II-110-9-1-1-1-1 were identified as most promising hybrids for grain yield plant-1. These hybrids can be tested over locations before their commercial cultivation.

  9. Performance Characteristics of Hybrid Cycle Combined Absorption Heat Transformer and Absorption Refrigerating Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Otsuka, Shin-Ichi; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of hybrid cycles which combined the single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and four kinds of absorption heat transformers were proposed. It is possible that each of these hybrid cycles gets high temperature and low temperature from one cycle, simultaneously. As basic cycle of absorption heat transformer, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption heat transformer and two kinds of two-stage absorption heat transformer. As a working medium-absorbent system, H2O-LiBr system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3 system, H2O-LiBr-LiNO3-LiCl system, H2O-LiBr-C2H6O2 system and H2O-LiNO3-LiCl system were adopted. Using these five kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  10. Aesthethic and masticatory rehabilitation on post mandibular resection with combination of hollow obturator and hybrid prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rachman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replacing tooth lost caused by caries, periodontal disease, trauma and neoplasm including ameloblastoma which requires mandibular resection is important. Purpose: The aim of the study to rehabilitation of post mandibular resection with combination of hollow obturator and hybrid prosthesis. Case: A patient 25 years old, male, for having prosthesis to cover defect due to post right mandibular resection. Case Management: In this presented case, mandibular plate was applied due to spreading defect with losing almost a half body of mandible (class II modification 2 according to cantor and curtis classification. The design of therapy was mandibular obturator using hybrid prosthesis (removable partial denture metal frame and fixed splint crown with precision attachment with hollow obturator. The application was based on several advantages: good aesthetic performance, retention, stability, lighter weight and equal share of vertical load for teeth on non surgical site. The result of control I, II, III, showed that aesthetic performance, masticatory function, speech and swallowing were in good condition. Conclusion: The design of mandibular obturator using hybrid denture with hollow obturator could rehabilitate aesthetic performance, masticatory function, speech and swallowing for patient with post mandibular resection.

  11. Programmable partitioning for high-performance coherence domains in a multiprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2011-01-25

    A multiprocessor computing system and a method of logically partitioning a multiprocessor computing system are disclosed. The multiprocessor computing system comprises a multitude of processing units, and a multitude of snoop units. Each of the processing units includes a local cache, and the snoop units are provided for supporting cache coherency in the multiprocessor system. Each of the snoop units is connected to a respective one of the processing units and to all of the other snoop units. The multiprocessor computing system further includes a partitioning system for using the snoop units to partition the multitude of processing units into a plurality of independent, memory-consistent, adjustable-size processing groups. Preferably, when the processor units are partitioned into these processing groups, the partitioning system also configures the snoop units to maintain cache coherency within each of said groups.

  12. Individual and combined (Plus-hybrid effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Bozinovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plus-hybrid effect refere to a combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS and xenia in maize (Zea mays L. It could be used in commercial production by growing a mixture of 80% CMS hybrid and 20% of another fertile hybrid. The aim of this research was to examine individual and combined CMS and xenia effects on two hybrids widely grown in Serbia. Sterile and fertile versions of ZP 1 and ZP 2 hybrids (three-way; Iodent x Lancaster dents were used as females, while ZP 1, ZP 2, ZP 3, ZP 4, and ZP 5 (three-way or single cross; Iodent (BSSS x Lancaster dents were used as pollinators. All of them belong to medium maturity group. The trial was set up at one location in Serbia (Zemun Polje in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Molecular analysis of the five genotypes was done using simple sequence repeat (SSR primers. Plus-hybrid effect on grain yield ranged from -6.2% to 6.2%; on thousand kernel weight from -1.7% to 5.2%; on number of kernels per area from -1.0% to 8.0%. The poor response could be due to a use of three-way instead of single cross hybrids in S type of sterility. Modified Rogers' distance between hybrids was in the range 0.211 to 0.378 and was not relevant for the effect, which depended mostly on the sterile hybrid genotype and the fertile hybrid pollinator ability. This approach should be more suitable for female hybrids with slightly poorer performance, already being produced on a sterile base.

  13. Optimized Parallel Execution of Declarative Programs on Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈美明; 田新民; 等

    1993-01-01

    In this paper,we focus on the compiling implementation of parlalel logic language PARLOG and functional language ML on distributed memory multiprocessors.Under the graph rewriting framework, a Heterogeneous Parallel Graph Rewriting Execution Model(HPGREM)is presented firstly.Then based on HPGREM,a parallel abstact machine PAM/TGR is described.Furthermore,several optimizing compilation schemes for executing declarative programs on transputer array are proposed.The performance statistics on transputer array demonstrate the effectiveness of our model,parallel abstract machine,optimizing compilation strategies and compiler.

  14. Chip Multiprocessor Architecture Techniques to Improve Throughput and Latency

    CERN Document Server

    Olukotun, Kunle

    2007-01-01

    Chip multiprocessors - also called multi-core microprocessors or CMPs for short - are now the only way to build high-performance microprocessors, for a variety of reasons. Large uniprocessors are no longer scaling in performance, because it is only possible to extract a limited amount of parallelism from a typical instruction stream using conventional superscalar instruction issue techniques. In addition, one cannot simply ratchet up the clock speed on today's processors, or the power dissipation will become prohibitive in all but water-cooled systems. Compounding these problems is the simple

  15. Multiprocessor system with multiple concurrent modes of execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Daniel; Ceze, Luis H.; Chen, Dong Chen; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-11-22

    A multiprocessor system supports multiple concurrent modes of speculative execution. Speculation identification numbers (IDs) are allocated to speculative threads from a pool of available numbers. The pool is divided into domains, with each domain being assigned to a mode of speculation. Modes of speculation include TM, TLS, and rollback. Allocation of the IDs is carried out with respect to a central state table and using hardware pointers. The IDs are used for writing different versions of speculative results in different ways of a set in a cache memory.

  16. Error Recovery in a Real—Time Multiprocessor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫华; 袁由光

    1992-01-01

    In this paper,a new scheme for recovering errors due to transient faults in a real-time multiprocessor system is presented.The scheme,called dynamic redundancy at the task level,is implemented in a real-time multitasking environment,Utilizing the facilities in the operating system,the scheme makes backup tasks for the primary tasks as redundancy.The paper introdues an algorithm to generate a fault tolerant schedule for the tasks so that they recover errors as retry of checkpointing does.A reliability model is proposed to evahuste the effectiveness of the scheme.

  17. Inter Processor Communication for Fault Diagnosis in Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Malleswar

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In the preseJlt paper a simple technique is proposed for fault diagnosis for multiprocessor and multiple system environments, wherein all microprocessors in the system are used in part to check the health of their neighbouring processors. It involves building simple fail-safe serial communication links between processors. Processors communicate with each other over these links and each processor is made to go through certain sequences of actions intended for diagnosis, under the observation of another processor .With limited overheads, fault detection can be done by this method. Also outlined are some of the popular techniques used for health check of processor-based systems.

  18. Multifunctional hybrids by combining ordered mesoporous materials and macromolecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2011-02-01

    This critical review presents and discusses the recent advances in complex hybrid materials that result from the combination of polymers and mesoporous matrices. Ordered mesoporous materials derived from supramolecular templating present high surface area and tailored pore sizes; pore surfaces can be further modified by organic, organometallic or even biologically active functional groups. This permits the creation of hybrid systems with distinct physical properties or chemical functions located in the framework walls, the pore surface, and the pore interior. Bringing polymeric building blocks into the game opens a new dimension: the possibility to create phase separated regions (functional domains) within the pores that can behave as "reactive pockets" of nanoscale size, with highly controlled chemistry and interactions within restricted volumes. The possibilities of combining "hard" and "soft" building blocks to yield these novel nanocomposite materials with tuneable functional domains ordered in space are potentially infinite. New properties are bound to arise from the synergy of both kinds of components, and their spatial location. The main object of this review is to report on new approaches towards functional polymer-inorganic mesostructured hybrids, as well as to discuss the present challenges in this flourishing research field. Indeed, the powerful concepts resulting from the synergy of sol-gel processing, supramolecular templating and polymer chemistry open new opportunities in the design of advanced functional materials: the tailored production of complex matter displaying spatially-addressed chemistry based on the control of chemical topology. Breakthrough applications are expected in the fields of sustainable energy, environment sensing and remediation, biomaterials, pharmaceutical industry and catalysis, among others (221 references).

  19. Hybrid reactor based on combined cavitation and ozonation: from concept to practical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, P R; Mededovic-Thagard, S; McGuire, D; Chapas, G; Blackmon, J; Cathey, R

    2014-03-01

    The present work gives an in depth discussion related to the development of a hybrid advanced oxidation reactor, which can be effectively used for the treatment of various types of water. The reactor is based on the principle of intensifying degradation/disinfection using a combination of hydrodynamic cavitation, acoustic cavitation, ozone injection and electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Theoretical studies have been presented to highlight the uniform distribution of the cavitational activity and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals in the cavitation zone, as well as higher turbulence in the main reactor zone. The combination of these different oxidation technologies have been shown to result in enhanced water treatment ability, which can be attributed to the enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals, enhanced contact of ozone and contaminants, and the elimination of mass transfer resistances during electrochemical oxidation/precipitation. Compared to the use of individual approaches, the hybrid reactor is expected to intensify the treatment process by 5-20 times, depending on the application in question, which can be confirmed based on the literature illustrations. Also, the use of Ozonix® has been successfully proven while processing recycled fluids at commercial sites on over 750 oil and natural gas wells during hydraulic operations around the United States. The superiority of the hybrid process over conventional chemical treatments in terms of bacteria and scale reduction as well as increased water flowability and better chemical compatibility, which is a key requirement for oil and gas applications, has been established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-01

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  1. Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Chang, Jae-Byum; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Aleman, Julio; Batzaya, Byambaa; Krishnadoss, Vaishali; Ramanujam, Aishwarya Aravamudhan; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Boyden, Edward S; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-03-15

    To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such "hybrid microscopy" methods--combining physical and optical magnifications--can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes ("mini-microscopes"), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics--a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)--is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.

  2. Combining ability analysis for yield and fibre quality parameters in intraspecific hybrids of G. hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Saravanan, N.A., R. Ravikesavan and T.S. Raveendran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four genetically diverse jassid resistant varieties viz., SRT 1, Khandwa 2, KC 2 and SVPR 3 (Females i.e lines were crossedwith three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7 and MCU 12 (male parents i.e., testers in line x tester fashion for estimationin combining ability effects of twelve economic characters including fibre quality traits like 2.5% span length, bundle strength,fibre fineness, uniformity ratio and elongation percentage. Non-additive type of gene action was found relatively more importantfor all the characters. The jassid resistant parent KC 2 was a good combiner for boll weight, lint index, seed index and bundlestrength besides seed cotton yield. While the parents SRT 1 and MCU 5 were found to be good general combiner for 2.5 per centspan length. On the basis of sca effects the combinations KC 2 x MCU 5, KC 2 x MCU 12 and Khandwa 2 x MCU 5 were thebest hybrids for combining high yield, quality and jassid resistance.

  3. FROM ENERGY IMPROVEMENT TO ACCURACY ENHANCEMENT:IMPROVEMENT OF PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS BY THE COMBINED HYBRID METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping Xie

    2004-01-01

    By following the geometric point of view in mechanics, a novel expression of the combined hybrid method for plate bending problems is introduced to clarify its intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh accuracy of conforming or nonconforming plate elements.By adjusting the combination parameter α∈ (0, 1) and adopting appropriate bending moments modes, reduction of energy error for the discretized displacement model leads to enhanced numerical accuracy. As an application, improvement of Adini's rectangle is discussed. Numerical experiments show that the combined hybrid counterpart of Adini's element is capable of attaining high accuracy at coarse meshes.

  4. Elastic pointer directory organization for scalable shared memory multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhang Liu; Mingfa Zhu; Limin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    In the field of supercomputing, one key issue for scal-able shared-memory multiprocessors is the design of the directory which denotes the sharing state for a cache block. A good direc-tory design intends to achieve three key attributes: reasonable memory overhead, sharer position precision and implementation complexity. However, researchers often face the problem that gain-ing one attribute may result in losing another. The paper proposes an elastic pointer directory (EPD) structure based on the analysis of shared-memory applications, taking the fact that the number of sharers for each directory entry is typical y smal . Analysis re-sults show that for 4 096 nodes, the ratio of memory overhead to the ful-map directory is 2.7%. Theoretical analysis and cycle-accurate execution-driven simulations on a 16 and 64-node cache coherence non uniform memory access (CC-NUMA) multiproces-sor show that the corresponding pointer overflow probability is reduced significantly. The performance is observed to be better than that of a limited pointers directory and almost identical to the ful-map directory, except for the slight implementation complex-ity. Using the directory cache to explore directory access locality is also studied. The experimental result shows that this is a promis-ing approach to be used in the state-of-the-art high performance computing domain.

  5. Instrumentation, performance visualization, and debugging tools for multiprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Fineman, Charles E.; Hontalas, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    The need for computing power has forced a migration from serial computation on a single processor to parallel processing on multiprocessor architectures. However, without effective means to monitor (and visualize) program execution, debugging, and tuning parallel programs becomes intractably difficult as program complexity increases with the number of processors. Research on performance evaluation tools for multiprocessors is being carried out at ARC. Besides investigating new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and presenting the state of parallel program execution in a coherent and user-friendly manner, prototypes of software tools are being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware testbeds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Our current tool set, the Ames Instrumentation Systems (AIMS), incorporates features from various software systems developed in academia and industry. The execution of FORTRAN programs on the Intel iPSC/860 can be automatically instrumented and monitored. Performance data collected in this manner can be displayed graphically on workstations supporting X-Windows. We have successfully compared various parallel algorithms for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications in collaboration with scientists from the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Systems Division. By performing these comparisons, we show that performance monitors and debuggers such as AIMS are practical and can illuminate the complex dynamics that occur within parallel programs.

  6. Hardware support for CSP on a Java chip multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruian, Flavius; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to memory bandwidth limitations, chip multiprocessors (CMPs) adopting the convenient shared memory model for their main memory architecture scale poorly. On-chip core-to-core communication is a solution to this problem, that can lead to further performance increase for a number of multithread......, depending on the communication and memory configuration. Application speed-up, on the other hand, is highly dependent on the type of processing, as our measurements show.......Due to memory bandwidth limitations, chip multiprocessors (CMPs) adopting the convenient shared memory model for their main memory architecture scale poorly. On-chip core-to-core communication is a solution to this problem, that can lead to further performance increase for a number of multithreaded......-chip communication channels, implemented by a ring-based network-on-chip (NoC), to reduce the memory bandwidth pressure on the shared memory.The presented solution is scalable and also specific for our limited resources and real-time predictability requirements. CMP architectures of three to eight processors were...

  7. Energy-Efficient Multiprocessor Scheduling for Flow Time and Makespan

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongyang; Hsu, Wen-Jing

    2010-01-01

    We consider energy-efficient scheduling on multiprocessors, where the speed of each processor can be individually scaled, and a processor consumes power $s^{\\alpha}$ if it runs at speed $s$, where $\\alpha>1$. A scheduling algorithm needs to decide both processor allocations and speeds for a set of parallel jobs whose parallelism can vary with time. The objective is to minimize the sum of overall energy consumption and some performance metric, which in this paper includes flow time and makespan. For both objectives, we present semi-clairvoyant algorithms that are aware of the instantaneous parallelism of the jobs but not their future information. We present U-CEQ algorithm for flow time plus energy, and show that it is O(1)-competitive. This is the first O(1)-competitive result for multiprocessor speed scaling on parallel jobs. We also consider, for the first time in the literature, makespan plus energy. We present P-FIRST algorithm and show that it is $O(\\ln^{1-1/\\alpha}P)$-competitive for parallel jobs consi...

  8. Scheduling real-time streaming applications onto an embedded multiprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art, data flow-based techniques for the analysis, modeling and mapping technologies of concurrent applications on multi-processors.  The authors present a flow for designing embedded hard/firm real-time multiprocessor streaming applications, based on data flow formalisms, with a particular focus on wireless modem applications. Architectures are described for the design tools and run-time scheduling and resource management of such a platform.   • Provides a comprehensive overview of the complete design trajectory, based on data flow programming and analysis for multiprocessor systems; • Describes modeling techniques, with an emphasis on different data flow models for budget schedulers and the modeling of different schedulers; • Discusses other relevant data-flow models of computation, such as cyclo-static data flow and variable-rate data flow; • Includes other analysis and scheduling techniques, such as simulation-based throughput an...

  9. Thermal-Aware Scheduling for Future Chip Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrou Kyriakos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased complexity and operating frequency in current single chip microprocessors is resulting in a decrease in the performance improvements. Consequently, major manufacturers offer chip multiprocessor (CMP architectures in order to keep up with the expected performance gains. This architecture is successfully being introduced in many markets including that of the embedded systems. Nevertheless, the integration of several cores onto the same chip may lead to increased heat dissipation and consequently additional costs for cooling, higher power consumption, decrease of the reliability, and thermal-induced performance loss, among others. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the thermal issues for the future chip multiprocessor architectures and show that as the number of on-chip cores increases, the thermal-induced problems will worsen. In addition, we present several scenarios that result in excessive thermal stress to the CMP chip or significant performance loss. In order to minimize or even eliminate these problems, we propose thermal-aware scheduler (TAS algorithms. When assigning processes to cores, TAS takes their temperature and cooling ability into account in order to avoid thermal stress and at the same time improve the performance. Experimental results have shown that a TAS algorithm that considers also the temperatures of neighboring cores is able to significantly reduce the temperature-induced performance loss while at the same time, decrease the chip's temperature across many different operation and configuration scenarios.

  10. Thermal-Aware Scheduling for Future Chip Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Trancoso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The increased complexity and operating frequency in current single chip microprocessors is resulting in a decrease in the performance improvements. Consequently, major manufacturers offer chip multiprocessor (CMP architectures in order to keep up with the expected performance gains. This architecture is successfully being introduced in many markets including that of the embedded systems. Nevertheless, the integration of several cores onto the same chip may lead to increased heat dissipation and consequently additional costs for cooling, higher power consumption, decrease of the reliability, and thermal-induced performance loss, among others. In this paper, we analyze the evolution of the thermal issues for the future chip multiprocessor architectures and show that as the number of on-chip cores increases, the thermal-induced problems will worsen. In addition, we present several scenarios that result in excessive thermal stress to the CMP chip or significant performance loss. In order to minimize or even eliminate these problems, we propose thermal-aware scheduler (TAS algorithms. When assigning processes to cores, TAS takes their temperature and cooling ability into account in order to avoid thermal stress and at the same time improve the performance. Experimental results have shown that a TAS algorithm that considers also the temperatures of neighboring cores is able to significantly reduce the temperature-induced performance loss while at the same time, decrease the chip's temperature across many different operation and configuration scenarios.

  11. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetan Blandin; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Joaquim Comas; Ignasi Rodriguez-Roda; Pierre Le-Clech

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be ...

  12. Communication Efficient Multi-processor FFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennart Johnsson, S.; Jacquemin, Michel; Krawitz, Robert L.

    1992-10-01

    Computing the fast Fourier transform on a distributed memory architecture by a direct pipelined radix-2, a bi-section, or a multisection algorithm, all yield the same communications requirement, if communication for all FFT stages can be performed concurrently, the input data is in normal order, and the data allocation is consecutive. With a cyclic data allocation, or bit-reversed input data and a consecutive allocation, multi-sectioning offers a reduced communications requirement by approximately a factor of two. For a consecutive data allocation, normal input order, a decimation-in-time FFT requires that P/ N + d-2 twiddle factors be stored for P elements distributed evenly over N processors, and the axis that is subject to transformation be distributed over 2 d processors. No communication of twiddle factors is required. The same storage requirements hold for a decimation-in-frequency FFT, bit-reversed input order, and consecutive data allocation. The opposite combination of FFT type and data ordering requires a factor of log 2N more storage for N processors. The peak performance for a Connection Machine system CM-200 implementation is 12.9 Gflops/s in 32-bit precision, and 10.7 Gflops/s in 64-bit precision for unordered transforms local to each processor. The corresponding execution rates for ordered transforms are 11.1 Gflops/s and 8.5 Gflops/s, respectively. For distributed one- and two-dimensional transforms the peak performance for unordered transforms exceeds 5 Gflops/s in 32-bit precision and 3 Gflops/s in 64-bit precision. Three-dimensional transforms execute at a slightly lower rate. Distributed ordered transforms execute at a rate of about {1}/{2}to {2}/{3} of the unordered transforms.

  13. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  14. Combined Hybrid DFE and CCK Remodulator for Medium-Range Single-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced modulation and channel equalization techniques are essential for improving the performance of medium-range single-carrier underwater acoustic communications. In this paper, an enhanced detection scheme, hybrid time-frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (DFE combined with complementary code keying (CCK remodulator, is presented. CCK modulation technique provides strong tolerance to intersymbol interference caused by multipath propagation in underwater acoustic channels. The conventional hybrid DFE, using a frequency domain feedforward filter and a time domain feedback filter, provides good performance along with low computational complexity. The error propagation in the feedback filter, caused by feedbacking wrong decisions prior to CCK demodulation, may lead to great performance degradation. In our proposed scheme, with the help of CCK coding gain, more accurate remodulated CCK chips can be used as feedback. The proposed detection scheme is tested by the practical ocean experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme ensures robust communications over 10-kilometre underwater acoustic channels with the data rate at 5 Kbits/s in 3 kHz of channel bandwidth.

  15. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  16. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  17. A Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor for Real-Time Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas E.; Johnson, Barry W.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, and experimental evaluation of a fault-tolerant multiprocessor for use in systems requiring real-time, microprocessor-based control. Example applications of the fault-tolerant system are found in robotics, process control, manufacturing, and factory automation. The architecture for the multiprocessor is presented and analyzed for reliability, availability, and safety. A prototype of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor has been constructed, using Intel 8088 processors, and experimentally evaluated in the laboratory. Both hardware and software descriptions of the system are provided, and an example application to the control of an electric wheelchair is presented.

  18. A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Approach Combining Genetic Programming And Heuristic Classification for Pap-Smear Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan;

    2001-01-01

    The paper suggests the combined use of different computational intelligence (CI) techniques in a hybrid scheme, as an effective approach to medical diagnosis. Getting to know the advantages and disadvantages of each computational intelligence technique in the recent years, the time has come...... diagnoses. The final result is a short but robust rule based classification scheme, achieving high degree of classification accuracy (exceeding 90% of accuracy for most classes) in a meaningful and user-friendly representation form for the medical expert. The domain of application analyzed through the paper...... is the well-known Pap-Test problem, corresponding to a numerical database, which consists of 450 medical records, 25 diagnostic attributes and 5 different diagnostic classes. Experimental data are divided in two equal parts for the training and testing phase, and 8 mutually dependent rules for diagnosis...

  19. White organic light emitting devices with hybrid emissive layers combining phosphorescence and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Gangtie; Chen Xiaolan; Wang Lei; Zhu Meixiang; Zhu Weiguo [Key Lab of Environmental-friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Wang Liduo; Qiu Yong [Key Lab of Organic-Optoelectronics and Molecular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: lgt@xtu.edu.cn

    2008-05-21

    We fabricated a white organic light-emitting diode (WOLED) by hybrid emissive layers which combined phosphorescence with fluorescence. In this device, the thin layer of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-(t-butyl)-6-(1, 1, 7, 7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran played the role of undoped red emissive layer which was inserted between two blue phosphorescence emissive layers. The blue phosphorescent dye was bis[(4, 6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N, C{sup 2}] (picolinato) Ir(III), which was doped in the host material, N, N'-dicarbazolyl-1, 4-dimethene-benzene. The WOLED showed stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates and a high efficency of 9.6 cd A{sup -1} when the current density was 1.8 A m{sup -2}. The maximum luminance of the device achieved was 17 400 cd m{sup -2} when the current density was 3000 A m{sup -2}.

  20. Combined Laser Beam Welding and Brazing Process for Aluminium Titanium Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, F.; Grden, M.; Thomy, C.; Vollertsen, F.

    The current state of the art in light-weight construction is - for the case of aircraft structures - the use of either aluminium or titanium. Whereas aluminium is light-weight and less expensive, titanium offers superior corrosion properties at higher cost. In order to combine the advantages of both materials, a hybrid Ti-Al structure is proposed for e.g. seat-track application. In this paper, an overview of the results from this research work and the accompanying thermo-mechanical simulations will be reported and discussed. On the basis of the development of an appropriate system technology, the process development will be described, focusing on the main influencing parameters of the process on joint properties.

  1. Hybrid Doping of Few-Layer Graphene via a Combination of Intercalation and Surface Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Ahmed

    2017-05-23

    Surface molecular doping of graphene has been shown to modify its work function and increase its conductivity. However, the associated shifts in work function and increases in carrier concentration are highly coupled and limited by the surface coverage of dopant molecules on graphene. Here we show that few-layer graphene (FLG) can be doped using a hybrid approach, effectively combining surface doping by larger (metal-)organic molecules, while smaller molecules, such as Br2 and FeCl3, intercalate into the bulk. Intercalation tunes the carrier concentration more effectively, whereas surface doping of intercalated FLG can be used to tune its work function without reducing the carrier mobility. This multi-modal doping approach yields a very high carrier density and tunable work function for FLG, demonstrating a new versatile platform for fabricating graphene-based contacts for electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  2. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  3. HYBRID TREATMENT OF COMPLEX COMBINED CORONARY AND VALVE DISEASE FOR PATIENTS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF OPERATIONAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Aniskevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of results of hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease at patients with high level of operational risk between January 2005 and December 2010. The hybrid treatment of complex combined coronary and valve disease, provides performance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI in a combinati- on valve surgery. 118 patients, with a median age 64.4 ± 8.9 years, are included in research. 2 approaches of a hy- brid method of treatment – 2-Staged (n = 86 and a method «1-stop» (n = 32 are applied. The оperative mortality has made 4.2%. On the basis of the received results were the conclusion is drawn that at high-risk patients with complex combined coronary and valve disease the hybrid method of treatment allows to lower risk of operation. 

  4. A new hybrid algorithm for solving transient combined conduction radiation heat transfer problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaabane Raoudha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM is proposed as an hybrid solver for two dimensional transient conduction and radiation heat transfer problems in an optically emitting, absorbing and scattering medium. The LBM was used to solve the energy equation and the CVFEM was used to compute the radiative information. The advantages of the proposed methodology is to avoid problems that confronted when previous techniques are used to predict radiative heat transfer, essentially, in complex geometries and when there is scattering and/or non-black boundaries surfaces. This method combination, which is applied for the first time to solve this unsteady combined mode of heat transfer, has been found to accurately predict the effects of various thermo-physical parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction-radiation parameter and the extinction coefficient on temperature distribution. The results of the LBM-CVFEM combination were found to be in excellent agreement with the LBM-CDM (Collapsed Dimension Methodthis proposed numerical approach include, among others, simple implementation on a computer, accurate CPU time, and capability of stable simulation.

  5. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovhannisyan Galina G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comet assay and micronucleus (MN test are widely applied in genotoxicity testing and biomonitoring. While comet assay permits to measure direct DNA-strand breaking capacity of a tested agent MN test allows estimating the induced amount of chromosome and/or genome mutations. The potential of these two methods can be enhanced by the combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH techniques. FISH plus comet assay allows the recognition of targets of DNA damage and repairing directly. FISH combined with MN test is able to characterize the occurrence of different chromosomes in MN and to identify potential chromosomal targets of mutagenic substances. Thus, combination of FISH with the comet assay or MN test proved to be promising techniques for evaluation of the distribution of DNA and chromosome damage in the entire genome of individual cells. FISH technique also permits to study comet and MN formation, necessary for correct application of these methods. This paper reviews the relevant literature on advantages and limitations of Comet-FISH and MN-FISH assays application in genetic toxicology.

  6. Directing Hybrid Structures by Combining Self-Assembly of Functional Block Copolymers and Atomic Layer Deposition: A Demonstration on Hybrid Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Moshe; Frey, Gitti L

    2015-11-24

    The simplicity and versatility of block copolymer self-assembly offers their use as templates for nano- and meso-structured materials. However, in most cases, the material processing requires multiple steps, and the block copolymer is a sacrificial building block. Here, we combine a self-assembled block copolymer template and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a metal oxide to generate functional hybrid films in a simple process with no etching or burning steps. This approach is demonstrated by using the crystallization-induced self-assembly of a rod-coil block copolymer, P3HT-b-PEO, and the ALD of ZnO. The block copolymer self-assembles into fibrils, ∼ 20 nm in diameter and microns long, with crystalline P3HT cores and amorphous PEO corona. The affinity of the ALD precursors to the PEO corona directs the exclusive deposition of crystalline ZnO within the PEO domains. The obtained hybrid structure possesses the properties desired for photovoltaic films: donor-acceptor continuous nanoscale interpenetrated networks. Therefore, we integrated the films into single-layer hybrid photovoltaics devices, thus demonstrating that combining self-assembly of functional block copolymers and ALD is a simple approach to direct desired complex hybrid morphologies.

  7. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  8. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2008-01-01

    , they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment......We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  9. Parallel algorithm of VLBI software correlator under multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weimin; Zhang, Dong

    2007-11-01

    The correlator is the key signal processing equipment of a Very Lone Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) synthetic aperture telescope. It receives the mass data collected by the VLBI observatories and produces the visibility function of the target, which can be used to spacecraft position, baseline length measurement, synthesis imaging, and other scientific applications. VLBI data correlation is a task of data intensive and computation intensive. This paper presents the algorithms of two parallel software correlators under multiprocessor environments. A near real-time correlator for spacecraft tracking adopts the pipelining and thread-parallel technology, and runs on the SMP (Symmetric Multiple Processor) servers. Another high speed prototype correlator using the mixed Pthreads and MPI (Massage Passing Interface) parallel algorithm is realized on a small Beowulf cluster platform. Both correlators have the characteristic of flexible structure, scalability, and with 10-station data correlating abilities.

  10. Behavioral Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Multi-Processor Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausif Mahmood

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of multi-processor architectures requires extensive behavioral simulations to verify the correctness of design and to evaluate its performance. A high level language can provide maximum flexibility in this respect if the constructs for handling concurrent processes and a time mapping mechanism are added. This paper describes a novel technique for emulating hardware processes involved in a parallel architecture such that an object-oriented description of the design is maintained. The communication and synchronization between hardware processes is handled by splitting the processes into their equivalent subprograms at the entry points. The proper scheduling of these subprograms is coordinated by a timing wheel which provides a time mapping mechanism. Finally, a high level language pre-processor is proposed so that the timing wheel and the process emulation details can be made transparent to the user.

  11. Fundamental Parallel Algorithms for Private-Cache Chip Multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Nelson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel algorithms for private-cache chip multiprocessors (CMPs), focusing on methods for foundational problems that are scalable with the number of cores. By focusing on private-cache CMPs, we show that we can design efficient algorithms that need no additional assumptions...... about the way cores are interconnected, for we assume that all inter-processor communication occurs through the memory hierarchy. We study several fundamental problems, including prefix sums, selection, and sorting, which often form the building blocks of other parallel algorithms. Indeed, we present...... two sorting algorithms, a distribution sort and a mergesort. Our algorithms are asymptotically optimal in terms of parallel cache accesses and space complexity under reasonable assumptions about the relationships between the number of processors, the size of memory, and the size of cache blocks...

  12. Hardware locks for a real-time Java chip multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms are compared with a software locking solution as well as the original locking system of the processor. The hardware cost and performance are evaluated for all presented locking mechanisms. The performance of the better-performing hardware locks is comparable with that of the original single global...... lock when contending for the same lock. When several noncontending locks are used, the hardware locks enable true concurrency for critical sections. Benchmarks show that using the hardware locks yields performance ranging from no worse than the original locks to more than twice their best performance...... and may void a task set's schedulability. This paper presents 2 hardware locking mechanisms to reduce the worst-case time required to acquire and release synchronization locks. These solutions are implemented for the chip-multiprocessor version of the Java Optimized Processor. The 2 hardware locking...

  13. Testing and operating a multiprocessor chip with processor redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E; Douskey, Steven M; Haring, Rudolf A; McManus, Moyra K; Ohmacht, Martin; Schmunkamp, Dietmar; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Weatherford, Bryan J

    2014-10-21

    A system and method for improving the yield rate of a multiprocessor semiconductor chip that includes primary processor cores and one or more redundant processor cores. A first tester conducts a first test on one or more processor cores, and encodes results of the first test in an on-chip non-volatile memory. A second tester conducts a second test on the processor cores, and encodes results of the second test in an external non-volatile storage device. An override bit of a multiplexer is set if a processor core fails the second test. In response to the override bit, the multiplexer selects a physical-to-logical mapping of processor IDs according to one of: the encoded results in the memory device or the encoded results in the external storage device. On-chip logic configures the processor cores according to the selected physical-to-logical mapping.

  14. Testers for combining ability and selection of papaya hybrids resistant to fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pessanha da Silva Terra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resistance represents a sustainable alternative to disease control in papaya crop. The purpose of this studywas to evaluate the use of testers to estimate combining ability and select hybrids resistant to black spot, phoma spot and chocolatespot. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with two replications and 20 plants per plot. The severity ofphoma spot and black spot on leaves and the lesion area of black spot and chocolate spot on fruits were evaluated in twoseasons. The combining ability of the following crosses is negative for all traits: tester ‘JS 12’ with ‘Sunrise Solo’ and ‘Kaphoro SoloPV’; tester ‘Americano’ with ‘Caliman M5’, ‘Sunrise Solo’, ’Baixinho de Santa Amália’ and ‘Waimanalo’; and tester ‘Maradol’with ‘Caliman G’, ‘Caliman AM’ and ‘Sunrise Solo PT’. These results may be useful in breeding for disease resistance byhybridization.

  15. Safety-critical Java with cyclic executives on chip-multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chip-multiprocessors offer increased processing power at a low cost. However, in order to use them for real-time systems, tasks have to be scheduled efficiently and predictably. It is well known that finding optimal schedules is a computationally hard problem. In this paper we present a solution ...... for multiprocessors, we have implemented it in the context of safety-critical Java on a Java processor....

  16. Proposed Algorithm for Optimization of Job Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems using Genetic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kirti Nagpal; Vaishali Wadhwa

    2012-01-01

    In multiprocessor systems, an efficient scheduling of a parallel program onto the processors that minimizes the entire execution time is important for achieving a high performance. Task scheduling is essential for the suitable operation of multiprocessor systems. The aim of task scheduling is to determine an assignment of tasks to processors for shortening the length of schedules. A task can be partitioned into a group of subtasks and represented as a DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), so the prob...

  17. A new hybrid method--combined heat flux method with Monte-Carlo method to analyze thermal radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new hybrid method, Monte-Carlo-Heat-Flux (MCHF) method, was presented to analyze the radiative heat transfer of participating medium in a three-dimensional rectangular enclosure using combined the Monte-Carlo method with the heat flux method. Its accuracy and reliability was proved by comparing the computational results with exact results from classical "Zone Method".

  18. GISH, AFLP and PCR-RFLP analysis of an intergeneric somatic hybrid combining Goutou sour orange and Poncirus trifoliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C H; Chen, C L; Guo, W W; Deng, X X

    2004-11-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybrids combining Goutou sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) with trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf] were produced by electrofusion and their genetic inheritance analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Sixteen mini-calluses were obtained after 20 days of culture; they all developed into embryoids on EME500 medium. Following several subcultures on shoot induction medium for a total culture period of 6 months, shoots regenerated. The plants grew vigorously with a well-developed root system and exhibited the trifoliate leaf character of P. trifoliata. Ploidy analysis verified that all of the regenerates were tetraploids (2 n=4 x=36) as expected. GISH analysis confirmed that 18 chromosomes came from trifoliate orange and the remaining 18 from Goutou sour orange, as with most symmetric somatic hybrid plants; moreover, chromosome translocations were also observed in one plant. AFLP analysis of 16 regenerates and their fusion parents indicated that all of the somatic hybrids except one were genetically uniform. Analysis of the somatic hybrid cytoplasmic genomes with universal primers revealed that their chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) banding patterns were identical to those of the mesophyll parent trifoliate orange, while their mitochondria (mt) genomes were of the callus parent sour orange. The potential of GISH in Citrus somatic hybrid analysis is discussed.

  19. Combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on formation and condensation of excitons in the extended Falicov-Kimball model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkašovský, Pavol

    2017-04-01

    We study the combined effects of local and nonlocal hybridization on the formation and condensation of the excitonic bound states in the extended Falicov-Kimball model by the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) method. Analysing the resultant behaviours of the excitonic momentum distribution N(q) we found, that unlike the local hybridization V, which supports the formation of the q=0 momentum condensate, the nonlocal hybridization Vn supports the formation of the q = π momentum condensate. The combined effect of local and nonlocal hybridization further enhances the excitonic correlations in q=0 as well as q = π state, especially for V and Vn values from the charge-density-wave (CDW) region. Strong effects of local and nonlocal hybridization are observed also for other ground-state quantities of the model such as the f-electron density, or the density of unbound d-electrons, which are generally enhanced with increasing V and Vn. The same calculations performed for nonzero values of f-level energy Ef revealed that this model can yield a reasonable explanation for the pressure-induced resistivity anomaly observed experimentally in TmSe0.45Te0.55 compound.

  20. The hybrid BCI system for movement control by combining motor imagery and moving onset visual evoked potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Li, Hui; Deng, Lili; Yang, Hao; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Li, Fali; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Movement control is an important application for EEG-BCI (EEG-based brain-computer interface) systems. A single-modality BCI cannot provide an efficient and natural control strategy, but a hybrid BCI system that combines two or more different tasks can effectively overcome the drawbacks encountered in single-modality BCI control. Approach. In the current paper, we developed a new hybrid BCI system by combining MI (motor imagery) and mVEP (motion-onset visual evoked potential), aiming to realize the more efficient 2D movement control of a cursor. Main result. The offline analysis demonstrates that the hybrid BCI system proposed in this paper could evoke the desired MI and mVEP signal features simultaneously, and both are very close to those evoked in the single-modality BCI task. Furthermore, the online 2D movement control experiment reveals that the proposed hybrid BCI system could provide more efficient and natural control commands. Significance. The proposed hybrid BCI system is compensative to realize efficient 2D movement control for a practical online system, especially for those situations in which P300 stimuli are not suitable to be applied.

  1. Reconfigurable fault-tolerant multiprocessor system for real-time control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Real-time control applications place stringent constraints in computers controlling them since the failure of a computer could result in costly damages and even loss of human lives. Fault-tolerant computers, therefore, have been always in high demand in critical avionic and aerospace applications. However, the use of redundancy techniques to achieve fault tolerance in industrial applications has only recently become feasible due to the rapid decrease in cost and increase in performance of microprocessors. As more and more robots are being built to replace human beings in dangerous and difficult tasks, the need for a reliable computer for robotics control increases. This need, in particular, motivated the research described in this dissertation - the design and implementation of a reconfigurable fault-tolerant multiprocessor system (the FREMP system). The FREMP system consists of four processing units (PUs) and three common parallel buses. Each PU is a combination of an Intel 86/30 single board computer and a custom fault detection/masking circuit board (FDM board). A hardware/software combined scheme was devised to detect faults and correct errors. This scheme has shown to be more efficient than software voting while maintaining the flexibility of software approaches. Time-frame scheduling was adopted to schedule tasks for execution.

  2. Analysis of Heterosis, Combining Ability and Heritability of Cadmium Content in Brown Rice of Three-line Indica Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were used as parents in an incomplete diallet cross and six restorer lines of rice design (Nc II design). Thirty hybrid combinations with the same growth period were selected as experimental ma- terials to investigate the heterosis, combined ability and heredity of Cd content in brown rice of indica hybrid rice. According to the results, Cd content in brown rice showed a significantly negative heterosis; the general combining ability and specific combination ability of Cd content in CMS and restorer lines both reached extremely significant level (P〈0.01), indicating that both genetic improvement of parents and e- valuation of combinations are important to the breeding of hybrid combinations with low accumulation of Cd; the broad-sense heritabitity and narrow-sense heritability of Cd content were both relatively high with slight differences, which respectively reached 97.73% and 80.10%, indicating that Cd content in brown rice mainly de- pends on the additive action of genes; in addition, parent improvement showed bet- ter effect on the selection of early generation.

  3. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  4. A hybrid pulse combining topology utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Sun, Yi; Liu, Yuhao; Ren, Ziyuan; He, Jiaxin; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Minjun

    2017-03-01

    Numerous applications driven by pulsed voltage require pulses to be with high amplitude, high repetitive frequency, and narrow width, which could be satisfied by utilizing avalanche transistors. The output improvement is severely limited by power capacities of transistors. Pulse combining is an effective approach to increase the output amplitude while still adopting conventional pulse generating modules. However, there are drawbacks in traditional topologies including the saturation tendency of combining efficiency and waveform oscillation. In this paper, a hybrid pulse combining topology was adopted utilizing the combination of modularized avalanche transistor Marx circuits, direct pulse adding, and transmission line transformer. The factors affecting the combining efficiency were determined including the output time synchronization of Marx circuits, and the quantity and position of magnetic cores. The numbers of the parallel modules and the stages were determined by the output characteristics of each combining method. Experimental results illustrated the ability of generating pulses with 2-14 kV amplitude, 7-11 ns width, and a maximum 10 kHz repetitive rate on a matched 50-300 Ω resistive load. The hybrid topology would be a convinced pulse combining method for similar nanosecond pulse generators based on the solid-state switches.

  5. An Alternate Vista in Rehabilitation of Cranial Defects: Combining Digital and Manual Techniques to Fabricate a Hybrid Cranioplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Nanda, Aditi; Koli, Dheeraj; Verma, Mahesh; Singh, Hukum; Bishnoi, Ishu; Pathak, Pooja; Gupta, Ankur

    2015-06-01

    The desired features of a cranioplast include providing an acceptable contour, continuity with the remaining skull (marginal adaptation), improvising the aesthetic outcome, providing a strengthened prosthesis to avoid fracture in case of repeat trauma, and protecting the remaining neurological structures. Combining digital and manual techniques to fabricate a hybrid polymethylmethacrylate cranioplast during the rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with cranial defect has been described. Utilization of digital techniques (rapid prototyping to obtain skull analog) and manual (hand) sculpting of the prosthesis strengthened with glass fiber enabled the authors to fabricate a hybrid cranioplast. Satisfactory outcome was achieved.

  6. A Hybrid Vector Quantization Combining a Tree Structure and a Voronoi Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-Jiunn Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data is a popular communication medium, but requires substantial storage space and network bandwidth. Vector quantization (VQ is suitable for multimedia data applications because of its simple architecture, fast decoding ability, and high compression rate. Full-search VQ can typically be used to determine optimal codewords, but requires considerable computational time and resources. In this study, a hybrid VQ combining a tree structure and a Voronoi diagram is proposed to improve VQ efficiency. To efficiently reduce the search space, a tree structure integrated with principal component analysis is proposed, to rapidly determine an initial codeword in low-dimensional space. To increase accuracy, a Voronoi diagram is applied to precisely enlarge the search space by modeling relations between each codeword. This enables an optimal codeword to be efficiently identified by rippling an optimal neighbor from parts of neighboring Voronoi regions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach improved VQ performance, outperforming other approaches. The proposed approach also satisfies the requirements of handheld device application, namely, the use of limited memory and network bandwidth, when a suitable number of dimensions in principal component analysis is selected.

  7. Combination of Hybrid Chaotic Encryption and LDPC for Secure Transmission of Images over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona F. M. Mursi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robust and secure transmission strategy for high quality image through wireless networks is considered a great challenge. However, the majority of encrypted image transmission schemes don't consider well the effect of bit errors occurring during transmission. These errors are due to the factors that affect the information such as noise and multipath propagation. That should be handled by an efficient channel coding scheme. Our proposed scheme is based on combining hybrid chaotic encryption, which is based on two-dimensional chaotic maps which is utilized for data security, with an error correction technique based on the Low Density Parity Check (LDPC code. The LDPC is employed as channel coding for data communication in order to solve the problem of the channel’s limited bandwidth and improve throughput. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves a high degree of robustness against channel impairments and wide varieties of attacks as wells as improved reliability of the wireless channel. In addition, LDPC is utilized for error correction in order to solve the limitations of wireless channels.

  8. Effect of probiotic preparation for chemical composition of meat cocks different combinations of hybrid chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Haščík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment were verified the application of probiotic preparation through a water supply for feeding of cock’s hybrids Ross 308, Hubbard JV and Cobb 500 in the chemical composition of the most valuable parts of the carcass. Probiotic was based on the strain Lactobacillus fermentum with containing of 1.109 cfu.g−1 and potentially components of maltodextrin and oligofructose in 1% concentration. Length of feeding period was 42 days. Cocks were fed an ad libitum with the same starter mixture HYD-01 to 21th day and from 22nd to 42nd day of feeding with mixture HYD-02 in powdery form. The average of protein content of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (23.93 g.100 g−1, lower in Cobb 500 hybrid (23.90 g.100 g−1 and lowest in Ross 308 hybrid (23.73 g.100 g−1, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. Effect of probiotics had increased the protein content (P ≥ 0.05 in breast muscle of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 cocks and at the Hubbard JV only lower doses application during the feeding. The average of fat content in 100 g of breast muscle was lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (1.09 g, higher in Hubbard JV hybrid (1.28 g and highest in Ross 308 hybrid (1.35 g. Effect of probiotic to reduce fat content in breast muscle of cocks was at Ross 308 hybrid (1.33 and 1.23 g.100 g−1, Cobb 500 hybrid (0.98 and 1.02 g.100 g−1 and in second experimental group at Hubbard JV hybrid (1.03 g.100 g−1 statistically significant (P ≥ 0.05 in compared with control group, but significantly (P ≤ 0.05 between hybrids Cobb 500 and Hubbard JV in the first test groups. The average of energy value in 100 g of breast muscle was highest in Hubbard JV hybrid (449.24 kJ, lower in Ross 308 hybrid (448.40 kJ and lowest in Cobb 500 hybrid (441.45 kJ, without significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 between hybrids and hybrids groups. The average of protein content of the femur was highest in Ross 308 hybrid (18.56 g.100

  9. Ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds: Combination of cholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant and neuroprotection as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Chen, Mohao; Liu, Zhikun; Fang, Xubin; Gou, Shaohua; Chen, Li

    2016-02-15

    In order to search for novel multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents, a series of ferulic acid-carbazole hybrid compounds were designed and synthesized. Ellman's assay revealed that the hybrid compounds showed moderate to potent inhibitory activity against the cholinesterases. Particularly, the AChE inhibition potency of compound 5k (IC50 1.9μM) was even 5-fold higher than that of galantamine. In addition, the target compounds showed pronounced antioxidant ability and neuroprotective property, especially against the ROS-induced toxicity. Notably, the neuroprotective effect of 5k was obviously superior to that of the mixture of ferulic acid and carbazole, indicating the therapeutic effect of the hybrid compound is better than the combination administration of the corresponding mixture.

  10. Characteristics of one-year-old shoots of peach hybrids from the crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Aleksandar R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research (2011-2012 of the most important morphological characteristics of 1-year-old shoots in eight peach hybrids obtained from a crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni were shown in this paper. The following characteristics were studied in tested hybrids: length and diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flowers and vegetative buds per shoot, ratio of flower to vegetative buds, number of flower buds per node and 1-m length of a shoot. The properties of sylleptic shoots on one-year-old shoots have also been studied. The significant differences were determined among the hybrids for parameters such as the diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flower and vegetative buds per shoot. Hybrids FH1 and FH6 were characterized by the highest density of flower buds, so that they are singled out as potentially the most yielding. These hybrids may be of interest for growing in areas where there is a risk of frost and in the domain of breeding when creating new peach cultivars of high yield potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063: Primena novih genotipova i tehnoloških inovacija u cilju unapređenja voćarske i vinogradarske proizvodnje

  11. Ultrasound thermal mapping based on a hybrid method combining cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Wei; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Ben-Ting; Shieh, Jay; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2013-08-01

    A hybrid method for estimating temperature with spatial mapping using diagnostic ultrasound, based on detection of echo shifts from tissue undergoing thermal treatment, is proposed. Cross-correlation and zero-crossing tracking are two conventional algorithms used for detecting echo shifts, but their practical applications are limited. The proposed hybrid method combines the advantages of both algorithms with improved accuracy in temperature estimation. In vitro experiments were performed on porcine muscle for preliminary validation and temperature calibration. In addition, thermal mapping of rabbit thigh muscle in vivo during high-intensity focused ultrasound heating was conducted. Results from the in vitro experiments indicated that the difference between the estimated temperature change by the proposed hybrid method and the actual temperature change measured by the thermocouple was generally less than 1 °C when the increase in temperature due to heating was less than 10 °C. For the in vivo study, the area predicted to experience the highest temperature coincided well with the focal point of the high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer. The computational efficiency of the hybrid algorithm was similar to that of the fast cross-correlation algorithm, but with an improved accuracy. The proposed hybrid method could provide an alternative means for non-invasive monitoring of limited temperature changes during hyperthermia therapy.

  12. A Taxonomy of Reconfigurable Single-/Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Runtime adaptivity of hardware in processor architectures is a novel trend, which is under investigation in a variety of research labs all over the world. The runtime exchange of modules, implemented on a reconfigurable hardware, affects the instruction flow (e.g., in reconfigurable instruction set processors or the data flow, which has a strong impact on the performance of an application. Furthermore, the choice of a certain processor architecture related to the class of target applications is a crucial point in application development. A simple example is the domain of high-performance computing applications found in meteorology or high-energy physics, where vector processors are the optimal choice. A classification scheme for computer systems was provided in 1966 by Flynn where single/multiple data and instruction streams were combined to four types of architectures. This classification is now used as a foundation for an extended classification scheme including runtime adaptivity as further degree of freedom for processor architecture design. The developed scheme is validated by a multiprocessor system implemented on reconfigurable hardware as well as by a classification of existing static and reconfigurable processor systems.

  13. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative......, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index....... Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization....

  14. Performance study of a clustered shared-memory multiprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A shared-memory multiprocessor having clusters of processing elements and memory modules is proposed. Since the delay through a multistage interconnection network, which increases logarithmically, can be large when the number of processors is large, clustering helps reduce the average delay to access a memory module. Each cluster has two others as its neighbors. The clusters are interconnected in such a way that the memory modules of a cluster can also be accessed by the processors of the neighboring clusters besides its own processors via its interconnection network. The coupling between the clusters provides flexibility for the scheduling of tasks. The processors and memory modules of all clusters are also connected to a shared interconnection network allowing the processors to access memory modules of the nonneighboring clusters. A Markov-chain model is developed for the circuit-switching strategy, and queueing models are used for the packet-switching strategy. The circuit-switching model is extended to include synchronized memory accesses. Sharing of network ports by the processors is also considered. A scheduling algorithm is proposed to assign tasks from directed acyclic task graphs to processors using 0-1 integer programming and a lookahead technique.

  15. MULTIPROCESSOR AND DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA BASE SOFTWARE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miya, E. N.

    1994-01-01

    Multiprocessors and distributed processing are undergoing increased scientific scrutiny for many reasons. It is more and more difficult to keep track of the existing research in these fields. This package consists of a large machine-readable bibliographic data base which, in addition to the usual keyword searches, can be used for producing citations, indexes, and cross-references. The data base is compiled from smaller existing multiprocessing bibliographies, and tables of contents from journals and significant conferences. There are approximately 4,000 entries covering topics such as parallel and vector processing, networks, supercomputers, fault-tolerant computers, and cellular automata. Each entry is represented by 21 fields including keywords, author, referencing book or journal title, volume and page number, and date and city of publication. The data base contains UNIX 'refer' formatted ASCII data and can be implemented on any computer running under the UNIX operating system. The data base requires approximately one megabyte of secondary storage. The documentation for this program is included with the distribution tape, although it can be purchased for the price below. This bibliography was compiled in 1985 and updated in 1988.

  16. Hierarchical N-body methods on shared address space multiprocessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, C.; Singh, J. P.

    The authors examine the parallelization issues in and architectural implications of the two dominant adaptive hierarchical N-body methods: the Barnes-Hut method and the Fast Multipole Method. They show that excellent parallel performance can be obtained on cache-coherent shared address space multiprocessors, by demonstrating performance on three cache-coherent machines: the Stanford DASH, the Kendall Square Research KSR-1, and the Silicon Graphics Challenge. Even on machines that have their main memory physically distributed among processing nodes and highly nonuniform memory access costs, the speedups are obtained without any attention to where memory is allocated on the machine. The authors show that the reason for good performance is the high degree of temporal locality afforded by the applications, and the fact that working sets are small (and scale slowly) so that caching shared data automatically in hardware exploits this locality very effectively. Even if data distribution in main memory is assumed to be free, it does not help very much. Finally, they address a potential bottleneck in scaling the parallelism to large machines, namely the fraction of time spent in building the tree used by hierarchical N-body methods.

  17. A Resource-Efficient Communication Architecture for Chip Multiprocessors on FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang(Maggie)Wang; Swetha Thota

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have made it viable to explore innovative multiprocessor solutions on a single FPGA chip. For multiprocessors, an efficient communication network that matches the needs of the target application is always critical to the overall performance. Wormhole packet-switching network-on-chip (NoC) solutions are replacing conventional shared buses to deal with scalability and complexity challenges coming along with the increasing number of processing elements (PEs). However, the quest for high performance networks has led to very complex and resource-expensive NoC designs, leaving little room for the real computing force, i.e., PEs. Moreover, many techniques offer very small performance gains or none at all when network traffic is light while increasing the resource usage of routers. We argue that computation is still the primary task of multiprocessors and sufficient resources should be reserved for PEs. This paper presents our novel design and implementation of a resource-efficient communication network for multiprocessors on FPGAs. We reduce not only the required number of touters for a given number of PEs by introducing a new PE-router topology, but also the resource requirement of each router. Our communication network relies on the NEWS channels to transfer packets in a pipelined fashion following the path determined by the routing network. The implementation results on various Xilinx FPCAs show good performance in the typical range of network load for multiprocessor applications.

  18. Financial Time Series Modelling with Hybrid Model Based on Customized RBF Neural Network Combined With Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Falat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, authors apply feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN of RBF type into the process of modelling and forecasting the future value of USD/CAD time series. Authors test the customized version of the RBF and add the evolutionary approach into it. They also combine the standard algorithm for adapting weights in neural network with an unsupervised clustering algorithm called K-means. Finally, authors suggest the new hybrid model as a combination of a standard ANN and a moving average for error modeling that is used to enhance the outputs of the network using the error part of the original RBF. Using high-frequency data, they examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day. To determine the forecasting efficiency, authors perform the comparative out-of-sample analysis of the suggested hybrid model with statistical models and the standard neural network.

  19. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-12-29

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes).

  20. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). PMID:26729176

  1. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO–reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes.

  2. Ecophysiological Analysis of Microorganisms in Complex Microbial Systems by Combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization with Extracellular Staining Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kragelund, Caroline; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Ecophysiological analysis and functions of single cells in complex microbial systems can be examined by simple combinations of Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification with various staining techniques targeting functional phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe methods and protocols optimized for the study of extracellular enzymes, surface hydrophobicity and specific surface structures. Although primarily applied to the study of microbes in wastewater treatment (activated sludge and biofilms), the methods may also be used with minor modifications in several other ecosystems.

  3. The use of combining ability analysis to identify elite parents for Artemisia annua F1 hybrid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Townsend

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is an important medicinal crop used for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin. In order to assist in the production of affordable high quality artemisinin we have carried out an A. annua breeding programme aimed at improving artemisinin concentration and biomass. Here we report on a combining ability analysis of a diallel cross to identify robust parental lines for hybrid breeding. The parental lines were selected based on a range of phenotypic traits to encourage heterosis. The general combining ability (GCA values for the diallel parental lines correlated to the positive alleles of quantitative trait loci (QTL in the same parents indicating the presence of beneficial alleles that contribute to parental performance. Hybrids generated from crossing specific parental lines with good GCA were identified as having an increase in both artemisinin concentration and biomass when grown either in glasshouse or experimental field trials and compared to controls. This study demonstrates that combining ability as determined by a diallel cross can be used to identify elite parents for the production of improved A. annua hybrids. Furthermore, the selection of material for breeding using this approach was found to be consistent with our QTL-based molecular breeding approach.

  4. Performance analysis of dynamic load balancing algorithm for multiprocessor interconnection network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Bokhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiprocessor interconnection network have become powerful parallel computing system for real-time applications. Nowadays the many researchers posses studies on the dynamic load balancing in multiprocessor system. Load balancing is the method of dividing the total load among the processors of the distributed system to progress task's response time as well as resource utilization whereas ignoring a condition where few processors are overloaded or underloaded or moderately loaded. However, in dynamic load balancing algorithm presumes no priori information about behaviour of tasks or the global state of the system. There are numerous issues while designing an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm that involves utilization of system, amount of information transferred among processors, selection of tasks for migration, load evaluation, comparison of load levels and many more. This paper enlightens the performance analysis on dynamic load balancing strategy (DLBS algorithm, used for hypercube network in multiprocessor system.

  5. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) specification defines three compliance levels. Level 0 targets single processor programs while Level 1 and 2 can support multiprocessor platforms. Level 1 programs must be fully partitioned but Level 2 programs can also be more globally...... scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...

  6. System-Level Design Methodologies for Networked Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir

    2008-01-01

    of wireless integrated sensor networks which are an emerging class of networked embedded computer systems. The work described here demonstrates how to model multiprocessor systems-on-chip at the system level by abstracting away most of the lower-level details albeit retaining the parameters most relevant......The first part of the thesis presents an overview of the existing theories and practices of modeling and simulation of multiprocessor systems-on-chip. The systematic categorization of the plethora of existing programming models at various levels of abstraction is the main contribution here which...... is the first such attempt in the published literature. The second part of the thesis deals with the issues related to the development of system-level design methodologies for networked multiprocessor systems-on-chip at various levels of design abstraction with special focus on the modeling and design...

  7. Investigation of the Magnetotail and Inner Magnetosphere with Combined Global Hybrid and CIMI Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Perez, J. D.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The interconnection between the Earth's inner and outer magnetospheric regions is calculated by coupling an existing 3-D global hybrid simulation code to an existing ring current and radiation belt code, the Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere/Ionosphere (CIMI) model. In the hybrid simulation, the global dynamics are driven by the solar wind and a southward IMF, and the simulation domain includes the plasma regions from x=-60RE to +20RE . Evolution of the magnetotail is revealed in the hybrid simulation. The response of the ring current and radiation belts is calculated by coupling the CIMI model to the global hybrid model. The hybrid simulation results provide the CIMI model with the magnetic field and electric potential at the high-latitude ionosphere boundary and plasma density and full ion phase space distribution function at the outer boundary at the equator. Our simulation shows that the ion velocity distributions in the tail are non-Maxwellian, with the existence of multiple ion beams, which have a significant impact on the ring current and the convection electric field. Detailed results will be presented for cases with various IMF and solar wind conditions, and the simulation will be compared with satellite observations.

  8. A hybrid model of anaerobic E. coli GJT001: combination of elementary flux modes and cybernetic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Il; Varner, Jeffery D; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2008-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) in combination with the decomposition of metabolic networks into elementary modes has provided a route to modeling cellular metabolism. It is dependent, however, on the availability of external fluxes such as substrate uptake or growth rate before estimates can become available of intracellular fluxes. The framework classically does not allow modeling of metabolic regulation or the formulation of dynamic models except through dynamic measurement of external fluxes. The cybernetic modeling approach of Ramkrishna and coworkers provides a dynamic framework for modeling metabolic systems because of its focus on describing regulatory processes based on cybernetic arguments and hence has the capacity to describe both external and internal fluxes. In this article, we explore the alternative of developing hybrid models combining cybernetic models for the external fluxes with the flux balance approach for estimation of the internal fluxes. The approach has the merit of the simplicity of the early cybernetic models and hence computationally facile while also providing detailed information on intracellular fluxes. The hybrid model of this article is based on elementary mode decomposition of the metabolic network. The uptake rates for the various elementary modes are combined using global cybernetic variables based on maximizing substrate uptake rates. Estimation of intracellular metabolism is based on its stoichiometric coupling with the external fluxes under the assumption of (pseudo-) steady state conditions. The set of parameters of the hybrid model was estimated with the aid of nonlinear optimization routine, by fitting simulations with dynamic experimental data on concentrations of biomass, substrate, and fermentation products. The hybrid model estimations were tested with FBA (based on measured substrate uptake rate) for two different metabolic networks (one is a reduced network which fixes ATP contribution to the biomass and maintenance

  9. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms. Cytologically normal smears with bacterial or fungal infections showed a high proliferation index. HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases. Four of five cases cytologically suspicious for HPV infection had HPV by in situ hybridization.

  10. Assessing Programming Costs of Explicit Memory Localization on a Large Scale Shared Memory Multiprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Picano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed experimental work involving a commercially available large scale shared memory multiple instruction stream-multiple data stream (MIMD parallel computer having a software controlled cache coherence mechanism. To make effective use of such an architecture, the programmer is responsible for designing the program's structure to match the underlying multiprocessors capabilities. We describe the techniques used to exploit our multiprocessor (the BBN TC2000 on a network simulation program, showing the resulting performance gains and the associated programming costs. We show that an efficient implementation relies heavily on the user's ability to explicitly manage the memory system.

  11. Mapping of H.264 decoding on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, Erik B.; Jaspers, Egbert G.; Gelderblom, Rob H.

    2003-05-01

    Due to the increasing significance of development costs in the competitive domain of high-volume consumer electronics, generic solutions are required to enable reuse of the design effort and to increase the potential market volume. As a result from this, Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) contain a growing amount of fully programmable media processing devices as opposed to application-specific systems, which offered the most attractive solutions due to a high performance density. The following motivates this trend. First, SoCs are increasingly dominated by their communication infrastructure and embedded memory, thereby making the cost of the functional units less significant. Moreover, the continuously growing design costs require generic solutions that can be applied over a broad product range. Hence, powerful programmable SoCs are becoming increasingly attractive. However, to enable power-efficient designs, that are also scalable over the advancing VLSI technology, parallelism should be fully exploited. Both task-level and instruction-level parallelism can be provided by means of e.g. a VLIW multiprocessor architecture. To provide the above-mentioned scalability, we propose to partition the data over the processors, instead of traditional functional partitioning. An advantage of this approach is the inherent locality of data, which is extremely important for communication-efficient software implementations. Consequently, a software implementation is discussed, enabling e.g. SD resolution H.264 decoding with a two-processor architecture, whereas High-Definition (HD) decoding can be achieved with an eight-processor system, executing the same software. Experimental results show that the data communication considerably reduces up to 65% directly improving the overall performance. Apart from considerable improvement in memory bandwidth, this novel concept of partitioning offers a natural approach for optimally balancing the load of all processors, thereby further improving the

  12. Use of Methanation for Optimization of a Hybrid Plant Combining Two-Stage Biomass Gasification, SOFCs and a Micro Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of the two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a micro gas turbine (MGT) was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant is a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...

  13. HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENT CHARACTERS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L. HYBRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAMESH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the components of genetic variation were worked out by Kempthorne method from a Line x Tester analysis in castor for fourteen plant type related traits. The analysis for combining ability revealed significant mean sum of squares of both general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA for all the characters which indicated the presence of both additive and non-additive gene actions. The ratio of GCA variance and SCA variance ratio revealed the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except plant height up to primary spike, no. of nodes up to primary spike, no. of capsules/primary spike and total spike length of secondary. JP-87 was good general combiner for most of the characters including seed yield. The line DCS-106 was also a good general combiner for early flowering, days to maturity and number of capsules on secondary spike. Cross JP-87 × RG-1740/A was a good specific combiner for seed yield per plant and for other yield component. The hybrid DPC-9 × RG-156 with good specific combining ability for days to maturity can be used for yield improvement in castor. In general for yield and other yield attributing traits the promising hybrids with high heterosis were JP-87 × RG-1740/A, JP-87 × DCS-106, DPC-17 × RG-156, DPC-17 × DCS-106 and DPC-17 × DCS-107 were on par with the check. These cross combinations could be utilized for further use in breeding programme for improvement in yield of castor.

  14. Nitrate and ammonium ions removal from groundwater by a hybrid system of zero-valent iron combined with adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Won-Bae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kim, Yongje; Cho, Yunchul; Choi, Jaeyoung; Song, Hocheol; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)(-)) is a commonly found contaminant in groundwater and surface water. It has created a major water quality problem worldwide. The laboratory batch experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of HCl-treated zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) combined with different adsorbents as hybrid systems for simultaneous removal of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) ions from aqueous solution. The maximum NO(3)(-) removal in combined Fe(0)-granular activated carbon (GAC), Fe(0)-filtralite and Fe(0)-sepiolite systems was 86, 96 and 99%, respectively, at 45 °C for 24 h reaction time. The NO(3)(-) removal rate increased with the increase in initial NO(3)(-) concentration. The NO(3)(-) removal efficiency by hybrid systems was in the order of sepiolite > filtralite > GAC. The NH(4)(+) produced during the denitrification process by Fe(0) was successfully removed by the adsorbents, with the removal efficiency in the order of GAC > sepiolite > filtralite. Results of the present study suggest that the use of a hybrid system could be a promising technology for achieving simultaneous removal of NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) ions from aqueous solution.

  15. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling. PMID:27376337

  16. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Blandin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants, FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  17. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R D; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  18. Study on the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Cláudio; Barreras, Jorge V.; de Castro, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the combined influence of battery models and sizing strategy for hybrid and battery-based electric vehicles. In particular, the aim is to find the number of battery (and supercapacitor) cells to propel a light vehicle to run two different standard driving cycles....... Despite the same tendency, when a hybrid vehicle is taken into account, the influence of the battery models is dependent on the sizing strategy. In this work, two sizing strategies are evaluated: dynamic programming and filter-based. For the latter, the complexity of the battery model has a clear....... Three equivalent circuit models are considered to simulate the battery electrical performance: linear static, non-linear static and non-linear with first-order dynamics. When dimensioning a battery-based vehicle, less complex models may lead to a solution with more battery cells and higher costs...

  19. Combination of Biorthogonal Wavelet Hybrid Kernel OCSVM with Feature Weighted Approach Based on EVA and GRA in Financial Distress Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial distress prediction plays an important role in the survival of companies. In this paper, a novel biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel function is constructed by combining linear kernel function with biorthogonal wavelet kernel function. Besides, a new feature weighted approach is presented based on economic value added (EVA and grey relational analysis (GRA. Considering the imbalance between financially distressed companies and normal ones, the feature weighted one-class support vector machine based on biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel (BWH-FWOCSVM is further put forward for financial distress prediction. The empirical study with real data from the listed companies on Growth Enterprise Market (GEM in China shows that the proposed approach has good performance.

  20. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh K. Singh; N. Rai; Major Singh; S. N. Singh; K. Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line × tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC × EC-520061 and PBC × EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits.

  1. Effective pathfinding for four-wheeled robot based on combining Theta* and hybrid A* algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Геннадійович Михалько

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pathfinding algorithm based on Theta* and Hybrid A* algorithms was developed for four-wheeled robot. Pseudocode for algorithm was showed and explained. Algorithm and simulator for four-wheeled robot were implemented using Java programming language. Algorithm was tested on U-obstacles, complex maps and for parking problem

  2. Reconfigurable Equiplets Operating System A Hybrid Architecture to Combine Flexibility and Performance for Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Moergestel, leo van; Bakker, Tommas; Meyer, John-Jules

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Abstract—The growing importance and impact of new technologies are changing many industries. This effect is especially noticeable in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores a practical implementation of a hybrid architecture for the newest generation of manufacturing systems

  3. Combining coordination and supramolecular chemistry for the formation of uranyl-organic hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deifel, N. P.; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hybrid compounds have been synthesized through hydrothermal reactions of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4-halobenzoic acid (X = Cl, Br, I). The formation of these compounds utilizes a composite synthesis methodology that explicitly employs aspects of both coordination chemistry and supramolecular chemistry (namely halogen---halogen interactions).

  4. Reconfigurable Equiplets Operating System A Hybrid Architecture to Combine Flexibility and Performance for Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniël Telgen; Ing. Erik Puik; Leo van Moergestel; John-Jules Meyer; Tommas Bakker

    2015-01-01

    Author supplied: Abstract—The growing importance and impact of new technologies are changing many industries. This effect is especially noticeable in the manufacturing industry. This paper explores a practical implementation of a hybrid architecture for the newest generation of manufacturing

  5. Hybrid procedure combining clip on wrapping and stent placement for ruptured supraclinoid blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Hirokazu; Narikiyo, Michihisa; Nagayama, Gota; Nagao, Seiya; Tsuboi, Yoshifumi; Kambayashi, Chisaku

    2017-03-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms of the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery are rare, fragile, and thin-walled lesions with a higher rate of rebleeding. Our case underwent a hybrid procedure combining direct surgical and endovascular approach.

  6. Development and functional analysis of novel genetic promoters using DNA shuffling, hybridization and a combination thereof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Ranjan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of novel synthetic promoters with enhanced regulatory activity is of great value for a diverse range of plant biotechnology applications. METHODOLOGY: Using the Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (F and the sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS sequences, we generated two single shuffled promoter libraries (LssF and LssFS, two multiple shuffled promoter libraries (LmsFS-F and LmsF-FS, two hybrid promoters (FuasFScp and FSuasFcp and two hybrid-shuffled promoter libraries (LhsFuasFScp and LhsFSuasFcp. Transient expression activities of approximately 50 shuffled promoter clones from each of these libraries were assayed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi protoplasts. It was observed that most of the shuffled promoters showed reduced activity compared to the two parent promoters (F and FS and the CaMV35S promoter. In silico studies (computer simulated analyses revealed that the reduced promoter activities of the shuffled promoters could be due to their higher helical stability. On the contrary, the hybrid promoters FuasFScp and FSuasFcp showed enhanced activities compared to F, FS and CaMV 35S in both transient and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis plants. Northern-blot and qRT-PCR data revealed a positive correlation between transcription and enzymatic activity in transgenic tobacco plants expressing hybrid promoters. Histochemical/X-gluc staining of whole transgenic seedlings/tissue-sections and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated roots and stems expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of the FuasFScp and FSuasFcp promoters also support the above findings. Furthermore, protein extracts made from protoplasts expressing the human defensin (HNP-1 gene driven by hybrid promoters showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to the CaMV35S promoter. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: Both shuffled and hybrid promoters developed in the present study can be used as molecular tools to

  7. Transparent and flexible conducting hybrid film combined with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane-coated polymer and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daesung; Ko, Yong-Hun; Cho, Jumi; Adhikari, Prashanta Dhoj; Lee, Su Il; Kim, Yooseok; Song, Wooseok; Jung, Min Wook; Jang, Sung Won; Lee, Seung Youb; An, Ki-Seok; Park, Chong-Yun

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach to fabricate graphene hybrid film consisted of Graphene/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is presented, using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for enhancement of conductivity. The SAMs of APTES was prepared on ultraviolet-ozone (UVO)-irradiated PET films via wet chemical technique. The density of APTES was saturated after UV treatment time of 1 h for PET films; the carrier density and the optical transmittance were 9.3 × 10 12/cm2 and 82% for pristine graphene and 1.16 × 1013/cm2 and 86% for graphene hybrid films, respectively, and experienced at inflection point at 30 min in UV treatment time. This behavior can be explained by surface morphology transition due to coalescence or clustering of mobile and low-molecular-weight oxidized components of PET.

  8. Design of miniature hybrid target recognition system with combination of FPGA+DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shishang; Li, Xiujian; Jia, Hui; Hu, Wenhua; Nie, Yongming; Chang, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    With advantages of flexibility, high bandwidth, high spatial resolution and high-speed parallel operation, the opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system can be applied in many civil and military areas, such as video surveillance, intelligent navigation and robot vision. A miniature opto-electronic hybrid target recognition system based on FPGA+DSP is designed, which only employs single Fourier lens and with a focal length. With the precise timing control of the FPGA and images pretreatment of the DSP, the system performs both Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform with all optical process, which can improve recognition speed and reduce the system volume remarkably. We analyzed the system performance, and a method to achieve scale invariant pattern recognition was proposed on the basis of lots of experiments.

  9. One hybrid model combining singular spectrum analysis and LS + ARMA for polar motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Xin; Wei, Xiaobei; Li, Wudong

    2017-01-01

    Accurate real-time polar motion parameters play an important role in satellite navigation and positioning and spacecraft tracking. To meet the needs for real-time and high-accuracy polar motion prediction, a hybrid model that integrated singular spectrum analysis (SSA), least-squares (LS) extrapolation and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was proposed. SSA was applied to separate the trend, the annual and the Chandler components from a given polar motion time series. LS extrapolation models were constructed for the separated trend, annual and Chandler components. An ARMA model was established for a synthetic sequence that contained the remaining SSA component and the residual series of LS fitting. In applying this hybrid model, multiple sets of polar motion predictions with lead times of 360 days were made based on an IERS 08 C04 series. The results showed that the proposed method could effectively predict the polar motion parameters.

  10. Unique combination of zero-one-two dimensional carbon-titania hybrid for cold cathode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Kumar, D.; Das, N. S.; Sarkar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-11-01

    A unique multi-dimensional hybrid system has been developed by incorporating titania nanoparticle into chemically synthesized amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs)-amorphous graphene composites. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy; Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The microscopic studies confirm the attachment of the TiO2 nanoparticles on carbon structures. The performance of the both the pure and hybrid samples as cold cathode emitter has been investigated and it has been found that cold emission performance of the pure carbon system improves considerably after TiO2 nanoparticles being added to it giving a turn on field as low as 2.1 V/μm and enhancement factor 2746. The enhancement of field emission characteristic after TiO2 addition was justified from the 'ANSYS- Maxwell' software based simulation study.

  11. A Hybrid Approach to Composite Damage and Failure Analysis Combining Synergistic Damage Mechanics and Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    other provision of law. no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of Information if it does not display a ...From - To) 30-06-2017 Performance!Technical Report (Quarterl y) 04/0 I/2017 - 0613012017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER A Hybrid Approach...ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Texas A &M Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) 400 Harvey Mitchell Parkway, Suite 300 Ml601473 I

  12. Combining Quality of Service and Topology Control in Directional Hybrid Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    concept of a global information grid (GIG) that will provide the network-centric environment necessary to achieve the goal of integrating traditional...together form high bandwidth capabilities for hybrid communication networks, suggest the potential for global connectivity while avoiding some of...included in the network and which links each commodity should flow on. The MILP can be solved using any linear solver application. We use XPRESS -MP

  13. Multicore Processing and ARTEMIS - An incentive to develop the European Multiprocessor research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seceleanu, Tiberius; Tenhunen, Hannu; Jerraya, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Even though multiprocessor architectures have been developed for a long time now, the approach was mostly focusing on multi-chip realizations. Clustering computers or micro-processors on the same board was the solution to manage complex applications vs. performance requirements. It is only...

  14. SIFT - Multiprocessor architecture for Software Implemented Fault Tolerance flight control and avionics computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, P.; Moses, K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of a SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) Flight Control Computer with emphasis on implementation is presented. A multiprocessor system that relies on software-implemented fault detection and reconfiguration algorithms is described. A high level reliability and fault tolerance is achieved by the replication of computing tasks among processing units.

  15. 3D-TV Rendering on a Multiprocessor System on a Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijndhoven, J.T.J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the issue of mapping 3D-TV rendering applications to a multiprocessor platform. The target platform aims to address tomorrow's multi-media consumer market. The prototype chip, called Wasabi, contains a set of TriMedia processors that communicate viaa shared memory, fast messag

  16. On-Line Dependability Enhancement of Multiprocessor SoCs by Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter T.D.; Burgess, S.T.; Hurskainen, H.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Vermeulen, B.; Zhang, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach towards dependable design of homogeneous multi-processor SoCs in an example satellite-navigation application. First, the NoC dependability is functionally verified via embedded software. Then the Xentium processor tiles are periodically verified via on-line self-t

  17. Power-dissipation comparison of two dependability approaches for multi-processor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xiao; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Zhao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The additional power dissipation involved in introducing a high dependability in multi-processor systems is nowadays becoming a major concern (power-aware dependability). In this paper, the power dissipation components of a recently implemented scan-test based dependability testing approach for a mu

  18. Thermal-Aware Design and Runtime Management of 3D Stacked Multiprocessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    The sustained increase in computational performance demanded by next-generation applications drives the increasing core counts of modern multiprocessor systems. However, in the dark silicon era, the performance levels and integration density of such systems is limited by thermal constraints of their

  19. Fast multiprocessor scheduling with fixed task binding of large scale industrial cyber physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adyanthaya, S.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Schiffelers, R.; Theelen, B.; Voeten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Latest trends in embedded platform architectures show a steady shift from high frequency single core platforms to lower-frequency but highly-parallel execution platforms. Scheduling applications with stringent latency requirements on such multiprocessor platforms is challenging. Our work is motivate

  20. HAPI: An event-driven simulator for real-time multiprocessor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtin, Philip S.; Hausmans, Joost P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Many embedded multiprocessor systems have hard real-time requirements which should be guaranteed at design time by means of analytical techniques that cover all cases. It is desirable to evaluate the correctness and tightness of the analysis results by means of simulation. However, verification of t

  1. Parallelization of While Loops in Nested Loop Programs for Shared-Memory Multiprocessor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, Stefan J.; Bekooij, Marco J.G.; Bijlsma, Tjerk; Corporaal, Henk

    2011-01-01

    Many applications contain loops with an undetermined number of iterations. These loops have to be parallelized in order to increase the throughput when executed on an embedded multiprocessor platform. This paper presents a method to automatically extract a parallel task graph based on function level

  2. Fast multiprocessor scheduling with fixed task binding of large scale industrial cyber physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adyanthaya, S.; Geilen, M.; Basten, T.; Schiffelers, R.; Theelen, B.; Voeten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Latest trends in embedded platform architectures show a steady shift from high frequency single core platforms to lower-frequency but highly-parallel execution platforms. Scheduling applications with stringent latency requirements on such multiprocessor platforms is challenging. Our work is motivate

  3. Thermal-Aware Design and Runtime Management of 3D Stacked Multiprocessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    The sustained increase in computational performance demanded by next-generation applications drives the increasing core counts of modern multiprocessor systems. However, in the dark silicon era, the performance levels and integration density of such systems is limited by thermal constraints of their

  4. Safety-critical Java with cyclic executives on chip-multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chip-multiprocessors offer increased processing power at a low cost. However, in order to use them for real-time systems, tasks have to be scheduled efficiently and predictably. It is well known that finding optimal schedules is a computationally hard problem. In this paper we present a solution...

  5. A system-level multiprocessor system-on-chip modeling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present a system-level modeling framework to model system-on-chips (SoC) consisting of heterogeneous multiprocessors and network-on-chip communication structures in order to enable the developers of today's SoC designs to take advantage of the flexibility and scalability of network-on-chip...

  6. Communication between Nested Loop Programs via Circular Buffers in an Embedded Multiprocessor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Tjerk; Bekooij, Marco; Jansen, Pierre; Smit, Gerard; Falk, H.

    2008-01-01

    Multimedia applications, executed by embedded multiprocessor systems, can in some cases be represented as task graphs, with the tasks containing nested loop programs. The nested loop programs communicate via arrays and can be executed on different processors. Typically an array can be communicated v

  7. Evaluation of the impact chip multiprocessors have on SNL application performance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, Douglas W.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes trans-organizational efforts to investigate the impact of chip multiprocessors (CMPs) on the performance of important Sandia application codes. The impact of CMPs on the performance and applicability of Sandia's system software was also investigated. The goal of the investigation was to make algorithmic and architectural recommendations for next generation platform acquisitions.

  8. A distributed multiprocessor system designed for real-time image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiyi; Heng, Wei

    2008-11-01

    In real-time image processing, a large amount of data is needed to be processed at a very high speed. Considering the problems faced in real-time image processing, a distributed multiprocessor system is proposed in this paper. In the design of the distributed multiprocessor system, processing tasks are allocated to various processes, which are bound to different CPUs. Several designs are discussed, and making full use of every process is very important to system's excellent performance. Furthermore, the problems of realization fasten on the inter-process communication, the synchronization, and the stability. System analysis and performance tests both show that the distributed multiprocessor system is able to improve system's performance variously, including the delay, the throughput rate, the stability, the scalability. And the system can be expanded easy at aspects of software and hardware. In a word, the distributed multiprocessor system designed for real-time image processing, based on distributed algorithms, not only improves system's performance variously, but also costs low and expands easy.

  9. Computational design of RNA parts, devices, and transcripts with kinetic folding algorithms implemented on multiprocessor clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaiah, Tim; Voje, William E; Carothers, James M

    2015-01-01

    With progress toward inexpensive, large-scale DNA assembly, the demand for simulation tools that allow the rapid construction of synthetic biological devices with predictable behaviors continues to increase. By combining engineered transcript components, such as ribosome binding sites, transcriptional terminators, ligand-binding aptamers, catalytic ribozymes, and aptamer-controlled ribozymes (aptazymes), gene expression in bacteria can be fine-tuned, with many corollaries and applications in yeast and mammalian cells. The successful design of genetic constructs that implement these kinds of RNA-based control mechanisms requires modeling and analyzing kinetically determined co-transcriptional folding pathways. Transcript design methods using stochastic kinetic folding simulations to search spacer sequence libraries for motifs enabling the assembly of RNA component parts into static ribozyme- and dynamic aptazyme-regulated expression devices with quantitatively predictable functions (rREDs and aREDs, respectively) have been described (Carothers et al., Science 334:1716-1719, 2011). Here, we provide a detailed practical procedure for computational transcript design by illustrating a high throughput, multiprocessor approach for evaluating spacer sequences and generating functional rREDs. This chapter is written as a tutorial, complete with pseudo-code and step-by-step instructions for setting up a computational cluster with an Amazon, Inc. web server and performing the large numbers of kinefold-based stochastic kinetic co-transcriptional folding simulations needed to design functional rREDs and aREDs. The method described here should be broadly applicable for designing and analyzing a variety of synthetic RNA parts, devices and transcripts.

  10. Application of a hybrid method combining grey model and back propagation artificial neural networks to forecast hepatitis B in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Xiaojun; Yan, Yu; Huang, Daizheng

    2015-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method's feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1) and GM (2, 1) in all the evaluation indexes.

  11. DESIGN OF THE THREE-LEVEL MULTICRITERIAL STRATEGY OF HYBRID MARINE POWER PLANT CONTROL FOR A COMBINED PROPULSION COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Budashko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficiency of hybrid ships power plants (SPP combined propulsion complexes (CPC by various criteria for energy management systems strategies. Methodology. Based on the classification system topologies SPP CPC for mechanical, electrical and hybrid types of motors schematic diagrams of management strategies for the criterion of minimum power consumption are defined. Changing the technical component of the traditional approach to building hybrid ships electric power systems (SEPS SPP CPC the principle of modifying the structure of SEPS is applied with the integration of additional static alternative power source as dynamic reserve, which allowed to meet modern requirements for energy efficiency, levels of vibration, noise and degradation effects produced to SPP CPC, in all areas of the energy for the transfer of power from energy to propellers. Modeling of power transmission of energy to propellers in MatLab/Simulink is conducted, using blocks of optimization library and definition of identity markers. Results. Major advantages and disadvantages SPP CPC depending on the topology of energy distribution systems are determined. According to the chosen structure system electricity characteristics were obtained in the process of power transmission SPP CPC and power systems and their control strategies in terms of increased efficiency and eliminate these drawbacks. And finally, mathematical apparatus for research in terms of the development of methods for designing and managing SPP hybrid CPC to reduced fuel consumption, emissions into the environment and improving maintainability, flexibility and comfort level are improved. Originality. The methodology for improving SPP CPC implementation by developing methods of identification markers mutually influencing processes in SPP CPC and the development of implementing these methods of settlement and information systems. Practical value. The method enables iterative optimization parameters SPP CPC, it

  12. Hybrid metabolic flux analysis: combining stoichiometric and statistical constraints to model the formation of complex recombinant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paula M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stoichiometric models constitute the basic framework for fluxome quantification in the realm of metabolic engineering. A recurrent bottleneck, however, is the establishment of consistent stoichiometric models for the synthesis of recombinant proteins or viruses. Although optimization algorithms for in silico metabolic redesign have been developed in the context of genome-scale stoichiometric models for small molecule production, still rudimentary knowledge of how different cellular levels are regulated and phenotypically expressed prevents their full applicability for complex product optimization. Results A hybrid framework is presented combining classical metabolic flux analysis with projection to latent structures to further link estimated metabolic fluxes with measured productivities. We first explore the functional metabolic decomposition of a baculovirus-producing insect cell line from experimental data, highlighting the TCA cycle and mitochondrial respiration as pathways strongly associated with viral replication. To reduce uncertainty in metabolic target identification, a Monte Carlo sampling method was used to select meaningful associations with the target, from which 66% of the estimated fluxome had to be screened out due to weak correlations and/or high estimation errors. The proposed hybrid model was then validated using a subset of preliminary experiments to pinpoint the same determinant pathways, while predicting the productivity of independent cultures. Conclusions Overall, the results indicate our hybrid metabolic flux analysis framework is an advantageous tool for metabolic identification and quantification in incomplete or ill-defined metabolic networks. As experimental and computational solutions for constructing comprehensive global cellular models are in development, the contribution of hybrid metabolic flux analysis should constitute a valuable complement to current computational platforms in bridging the

  13. Mechanisms of hybrid oligomer formation in the pathogenesis of combined Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F Tsigelny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolding and pathological aggregation of neuronal proteins has been proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD are frequent neurodegenerative diseases of the aging population. While progressive accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Abeta oligomers has been identified as one of the central toxic events in AD, accumulation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn resulting in the formation of oligomers and protofibrils has been linked to PD and Lewy body Disease (LBD. We have recently shown that Abeta promotes alpha-syn aggregation and toxic conversion in vivo, suggesting that abnormal interactions between misfolded proteins might contribute to disease pathogenesis. However the molecular characteristics and consequences of these interactions are not completely clear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in potential Abeta/alpha-syn interactions, immunoblot, molecular modeling, and in vitro studies with alpha-syn and Abeta were performed. We showed in vivo in the brains of patients with AD/PD and in transgenic mice, Abeta and alpha-synuclein co-immunoprecipitate and form complexes. Molecular modeling and simulations showed that Abeta binds alpha-syn monomers, homodimers, and trimers, forming hybrid ring-like pentamers. Interactions occurred between the N-terminus of Abeta and the N-terminus and C-terminus of alpha-syn. Interacting alpha-syn and Abeta dimers that dock on the membrane incorporated additional alpha-syn molecules, leading to the formation of more stable pentamers and hexamers that adopt a ring-like structure. Consistent with the simulations, under in vitro cell-free conditions, Abeta interacted with alpha-syn, forming hybrid pore-like oligomers. Moreover, cells expressing alpha-syn and treated with Abeta displayed increased current amplitudes and calcium influx consistent with the

  14. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  15. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Neha, E-mail: neha87bhu@gmail.com [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E. [Defence Material Store Research Development and Establishment (DMSRDE), DRDO, GT Road, Kanpur 208013, U.P (India); Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS{sub 2}) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS{sub 2} and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS{sub 2} and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  16. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  17. Wear resistance and friction reduction in acrylo nitrile butadiene rubber through hybrid combination of graphite flakes and nano tungsten disulphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Neha; Pandey, Akanksha; Parihar, A. S.; Mishra, A. K.; Gandhi, M. N.; Bhattacharyya, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, K.; Prasad, N. E.

    2016-05-01

    Friction and wear have considerable role in the life span of two interacting parts. Incorporation of nanofillers in polymers/elastomers matrix causes commendable changes in its tribologicalproperties. The main purpose of this work is to reduce the coefficient of friction and wear rate of Acrylo Nitrile Butadiene rubber (NBR). To achieve such objective traditionally well knownlubricants graphite(G), tungsten disulphide (WS2) and there hybrid combination was incorporated in NBR matrix. Effect of applied load (force) and concentration of fillers on tribological properties of NBR had been studied. The filler incorporation enhanced the hardnessby 8%, showed resistance to hydraulic oil and aging effect also got improved significantly. A particular optimized concentration of NBR with hybrid combination of 2% WS2 and 4% Graphite showed minimum coefficient of friction as well as wear rate. A hypothesis could be attributed that similar lamellar structure of WS2 and Graphite along with formation of a stable nanoscale disulfide tribofilmcould result in lowering of friction. These substantially improved properties of nanoreinforced rubber materials would definitely pave promising path for plethora of potential technological applications.

  18. Hybrid routing and spectrum assignment algorithms based on distance-adaptation combined coevolution and heuristics in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhe; Xu, Zhanqi; Zeng, Xiaodong; Ma, Tao; Yang, Fan

    2014-04-01

    By adopting the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technology, spectrum-sliced elastic optical path networks can offer flexible bandwidth to each connection request and utilize the spectrum resources efficiently. The routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problems in SLICE networks are solved by using heuristic algorithms in most prior studies and addressed by intelligent algorithms in few investigations. The performance of RSA algorithms can be further improved if we could combine such two types of algorithms. Therefore, we propose three hybrid RSA algorithms: DACE-GMSF, DACE-GLPF, and DACE-GEMkPSF, which are the combination of the heuristic algorithm and coevolution based on distance-adaptive policy. In the proposed algorithms, we first groom the connection requests, then sort the connection requests by using the heuristic algorithm (most subcarriers first, longest path first, and extended most k paths' slots first), and finally search the approximately optimal solution with the coevolutionary policy. We present a model of the RSA problem by using integral linear programming, and key elements in the proposed algorithms are addressed in detail. Simulations under three topologies show that the proposed hybrid RSA algorithms can save spectrum resources efficiently.

  19. The Use of a Hybrid Strategy Combining Problem-based Learning and Magisterial Lectures to Enhance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Acosta-Nassar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of capturing the attention of intermediate level students in the Thermodynamics 1 course from the Mechanical and Agricultural Engineering Program, with the purpose of helping students improve their learning process. A hybrid teaching strategy was proposed based on Problem-based Learning (PBL principles combined with magisterial lectures. Digital and traditional didactic resources were also used in order to find the best mean to minimize the lack of attention in learners. The strategy was developed by sensitizing students to get involved in their formation process. PowerPoint presentations, video clips, the traditional white board and an ultra slim digital tablet board were used to develop the theoretical issues and present the solutions to the problems chosen for the PBL strategy. Finally, the strategy was evaluated and results were analyzed, indicating that using a hybrid strategy combining PBL and traditional magisterial lectures is an optimal resource to improve the learning process of students taking Thermodynamics 1. In addition, it was also concluded that the ultra slim digital tablet board is the optimal didactic resource.

  20. A single-ensemble-based hybrid approach to clutter rejection combining bilinear Hankel with regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Naizhang; Lee, Chin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    Clutter regarded as ultrasound Doppler echoes of soft tissue interferes with the primary objective of color flow imaging (CFI): measurement and display of blood flow. Multi-ensemble samples based clutter filters degrade resolution or frame rate of CFI. The prevalent single-ensemble clutter rejection filter is based on a single rejection criterion and fails to achieve a high accuracy for estimating both the low- and high-velocity blood flow components. The Bilinear Hankel-SVD achieved more exact signal decomposition than the conventional Hankel-SVD. Furthermore, the correlation between two arbitrary eigen-components obtained by the B-Hankel-SVD was demonstrated. In the hybrid approach, the input ultrasound Doppler signal first passes through a low-order regression filter, and then the output is properly decomposed into a collection of eigen-components under the framework of B-Hankel-SVD. The blood flow components are finally extracted based on a frequency threshold. In a series of simulations, the proposed B-Hankel-SVD filter reduced the estimation bias of the blood flow over the conventional Hankel-SVD filter. The hybrid algorithm was shown to be more effective than regression or Hankel-SVD filters alone in rejecting the undesirable clutter components with single-ensemble (S-E) samples. It achieved a significant improvement in blood flow frequency estimation and estimation variance over the other competing filters.

  1. Combined RNA/DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization on whole-mount Drosophila ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiz, Sergey; Lavrov, Sergey; Kalmykova, Alla

    2014-01-01

    DNA FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) analysis reveals the chromosomal location of the gene of interest. RNA in situ hybridization is used to examine the amounts and cell location of transcripts. This method is commonly used to describe the localization of processed transcripts in different tissues or cell lines. Gene activation studies are often aimed at determining the mechanism of this activation (transcriptional or posttranscriptional). Elucidation of the mechanism of piRNA-mediated silencing of genomic repeats is at the cutting edge of small RNA research. The RNA/DNA FISH technique is a powerful method for assessing transcriptional changes at any particular genomic locus. Colocalization of the RNA and DNA FISH signals allows a determination of the accumulation of nascent transcripts at the transcribed genomic locus. This would be suggest that this gene is activated at the transcriptional (or co-transcriptional) level. Moreover, this method allows for the identification of transcriptional derepression of a distinct copy (copies) among a genomic repeat family. Here, a RNA/DNA FISH protocol is presented for the simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA in situ on whole-mount Drosophila ovaries using tyramide signal amplification. With subsequent immunostaining of chromatin components, this protocol can be easily extended for studying the interdependence between chromatin changes at genomic loci and their transcriptional activity.

  2. Combination PROP: A Case Report of a Hybrid Flexible and Traditional Partial Removable Dental Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umsted, David E; Ragain, James C; Wicks, Russell A

    2015-01-01

    The need for partial removable dental prostheses (PRDP) is increasing as the over-65 partially edentulous population grows. The use of flexible materials in the fabrication of these prostheses has captured a large portion of the market once occupied by traditional cast metal PRDPs. While there are some clinical advantages to the use of flexible PRDPs, there are also disadvantages and contraindications that must be considered. This paper describes a clinical case in which a patient's dentition is restored with a hybrid partial removable dental prosthesis consisting of a traditional metal framework and flexible denture base and clasps. This design can result in achieving the benefits of each type of prosthesis in an effort to satisfy the needs of the patient.

  3. Evaluation of green manufacturing practices using a hybrid MCDM model combining DANP with PROMETHEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Shankar, Madan

    2015-01-01

    literature, particularly in environmental practices specific to India. In this connection, there is a need to explore green manufacturing practices (GMP) in an Indian context. The purpose of this article is to select the best GMP based on dimensions and relevant criteria with the assistance of a hybrid multi...... is the leading manufacturer of rubber tyres and tubes. By virtue of these findings, industries can identify the best GM practice to adopt in order to increase the chances of profit and performance throughout their systems. This study concludes by successfully identifying the best GM practice for this case...... industry, and it provides some important managerial implications. This research explores some future trends to make the study more reliable in changing real life scenarios. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  4. Beyond AI: Multi-Intelligence (MI Combining Natural and Artificial Intelligences in Hybrid Beings and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Framing strongly influences actions among technology proponents and end-users. Underlying much debate about artificial intelligence (AI are several fundamental shortcomings in its framing. First, discussion of AI is atheoretical, and therefore has limited potential for addressing the complexity of causation. Second, intelligence is considered from an anthropocentric perspective that sees human intelligence, and intelligence developed by humans, as superior to all other intelligences. Thus, the extensive post-anthropocentric research into intelligence is not given sufficient consideration. Third, AI is discussed often in reductionist mechanistic terms. Rather than in organicist emergentist terms as a contributor to multi-intelligence (MI hybrid beings and/or systems. Thus, current framing of AI can be a self-validating reduction within which AI development is focused upon AI becoming the single-variable mechanism causing future effects. In this paper, AI is reframed as a contributor to MI.

  5. A Hybrid Machine Learning Method for Fusing fMRI and Genetic Data: Combining both Improves Classification of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a hybrid machine learning method to classify schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data. The method consists of four stages: (1 SNPs with the most discriminating information between the healthy controls and schizophrenia patients are selected to construct a support vector machine ensemble (SNP-SVME. (2 Voxels in the fMRI map contributing to classification are selected to build another SVME (Voxel-SVME. (3 Components of fMRI activation obtained with independent component analysis (ICA are used to construct a single SVM classifier (ICA-SVMC. (4 The above three models are combined into a single module using a majority voting approach to make a final decision (Combined SNP-fMRI. The method was evaluated by a fully-validated leave-one-out method using 40 subjects (20 patients and 20 controls. The classification accuracy was: 0.74 for SNP-SVME, 0.82 for Voxel-SVME, 0.83 for ICA-SVMC, and 0.87 for Combined SNP-fMRI. Experimental results show that better classification accuracy was achieved by combining genetic and fMRI data than using either alone, indicating that genetic and brain function representing different, but partially complementary aspects, of schizophrenia etiopathology. This study suggests an effective way to reassess biological classification of individuals with schizophrenia, which is also potentially useful for identifying diagnostically important markers for the disorder.

  6. A One-Dimensional Hybrid Simulation of DC/RF Combined Driven Capacitive Plasma%A One-Dimensional Hybrid Simulation of DC/RF Combined Driven Capacitive Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 徐翔; 王友年

    2012-01-01

    We developed a one-dimensional hybrid model to simulate the DC/RF combined driven capacitively coupled plasma for argon discharges. The numerical results are used to analyze the influence of the DC source on the plasma density distribution, ion energy distributions (IEDs) and ion angle distributions (IADs) on both the RF and DC electrodes. The increase in DC voltage drives more high-energy ions to the electrode applied to the DC source, which makes the IEDs at the DC electrode shift towards higher energy, and the peaks in the IADs shift towards small angle regions. At the same time, it also decreases the ion energy at the RF electrode and enlarges the incident angles of the ions, which strike the RF electrode.

  7. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  8. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-06-01

    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z; Fratila-Apachitei, L E; Apachitei, I; Duszczyk, J

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  10. Studying non-linearity of Mercury magnetosphere and solar wind interaction features using the combined hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunakian, David; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Alexeev, Igor; Belenkaya, Elena; Khodachenko, Maxim; Kallio, Esa; Alho, Markku

    2017-04-01

    The main focus of this work is to investigate non-linearity of Mercury's magnetospheric features. We use the paraboloid magnetospheric model (PMM) to calculate the initial magnetospheric field which we then use in hybrid simulations. We show that the initial total magnetospheric field can be considered a linear combination of the planetary dipole field, magnetospheric current system fields, and a penetrating portion of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We use two sets of modelling runs with IMF values of identical magnitudes and anti-parallel directions. We then compute semi-sums and semi-differences of final magnetic field maps generated by hybrid plasma simulations, and use semi-sums to cancel out IMF contributions and semi-differences to cancel out PMM contributions. The remnant fields outside and inside the magnetosphere (for semi-sum and semi-difference fields, accordingly) are used to improve our ability to determine the position of the bow shock and magnetopause, as well as calculate the IMF penetration coefficient that results into best matches of this model to observational MESSENGER data. We compare Mercury's magnetosheath magnetic field predicted by our model with MESSENGER data in the appropriate orbit sections.

  11. Bimodal Imaging Probes for Combined PET and OI: Recent Developments and Future Directions for Hybrid Agent Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Seibold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging—and especially positron emission tomography (PET—has gained increasing importance for diagnosis of various diseases and thus experiences an increasing dissemination. Therefore, there is also a growing demand for highly affine PET tracers specifically accumulating and visualizing target structures in the human body. Beyond the development of agents suitable for PET alone, recent tendencies aim at the synthesis of bimodal imaging probes applicable in PET as well as optical imaging (OI, as this combination of modalities can provide clinical advantages. PET, due to the high tissue penetration of the γ-radiation emitted by PET nuclides, allows a quantitative imaging able to identify and visualize tumors and metastases in the whole body. OI on the contrary visualizes photons exhibiting only a limited tissue penetration but enables the identification of tumor margins and infected lymph nodes during surgery without bearing a radiation burden for the surgeon. Thus, there is an emerging interest in bimodal agents for PET and OI in order to exploit the potential of both imaging techniques for the imaging and treatment of tumor diseases. This short review summarizes the available hybrid probes developed for dual PET and OI and discusses future directions for hybrid agent development.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid micro/nano-structured NiTi surfaces by a combination of etching and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi). To achieve this, NiTi surfaces were firstly electrochemically etched and then anodized in fluoride-containing electrolyte. With the etching process, the NiTi surface was micro-roughened through the formation of micropits uniformly distributed over the entire surface. Following the subsequent anodizing process, self-organized nanotube structures enriched in TiO2 could be superimposed on the etched surface under specific conditions. Furthermore, the anodizing treatment significantly reduced water contact angles and increased the surface free energy compared to the surfaces prior to anodizing. The results of this study show for the first time that it is possible to create hybrid micro/nano-structures on biomedical NiTi alloys by combining electrochemical etching and anodizing under controlled conditions. These novel structures are expected to significantly enhance the surface biofunctionality of the material when compared to conventional implant devices with either micro- or nano-structured surfaces.

  13. Comparison of hybrid schemes for the combination of shallow approximations in numerical simulations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernales, Jorge; Rogozhina, Irina; Greve, Ralf; Thomas, Maik

    2017-01-01

    The shallow ice approximation (SIA) is commonly used in ice-sheet models to simplify the force balance equations within the ice. However, the SIA cannot adequately reproduce the dynamics of the fast flowing ice streams usually found at the margins of ice sheets. To overcome this limitation, recent studies have introduced heuristic hybrid combinations of the SIA and the shelfy stream approximation. Here, we implement four different hybrid schemes into a model of the Antarctic Ice Sheet in order to compare their performance under present-day conditions. For each scheme, the model is calibrated using an iterative technique to infer the spatial variability in basal sliding parameters. Model results are validated against topographic and velocity data. Our analysis shows that the iterative technique compensates for the differences between the schemes, producing similar ice-sheet configurations through quantitatively different results of the sliding coefficient calibration. Despite this we observe a robust agreement in the reconstructed patterns of basal sliding parameters. We exchange the calibrated sliding parameter distributions between the schemes to demonstrate that the results of the model calibration cannot be straightforwardly transferred to models based on different approximations of ice dynamics. However, easily adaptable calibration techniques for the potential distribution of basal sliding coefficients can be implemented into ice models to overcome such incompatibility, as shown in this study.

  14. A Hybrid Tandem Solar Cell Combining a Dye-Sensitized and a Polymer Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhipeng; Chen, Shuanghong; Zhang, Xuhui; Zhu, Liangzheng; Ye, Jiajiu; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    A hybrid tandem solar cell was assambled by connecting a dye sensitized solar cell and a polymer solar cell in series. A N719 sensitized TiO2 was used as photocathode in dye-sensitized subcell, and a MEH-PPV/PCBM composite was used as active layer in the polymer subcell. The polymer subcell fabricated on the counter electrode of the dye sensitized solar cell. A solution processed TiO(x) layer was used as electron collection layer of the polymer sub cell and the charge recombination layer. The effects of the TiO(x) interlayer and the spectral overlap between the two sub cells have been studied and optimized. The results shows that a proper thickness of the TiO(x) layer is needed for tandem solar cells. Thick TiO(x) will enhance the series resistance, but too thin TiO(x), layer will damage the hole blocking effect and its hydrophilic. The resulting optimized tandem solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.28% with a V(oc) of 0.95 V under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) AM 1.5 illumination.

  15. A hybrid process combining homogeneous catalytic ozonation and membrane distillation for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jie; Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-10-01

    A novel catalytic ozonation membrane reactor (COMR) coupling homogeneous catalytic ozonation and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was developed for refractory saline organic pollutant treatment from wastewater. An ozonation process took place in the reactor to degrade organic pollutants, whilst the DCMD process was used to recover ionic catalysts and produce clean water. It was found that 98.6% total organic carbon (TOC) and almost 100% salt were removed and almost 100% metal ion catalyst was recovered. TOC in the permeate water was less than 16 mg/L after 5 h operation, which was considered satisfactory as the TOC in the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) feed water was as high as 1000 mg/L. Meanwhile, the membrane distillation flux in the COMR process was 49.8% higher than that in DCMD process alone after 60 h operation. Further, scanning electron microscope images showed less amount and smaller size of contaminants on the membrane surface, which indicated the mitigation of membrane fouling. The tensile strength and FT-IR spectra tests did not reveal obvious changes for the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane after 60 h operation, which indicated the good durability. This novel COMR hybrid process exhibited promising application prospects for saline organic wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-specific detection of microRNA expression during cardiomyogenesis by combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Mikael; Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    . However, although several miRNAs have been identified as differentially regulated during cardiac development and disease, their distinct cell-specific localization remains largely undetermined, likely owing to a lack of adequate methods. We therefore report the development of a markedly improved approach...... combining fluorescence-based miRNA-in situ hybridization (miRNA-ISH) with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We have applied this protocol to differentiating embryoid bodies (EBs) as well as embryonic and adult mouse hearts, to detect miRNAs that were upregulated during EB cardiomyogenesis, as determined by array...... present highlight the importance of determining exact cell-specific localization of miRNAs by sequential miRNA-ISH and IHC in studies aiming at understanding the role of miRNAs and their targets. This approach will hopefully aid in identifying relevant miRNA targets of both the heart and other organs....

  17. Determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk by capillary electrophoresis in combination with graphene-cobalt microsphere hybrid paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peipei; Sun, Motao; He, Peimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A graphene-cobalt microsphere (CoMS) hybrid paste electrode was developed for the determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The performance of the electrodes was demonstrated by detecting mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glucose, and fructose after CE separation. The five analytes were well separated within 9 min in a 40 cm long capillary at a separation voltage of 12 kV. The electrodes exhibited pronounced electrocatalytic activity, lower detection potentials, enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics, and higher reproducibility. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude. The proposed method had been employed to determine lactose in bovine milk and glucose and fructose in honey with satisfactory results. Because only electroactive substances in the samples could be detected on the paste electrode, the electropherograms of both food samples were simplified to some extent.

  18. A Hybrid Sales Forecasting Scheme by Combining Independent Component Analysis with K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA) with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR). The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT) product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting. PMID:25045738

  19. A Hybrid Sales Forecasting Scheme by Combining Independent Component Analysis with K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jie Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting plays an important role in operating a business since it can be used to determine the required inventory level to meet consumer demand and avoid the problem of under/overstocking. Improving the accuracy of sales forecasting has become an important issue of operating a business. This study proposes a hybrid sales forecasting scheme by combining independent component analysis (ICA with K-means clustering and support vector regression (SVR. The proposed scheme first uses the ICA to extract hidden information from the observed sales data. The extracted features are then applied to K-means algorithm for clustering the sales data into several disjoined clusters. Finally, the SVR forecasting models are applied to each group to generate final forecasting results. Experimental results from information technology (IT product agent sales data reveal that the proposed sales forecasting scheme outperforms the three comparison models and hence provides an efficient alternative for sales forecasting.

  20. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...... thread” approaches. The “native thread” approach is adopted and the design and implementation of a revised icecap SCJ run-time environment is discussed....

  1. A heterogeneous multiprocessor architecture for low-power audio signal processing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun; Sparsø, Jens; Haandbæk, Niels

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a low-power programmable DSP architecture that targets audio signal processing. The architecture can be characterized as a heterogeneous multiprocessor consisting of small and simple instruction set processors called mini-cores that communicate using message passing. The proc......This paper describes a low-power programmable DSP architecture that targets audio signal processing. The architecture can be characterized as a heterogeneous multiprocessor consisting of small and simple instruction set processors called mini-cores that communicate using message passing....... Early results obtained from the design of a prototype chip containing filter processors for a hearing aid application, indicate a power consumption that is an order of magnitude better than current state of the art low-power audio DSPs implemented using full-custom techniques. This is due to: (1...

  2. Multicore Processing and ARTEMIS - An incentive to develop the European Multiprocessor research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seceleanu, Tiberius; Tenhunen, Hannu; Jerraya, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    Even though multiprocessor architectures have been developed for a long time now, the approach was mostly focusing on multi-chip realizations. Clustering computers or micro-processors on the same board was the solution to manage complex applications vs. performance requirements. It is only...... in the recent period that technological advances allow for a change of this paradigm towards on-chip distributed platforms, or multi-core, or multi processor system-on-chip (MPSOC). A multiprocessor architecture may be defined as: onchip clusters of heterogeneous functionality modules, cooperating...... to a traditional SOC view, concurrency at all levels plays a deterministic role, while problems such as power consumption, addressable separately in the nodes of a DS, must be unitary considered. Thus, distinct research and development issues must be defined for MPSOC, building on the indispensable experience...

  3. Energy-Aware Real-Time Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Multiprocessors with Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in computer systems has become a more and more important issue. High energy consumption has already damaged the environment to some extent, especially in heterogeneous multiprocessors. In this paper, we first formulate and describe the energy-aware real-time task scheduling problem in heterogeneous multiprocessors. Then we propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO based algorithm, which can successfully reduce the energy cost and the time for searching feasible solutions. Experimental results show that the PSO-based energy-aware metaheuristic uses 40%–50% less energy than the GA-based and SFLA-based algorithms and spends 10% less time than the SFLA-based algorithm in finding the solutions. Besides, it can also find 19% more feasible solutions than the SFLA-based algorithm.

  4. High Performance Scheduling in Parallel Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Systems Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeq Garshasbi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system. Parallel systems are part of distributed systems. Parallel systems refers to the concept of run parallel jobs that can be run simultaneously on several processors. Load balancing and scheduling are very important and complex problems in multiprocessor systems. So that problems are an NP-Complete problems. In this paper, we introduce a method based on genetic algorithms for scheduling and laod balancing in parallel heterogeneous multi-processor systems. The results of the simulations indicate Genetic algorithm for scheduling at in systems is better than LPT, SPT and FIFO. Simualation results indicate Genetic Algorithm reduce total response time and also it increase utilization.

  5. Application of some graph invariants to the analysis of multiprocessor interconnection networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a graph with diameter D, maximum vertex degree Δ, the largest eigenvalue λ1 and m distinct eigenvalues. The products mΔ and (D+1 λ1 are called the tightness of G of the first and second type, respectively. In the recent literature it was suggested that graphs with a small tightness of the first type are good models for the multiprocessor interconnection networks. We study these and some other types of tightness and some related graph invariants and demonstrate their usefulness in the analysis of multiprocessor interconnection networks. Tightness values for graphs of some standard interconnection networks are determined. We also present some facts showing that the tightness of the second type is a relevant graph invariant. We prove that the number of connected graphs with a bounded tightness is finite.

  6. Photothermal and biodegradable polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites as drug carriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Wang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Jiachen

    2017-03-15

    To develop photothermal and biodegradable nanocarriers for combined chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer, polyaniline/porous silicon hybrid nanocomposites had been successfully fabricated via surface initiated polymerization of aniline onto porous silicon nanoparticles in our experiments. As-prepared polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites could be well dispersed in aqueous solution without any extra hydrophilic surface coatings, and showed a robust photothermal effect under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Especially, after an intravenous injection into mice, these biodegradable porous silicon-based nanocomposites as non-toxic agents could be completely cleared in body. Moreover, these polyaniline/porous silicon nanocomposites as drug carriers also exhibited an efficient loading and dual pH/NIR light-triggered release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, a model anticancer drug). Most importantly, assisted with NIR laser irradiation, polyaniline/PSiNPs nanocomposites with loading DOX showed a remarkable synergistic anticancer effect combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy, whether in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, based on biodegradable PSiNPs-based nanocomposites, this combination approach of chemo-photothermal therapy would have enormous potential on clinical cancer treatments in the future.

  7. A Complete Multi-Processor System-on-Chip FPGA-Based Emulation Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Del; Pablo, G.; Atienza, David; Magan, Ivan; Flores, Javier G.; Perez, Esther A.; Mendias, Jose M.; Benini, Luca; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    With the growing complexity in consumer embedded products and the improvements in process technology, Multi-Processor System-On-Chip (MPSoC) architectures have become widespread. These new systems are very complex to design as they must execute multiple complex real-time applications (e.g. video processing, or videogames), while meeting several additional design constraints (e.g. energy consumption or time-to-market). Therefore, mechanisms to efficiently explore the different possible HW-SW d...

  8. Detailed design of the kernel of a real-time multiprocessor operating system.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasson, Warren James

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the detailed design of a distributed operating system for a real-time, microcomputer based multiprocessor system. Process structuring and segmented address spaces comprise the central concepts around which this system is built. The system particularly supports applications where processing is partitioned into a set of multiple processes. One such area is that of digital signal processing for which this system has been specifically developed. The operating system is hiera...

  9. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv; Domany, Tamar; Frachtenberg, Eitan; Gal, Yoav; Shmueli, Edi; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  10. Communication and Memory Architecture Design of Application-Specific High-End Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the design of communication and memory architectures of massively parallel hardware multiprocessors necessary for the implementation of highly demanding applications. We demonstrated that for the massively parallel hardware multiprocessors the traditionally used flat communication architectures and multi-port memories do not scale well, and the memory and communication network influence on both the throughput and circuit area dominates the processors influence. To resolve the problems and ensure scalability, we proposed to design highly optimized application-specific hierarchical and/or partitioned communication and memory architectures through exploring and exploiting the regularity and hierarchy of the actual data flows of a given application. Furthermore, we proposed some data distribution and related data mapping schemes in the shared (global partitioned memories with the aim to eliminate the memory access conflicts, as well as, to ensure that our communication design strategies will be applicable. We incorporated these architecture synthesis strategies into our quality-driven model-based multi-processor design method and related automated architecture exploration framework. Using this framework, we performed a large series of experiments that demonstrate many various important features of the synthesized memory and communication architectures. They also demonstrate that our method and related framework are able to efficiently synthesize well scalable memory and communication architectures even for the high-end multiprocessors. The gains as high as 12-times in performance and 25-times in area can be obtained when using the hierarchical communication networks instead of the flat networks. However, for the high parallelism levels only the partitioned approach ensures the scalability in performance.

  11. Utilizing Predictors for Efficient Thermal Management in Multiprocessor SoCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Univ of Calif San Diego. Downloaded on October 12, 2009 at 08:29 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. COŞKUN et al.: UTILIZING PREDICTORS FOR EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN MULTIPROCESSOR SoCs 1505 values in...dependent on the power Authorized licensed use limited to: Univ of Calif San Diego. Downloaded on October 12, 2009 at 08:29 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions

  12. TSP:A Heterogeneous Multiprocessor Supercomputing System Based on i860XP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国勇; 李三立

    1994-01-01

    Numerous new RISC processors provide support for supercomputing.By using the “mini-Cray” i860 superscalar processor,an add-on board has been developed to boost the performance of a real time system.A parallel heterogeneous multiprocessor surercomputing system,TSP,is constructed.In this paper,we present the system design consideration and described the architecture of the TSP and its features.

  13. A Method to Evaluate the Performance of a Multiprocessor Machine based on Data Flow Principles

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to model a static data pow oriented multiprocessor system. This methodology of modelling can be used to examine the machine behaviour for executing a program according to three scheduling strategies, viz., static, dynamic and quasi-dynamic policies. The processing elements (PEs) of the machine go through different states in order to complete tasks they are allotted. Hence, the time taken by the machine to execute a program is directly dependent on the tim...

  14. Hybrid neuroprosthesis for the upper limb: combining brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related range of motion and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD and electromyography (EMG activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e. induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p=0.028 or EMG (p=0.021 modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related range of motion (p=0.009 and the movement-related brain modulation (p=0

  15. Combined hybridization and mitochondrial capture shape complex phylogeographic patterns in hybridogenetic Cataglyphis desert ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, P A; Leniaud, L; Tinaut, A; Aron, S

    2016-12-01

    Some species of Cataglyphis desert ants have evolved a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction at the social scale. In hybridogenetic populations, two distinct genetic lineages coexist. Non-reproductive offspring (workers) are hybrids of the two lineages, whereas sexual offspring (males and new queens) are produced by parthenogenesis and belong to the mother queen lineage. How this unusual reproductive system affects phylogeographic patterns and speciation processes remains completely unknown to date. Using one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes, we examined the phylogenetic relationships between three species of Cataglyphis (C. hispanica, C. humeya and C. velox) where complex DNA inheritance through social hybridogenesis may challenge phylogenetic inference. Our results bring two important insights. First, our data confirm a hybridogenetic mode of reproduction across the whole distribution range of the species C. hispanica. In contrast, they do not provide support for hybridogenesis in the populations sampled of C. humeya and C. velox. This suggests that these populations are not hybridogenetic, or that hybridogenesis is too recent to result in reciprocally monophyletic lineages on nuclear genes. Second, due to mitochondrial introgression between lineages (Darras and Aron, 2015), the faster-evolving COI marker is not lineage specific, hence, unsuitable to further investigate the segregation of lineages in the species studied. Different mitochondrial haplotypes occur in each locality sampled, resulting in strongly structured populations. This micro-allopatric structure leads to over-splitting species delimitation on mitochondrial gene, as every locality could potentially be considered a putative species; haploweb analyses of nuclear markers, however, yield species delimitations that are consistent with morphology. Overall, this study highlights how social hybridogenesis varies across species and shapes complex phylogeographic patterns.

  16. Dynamic power management for UML modeled applications on multiprocessor SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkala, Petri; Arpinen, Tero; Setälä, Mikko; Hännikäinen, Marko; Hämäläinen, Timo D.

    2007-02-01

    The paper presents a novel scheme of dynamic power management for UML modeled applications that are executed on a multiprocessor System-on-Chip (SoC) in a distributed manner. The UML models for both application and architecture are designed according to a well-defined UML profile for embedded system design, called TUT-Profile. Application processes are considered as elementary units of distributed execution, and their mapping on a multiprocessor SoC can be dynamically changed at run-time. Our approach on the dynamic power management balances utilized processor resources against current workload at runtime by (1) observing the processor and workload statistics, (2) re-evaluating the amount of required resources (i.e. the number of active processors), and (3) re-mapping the application processes to the minimum set of active processors. The inactive processors are set to a power-save state by using clock-gating. The approach integrates the well-known power management techniques tightly with the UML based design of embedded systems in a novel way. We evaluated the dynamic power management with a WLAN terminal implemented on a multiprocessor SoC on Altera Stratix II FPGA containing up to five Nios II processors and dedicated hardware accelerators. Measurements proved up to 21% savings in the power consumption of the whole FPGA board.

  17. Maximizing run time performance of deployed data flow graphs on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.; Hunt, Peter D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses a practical solution for supporting the deployment of data flow graphs onto the Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc. vector processing multi-processor architecture. It outlines the support software (both workstation hosted and target system hosted) that is required to design, debug, and maximize deployed data flow graph performance on the multiprocessor architecture. The deployment process guarantees real-time deadlines, minimizes run time scheduling overhead, and minimizes designer partitioning input. It is known that determining effective run time data flow graph node schedules for multi-processor architectures is an NP-complete class of problem not well suited to real-time systems. Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc.'s vector processing toolset recognizes this problem and this paper discusses a prescheduling and pre-assignment approach for partitioning data flow graphs to available hardware resources. In particular the toolset components (which are based upon an enhanced data flow graph language) of workstation pre-assignment, prescheduling, run time gross allocation and local compute element dispatching are discussed in detail.

  18. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    The success of the Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) in the development and evaluation of experimental hardware and software systems for real time interactive simulation of air breathing propulsion systems was evaluated. The Real Time Multiprocessor Operating System (RTMPOS) provides the user with a versatile, interactive means for loading, running, debugging and obtaining results from a multiprocessor based simulator. A front end processor (FEP) serves as the simulator controller and interface between the user and the simulator. These functions are facilitated by the RTMPOS which resides on the FEP. The RTMPOS acts in conjunction with the FEP's manufacturer supplied disk operating system that provides typical utilities like an assembler, linkage editor, text editor, file handling services, etc. Once a simulation is formulated, the RTMPOS provides for engineering level, run time operations such as loading, modifying and specifying computation flow of programs, simulator mode control, data handling and run time monitoring. Run time monitoring is a powerful feature of RTMPOS that allows the user to record all actions taken during a simulation session and to receive advisories from the simulator via the FEP. The RTMPOS is programmed mainly in PASCAL along with some assembly language routines. The RTMPOS software is easily modified to be applicable to hardware from different manufacturers.

  19. Exact Feasibility Tests for Real-Time Scheduling of Periodic Tasks upon Multiprocessor Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Cucu, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the global scheduling of periodic task systems upon multiprocessor platforms. We first show two very general properties which are well-known for uniprocessor platforms and which remain for multiprocessor platforms: (i) under few and not so restrictive assumptions, we show that feasible schedules of periodic task systems are periodic from some point with a period equal to the least common multiple of task periods and (ii) for the specific case of synchronous periodic task systems, we show that feasible schedules repeat from the origin. We then present our main result: we characterize, for task-level fixed-priority schedulers and for asynchronous constrained or arbitrary deadline periodic task models, upper bounds of the first time instant where the schedule repeats. We show that job-level fixed-priority schedulers are predictable upon unrelated multiprocessor platforms. For task-level fixed-priority schedulers, based on the upper bounds and the predictability property, we provide for asy...

  20. Hybrid Processing Combining Electrostatic Levitation and Laser Heating: Application to Terrestrial Analogues of Asteroid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-François Paradis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic levitation combined with laser heating is becoming a mature technique that has been used for several fundamental and applied studies in fluid and materials sciences (synthesis, property determination, solidification studies, atomic dynamic studies, etc.. This is attributable to the numerous processing conditions (containerless, wide heating temperature range, cooling rates, atmospheric compositions, etc. that levitation and radiative heating offer, as well as to the variety of diagnostics tools that can be used. In this paper, we describe the facility, highlighting the combined advantages of electrostatic levitation and laser processing. The various capabilities of the facility are discussed and are exemplified with the measurements of the density of selected iron-nickel alloys taken over the liquid phase.

  1. Efficient Handling of Lock Hand-off in DSM Multiprocessors with Buffering Coherence Controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamín Sahelices; Agustín de Dios; Pablo Ibá(n)ez; Víctor Vi(n)als-Yúfera; José María Llabería

    2012-01-01

    Synchronization in parallel programs is a major performance bottleneck in multiprocessor systems.Shared data is protected by locks and a lot of time is spent on the competition arising at the lock hand-off.In order to be serialized,requests to the same cache line can either be bounced (NACKed) or buffered in the coherence controller.In this paper,we focus mainly on systems whose coherence controllers buffer requests.In a lock hand-off,a burst of requests to the same line arrive at the coherence controller.During lock hand-off only the requests from the winning processor contribute to progress of the computation,since the winning processor is the only one that will advance the work.This key observation leads us to propose a hardware mechanism we call request bypassing,which allows requests from the winning processor to bypass the requests buffered in the coherence controller keeping the lock line.We present an inexpensive implementation of request bypassing that reduces the time spent on all the execution phases of a critical section (acquiring the lock,accessing shared data,and releasing the lock) and which,as a consequence,speeds up the whole parallel computation.This mechanism requires neither compiler or programmer support nor ISA or coherence protocol changes.By simulating a 32-processor system,we show that using request bypassing does not degrade but rather improves performance in three applications with low synchronization rates,while in those having a large amount of synchronization activity (the remaining four),we see reductions in execution time and in lock stall time ranging from 14% to 39% and from 52% to 71%,respectively.We compare request bypassing with a previously proposed technique called read combining and with a system that bounces requests,observing a significantly lower execution time with the bypassing scheme.Finally,we analyze the sensitivity of our results to some key hardware and software parameters.

  2. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Manufacturing Combining Artificial Intelligence and Finite Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Quiza, Ramón; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and the finite element method (FEM) are both powerful computing tools, which are extensively used for modeling and optimizing manufacturing processes. The combination of these tools has resulted in a new flexible and robust approach as several recent studies have shown. This book aims to review the work already done in this field as well as to expose the new possibilities and foreseen trends. The book is expected to be useful for postgraduate students and researchers, working in the area of modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  3. Combining electrospinning and fused deposition modeling for the fabrication of a hybrid vascular graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, M; Rainer, A; Spadaccio, C; De Porcellinis, S; Genovese, J A; Trombetta, M

    2010-03-01

    Tissue engineering of blood vessels is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine with a broad spectrum of potential applications. However, many hurdles for tissue-engineered vascular grafts, such as poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity and cell over-growth inside the construct, need to be overcome prior to the clinical application. To surmount these shortcomings, we developed a poly-L-lactide (PLLA)/poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold releasing heparin by a combination of electrospinning and fused deposition modeling technique. PLLA/heparin scaffolds were produced by electrospinning in tubular shape and then fused deposition modeling was used to armor the tube with a single coil of PCL on the outer layer to improve mechanical properties. Scaffolds were then seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and assayed in terms of morphology, mechanical tensile strength, cell viability and differentiation. This particular scaffold design allowed the generation of both a drug delivery system amenable to surmount thrombogenic issues and a microenvironment able to induce endothelial differentiation. At the same time, the PCL external coiling improved mechanical resistance of the microfibrous scaffold. By the combination of two notable techniques in biofabrication--electrospinning and FDM--and exploiting the biological effects of heparin, we developed an ad hoc differentiating device for hMSCs seeding, able to induce differentiation into vascular endothelium.

  4. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; LIAO Min; LIU Wei-ping; Susanne KLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport system activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growth stages.

  5. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiao-mei; LIAOMin; LIUWei-ping; SusanneKLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolyrJc bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport svstem activit), was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growrh stages

  6. Combining a hybrid robotic system with a bain-machine interface for the rehabilitation of reaching movements: A case study with a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resquin, F; Ibañez, J; Gonzalez-Vargas, J; Brunetti, F; Dimbwadyo, I; Alves, S; Carrasco, L; Torres, L; Pons, Jose Luis

    2016-08-01

    Reaching and grasping are two of the most affected functions after stroke. Hybrid rehabilitation systems combining Functional Electrical Stimulation with Robotic devices have been proposed in the literature to improve rehabilitation outcomes. In this work, we present the combined use of a hybrid robotic system with an EEG-based Brain-Machine Interface to detect the user's movement intentions to trigger the assistance. The platform has been tested in a single session with a stroke patient. The results show how the patient could successfully interact with the BMI and command the assistance of the hybrid system with low latencies. Also, the Feedback Error Learning controller implemented in this system could adjust the required FES intensity to perform the task.

  7. Combined fluorescent-chromogenic in situ hybridization for identification and laser microdissection of interphase chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Paz

    Full Text Available Chromosome territories constitute the most conspicuous feature of nuclear architecture, and they exhibit non-random distribution patterns in the interphase nucleus. We observed that in cell nuclei from humans with Down Syndrome two chromosomes 21 frequently localize proximal to one another and distant from the third chromosome. To systematically investigate whether the proximally positioned chromosomes were always the same in all cells, we developed an approach consisting of sequential FISH and CISH combined with laser-microdissection of chromosomes from the interphase nucleus and followed by subsequent chromosome identification by microsatellite allele genotyping. This approach identified proximally positioned chromosomes from cultured cells, and the analysis showed that the identity of the chromosomes proximally positioned varies. However, the data suggest that there may be a tendency of the same chromosomes to be positioned close to each other in the interphase nucleus of trisomic cells. The protocol described here represents a powerful new method for genome analysis.

  8. OPTIMIZATION ABOUT COMBINED HYBRID SCHEME WITH 5-PARAMETER STRESS MODE%5参数应力组合杂交格式优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂玉峰; 尹云辉; 周天孝

    2004-01-01

    It is posed in paper [1] that Zero energy-error can be used to realize the optimization of Combined hybrid finite element methods through adjusting the combined factor. In this paper, the optimization method is used to plane 4-node quadrilateral Combined hybrid scheme CH(0-1) which own 5 stress parameters with energy compatibility characteristic. Based on the optimization results, the analysis of components of element stiffness matrix, and the conclusions about numerical stability and convergence, this paper deduces that the optimal form of CH(0-1) element, is let the combined factor take 1, i.e., just base on Hellinger-Reissner variational principle, and take bilinear compatible displacement interpolation instead of enrich-strain Wilson's displacements interpolation for the orthgonality of 5-parameter stresses mode with the derived strain from Wilson bubble displacements and the weak force balance.

  9. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  10. General and specific combining abilities in a maize (Zea mays L.) test-cross hybrid panel: relative importance of population structure and genetic divergence between parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larièpe, A; Moreau, L; Laborde, J; Bauland, C; Mezmouk, S; Décousset, L; Mary-Huard, T; Fiévet, J B; Gallais, A; Dubreuil, P; Charcosset, A

    2017-02-01

    General and specific combining abilities of maize hybrids between 288 inbred lines and three tester lines were highly related to population structure and genetic distance inferred from SNP data. Many studies have attempted to provide reliable and quick methods to identify promising parental lines and combinations in hybrid breeding programs. Since the 1950s, maize germplasm has been organized into heterotic groups to facilitate the exploitation of heterosis. Molecular markers have proven efficient tools to address the organization of genetic diversity and the relationship between lines or populations. The aim of the present work was to investigate to what extent marker-based evaluations of population structure and genetic distance may account for general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability components in a population composed of 800 inter and intra-heterotic group hybrids obtained by crossing 288 inbred lines and three testers. Our results illustrate a strong effect of groups identified by population structure analysis on both GCA and SCA components. Including genetic distance between parental lines of hybrids in the model leads to a significant decrease of SCA variance component and an increase in GCA variance component for all the traits. The latter suggests that this approach can be efficient to better estimate the potential combining ability of inbred lines when crossed with unrelated lines, and limits the consequences of tester choice. Significant residual GCA and SCA variance components of models taking into account structure and/or genetic distance highlight the variation available for breeding programs within structure groups.

  11. Inheritance nature for the trait of resistance to neck rot in hybrid combinations of common onion under the conditions of Nosivka Variety Texting Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. О. Горган

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying hybrid combinations of common onion to the Botrytis allii Munn pathogen. It is found out that as for the combinations being studied the resistance to pathogen was inherited as dominant, intermediate or recessive trait. Better resistance to neck rot was inherent in the hybrid combinations which parents comprised resistant and immune varieties, insofar as the determination of inheritance coefficient has indicated F1 hybrids have this characteristic expression dependant by 50 to 78% on the parental plant (h2 =0,50–0,78. Studying the determination of the impact of both parental components on inheritance of the resistance to B. allii pathogen showed that the regression coefficient subject to hybrid combination fell within R = 0,12–0,39, while the resistance coefficient within 0,24–0,78, respectively. Efficiency of selection is proved by the trait of resistance to neck rot based on the populations of Grandina х Mavka, Olina х Grandina, Grandina х Skvyrska і Skvyrska х Grandina, as their respective inheritance coefficient reached the level of 0,42 to 0,78.

  12. A hybrid strategy in selecting diverse combinations of innovative sustainable materials for asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Colbert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This project integrates recent innovations of recycled materials used in designing and building sustainable pavements. An increasing environmental awareness and the demand for improving economic and construction efficiencies, through measures such as construction warrantees and goals to reduce air pollution under the Kyoto Protocol, have increased the efforts to implement sustainable materials in roadways. The objective of this research is to develop a systematic approach toward selecting optimum combinations of sustainable materials for the construction of asphalt pavements. The selected materials, warm mix asphalt (WMA, recycled asphalt shingles (RAS, and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP were incorporated in this study. The results of this research are intended to serve as guidelines in the selection of the mixed sustainable materials for asphalt pavements. The approach developed from this project draws upon previous research efforts integrating graphical modeling with optimizing the amount of sustainable materials based on the performance. With regard to moisture susceptibility and rutting potential test results, as well as the MIM analysis based on a 95% confidence interval, the rutting performance and moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures are not significantly different regardless of the percentages of RAS, RAP, or WMA. The optimum mixture choices could be made by the plant emission rankings with consideration of the optimal WMA types, percentages of RAS/RAP, and WMA production temperatures. The WMA mixtures prepared with 75% RAP and Advera® WMA have produced the lowest CO2 emissions among the investigated mixture types.

  13. Gene expression profiling of osteoclast differentiation by combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jaerang; Altmann, Curtis R; Socci, Nicholas D; Merkov, Lubomir; Kim, Nacksung; So, Hongseob; Lee, Okbok; Takami, Masamichi; Brivanlou, Ali H; Choi, Yongwon

    2002-08-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the balanced action of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Multinucleated, mature osteoclasts develop from hematopoietic stem cells via the monocyte-macrophage lineage, which also give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells. Despite their distinct physiologic roles in bone and the immune system, these cell types share many molecular and biochemical features. To provide insights into how osteoclasts differentiate and function to control bone metabolism, we employed a systematic approach to profile patterns of osteoclast-specific gene expression by combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis. Here we examined how gene expression profiles of mature osteoclast differ from macrophage or dendritic cells, how gene expression profiles change during osteoclast differentiation, and how Mitf, a transcription factor critical for osteoclast maturation, affects the gene expression profile. This approach revealed a set of genes coordinately regulated for osteoclast function, some of which have previously been implicated in several bone diseases in humans.

  14. A hybrid MCDM framework combined with DEMATEL-based ANP to evaluate enterprise technological innovation capabilities assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jong Kuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficient evaluation of technological innovation capabilities of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This paper aims to assess and to rank technological innovation evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. A framework is proposed and uses a novel hybrid multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM model to address the dependence relationships of criteria with the aid of the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, analytical network process (ANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje. The study reports that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences technological innovation capabilities; furthermore, this ranking development of technological innovation capabilities assessment is also one of key management tools for managements of other related high- tech enterprises. Managers can then judge the need to improve and determine which criteria provide the most effective direction towards improvement.

  15. On the performance of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy and with code combining over relay channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we consider a relay network consisting of a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits a message to the destination using hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). The relay overhears the transmitted messages over the different HARQ rounds and tries to decode the data packet. In case of successful decoding at the relay, both the relay and the source cooperate to transmit the message to the destination. The channel realizations are independent for different HARQ rounds. We assume that the transmitter has no channel state information (CSI). Under such conditions, power and rate adaptation are not possible. To overcome this problem, HARQ allows the implicit adaptation of the transmission rate to the channel conditions by the use of feedback. There are two major HARQ techniques, namely HARQ with incremental redundancy (IR) and HARQ with code combining (CC). We investigate the performance of HARQ-IR and HARQ-CC over a relay channel from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical expressions are derived for the information outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate. We illustrate through our investigation the benefit of relaying. We also compare the performance of HARQ-IR and HARQ-CC and show that HARQ-IR outperforms HARQ-CC. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinbas, Firat C.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Kariuki, Nancy; De Andrade, Vincent; Fongalland, Dash; Smith, Linda; Sharman, Jonathan; Ferreira, Paulo; Rasouli, Somaye; Myers, Deborah J.

    2017-03-01

    The cost and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells strongly depend on the cathode electrode due to usage of expensive platinum (Pt) group metal catalyst and sluggish reaction kinetics. Development of low Pt content high performance cathodes requires comprehensive understanding of the electrode microstructure. In this study, a new approach is presented to characterize the detailed cathode electrode microstructure from nm to μm length scales by combining information from different experimental techniques. In this context, nano-scale X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) is performed to extract the secondary pore space of the electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is employed to determine primary C particle and Pt particle size distributions. X-ray scattering, with its ability to provide size distributions of orders of magnitude more particles than TEM, is used to confirm the TEM-determined size distributions. The number of primary pores that cannot be resolved by nano-CT is approximated using mercury intrusion porosimetry. An algorithm is developed to incorporate all these experimental data in one geometric representation. Upon validation of pore size distribution against gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry data, reconstructed ionomer size distribution is reported. In addition, transport related characteristics and effective properties are computed by performing simulations on the hybrid microstructure.

  17. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Managements on Substrate Utilization Pattern of Soil Microbial Population in Hybrid Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the combined effect of nutrient and pest managements on soil biomass phospholipid contents, functional biodiversity and substrate utilization patterns of soil microbial populations in hybrid rice cropping system. The mineral N, P and K fertilizers (as urea, calcium superphosphate and KCl respectively) were incorporated at 100, 25, and 100 kg ha-1, respectively, and the various pesticides were applied at the recommended rates. The results of the experiment demonstrated a decline in the microbial abundance and soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents with the advancement of crop growth, and significant changes in substrate utilization pattern of soil microbial population studied were observed with different management practices and at different growth stages. The principal component analysis (PGA) using all 95-carbon sources (BIOLOG plates) gave good differentiation among the treatments, indicating that they have different patterns of carbon utilization under different habitats. The data showed that diversity in microbial community continuously changed with the progression in crop stage, particularly at physiological maturity (PM) stage that was evident from the utilization of different carbon sources at various crop stages.

  18. Combined Effect of Nutrient and Pest Management on Soil Ecological Quality in Hybrid Rice Double-Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO MIN; XIE XIAOMEI; A. SUBHANI

    2003-01-01

    The mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pesticide, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were applied alone or in combination and the soil sampling was done at different growth stages during the crop cycle to study the changes in soil organic matter, microbial biomass and their activity parameters in a paddy soil with different nutrient and pest management practices in a hybrid rice double-cropping system. A consistent increase in the electron transport system (ETS) activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or with pesticides increased ETS activity, while a decline of ETS activity was noticed with pesticides alone as compared with the control. Nearly an increasing trend in soil phenol content was observed with the progression of crop growth stages, while the usage of pesticides alone caused maximum increments in the soil phenol content. The soil protein content was found nearly stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops taken. But notable changes were noticed at different growth stages probably because of fluctuations in moisture and temperature at particular stages, which might have their effects on N mineralization. Marked depletions in the phospholipid content were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also produced slight changes, in which a higher decline was noticed with pesticide application alone compared with the control.

  19. Targeting topoisomerase IIa in endometrial adenocarcinoma: a combined chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry study based on tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiambas, E; Alexopoulou, D; Lambropoulou, S; Gerontopoulos, K; Karakitsos, P; Karameris, A

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase IIa is a nucleic enzyme that affects the topological structure of DNA and also is a target for chemotherapy (ie, anthracyclines). In this study, we coevaluated its protein expression with chromosome 17 and gene status. Using tissue microarrays, 40 cases of sporadic, primary endometrial adenocarcinomas, 5 cases of atypical hyperplasia, and 5 cases of benign hyperplasia were obtained and reembedded into two paraffin blocks with a core diameter of 1 mm. Immunohistochemistry combined with chromogenic in situ hybridization was performed in 2 and 5 microm sections, respectively. Finally using a semiautomated Image Analysis System, we evaluated the levels of Nuclear labeling index of topoisomerase IIa expression. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 11.0 software. The results indicate that chromosome 17 instability (aneuploidy in 7/40 cases) and Topo IIa gene deregulation (amplification in 3/40 and deletion in 1/40 cases) are significant genetic events correlated with biologic behavior in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Because protein overexpression was observed in a significant proportion of the tumors (18/40), detection of the specific gene deregulation mechanism is a crucial process for application of targeted chemotherapies, which are characterized by different levels of cardiotoxicity and other serious effects.

  20. Combined histamine H1/H2 receptor antagonists: part I. Pharmacological hybrids with pheniramine- and roxatidine-like substructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, F R; Buschauer, A; Schunack, W

    1998-07-01

    A series of hybrid compounds combining the pharmacophores of both pheniramine-type histamine H1 receptor antagonists and roxatidine-type H2 receptor antagonists have been synthesized and tested for histamine antagonism at the isolated ileum (H1) and the spontaneously beating right atrium (H2) of the guinea pig. The 'polar group' of the H2 antagonist moiety (cyanoguanidine, nitroethenediamine or urea) and the side chain amino group of the H1 antagonist portion have been linked by a polymethylene spacer or by a piperazine system. The incorporation of a flexible spacer (2-7 methylene groups) resulted in H1 antagonists achieving up to 2.4 times the activity of pheniramine. Depending on the nature of the polar group the highest H2 antagonist potency resides in compounds with spacers ?2 methylene groups. Nitroethenediamine 24c with a seven-membered chain and a chlorpheniramine substructure proved to be approximately equipotent with pheniramine at the H1 and with ranitidine at the H2 receptor (pKB values 7.82 and 7.1, respectively).

  1. Monitoring of chimerism using fluorescence in situ hybridization in a child with severe combined immune deficiency following bone marrow transplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, S.L.; Chen, X.O.; Katz, A.J. [Children`s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A boy with severe combined immunodeficiency received a bone marrow transplant from his sister when he was approximately 3 years of age. His peripheral blood karyotype at age 3 and 4 years was 46,XX (20 cells analyzed). Because of a decline in antibody production at 19 years of age, the patient`s peripheral blood was analyzed again for suspected chimerism. His karyotype in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated culture was 46,XX in 49 cells and 46,XY in one cell. Both metaphase and interphase cells were examined for sex chromosome constitution using X and Y dual-color alpha-satellite probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results for metaphase cells showed 1/50 XY cells, but 38% of interphase cells showed the presence of both X and Y centromere. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated cultures grew poorly and were therefore analyzed using FISH only: 81% of interphase cells were 46,XX. The discrepancy between metaphase and interphase in the PHA-stimulated cultures most likely represents a failure of this boy`s own XY T-cells to be stimulated.

  2. Study of the validity of a combined potential model using the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo method in Fluoride glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotbi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of appropriate interaction models is among the major disadvantages of conventional methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD and Monte Carlo (MC simulations. On the other hand, the so-called Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC method, based on experimental data, can be applied without any interatomic and/or intermolecular interactions. The RMC results are accompanied by artificial satellite peaks. To remedy this problem, we use an extension of the RMC algorithm, which introduces an energy penalty term into the acceptance criteria. This method is referred to as the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC method. The idea of this paper is to test the validity of a combined potential model of coulomb and Lennard-Jones in a Fluoride glass system BaMnMF7 (M = Fe,V using HRMC method. The results show a good agreement between experimental and calculated characteristics, as well as a meaningful improvement in partial pair distribution functions (PDFs. We suggest that this model should be used in calculating the structural properties and in describing the average correlations between components of fluoride glass or a similar system. We also suggest that HRMC could be useful as a tool for testing the interaction potential models, as well as for conventional applications.

  3. Hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics and finite-difference diffusion model: simulation of reactive polymer coupling and interfacial polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, Anatoly V; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V

    2013-10-21

    A novel hybrid approach combining dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and finite difference (FD) solution of partial differential equations is proposed to simulate complex reaction-diffusion phenomena in heterogeneous systems. DPD is used for the detailed molecular modeling of mass transfer, chemical reactions, and phase separation near the liquid∕liquid interface, while FD approach is applied to describe the large-scale diffusion of reactants outside the reaction zone. A smooth, self-consistent procedure of matching the solute concentration is performed in the buffer region between the DPD and FD domains. The new model is tested on a simple model system admitting an analytical solution for the diffusion controlled regime and then applied to simulate practically important heterogeneous processes of (i) reactive coupling between immiscible end-functionalized polymers and (ii) interfacial polymerization of two monomers dissolved in immiscible solvents. The results obtained due to extending the space and time scales accessible to modeling provide new insights into the kinetics and mechanism of those processes and demonstrate high robustness and accuracy of the novel technique.

  4. DiFX: A software correlator for very long baseline interferometry using multi-processor computing environments

    CERN Document Server

    Deller, A T; Bailes, M; West, C

    2007-01-01

    We describe the development of an FX style correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), implemented in software and intended to run in multi-processor computing environments, such as large clusters of commodity machines (Beowulf clusters) or computers specifically designed for high performance computing, such as multi-processor shared-memory machines. We outline the scientific and practical benefits for VLBI correlation, these chiefly being due to the inherent flexibility of software and the fact that the highly parallel and scalable nature of the correlation task is well suited to a multi-processor computing environment. We suggest scientific applications where such an approach to VLBI correlation is most suited and will give the best returns. We report detailed results from the Distributed FX (DiFX) software correlator, running on the Swinburne supercomputer (a Beowulf cluster of approximately 300 commodity processors), including measures of the performance of the system. For example, to correla...

  5. Clinal variation in a brown lemur (Eulemur spp.) hybrid zone: combining morphological, genetic and climatic data to examine stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmore, K E; Brenneman, R A; Lei, R; Bailey, C A; Brelsford, A; Louis, E E; Johnson, S E

    2013-08-01

    Studies of hybrid zones can inform our understanding of reproductive isolation and speciation. Two species of brown lemur (Eulemur rufifrons and E. cinereiceps) form an apparently stable hybrid zone in the Andringitra region of southeastern Madagascar. The aim of this study was to identify factors that contribute to this stability. We sampled animals at 11 sites along a 90-km transect through the hybrid zone and examined variation in 26 microsatellites, the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA, six pelage and nine morphological traits; we also included samples collected in more distant allopatric sites. Clines in these traits were noncoincident, and there was no increase in either inbreeding coefficients or linkage disequilibrium at the centre of the zone. These results could suggest that the hybrid zone is maintained by weak selection against hybrids, conforming to either the tension zone or geographical selection-gradient model. However, a closer examination of clines in pelage and microsatellites indicates that these clines are not sigmoid or stepped in shape but instead plateau at their centre. Sites within the hybrid zone also occur in a distinct habitat, characterized by greater seasonality in precipitation and lower seasonality in temperature. Together, these findings suggest that the hybrid zone may follow the bounded superiority model, with exogenous selection favouring hybrids within the transitional zone. These findings are noteworthy, as examples supporting the bounded superiority model are rare and may indicate a process of ecologically driven speciation without geographical isolation.

  6. DiFX: A Software Correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry Using Multiprocessor Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, A. T.; Tingay, S. J.; Bailes, M.; West, C.

    2007-03-01

    We describe the development of an FX-style correlator for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), implemented in software and intended to run in multiprocessor computing environments, such as large clusters of commodity machines (Beowulf clusters) or computers specifically designed for high-performance computing, such as multiprocessor shared-memory machines. We outline the scientific and practical benefits for VLBI correlation, these chiefly being due to the inherent flexibility of software and the fact that the highly parallel and scalable nature of the correlation task is well suited to a multiprocessor computing environment. We suggest scientific applications where such an approach to VLBI correlation is most suited and will give the best returns. We report detailed results from the Distributed FX (DiFX) software correlator running on the Swinburne supercomputer (a Beowulf cluster of ~300 commodity processors), including measures of the performance of the system. For example, to correlate all Stokes products for a 10 antenna array with an aggregate bandwidth of 64 MHz per station, and using typical time and frequency resolution, currently requires an order of 100 desktop-class compute nodes. Due to the effect of Moore's law on commodity computing performance, the total number and cost of compute nodes required to meet a given correlation task continues to decrease rapidly with time. We show detailed comparisons between DiFX and two existing hardware-based correlators: the Australian Long Baseline Array S2 correlator and the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array correlator. In both cases, excellent agreement was found between the correlators. Finally, we describe plans for the future operation of DiFX on the Swinburne supercomputer for both astrophysical and geodetic science.

  7. Multi-objective two-stage multiprocessor flow shop scheduling - a subgroup particle swarm optimisation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-Hwa; Yang, Chang-Lin; Hsu, Chun-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Flow shop production system - compared to other economically important production systems - is popular in real manufacturing environments. This study focuses on the flow shop with multiprocessor scheduling problem (FSMP), and develops an improved particle swarm optimisation heuristic to solve it. Additionally, this study designs an integer programming model to perform effectiveness and robustness testing on the proposed heuristic. Experimental results demonstrate a 10% to 50% improvement in the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic in small-scale problem tests, and a 10% to 40% improvement in the robustness of the heuristic in large-scale problem tests, indicating extremely satisfactory performance.

  8. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-09

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  9. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-15

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  10. A high speed multi-tasking, multi-processor telemetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kung Chris [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a small size, light weight, multitasking, multiprocessor telemetry system capable of collecting 32 channels of differential signals at a sampling rate of 6.25 kHz per channel. The system is designed to collect data from remote wind turbine research sites and transfer the data via wireless communication. A description of operational theory, hardware components, and itemized cost is provided. Synchronization with other data acquisition systems and test data on data transmission rates is also given. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. A hybrid algorithm combining EKF and RLS in synchronous estimation of road grade and vehicle' mass for a hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Li, Liang; Yan, Bingjie; Yang, Chao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid algorithm for simultaneously estimating the vehicle mass and road grade for hybrid electric bus (HEB). First, the road grade in current step is estimated using extended Kalman filter (EKF) with the initial state including velocity and engine torque. Second, the vehicle mass is estimated twice, one with EKF and the other with recursive least square (RLS) using the estimated road grade. A more accurate value of the estimated mass is acquired by weighting the trade-off between EKF and RLS. Finally, the road grade and vehicle mass thus obtained are used as the initial states for the next step, and two variables could be decoupled from the nonlinear vehicle dynamics by performing the above procedure repeatedly. Simulation results show that in different starting conditions, the proposed algorithm provides higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, compared with the results using EKF or RLS alone.

  12. Numerical Hybrid Simulation Modeling Verification for a Curved 3-Pier Bridge (Investigation of Combined Actions on Reinforced Concrete Bridge Piers (CABER Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelnaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete bridge piers are subjected to complex loading conditions under earthquake ground motions. Bridge geometric irregularities and asymmetries result in combined actions imposed on the piers as a combination of displacements and rotations in all six degrees of freedom at the pier-deck juncture. Existing analytical tools have proven their inadequacy in representing the actual behavior of piers under these combined actions, particularly in their inelastic range. The objective of this investigation is to develop a fundamental understanding of the effects of these combined actions on the performance of RC piers and the resulting system response. This paper describes a part of the CABER project that verifies the numerical hybrid simulation of the curved bridge. In this part two models were introduced, a whole model and a sub-structured hybrid model. The whole model was established using the Zeus-NL analysis platform, which is capable of performing inelastic nonlinear response history analysis of the whole curved bridge. The hybrid model was divided into three modules which comprised the deck, left and right piers, and the middle pier of the bridge. The three modules were modeled by Zeus-NL as a static analysis module interface. The simulation coordinator (SimCor software was utilized to communicate between these modules using a Pseudo-Dynamic time integration scheme. Results obtained from both models were compared and conclusions were drawn.

  13. Influence of the Sol pH on Electrochemical and Mechanical Behaviors of Siloxane-PMMA Hybrid Films Combined with UV Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Longhi, Marielen; Baldin, Estela Knopp Kerstner; Boniatti, Rosiana; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatments with a siloxane-PMMA base have shown promising results when combined with the new ink technology with curing by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Tinplate sheets were coated with a hybrid film obtained from a sol with alkoxides precursors consisting of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate and tetraethoxysilane and adding an organic phase composed of poly(methyl methacrylate). The hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed with a nitric acid solution (pH = 1 and pH = 3). The hybrid films were obtained by a dip-coating process, coated with red-colored paint UV curing and characterized for their electrochemical and mechanical behavior. The results showed that a more acidic pH (pH = 1) promotes the formation of a hybrid film with better protective properties, presented a better electrochemical performance and higher values of layer thickness. However, the hybrid film obtained with pH = 3 combined with the UV coating presented the best performance. This result is probably due to a better anchorage and adhesion verified in this sample.

  14. Influence of the Sol pH on Electrochemical and Mechanical Behaviors of Siloxane-PMMA Hybrid Films Combined with UV Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Longhi, Marielen; Baldin, Estela Knopp Kerstner; Boniatti, Rosiana; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2016-11-01

    Pre-treatments with a siloxane-PMMA base have shown promising results when combined with the new ink technology with curing by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Tinplate sheets were coated with a hybrid film obtained from a sol with alkoxides precursors consisting of 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate and tetraethoxysilane and adding an organic phase composed of poly(methyl methacrylate). The hydrolysis reactions were catalyzed with a nitric acid solution (pH = 1 and pH = 3). The hybrid films were obtained by a dip-coating process, coated with red-colored paint UV curing and characterized for their electrochemical and mechanical behavior. The results showed that a more acidic pH (pH = 1) promotes the formation of a hybrid film with better protective properties, presented a better electrochemical performance and higher values of layer thickness. However, the hybrid film obtained with pH = 3 combined with the UV coating presented the best performance. This result is probably due to a better anchorage and adhesion verified in this sample.

  15. A Mechanistic Explanation of the Peculiar Amphiphobic Properties of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings by Combining XPS Characterization and DFT Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Alessandro; Cannelli, Oliviero; Boccia, Alice; Zanoni, Robertino; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Caldarelli, Aurora; Veronesi, Federico

    2015-09-16

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical modeling analysis of hybrid functional coatings constituted by fluorinated alkylsilane monolayers covalently grafted on a nanostructured ceramic oxide (Al2O3) thin film deposited on aluminum alloy substrates. Such engineered surfaces, bearing hybrid coatings obtained via a classic sol-gel route, have been previously shown to possess amphiphobic behavior (superhydrophobicity plus oleophobicity) and excellent durability, even under simulated severe working environments. Starting from XPS, SEM, and contact angle results and analysis, and combining it with DFT results, the present investigation offers a first mechanistic explanation at a molecular level of the peculiar properties of the hybrid organic-inorganic coating in terms of composition and surface structural arrangements. Theoretical modeling shows that the active fluorinated moiety is strongly anchored on the alumina sites with single Si-O-Al bridges and that the residual valence of Si is saturated by Si-O-Si bonds which form a reticulation with two vicinal fluoroalkylsilanes. The resulting hybrid coating consists of stable rows of fluorinated alkyl chains in reciprocal contact, which form well-ordered and packed monolayers.

  16. Real-time assessment of hybridization between wolves and dogs: combining noninvasive samples with ancestry informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Raquel; López-Bao, José Vicente; Castro, Diana; Llaneza, Luís; Lopes, Susana; Silva, Pedro; Ferrand, Nuno

    2015-03-01

    Wolves and dogs provide a paradigmatic example of the ecological and conservation implications of hybridization events between wild and domesticated forms. However, our understanding of such implications has been traditionally hampered by both high genetic similarity and the difficulties in obtaining tissue samples (TS), which limit our ability to assess ongoing hybridization events. To assess the occurrence and extension of hybridization in a pack of wolf-dog hybrids in northwestern Iberia, we compared the power of 52 nuclear markers implemented on TS with a subset of 13 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) typed in noninvasive samples (NIS). We demonstrate that the 13 AIMs are as accurate as the 52 markers that were chosen without regard to the power to differentiate between wolves and dogs, also having the advantage of being rapidly screened on NIS. The efficiency of AIMs significantly outperformed ten random sets of similar size and an additional commercial set of 18 markers. Bayesian clustering analysis implemented on AIMs and NIS identified nine hybrids, two wolves and two dogs. Four hybrids were unambiguously assigned to F1xWolf backcrosses. Our approach (AIMs + NIS) overcomes previous difficulties related to sample availability and informative power of markers, allowing a quick identification of wolf-dog hybrids in the first phases of hybridization episodes. This provides managers with a reliable tool to evaluate hybridization and estimate the success of their actions. This approach may be easily adapted for other pairs of wild/domesticated species, thus improving our understanding of the introgression of domestication genes into natural populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Avionics Applications on a Time-Predictable Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, André; Silva, Cláudio; Sørensen, Rasmus Bo;

    2016-01-01

    Avionics applications need to be certified for the highest criticality standard. This certification includes schedulability analysis and worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis. WCET analysis is only possible when the software is written to be WCET analyzable and when the platform is time......-predictable. In this paper we present prototype avionics applications that have been ported to the time-predictable T-CREST platform. The applications are WCET analyzable, and T-CREST is supported by the aiT WCET analyzer. This combination allows us to provide WCET bounds of avionic tasks, even when executing on a multicore...

  18. A hybrid hierarchical approach for brain tissue segmentation by combining brain atlas and least square support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Keyvan; Kazemi, Kamran; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new semi-automatic brain tissue segmentation method based on a hybrid hierarchical approach that combines a brain atlas as a priori information and a least-square support vector machine (LS-SVM). The method consists of three steps. In the first two steps, the skull is removed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is extracted. These two steps are performed using the toolbox FMRIB's automated segmentation tool integrated in the FSL software (FSL-FAST) developed in Oxford Centre for functional MRI of the brain (FMRIB). Then, in the third step, the LS-SVM is used to segment grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM). The training samples for LS-SVM are selected from the registered brain atlas. The voxel intensities and spatial positions are selected as the two feature groups for training and test. SVM as a powerful discriminator is able to handle nonlinear classification problems; however, it cannot provide posterior probability. Thus, we use a sigmoid function to map the SVM output into probabilities. The proposed method is used to segment CSF, GM and WM from the simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Brainweb MRI simulator and real data provided by Internet Brain Segmentation Repository. The semi-automatically segmented brain tissues were evaluated by comparing to the corresponding ground truth. The Dice and Jaccard similarity coefficients, sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the quantitative validation of the results. The quantitative results show that the proposed method segments brain tissues accurately with respect to corresponding ground truth.

  19. Solution of large nonlinear quasistatic structural mechanics problems on distributed-memory multiprocessor computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Most commercially-available quasistatic finite element programs assemble element stiffnesses into a global stiffness matrix, then use a direct linear equation solver to obtain nodal displacements. However, for large problems (greater than a few hundred thousand degrees of freedom), the memory size and computation time required for this approach becomes prohibitive. Moreover, direct solution does not lend itself to the parallel processing needed for today`s multiprocessor systems. This talk gives an overview of the iterative solution strategy of JAS3D, the nonlinear large-deformation quasistatic finite element program. Because its architecture is derived from an explicit transient-dynamics code, it does not ever assemble a global stiffness matrix. The author describes the approach he used to implement the solver on multiprocessor computers, and shows examples of problems run on hundreds of processors and more than a million degrees of freedom. Finally, he describes some of the work he is presently doing to address the challenges of iterative convergence for ill-conditioned problems.

  20. On the Parallel Elliptic Single/Multigrid Solutions about Aligned and Nonaligned Bodies Using the Virtual Machine for Multiprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Averbuch

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel elliptic single/multigrid solutions around an aligned and nonaligned body are presented and implemented on two multi-user and single-user shared memory multiprocessors (Sequent Symmetry and MOS and on a distributed memory multiprocessor (a Transputer network. Our parallel implementation uses the Virtual Machine for Muli-Processors (VMMP, a software package that provides a coherent set of services for explicitly parallel application programs running on diverse multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD multiprocessors, both shared memory and message passing. VMMP is intended to simplify parallel program writing and to promote portable and efficient programming. Furthermore, it ensures high portability of application programs by implementing the same services on all target multiprocessors. The performance of our algorithm is investigated in detail. It is seen to fit well the above architectures when the number of processors is less than the maximal number of grid points along the axes. In general, the efficiency in the nonaligned case is higher than in the aligned case. Alignment overhead is observed to be up to 200% in the shared-memory case and up to 65% in the message-passing case. We have demonstrated that when using VMMP, the portability of the algorithms is straightforward and efficient.

  1. Design of Networks-on-Chip for Real-Time Multi-Processor Systems-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of networks-on-chips for use in multi-processor systems-on-chips - the hardware platforms used in embedded systems. These platforms typically have to guarantee real-time properties, and as the network is a shared resource, it has to provide service guarantees...

  2. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  3. A hybrid method for predicting the microstructure of polymers with complex architecture: combination of single-chain simulation with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dapeng; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Jianzhong

    2006-04-28

    A hybrid method is proposed to investigate the microstructure of various polymeric fluids confined between two parallel surfaces. The hybrid method combines a single-chain Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the ideal-gas part of the Helmholtz energy and a density functional theory (DFT) for the excess part that arises from nonbonded intersegment interactions. The latter consists of a modified fundamental measure theory for excluded-volume effect, the first-order thermodynamics perturbation theory for chain connectivity, and a mean-field approximation for the van der Waals attraction. In comparison with a conventional DFT, the hybrid method avoids calculation of the time-consuming recursive functions and is directly applicable to polymers with arbitrary molecular architecture. Its numerical performance has been validated by extensive comparisons with MC data for the density distributions of totally flexible, semiflexible, or rigid polymers and those with starlike architecture. Special attention is also given to the formation of a nematic monolayer by rigid molecules laying perpendicular to a planar surface. The hybrid method predicts the surface pressure versus surface coverage in good agreement with experiment.

  4. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  6. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lanzhi Li; Xiaohong He; Hongyan Zhang; Zhiming Wang; Congwei Sun; Tongmin Mou; Xinqi Li; Yuanming Zhang; Zhongli Hu

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica × japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica × indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1–L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  7. The disadvantages of being a hybrid during drought: A combined analysis of plant morphology, physiology and leaf proteome in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holá, Dana; Benešová, Monika; Fischer, Lukáš; Haisel, Daniel; Hnilička, František; Hniličková, Helena; Jedelský, Petr L; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Rothová, Olga; Tůmová, Lenka; Wilhelmová, Naďa

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis of various parameters that characterize plant morphology, growth, water status, photosynthesis, cell damage, and antioxidative and osmoprotective systems together with an iTRAQ analysis of the leaf proteome was performed in two inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) differing in drought susceptibility and their reciprocal F1 hybrids. The aim of this study was to dissect the parent-hybrid relationships to better understand the mechanisms of the heterotic effect and its potential association with the stress response. The results clearly showed that the four examined genotypes have completely different strategies for coping with limited water availability and that the inherent properties of the F1 hybrids, i.e. positive heterosis in morphological parameters (or, more generally, a larger plant body) becomes a distinct disadvantage when the water supply is limited. However, although a greater loss of photosynthetic efficiency was an inherent disadvantage, the precise causes and consequences of the original predisposition towards faster growth and biomass accumulation differed even between reciprocal hybrids. Both maternal and paternal parents could be imitated by their progeny in some aspects of the drought response (e.g., the absence of general protein down-regulation, changes in the levels of some carbon fixation or other photosynthetic proteins). Nevertheless, other features (e.g., dehydrin or light-harvesting protein contents, reduced chloroplast proteosynthesis) were quite unique to a particular hybrid. Our study also confirmed that the strategy for leaving stomata open even when the water supply is limited (coupled to a smaller body size and some other physiological properties), observed in one of our inbred lines, is associated with drought-resistance not only during mild drought (as we showed previously) but also during more severe drought conditions.

  8. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanzhi; He, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Zhiming; Sun, Congwei; Mou, Tongmin; Li, Xinqi; Zhang, Yuanming; Hu, Zhongli

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica x japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica x indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1 - L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  9. Multi-processor system for real-time deconvolution and flow estimation in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lomborg; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Stetson, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    filter is used with a second time-reversed recursive estimation step. Here it is necessary to perform about 70 arithmetic operations per RF sample or about 1 billion operations per second for real-time deconvolution. Furthermore, these have to be floating point operations due to the adaptive nature...... of the algorithms. Many of the algorithms can only be properly evaluated in a clinical setting with real-time processing, which generally cannot be done with conventional equipment. This paper therefore presents a multi-processor system capable of performing 1.2 billion floating point operations per second on RF...... of the system is its generous input/output bandwidth, that makes it easy to balance the computational load between the processors and prevents data starvation. Due to the use of floating point calculations it is possible to simulate all types of signal processing in modem ultrasound scanners, and this system is...

  10. Commodity multi-processor systems in the ATLAS level-2 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Abolins, M; Bock, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Dawson, J; Ermoline, Y; Hauser, R; Kugel, A; Lay, R; Müller, M; Noffz, K H; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Werner, P

    2000-01-01

    Low cost SMP (symmetric multi-processor) systems provide substantial CPU and I/O capacity. These features together with the ease of system integration make them an attractive and cost effective solution for a number of real-time applications in event selection. In ATLAS we consider them as intelligent input buffers (an "active" ROB complex), as event flow supervisors or as powerful processing nodes. Measurements of the performance of one off-the-shelf commercial 4- processor PC with two PCI buses, equipped with commercial FPGA based data source cards (microEnable) and running commercial software are presented and mapped on such applications together with a long-term programme of work. The SMP systems may be considered as an important building block in future data acquisition systems. (9 refs).

  11. A Resolution for Shared Memory Conflict in Multiprocessor System-on-a-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Shaily

    2012-01-01

    Now days, manufacturers are focusing on increasing the concurrency in multiprocessor system-on-a-chip (MPSoC) architecture instead of increasing clock speed, for embedded systems. Traditionally lock-based synchronization is provided to support concurrency; as managing locks can be very difficult and error prone. Transactional memories and lock based systems have been extensively used to provide synchronization between multiple processors [1] in general-purpose systems. It has been shown that locks have numerous shortcomings over transactional memory in terms of power consumption, ease of programming and performance. In this paper, we propose a new semaphore scheme for synchronization in shared cache memory in an MPSoC. Moreover, we have evaluated and compared our scheme with locks and transactions in terms of energy consumption and cache miss rate using SimpleScalar functional simulator.

  12. Prediction of Ready Queue Processing Time in Multiprocessor Environment Using Lottery Scheduling (ULS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita CHOUDHARY

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While in multi-user environment, CPU has to manage lot of requests generated over the same time. Waiting queue of processes generates a problem of scheduling for processors. Designers and hardware architects have suggested system of multiprocessors to overcome the queue length. Lottery scheduling is one such method where processes in waiting queue are selected through a chance manner. This opens a way to use probability models to get estimates of system parameters. This paper is an application where the processing time of jobs in ready queue is predicted using the sampling method under the k-processors environment (k>1.The random selection of one process by each of k processors through without replacement method is a sample data set which helps in the prediction of possible ready queue processing time. Some theorems are established and proved to get desired results in terms of confidence intervals.

  13. HyperForest: A high performance multi-processor architecture for real-time intelligent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, P. Jr.; Rebeil, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollard, H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering Dept.

    1997-04-01

    Intelligent Systems are characterized by the intensive use of computer power. The computer revolution of the last few years is what has made possible the development of the first generation of Intelligent Systems. Software for second generation Intelligent Systems will be more complex and will require more powerful computing engines in order to meet real-time constraints imposed by new robots, sensors, and applications. A multiprocessor architecture was developed that merges the advantages of message-passing and shared-memory structures: expendability and real-time compliance. The HyperForest architecture will provide an expandable real-time computing platform for computationally intensive Intelligent Systems and open the doors for the application of these systems to more complex tasks in environmental restoration and cleanup projects, flexible manufacturing systems, and DOE`s own production and disassembly activities.

  14. Simulation-based Modeling Frameworks for Networked Multi-processor System-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with modeling aspects of multi-processor system-on-chip (MpSoC) design affected by the on-chip interconnect, also called the Network-on-Chip (NoC), at various levels of abstraction. To begin with, we undertook a comprehensive survey of research and design practices of networked Mp......SoC. The survey presents the challenges of modeling and performance analysis of the hardware and the software components used in such devices. These challenges are further exasperated in a mixed abstraction workspace, which is typical of complex MpSoC design environment. We provide two simulation-based frameworks...... and the RIPE frameworks allows easy incorporation of IP cores from either frameworks, into a new instance of the design. This could pave the way for seamless design evaluation from system-level to cycletrue abstraction in future component-based MpSoC design practice....

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  16. An Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Multiprocessor Real-time Task Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ya-jun; YANG Yu-hang

    2009-01-01

    Real-time task scheduling is of primary significance in multiprocessor systems. Meeting deadlines and achieving high system utilization are the two main objectives of task scheduling in such systems. In this paper,we represent those two goals as the minimization of the average response time and the average task laxity. To achieve this, we propose a genetic-based algorithm with problem-specific and efficient genetic operators. Adaptive control parameters are also employed in our work to improve the genetic algorithms' efficiency. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms its counterpart considerably by up to 36% and 35% in terms of the average response time and the average task laxity,respectively.

  17. Scheduling multiprocessor job with resource and timing constraints using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y M; Chen, R M

    1999-01-01

    The Hopfield neural network is extensively applied to obtaining an optimal/feasible solution in many different applications such as the traveling salesman problem (TSP), a typical discrete combinatorial problem. Although providing rapid convergence to the solution, TSP frequently converges to a local minimum. Stochastic simulated annealing is a highly effective means of obtaining an optimal solution capable of preventing the local minimum. This important feature is embedded into a Hopfield neural network to derive a new technique, i.e., mean field annealing. This work applies the Hopfield neural network and the normalized mean field annealing technique, respectively, to resolve a multiprocessor problem (known to be a NP-hard problem) with no process migration, constrained times (execution time and deadline) and limited resources. Simulation results demonstrate that the derived energy function works effectively for this class of problems.

  18. Dynamic Scheduling Real-Time Task Using Primary-Backup Overloading Strategy for Multiprocessor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Chen; Défago, Xavier; Inoguchi, Yasushi

    The scheduling of real-time tasks with fault-tolerant requirements has been an important problem in multiprocessor systems. The primary-backup (PB) approach is often used as a fault-tolerant technique to guarantee the deadlines of tasks despite the presence of faults. In this paper we propose a dynamic PB-based task scheduling approach, wherein an allocation parameter is used to search the available time slots for a newly arriving task, and the previously scheduled tasks can be re-scheduled when there is no available time slot for the newly arriving task. In order to improve the schedulability we also propose an overloading strategy for PB-overloading and Backup-backup (BB) overloading. Our proposed task scheduling algorithm is compared with some existing scheduling algorithms in the literature through simulation studies. The results have shown that the task rejection ratio of our real-time task scheduling algorithm is almost 50% lower than the compared algorithms.

  19. Fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave and free-space-optics architecture with an adaptive diversity combining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yuming; Xu, Mu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Lin; Yu, Jianjun; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-05-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel fiber-wireless integrated mobile backhaul network based on a hybrid millimeter-wave (MMW) and free-space-optics (FSO) architecture using an adaptive combining technique. Both 60 GHz MMW and FSO links are demonstrated and fully integrated with optical fibers in a scalable and cost-effective backhaul system setup. Joint signal processing with an adaptive diversity combining technique (ADCT) is utilized at the receiver side based on a maximum ratio combining algorithm. Mobile backhaul transportation of 4-Gb/s 16 quadrature amplitude modulation frequency-division multiplexing (QAM-OFDM) data is experimentally demonstrated and tested under various weather conditions synthesized in the lab. Performance improvement in terms of reduced error vector magnitude (EVM) and enhanced link reliability are validated under fog, rain, and turbulence conditions.

  20. Production of Hybrid Chimeric PVX Particles Using a Combination of TMV and PVX-Based Expression Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmeis, Christina; Honickel, Mareike Michaela Antonia; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We have generated hybrid chimeric potato virus X (PVX) particles by coexpression of different PVX coat protein fusions utilizing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and PVX-based expression vectors. Coinfection was achieved with a modified PVX overcoat vector displaying a fluorescent protein and a TMV vector expressing another PVX fluorescent overcoat fusion protein. Coexpression of the PVX-CP fusions in the same cells was confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy. Labeling with specific antibodies and transmission electron microscopy revealed chimeric particles displaying green fluorescent protein and mCherry on the surface. These data were corroborated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We used split-mCherry fragments as PVX coat fusions and confirmed an interaction between the split-mCherry fragments in coinfected cells. The presence of assembled split-mCherry on the surface confirmed the hybrid character of the chimeric particles.

  1. Combining ability, heterosis and inbreeding depression in inter specific hybrids involving greengram [ Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek] and blackgram [Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal, M. N. Singh, N. Pathak and S. K. Saroj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester analysis of interspecific hybrids involving greengram (female and blackgram (male was carried out for 11 quantitative traits. As expected in wide crosses, none of the parent was found to be good general combiner for yield. However, PDM-11, HUM-26 Azad-U-1 and KUG-427 were spotted out as superior general combiners for 2-5 yield traits. Likewise, hybrids, PDM-11 × KUG-427, HUM-26 × Azad-U-1, HUM-6 × BHU-U-1 and HUM-26 × BHU-U-1 were identified as best specific cross combinations for few yield components only. Further, economic heterosis for seed yield and few important yield traits such as, pod length, seeds per pod and 100-seed weight, was significantly negative, while it was mostly positive for days to first flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary and secondary branches including pods per plant. All the crosses showing negative yield heterosis reflected positive inbreeding depression. Non-additive gene action was of prime importance for all the characters except for days to 50% flowering.

  2. Flame retardancy of polyamide 6 hybrid fibers: Combined effects of α-zirconium phosphate and ammonium sulfamate

    OpenAIRE

    Hengxue Xiang; Lili Li; Wei Chen; Senlong Yu; Bin Sun; Meifang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Synergistic effect between α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) and ammonium sulfamate (AS) for enhanced flame retardant properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6) was investigated by using oxygen index instrument, cone calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), Instron universal test machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PA6/AS/α-ZrP ternary hybrid materials with various contents of α-ZrP and AS were fabricated by melt-mixing method. The result from flammability indicated that the Limiting oxyge...

  3. New approach for fabricating hybrid-structured metal mesh films for flexible transparent electrodes by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jin Woo; Lee, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Hwan-Jin; Ahn, Chi Won

    2016-11-01

    In this study, hybrid-structured metal mesh (HMM) films as potential flexible transparent electrodes, composed of aligned micro-sized metal fibers integrated into random network of metal nanofibers, were fabricated by the combination of electrospinning and metal deposition. These naturally fiber-bridged HMMs, with a gold layer thickness of 85 nm, exhibited a high transmittance of around 90% and a sheet resistance of approximately 10 Ω sq-1, as well as favorable mechanical stability under bending stress. These results demonstrate that the approach employed herein is a simple, highly efficient, and facile process for fabricating, uniform, interconnected fiber networks with potential for producing high-performance flexible transparent electrodes.

  4. Photocatalytic applications of paper-like poly(vinylidene fluoride)-titanium dioxide hybrids fabricated using a combination of electrospinning and electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Son, Aseom; Seid, Mingizem Gashaw; Shim, Sujin; Lee, Sang Hyup; Chung, Yun Chul; Lee, Changha; Lee, Jaesang; Hong, Seok Won

    2015-03-21

    A paper-like photocatalyst was fabricated by electrospraying an N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) dispersion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) on a poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber (PVDF NF) mat prepared by electrospinning. Morphological studies revealed that the TiO2 NPs uniformly deposited as clusters on the surface of the PVDF NF mat. The immobilized amount of TiO2 was found to be 2.08, 2.44, 3.80, and 4.73 mg per 45 cm(2) of PVDF-TiO2 hybrids for the electrospraying of 10, 20, 40, and 60 ml of TiO2-DMF, respectively. The hybrid photocatalysts were effective in degrading bisphenol A (BPA), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and cimetidine (CMT), which dissolved in both deionized water and secondary wastewater effluents, with activity being proportional to the quantity of TiO2 NPs immobilized. For the highest loading amount of TiO2, BPA, 4-CP, and CMT degraded completely within 100, 100, and 40 min of UV irradiation, respectively. Stable photo-oxidation of CMT was maintained through 10 repeated cycles. During these cycles, it was confirmed that there was no loss of TiO2 NPs by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Our results suggest that effective and stable PVDF-TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts can be fabricated on a large scale by combining electrospinning and electrospraying techniques.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of photoluminescent hybrids of poly( ɛ-caprolactone)-grafted-polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane by using a combination of ring-opening polymerization and click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuan Thang; Showkat, Ali Md; Bach, Long Giang; Jeong, Yeon Tae; Kim, Jong Soo; Lim, Kwon Taek; Gal, Yeong-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescent hybrids of poly( ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) and terbium ions (Tb3+) were synthesized by using a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), click chemistry and coordination chemistry. Initially, acetylene functionalized PCL (alkyne-PCL-COOH) was prepared by using ROP of ɛ-caprolactone with propargyl alcohol, and azide-substituted POSS (POSS-N3) was prepared by using the reaction of chloropropyl-heptaisobutyl-substituted POSS with NaN3. The click reaction between alkyne-PCL-COOH and POSS-N3 afforded POSS-g-PCL, which was subsequently coordinated with Tb3+ ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to produce POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen. The structures and compositions of the hybrids were investigated by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen complexes were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy, which showed four high emission bands centered at 489, 545, 584, and 620 nm with excitation at 330 nm. The emission spectra of the europium-ion-coordinated hybrids, POSS-g-PCL-Eu3+-Phen, had four high-intensity peaks, 594, 617, 652 and 686 nm, for an excitation wavelength of 352 nm.

  6. Surgical Management of Combined Intramedullary Arteriovenous Malformation and Perimedullary Arteriovenous Fistula within the Hybrid Operating Room after Five Years of Performing Focus Fractionated Radiotherapy: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEKKA, Masayuki; SEKI, Toshitaka; HIDA, Kazutoshi; OSANAI, Toshiya; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery. PMID:25367581

  7. Surgical management of combined intramedullary arteriovenous malformation and perimedullary arteriovenous fistula within the hybrid operating room after five years of performing focus fractionated radiotherapy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekka, Masayuki; Seki, Toshitaka; Hida, Kazutoshi; Osanai, Toshiya; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) shunts occur on the spinal cord surface and can be treated surgically or by endovascular embolization. In contrast, the nidus of an intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is located in the spinal cord and is difficult to treat surgically or by endovascular techniques. The benefits of radiotherapy for treating intramedullary AVM have been published, but are anecdotal and consist largely of case reports. We present a case of combined cervical intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF which received surgical treatment within a hybrid operating room (OR) after 5 years of focus fractionated radiotherapy. A 37-year-old male presented with stepwise worsening myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and spinal angiography revealed intramedullary AVM and perimedullary AVF at the C3 to C5 levels. In order to reduce nidus size and blood flow, we first performed focal fractionated radiotherapy. Five years later, the lesion volume was reduced. Following this, direct surgery was performed by an anterior approach using corpectomy in the hybrid OR. The spinal cord was monitored by motor-evoked potential throughout the surgery. Complete obliteration of the fistulous connection was confirmed by intraoperative indocyanine green video-angiography and intraoperative angiography, preserving the anterior spinal artery. We conclude that surgical treatment following focal fractionated radiotherapy may become one strategy for patients who are initially deemed ineligible for endovascular embolization and surgical treatment. Furthermore, the hybrid OR enables safe and precise treatment for spinal vascular disorders in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

  8. Photocatalytic applications of paper-like poly(vinylidene fluoride)–titanium dioxide hybrids fabricated using a combination of electrospinning and electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Son, Aseom; Seid, Mingizem Gashaw; Shim, Sujin; Lee, Sang Hyup; Chung, Yun Chul [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil,Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changha [Urban and Environmental Engineering, and KIST-UNIST-Ulsan Center for Convergent Materials (KUUC), Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 698-805 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaesang [School of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok Won, E-mail: swhong@kist.re.kr [Center for Water Resource Cycle Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil,Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil,Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • A PVDF–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst was fabricated by electrospinning and electrospraying. • The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles mainly formed clusters on the PVDF nanofiber mat surface. • The photo-degradation of aqueous organic pollutants was efficiently achieved. • The hybrid photocatalysts were robust, reusable, and stable in aqueous solution. - Abstract: A paper-like photocatalyst was fabricated by electrospraying an N,N′-dimethylformamide (DMF) dispersion of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) on a poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber (PVDF NF) mat prepared by electrospinning. Morphological studies revealed that the TiO{sub 2} NPs uniformly deposited as clusters on the surface of the PVDF NF mat. The immobilized amount of TiO{sub 2} was found to be 2.08, 2.44, 3.80, and 4.73 mg per 45 cm{sup 2} of PVDF–TiO{sub 2} hybrids for the electrospraying of 10, 20, 40, and 60 ml of TiO{sub 2}–DMF, respectively. The hybrid photocatalysts were effective in degrading bisphenol A (BPA), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and cimetidine (CMT), which dissolved in both deionized water and secondary wastewater effluents, with activity being proportional to the quantity of TiO{sub 2} NPs immobilized. For the highest loading amount of TiO{sub 2}, BPA, 4-CP, and CMT degraded completely within 100, 100, and 40 min of UV irradiation, respectively. Stable photo-oxidation of CMT was maintained through 10 repeated cycles. During these cycles, it was confirmed that there was no loss of TiO{sub 2} NPs by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Our results suggest that effective and stable PVDF–TiO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalysts can be fabricated on a large scale by combining electrospinning and electrospraying techniques.

  9. Photocatalysis applications of some hybrid polymeric composites incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles and their combinations with SiO2/Fe2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibac, Andreea Laura; Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Buruiana, Emil C

    2017-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) combined with other inorganic components (Si-O-Si or/and γ-Fe2O3) were prepared by the dispersion of premade NPs (nanocrystalline TiO2, TiO2/SiO2, TiO2/Fe2O3, TiO2/SiO2/Fe2O3) within a photopolymerizable urethane dimethacrylate (polytetrahydrofuran-urethane dimethacrylate, PTHF-UDMA). The physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles and hybrid polymeric composites with 10 wt % NPs (S1-S4) was realized through XRD, TEM and FTIR analyses. The mean size (10-30 nm) and the crystallinity of the NPs varied as a function of the inorganic constituent. The catalytic activity of these hybrid films was tested for the photodegradation of phenol, hydroquinone and dopamine in aqueous solution under UV or visible-light irradiation. The best results were obtained for the films with TiO2/Fe2O3 or TiO2/SiO2/Fe2O3 NPs. The degradation of the mentioned model pollutants varied between 71% and 100% (after 250 min of irradiation) depending on the composition of the hybrid film tested and the light applied (UV-visible light). Also, it was established that such hybrid films can be reused at least for five cycles, without losing too much of the photocatalytic efficiency (ca. 7%). These findings could have implications in the development of new nanocatalysts.

  10. Photocatalysis applications of some hybrid polymeric composites incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles and their combinations with SiO2/Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruiana, Tinca; Melinte, Violeta; Buruiana, Emil C

    2017-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) combined with other inorganic components (Si–O–Si or/and γ-Fe2O3) were prepared by the dispersion of premade NPs (nanocrystalline TiO2, TiO2/SiO2, TiO2/Fe2O3, TiO2/SiO2/Fe2O3) within a photopolymerizable urethane dimethacrylate (polytetrahydrofuran-urethane dimethacrylate, PTHF-UDMA). The physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles and hybrid polymeric composites with 10 wt % NPs (S1–S4) was realized through XRD, TEM and FTIR analyses. The mean size (10–30 nm) and the crystallinity of the NPs varied as a function of the inorganic constituent. The catalytic activity of these hybrid films was tested for the photodegradation of phenol, hydroquinone and dopamine in aqueous solution under UV or visible-light irradiation. The best results were obtained for the films with TiO2/Fe2O3 or TiO2/SiO2/Fe2O3 NPs. The degradation of the mentioned model pollutants varied between 71% and 100% (after 250 min of irradiation) depending on the composition of the hybrid film tested and the light applied (UV–visible light). Also, it was established that such hybrid films can be reused at least for five cycles, without losing too much of the photocatalytic efficiency (ca. 7%). These findings could have implications in the development of new nanocatalysts. PMID:28243566

  11. First-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality that allows combined radio- and (near-infrared) fluorescence tracing during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Nynke S. van den [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Simon, Herve [Eurorad S.A., Eckbolsheim (France); Kleinjan, Gijs H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Engelen, Thijs [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bunschoten, Anton; Welling, Mick M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Tijink, Bernard M. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Horenblas, Simon [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chambron, Jacques [The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Urology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); The Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-15

    The clinical introduction of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, composed of a radioactive and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence component, has created the need for surgical (imaging) modalities that allow for simultaneous detection of both signals. This study describes the first-in-human use of a prototype opto-nuclear probe during sentinel node (SN) biopsy using ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid. To allow for fluorescence tracing, a derivative of the conventional gamma probe technology was generated in which two optical fibers were integrated to allow for excitation (785 nm) and emission signal collection (> 810 nm). The ability of this opto-nuclear probe to detect the fluorescence signal of the hybrid tracer ICG-{sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid was firstly determined ex vivo in (non)SNs samples obtained from 41 patients who underwent hybrid tracer-based SN biopsy in the head and neck or urogenital area. In an in vivo proof-of-concept study in nine of these 41 patients, SNs were localized using combined gamma and fluorescence tracing with the opto-nuclear probe. Fluorescence tracing was performed in a similar manner as gamma tracing and under ambient light conditions. Ex vivo, the gamma tracing option of the opto-nuclear probe correctly identified the SN in all 150 evaluated (non)SN samples. Ex vivo fluorescence tracing in the low-sensitivity mode correctly identified 71.7 % of the samples. This increased to 98.9 % when fluorescence tracing was performed in the high-sensitivity mode. In vivo fluorescence tracing (high-sensitivity mode) accurately identified the SNs in all nine patients (20 SNs evaluated; 100 %). This study demonstrates the first-in-human evaluation of a hybrid modality capable of detecting both gamma and fluorescence signals during a surgical procedure. Fluorescence tracing could be performed in ambient light. (orig.)

  12. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  13. MORA: an Energy-Aware Slack Reclamation Scheme for Scheduling Sporadic Real-Time Tasks upon Multiprocessor Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Nelis, Vincent; Goossens, Joel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the global and preemptive energy-aware scheduling problem of sporadic constrained-deadline tasks on DVFS-identical multiprocessor platforms. We propose an online slack reclamation scheme which profits from the discrepancy between the worst- and actual-case execution time of the tasks by slowing down the speed of the processors in order to save energy. Our algorithm called MORA takes into account the application-specific consumption profile of the tasks. We demonstrat...

  14. Hybrid dynamic modeling of Escherichia coli central metabolic network combining Michaelis–Menten and approximate kinetic equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Rafael S.; Machado, Daniel; Rocha, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    , represent nowadays the limiting factor in the construction of such models. In this study, we compare four alternative modeling approaches based on Michaelis–Menten kinetics for the bi-molecular reactions and different types of simplified rate equations for the remaining reactions (generalized mass action...... using the hybrid model composed of Michaelis–Menten and the approximate lin-log kinetics indicate that this is a possible suitable approach to model complex large-scale networks where the exact rate laws are unknown....

  15. Predicting High or Low Transfer Efficiency of Photovoltaic Systems Using a Novel Hybrid Methodology Combining Rough Set Theory, Data Envelopment Analysis and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ing Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become an important energy source in recent years as it generates less pollution than other energies. A photovoltaic (PV system, which typically has many components, converts solar energy into electrical energy. With the development of advanced engineering technologies, the transfer efficiency of a PV system has been increased from low to high. The combination of components in a PV system influences its transfer efficiency. Therefore, when predicting the transfer efficiency of a PV system, one must consider the relationship among system components. This work accurately predicts whether transfer efficiency of a PV system is high or low using a novel hybrid model that combines rough set theory (RST, data envelopment analysis (DEA, and genetic programming (GP. Finally, real data-set are utilized to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. An integrated/hybrid D-GNSS/LORAN-C sensor combination as basis for a reliable and economic transport telematic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, C. [Wasser- und Schiffahrtsdirektion Nord, Kiel (Germany); Maurer, M. [MAN Technologie AG, Augsburg (Germany); Niklasch, N. [ViCon Engineering GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Richert, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Systems like Vessel traffic services must be seen as critical infrastructure for the safety of navigation. Thus such systems should not be based on technology, that solely depends on a GNSS position determination sensor. A very high potential for an enhancement of accuracy and integrity for traffic management systems is seen in a hybrid receiver technology where GNSS, LORAN-C and Eurofix are combined. Such a combined receiver can be able to overcome the technical and institutional shortcomings. In this presentation an overview is given over the german Radionavigation Concept for Maritime Safety and some results of software and hardware design for an integrated receiver, based on a full digital processing software radio approach. (orig.)

  17. Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Method Combined with Hybrid All-Atom and Coarse-Grained Model: Theory and Application on Redox Potential Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lin; Yang, Weitao

    2016-04-12

    We developed a new multiresolution method that spans three levels of resolution with quantum mechanical, atomistic molecular mechanical, and coarse-grained models. The resolution-adapted all-atom and coarse-grained water model, in which an all-atom structural description of the entire system is maintained during the simulations, is combined with the ab initio quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics method. We apply this model to calculate the redox potentials of the aqueous ruthenium and iron complexes by using the fractional number of electrons approach and thermodynamic integration simulations. The redox potentials are recovered in excellent accordance with the experimental data. The speed-up of the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model renders it computationally more attractive. The accuracy depends on the hybrid all-atom and coarse-grained water model used in the combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical method. We have used another multiresolution model, in which an atomic-level layer of water molecules around redox center is solvated in supramolecular coarse-grained waters for the redox potential calculations. Compared with the experimental data, this alternative multilayer model leads to less accurate results when used with the coarse-grained polarizable MARTINI water or big multipole water model for the coarse-grained layer.

  18. A Novel Hybrid Algorithm for Task Graph Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majid Nezhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems in multiprocessor systems is Task Graph Scheduling. Task Graph Scheduling is an NP-Hard problem. Both learning automata and genetic algorithms are search tools which are used for solving many NP-Hard problems. In this paper a new hybrid method based on Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata is proposed. The proposed algorithm begins with an initial population of randomly generated chromosomes and after some stages, each chromosome maps to an automaton. Experimental results show that superiority of the proposed algorithm over the current approaches.

  19. A Novel Hybrid Algorithm for Task Graph Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Nezhad, Vahid Majid; Efimov, Evgueni

    2011-01-01

    One of the important problems in multiprocessor systems is Task Graph Scheduling. Task Graph Scheduling is an NP-Hard problem. Both learning automata and genetic algorithms are search tools which are used for solving many NP-Hard problems. In this paper a new hybrid method based on Genetic Algorithm and Learning Automata is proposed. The proposed algorithm begins with an initial population of randomly generated chromosomes and after some stages, each chromosome maps to an automaton. Experimental results show that superiority of the proposed algorithm over the current approaches.

  20. Analysis of Combining Ability of Starch Content in Hybrid Sorghum Based on AMMI Model%基于AMMI模型的杂交高粱籽粒淀粉含量的配合力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵甘霖; 丁国祥

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Analysis of combining ability of starch content variation in hybrid sorghum with the assistant of AMMI model. [Method] Based on the analyses of GCA using incomplete diallel cross(NCII), the SCA of hybrid sorghum was analyzed by AMMI model. [Result] For the starch content change of F1 hybrid sorghum, the effects of GCA and SCA accounted for 81.06% and 17.97%, respectively. In the present study, CMS lines 45A, 29A and restorer lines Hui 1, 44R were proved to be the excellent parent materials for preparing high starch hybrid sorghum cultivars. [Conclusion] The improvement of starch content in parents should be mainly concerned in breeding high starch content hybrid sorghum.

  1. Genetic profiles of gastroesophageal cancer: combined analysis using expression array and tiling array--comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Mats; Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Johansson, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    /losses and gene expression profiles show strong similarity between cancers in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction with frequent upregulation of CDK6 and EGFR, whereas gastric cancer displays distinct genetic changes. These data suggest that molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies can......15, 13q34, and 12q13, whereas different profiles with gains at 5p15, 7p22, 2q35, and 13q34 characterized gastric cancers. CDK6 and EGFR were identified as putative target genes in cancers of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction, with upregulation in one quarter of the tumors. Gains......-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization and 27k oligo gene expression arrays, and putative target genes were validated in an extended series. Adenocarcinomas in the distal esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction showed strong similarities with the most common gains at 20q13, 8q24, 1q21-23, 5p...

  2. Dynamic modelling of an adsorption storage tank using a hybrid approach combining computational fluid dynamics and process simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, J.P.B.; Esteves, I.A.A.C.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package has been coupled with the dynamic process simulator of an adsorption storage tank for methane fuelled vehicles. The two solvers run as independent processes and handle non-overlapping portions of the computational domain. The codes exchange data on the boundary interface of the two domains to ensure continuity of the solution and of its gradient. A software interface was developed to dynamically suspend and activate each process as necessary, and be responsible for data exchange and process synchronization. This hybrid computational tool has been successfully employed to accurately simulate the discharge of a new tank design and evaluate its performance. The case study presented here shows that CFD and process simulation are highly complementary computational tools, and that there are clear benefits to be gained from a close integration of the two. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining cell-based hydrodynamics with hybrid particle-field simulations: efficient and realistic simulation of structuring dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevink, G J A; Schmid, F; Kawakatsu, T; Milano, G

    2017-02-22

    We have extended an existing hybrid MD-SCF simulation technique that employs a coarsening step to enhance the computational efficiency of evaluating non-bonded particle interactions. This technique is conceptually equivalent to the single chain in mean-field (SCMF) method in polymer physics, in the sense that non-bonded interactions are derived from the non-ideal chemical potential in self-consistent field (SCF) theory, after a particle-to-field projection. In contrast to SCMF, however, MD-SCF evolves particle coordinates by the usual Newton's equation of motion. Since collisions are seriously affected by the softening of non-bonded interactions that originates from their evaluation at the coarser continuum level, we have devised a way to reinsert the effect of collisions on the structural evolution. Merging MD-SCF with multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD), we mimic particle collisions at the level of computational cells and at the same time properly account for the momentum transfer that is important for a realistic system evolution. The resulting hybrid MD-SCF/MPCD method was validated for a particular coarse-grained model of phospholipids in aqueous solution, against reference full-particle simulations and the original MD-SCF model. We additionally implemented and tested an alternative and more isotropic finite difference gradient. Our results show that efficiency is improved by merging MD-SCF with MPCD, as properly accounting for hydrodynamic interactions considerably speeds up the phase separation dynamics, with negligible additional computational costs compared to efficient MD-SCF. This new method enables realistic simulations of large-scale systems that are needed to investigate the applications of self-assembled structures of lipids in nanotechnologies.

  4. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, B G M; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, J H; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, S V; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2013-03-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma.

  5. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, BGM; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, JH; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, SV; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma. PMID:23032723

  6. Well-Combined Magnetically Separable Hybrid Cobalt Ferrite/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as Efficient Catalyst with Superior Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Hao, Qingli; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xujie

    2015-11-18

    Catalysts with low-cost, high activity and stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are extremely desirable, but its development still remains a great challenge. Here, a novel magnetically separable hybrid of multimetal oxide, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), anchored on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/NG) is prepared via a facile solvothermal method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The structure of CoFe2O4/NG and the interaction of both components are analyzed by several techniques. The possible formation of Co/Fe-N interaction in the CoFe2O4/NG catalyst is found. As a result, the well-combination of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with NG and its improved crystallinity lead to a synergistic and efficient catalyst with high performance to ORR through a four-electron-transfer process in alkaline medium. The CoFe2O4/NG exhibits particularly comparable catalytic activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst, and superior stability against methanol oxidation and CO poisoning. Meanwhile, it has been proved that both nitrogen doping and the spinel structure of CoFe2O4 can have a significant contribution to the catalytic activity by contrast experiments. Multimetal oxide hybrid demonstrates better catalysis to ORR than a single metal oxide hybrid. All results make the low-cost and magnetically separable CoFe2O4/NG a promising alternative for costly platinum-based ORR catalyst in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Implementation of an OFDM underwater acoustic communication system,on an underwater vehicle with multiprocessor structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhenhua; HUANG Jianguo; HE Chengbing

    2007-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) can fully use the frequency band and transmit data at high speeds.The ADSP-TS101 is a high performance digital signal processor (DSP) with good properties that include parallel processing and a high speed.Aimed at the real-time processing requirement of the OFDM algorithm,an underwater acoustic communication system with real-time processing capability is carried out.The system is mainly composed of multiple ADSP-TS 101 s,a multi-channel synchronous sample module and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip.The multiprocessor structure is made up of a cluster/data flow associated multiprocessing parallel processing structure as the operation kernel,and a multichannel synchronous sample module is designed to realize no phase warp among the multiple channels' data at the same time.The digital modulation/demodulation methods are applied to the OFDM algorithm.Through experiments in a lake,the results show that the system has good stability and real-time processing capability,thus satisfying the design requirements.

  8. Trade-Off Exploration for Target Tracking Application in a Customized Multiprocessor Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin El-Hillali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an FPGA-based multiprocessor-system-on-chip (MPSoC architecture optimized for Multiple Target Tracking (MTT in automotive applications. An MTT system uses an automotive radar to track the speed and relative position of all the vehicles (targets within its field of view. As the number of targets increases, the computational needs of the MTT system also increase making it difficult for a single processor to handle it alone. Our implementation distributes the computational load among multiple soft processor cores optimized for executing specific computational tasks. The paper explains how we designed and profiled the MTT application to partition it among different processors. It also explains how we applied different optimizations to customize the individual processor cores to their assigned tasks and to assess their impact on performance and FPGA resource utilization. The result is a complete MTT application running on an optimized MPSoC architecture that fits in a contemporary medium-sized FPGA and that meets the application's real-time constraints.

  9. E-Token Energy-Aware Proportionate Sharing Scheduling Algorithm for Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupuleti Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WSN plays vital role from small range healthcare surveillance systems to largescale environmental monitoring. Its design for energy constrained applications is a challenging issue. Sensors in WSNs are projected to run separately for longer periods. It is of excessive cost to substitute exhausted batteries which is not even possible in antagonistic situations. Multiprocessors are used in WSNs for high performance scientific computing, where each processor is assigned the same or different workload. When the computational demands of the system increase then the energy efficient approaches play an important role to increase system lifetime. Energy efficiency is commonly carried out by using proportionate fair scheduler. This introduces abnormal overloading effect. In order to overcome the existing problems E-token Energy-Aware Proportionate Sharing (EEAPS scheduling is proposed here. The power consumption for each thread/task is calculated and the tasks are allotted to the multiple processors through the auctioning mechanism. The algorithm is simulated by using the real-time simulator (RTSIM and the results are tested.

  10. Trade-Off Exploration for Target Tracking Application in a Customized Multiprocessor Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghir MazenAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design of an FPGA-based multiprocessor-system-on-chip (MPSoC architecture optimized for Multiple Target Tracking (MTT in automotive applications. An MTT system uses an automotive radar to track the speed and relative position of all the vehicles (targets within its field of view. As the number of targets increases, the computational needs of the MTT system also increase making it difficult for a single processor to handle it alone. Our implementation distributes the computational load among multiple soft processor cores optimized for executing specific computational tasks. The paper explains how we designed and profiled the MTT application to partition it among different processors. It also explains how we applied different optimizations to customize the individual processor cores to their assigned tasks and to assess their impact on performance and FPGA resource utilization. The result is a complete MTT application running on an optimized MPSoC architecture that fits in a contemporary medium-sized FPGA and that meets the application's real-time constraints.

  11. Optimal Scheme for Search State Space and Scheduling on Multiprocessor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youness, Hassan A.; Sakanushi, Keishi; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Salem, Ashraf; Wahdan, Abdel-Moneim; Imai, Masaharu

    A scheduling algorithm aims to minimize the overall execution time of the program by properly allocating and arranging the execution order of the tasks on the core processors such that the precedence constraints among the tasks are preserved. In this paper, we present a new scheduling algorithm by using geometry analysis of the Task Precedence Graph (TPG) based on A* search technique and uses a computationally efficient cost function for guiding the search with reduced complexity and pruning techniques to produce an optimal solution for the allocation/scheduling problem of a parallel application to parallel and multiprocessor architecture. The main goal of this work is to significantly reduce the search space and achieve the optimality or near optimal solution. We implemented the algorithm on general task graph problems that are processed on most of related search work and obtain the optimal scheduling with a small number of states. The proposed algorithm reduced the exhaustive search by at least 50% of search space. The viability and potential of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by an illustrative example.

  12. Lung tattooing combined with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) as a single procedure in a hybrid room: our institutional experience in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanam, Surendra; Gerstle, Ted; Amaral, Joao; John, Philip; Parra, Dimitri; Temple, Michael; Connolly, Bairbre

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of small pulmonary nodules in children poses an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. To review our experience of lung tattooing with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) performed as a single procedure in a hybrid room for technical difficulties, complications and diagnostic yield of the procedure. Retrospective analysis of 31 children (16 boys, 15 girls) who underwent lung tattooing of various lesions from January 2001 to July 2011. Data were collected from the Interventional Radiology database, Electronic Patient Chart (EPC) and PACS. A total of 34 lesions were treated in 31 children. Tattooing was performed on lung lesions with median size 3 mm and median depth 2 mm from pleura. Technical success was 91.1% and diagnostic yield was 100%. In seven children, it was combined with other interventional radiologic procedures. The median procedure time for lung tattooing and IVATR was 197 min. Lung tattooing with IVATR as a single procedure in a hybrid room is safe and effective in children with several inherent advantages, including avoiding the need to move the child from the interventional radiology suite to the operating room.

  13. Description of the Charge Transfer States at the Pentacene/C60 Interface: Combining Range-Separated Hybrid Functionals with the Polarizable Continuum Model

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2016-06-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) approaches based on range-separated hybrid functionals are currently methods of choice for the description of the charge-transfer (CT) states in organic donor/acceptor solar cells. However, these calculations are usually performed on small-size donor/acceptor complexes and as result do not account for electronic polarization effects. Here, using a pentacene/C60 complex as a model system, we discuss the ability of long-range corrected (LCR) hybrid functionals in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to determine the impact of the solid-state environment on the CT states. The CT energies are found to be insensitive to the interactions with the dielectric medium when a conventional time-dependent DFT/PCM (TDDFT/PCM) approach is used. However, a decrease in the energy of the CT state in the framework of LRC functionals can be obtained by using a smaller range-separated parameter when going from an isolated donor/acceptor complex to the solid-state case.

  14. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations: Combining Long-Period Deterministic Synthetics with High-Frequency Multiple S-to-S Backscattering

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2010-09-20

    We present a new approach for computing broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms by combining high-frequency (HF) scattering with low-frequency (LF) deterministic seismograms, considering finite-fault earthquake rupture models embedded in 3D earth structure. Site-specific HF-scattering Green\\'s functions for a heterogeneous medium with uniformly distributed random isotropic scatterers are convolved with a source-time function that characterizes the temporal evolution of the rupture process. These scatterograms are then reconciled with the LF-deterministic waveforms using a frequency-domain optimization to match both amplitude and phase spectra around the target intersection frequency. The scattering parameters of the medium, scattering attenuation ηs, intrinsic attenuation ηi, and site-kappa, as well as frequency-dependent attenuation, determine waveform and spectral character of the HF-synthetics and thus affect the hybrid broadband seismograms. Applying our methodology to the 1994 Northridge earthquake and validating against near-field recordings at 24 sites, we find that our technique provides realistic broadband waveforms and consistently reproduces LF ground-motion intensities for two independent source descriptions. The least biased results, compared to recorded strong-motion data, are obtained after applying a frequency-dependent site-amplification factor to the broadband simulations. This innovative hybrid ground-motion simulation approach, applicable to any arbitrarily complex earthquake source model, is well suited for seismic hazard analysis and ground-motion estimation.

  15. Implementation of 3D Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation on a Cluster of Symmetric Multiprocessors%基于集群系统的3D格点Monte Carlo算法并行实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷咏梅; 蒋英; 冯捷

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to parallelize 3D lattice Monte Carlo algorithms used in the numerical simulation of polymer on ZiQiang 2000-a cluster of symmetric multiprocessors (SMPs). The combined load for cell and energy calculations over the time step is balanced together to form a single spatial decomposition. Basic aspects and strategies of running Monte Carlo calculations on parallel computers are studied. Different steps involved in porting the software on a parallel architecture based on ZiQiang 2000 running under Linux and MPI are described briefly. It is found that parallelization becomes more advantageous when either the lattice is very large or the model contains many cells and chains.

  16. Effect of Probiotic Strain Enterococcus faecium M74 Supplementation on the Carcass Parameters of Different Hybrid Combination Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of addition of Enterococcus faecium M74 in drinking water on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Totally 120 chickens (60 of hybrid Hybro, 60 of Ross 308 were divided to two groups. Experimental chickens of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received a probiotic preparation in drinking water from day 1 to day 42 with concentration of 2x109 CFU of Enterococcus faecium M 74 in 1 g of nutrient medium with dextrose. The control group of Hybro (n=30 and Ross 308 (n=30 received water in same total amount as experimental group without any additives. The feeding period lasted 42 days. In case of Hybro, we showed higher effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 supplementation on slaughter weight (1807.51 vs. 1929.08 g; P0.05 in comparison with Ross 308 (2126.63 vs. 2199.31g; P>0.05. Differences in percentage of valuable parts (thigh and breast and carcass yield of Hybro and Ross 308 were not statistically significant (P>0.05 by addition of probiotic On the end of fattening, Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diet with probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium had significantly less (P<0.05 abdominal fat than those fed without the probiotic. In Hybro broiler chickens we recorded not significant difference between groups (P>0.05.

  17. Hybrid dynamic modeling of Escherichia coli central metabolic network combining Michaelis-Menten and approximate kinetic equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael S; Machado, Daniel; Rocha, Isabel; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2010-05-01

    The construction of dynamic metabolic models at reaction network level requires the use of mechanistic enzymatic rate equations that comprise a large number of parameters. The lack of knowledge on these equations and the difficulty in the experimental identification of their associated parameters, represent nowadays the limiting factor in the construction of such models. In this study, we compare four alternative modeling approaches based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics for the bi-molecular reactions and different types of simplified rate equations for the remaining reactions (generalized mass action, convenience kinetics, lin-log and power-law). Using the mechanistic model for Escherichia coli central carbon metabolism as a benchmark, we investigate the alternative modeling approaches through comparative simulations analyses. The good dynamic behavior and the powerful predictive capabilities obtained using the hybrid model composed of Michaelis-Menten and the approximate lin-log kinetics indicate that this is a possible suitable approach to model complex large-scale networks where the exact rate laws are unknown. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flame retardancy of polyamide 6 hybrid fibers: Combined effects of α-zirconium phosphate and ammonium sulfamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengxue Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect between α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP and ammonium sulfamate (AS for enhanced flame retardant properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6 was investigated by using oxygen index instrument, cone calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, Instron universal test machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. PA6/AS/α-ZrP ternary hybrid materials with various contents of α-ZrP and AS were fabricated by melt-mixing method. The result from flammability indicated that the Limiting oxygen index (LOI and Underwriters Laboratories-94 (UL-94 rating of PA6/AS/α-ZrP were significantly accelerated under the coordinating function of α-ZrP and AS. Moreover, the thermal stability for PA6/AS/α-ZrP studied by TGA also demonstrated this synergistic effect between α-ZrP and AS on the heat resistance. The effects of the usage amount of α-ZrP and AS on mechanical properties were analyzed by using uniaxial tensile test. It was found that the addition of AS provided negative effects on the tensile strength of PA6/AS/α-ZrP, however, the adverse trends that mentioned above could be overcome by using the well dispersed α-ZrP.

  19. Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G by hybrid technique: combination of sonolysis and biodegradation using mutant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raman; Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2011-02-01

    Degradation of Tectilon Yellow 2G (TY2G), an azo dye has been studied by hybrid technique involving pretreatment by sonochemical method and further biological treatment by Pseudomonas putida mutant. Pretreatment experiments were carried out by sonolysis of the dye solution at different concentrations (100-1000 mg/L). Wild type Gram-negative P. putida species isolated from the textile effluent contaminated soil, which was found to be effective towards dye degradation, has been acclimatized so as to consume TY2G as the sole source of nutrition. Mutant strain was obtained from the acclimatized species by random mutagenesis using the chemical mutagen ethidium bromide for various time intervals (6-30 min). The optimum mutagenesis exposure time for obtaining the most efficient species for dye degradation was found to be 18 min. An efficient mutant strain P. putida ACT 1 has been isolated and was used for growth experiments. The mutant strain showed a better growth compared to the wild strain. The substrate utilization kinetics has been modeled using Monod and Haldane model equations of which the Haldane model provided a better fit. The enzyme kinetics of the mutant and wild species was obtained using Michaelis-Menten equation. The mutated species showed better enzyme kinetics towards the degradation of TY2G.

  20. A Hybrid Technique Based on Combining Fuzzy K-means Clustering and Region Growing for Improving Gray Matter and White Matter Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Afifi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a hybrid approach based on combining fuzzy k-means clustering, seed region growing, and sensitivity and specificity algorithms to measure gray (GM and white matter (WM tissue. The proposed algorithm uses intensity and anatomic information for segmenting of MRIs into different tissue classes, especially GM and WM. It starts by partitioning the image into different clusters using fuzzy k-means clustering. The centers of these clusters are the input to the region growing (SRG method for creating the closed regions. The outputs of SRG technique are fed to sensitivity and specificity algorithm to merge the similar regions in one segment. The proposed algorithm is applied to challenging applications: gray matter/white matter segmentation in magnetic resonance image (MRI datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed technique produces accurate and stable results.

  1. Plant Type and Its Effects on Canopy Structure at Heading Stage in Various Ecological Areas for a Two-line Hybrid Rice Combination, Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; XIA Shi-jian; QI Qing-ming

    2010-01-01

    A two-line hybrid rice combination, Liangyoupeijiu, was used to estimate several factors of plant type, and environmental models for these factors at the heading stage were established using the data of eight ecological experimental sites in 2006 and 2007. According to climatic data from 1951 to 2005, the differences in those factors and their effects on plant canopy were analyzed for four rice cropping areas in China, including South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Basin, and river valley in Yunnan, China. The thickness of leaf layer (the distance from pulvinus of the third leaf from the top to the tip of flag leaf) and distribution of leaf area could be used as candidate indices for the plant type of a rice canopy.

  2. Isolating cells from female/male blood mixtures using florescence in situ hybridization combined with low volume PCR and its application in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Li, Cai-Xia; Han, Jun-Ping; Xu, Cheng; Hu, Lan

    2015-11-01

    To obtain single-source short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in trace female/male blood mixture samples, we combined florescence in situ hybridization (FISH), laser microdissection, and low volume PCR (LV-PCR) to isolate male/female cells and improve sensitivity. The results showed that isolation of as few as 10 leukocytes was sufficient to yield full STR profiles in fresh female or male blood samples for 32 independent tests with a low additional alleles rate (3.91%) and drop-out alleles rate (5.01%). Moreover, this procedure was tested in two fresh blood mixture series at three ratios (1:5, 1:10, and 1:20), two mock female/male blood mixture casework samples, and one practical casework sample. Male and female STR profiles were successfully detected in all of these samples, showing that this procedure could be used in forensic casework in the future.

  3. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  4. A method for combining RNAscope in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry in thick free-floating brain sections and primary neuronal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabinski, Tessa M; Kneynsberg, Andrew; Manfredsson, Fredric P; Kanaan, Nicholas M

    2015-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is an extremely useful tool for localizing gene expression and changes in expression to specific cell populations in tissue samples across numerous research fields. Typically, a research group will put forth significant effort to design, generate, validate and then utilize in situ probes in thin or ultrathin paraffin embedded tissue sections. While combining ISH and IHC is an established technique, the combination of RNAscope ISH, a commercially available ISH assay with single transcript sensitivity, and IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections has not been described. Here, we provide a protocol that combines RNAscope ISH with IHC in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain and allows simultaneous co-localization of genes and proteins in individual cells. This approach works well with a number of ISH probes (e.g. small proline-rich repeat 1a, βIII-tubulin, tau, and β-actin) and IHC antibody stains (e.g. tyrosine hydroxylase, βIII-tubulin, NeuN, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) in rat brain sections. In addition, we provide examples of combining ISH-IHC dual staining in primary neuron cultures and double-ISH labeling in thick free-floating tissue sections from the brain. Finally, we highlight the ability of RNAscope to detect ectopic DNA in neurons transduced with viral vectors. RNAscope ISH is a commercially available technology that utilizes a branched or "tree" in situ method to obtain ultrasensitive, single transcript detection. Immunohistochemistry is a tried and true method for identifying specific protein in cell populations. The combination of a sensitive and versatile oligonucleotide detection method with an established and versatile protein assay is a significant advancement in studies using free-floating tissue sections.

  5. Small RNA in situ hybridization in Caenorhabditis elegans, combined with RNA-seq, identifies germline-enriched microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Tamara J; Yao, Qiuming; Yun, Sijung; Lee, Chin-Yung; Bennett, Karen L

    2016-10-15

    Over four hundred different microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in the genome of the model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. As the germline is dedicated to the preservation of each species, and almost half of all the cells in an adult nematode are germline, it is likely that regulatory miRNAs are important for germline development and maintenance. In C. elegans the miR35 family has strong maternal effects, contributing to normal embryogenesis and to adult fecundity. To determine whether any particular miRNAs are greatly enriched in the C. elegans germline we used RNA-seq to compare the miRNA populations in several germline-defective strains of adult C. elegans worms, including glp-4(germline proliferation-4), glh-1(germline helicase-1) and dcr-1(dicer-1). Statistical analyses of RNA-seq comparisons identified 13 miRNAs that are germline-enriched, including seven members of the well-studied miR35 family that were reduced as much as 1000-fold in TaqMan qRT PCR miRNA assays. Along with the miR35s, six others: miR-56 (a member of the miR51 family),-70, -244, -260 , -788 and -4813, none of which previously considered as such, were also identified by RNA-seq as germline-enriched candidates. We went on to develop a successful miRNA in situ hybridization protocol for C. elegans, revealing miR35s specifically concentrate during oogenesis in the pachytene region of the gonad, and persist throughout early embryogenesis, while in adult animals neither let-7 nor miR-228 has a germline-bias.

  6. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  7. Stability of combining ability effects in maize hybrids Estabilidade dos efeitos da capacidade de combinação em híbridos de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Campolina Machado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available General and specific combining ability effects are important indicators in a maize (Zea mays L. breeding program aiming hybrid development. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the general (GCA and specific combining abilities (SCA effects of commercial maize hybrids using a complete diallel scheme and to assess the stabilities of these estimates. Fifty-five entries were assessed; ten commercial single-crosses and all possible double-crosses. The experiments were carried out in 12 environments in the 2005/06 growing season. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications per environment. Ear yield was evaluated, corrected to 13% of moisture content. The combined diallel analysis involving all environments was performed and the stability of general and specific combining ability effects was investigated. The underlying nonparametric statistics evaluated the contribution of each effect to the genotype by environment interaction. Non-additive effects were more important for this set of hybrids than the additive effects. It was possible to select parents with high stability for combining ability and with high GCA.Os efeitos da capacidade geral (CGC e específica de combinação (CEC são indicadores importantes em um programa de melhoramento milho (Zea mays L. visando a obtenção de híbridos. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estimar os efeitos da capacidade geral e específica de combinação de híbridos comerciais de milho e avaliar a estabilidade das estimativas desses parâmetros. Para isso foram avaliados 55 tratamentos, sendo dez híbridos simples comerciais e os 45 híbridos duplos possíveis. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em 12 ambientes no ano agrícola de 2005/06. O delineamento empregado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições por ambiente, e o caráter avaliado foi o peso de espigas corrigido para 13% de umidade. Procedeu-se à análise dialélica conjunta envolvendo todos os

  8. Design concepts for a virtualizable embedded MPSoC architecture enabling virtualization in embedded multi-processor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alexander Biedermann presents a generic hardware-based virtualization approach, which may transform an array of any off-the-shelf embedded processors into a multi-processor system with high execution dynamism. Based on this approach, he highlights concepts for the design of energy aware systems, self-healing systems as well as parallelized systems. For the latter, the novel so-called Agile Processing scheme is introduced by the author, which enables a seamless transition between sequential and parallel execution schemes. The design of such virtualizable systems is further aided by introduction

  9. Embedded software design and programming of multiprocessor system-on-chip simulink and system C case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Popovici, Katalin; Jerraya, Ahmed A; Wolf, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Current multimedia and telecom applications require complex, heterogeneous multiprocessor system on chip (MPSoC) architectures with specific communication infrastructure in order to achieve the required performance. Heterogeneous MPSoC includes different types of processing units (DSP, microcontroller, ASIP) and different communication schemes (fast links, non standard memory organization and access).Programming an MPSoC requires the generation of efficient software running on MPSoC from a high level environment, by using the characteristics of the architecture. This task is known to be tediou

  10. Hybrid processing of Ti-6Al-4V using plasma immersion ion implantation combined with plasma nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maria Margareth da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the Ti-6Al-4V alloy has good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to corrosion and also excellent biocompatibility, however with low wear resistance, this work aims to test plasma processes or combination of plasma and ion implantation processes to improve these characteristics. Two types of processing were used: two steps PIII (Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation combined with PN (Plasma Nitriding and single step PIII treatment. According to Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES results, the best solution was obtained by PIII for 150 minutes resulting in ~ 65 nm of nitrogen implanted layer, while the sample treated with PIII (75 minutes and PN (75 minutes reached ~ 35 nm implanted layer. The improvement of surface properties could also be confirmed by the nanoindentation technique, with values of hardness increasing for both processes. AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy characterization showed that the single step PIII process presented greater efficiency than the duplex process (PIII + PN, probably due to the sputtering occurring during the second step (PN removing partially the implanted layer of first step (PIII.

  11. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P.

    2017-01-01

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg−1. The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density. PMID:28169329

  12. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P

    2017-02-07

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg(-1). The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  13. A hybrid electrochemical device based on a synergetic inner combination of Li ion battery and Li ion capacitor for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Cao, Wanjun; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Jim P.

    2017-02-01

    Li ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (EC) are considered as the most widely used energy storage systems (ESSs) because they can produce a high energy density or a high power density, but it is a huge challenge to achieve both the demands of a high energy density as well as a high power density on their own. A new hybrid Li ion capacitor (HyLIC), which combines the advantages of LIB and Li ion capacitor (LIC), is proposed. This device can successfully realize a potential match between LIB and LIC and can avoid the excessive depletion of electrolyte during the charge process. The galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests reveal that at low current, the HyLIC exhibits a high energy density, while at high current, it demonstrates a high power density. Ragone plot confirms that this device can make a synergetic balance between energy and power and achieve a highest energy density in the power density range of 80 to 300 W kg‑1. The cycle life test proves that HyLIC exhibits a good cycle life and an excellent coulombic efficiency. The present study shows that HyLIC, which is capable of achieving a high energy density, a long cycle life and an excellent power density, has the potential to achieve the winning combination of a high energy and power density.

  14. Combined Detection of Breast Cancer Micrometastases in the Lymph Nodes and Bone Marrow Using Reverse-transcriptase chain Reaction and Southern Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes and bone marrow micrometastases of patients with breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods has been strongly correlated to early recurrence and shorter overall survival. The aim of this study was to detect micrometastases in matched sample pairs of lymph nodes and the bone marrow of primary breast cancer patients using a more sensitive method, and compare with other clinical parameters. Methods: Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) gene mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. Human breast cancer cell line T47D was mixed with bone marrow cells at different proportions. The positive detection rate was compared among RT-PCR, Southern blotting and IHC methods. Results: Cytokeratin 19 gene was expressed in all 6 positive control samples, while the expression wasn't seen in 18 negative control samples. CK-19 IHC positive cells were detected at a dilution of one T47D cell in 5×105 bone marrow cells, while the sensitivity detected by PCR and Southern blot hybridization was at 1:5′ 104 and 1:106, respectively. In the samples from the 35 patients, we found CK-19 positive cells in 2 cases (5.7%) by IHC. CK-19 gene expression signal was detected in 14/35 (40%) by RT-PCR,and 17/35 (48.6%) by southern blotting. Four cases were micrometastases positive both in lymph node and bone marrow (11.4%). There was no correlation between CK-1 9 detection and other clinical parameters. Conclusion: combined detection of micrometastases in lymph node and bone marrow by RT-PCR and Southern blotting, using CK-19 as a biological marker, is a highly sensitive method for breast cancer.

  15. Estimating biomass of mixed and uneven-aged forests using spectral data and a hybrid model combining regression trees and linear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Serrano PM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra Madre Occidental mountain range (Durango, Mexico is of great ecological interest because of the high degree of environmental heterogeneity in the area. The objective of the present study was to estimate the biomass of mixed and uneven-aged forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental by using Landsat-5 TM spectral data and forest inventory data. We used the ATCOR3® atmospheric and topographic correction module to convert remotely sensed imagery digital signals to surface reflectance values. The usual approach of modeling stand variables by using multiple linear regression was compared with a hybrid model developed in two steps: in the first step a regression tree was used to obtain an initial classification of homogeneous biomass groups, and multiple linear regression models were then fitted to each node of the pruned regression tree. Cross-validation of the hybrid model explained 72.96% of the observed stand biomass variation, with a reduction in the RMSE of 25.47% with respect to the estimates yielded by the linear model fitted to the complete database. The most important variables for the binary classification process in the regression tree were the albedo, the corrected readings of the short-wave infrared band of the satellite (2.08-2.35 µm and the topographic moisture index. We used the model output to construct a map for estimating biomass in the study area, which yielded values of between 51 and 235 Mg ha-1. The use of regression trees in combination with stepwise regression of corrected satellite imagery proved a reliable method for estimating forest biomass.

  16. A real-time hybrid aurora alert system: Combining citizen science reports with an auroral oval model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N. A.; Kingman, D.; MacDonald, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Accurately predicting when, and from where, an aurora will be visible is particularly difficult, yet it is a service much desired by the general public. Several aurora alert services exist that attempt to provide such predictions but are, generally, based upon fairly coarse estimates of auroral activity (e.g., Kp or Dst). Additionally, these services are not able to account for a potential observer's local conditions (such as cloud cover or level of darkness). Aurorasaurus, however, combines data from the well-used, solar wind-driven, OVATION Prime auroral oval model with real-time observational data provided by a global network of citizen scientists. This system is designed to provide more accurate and localized alerts for auroral visibility than currently available. Early results are promising and show that over 100,000 auroral visibility alerts have been issued, including nearly 200 highly localized alerts, to over 2000 users located right across the globe.

  17. Hybrid multilevel plane wave based near-field far-field transformation utilising combined near- and far-field translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Schmidt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The radiation of large antennas and those operating at low frequencies can be determined efficiently by near-field measurement techniques and a subsequent near-field far-field transformation. Various approaches and algorithms have been researched but for electrically large antennas and irregular measurement contours advanced algorithms with low computation complexity are required. In this paper an algorithm employing plane waves as equivalent sources and utilising efficient diagonal translation operators is presented. The efficiency is further enhanced using simple far-field translations in combination with the expensive near-field translations. In this way a low complexity near-field transformation is achieved, which works for arbitrary sample point distributions and incorporates a full probe correction without increasing the complexity.

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Coupling Performance of Dynamic Stiffness Models for a Novel Combined Radial-Axial Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangcheng Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined radial-axial magnetic bearing (CRAMB with permanent magnet creating bias flux can reduce the size, cost, and mass and save energy of the magnetic bearing. The CRAMB have three-degree-of-freedom control ability, so its structure and magnetic circuits are more complicated compared to those of the axial magnetic bearing (AMB or radial magnetic bearing (RMB. And the eddy currents have a fundamental impact on the dynamic performance of the CRAMB. The dynamic stiffness model and its cross coupling problems between different degrees of freedom affected for the CRAMB are proposed in this paper. The dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness models of the CRAMB are deduced by using the method of equivalent magnetic circuit including eddy current effect, but the dynamic current stiffness of the RMB unit is approximately equal to its static current stiffness. The analytical results of an example show that the bandwidth of the dynamic current stiffness of the AMB unit and the dynamic displacement stiffness of the CRAMB is affected by the time-varying control currents or air gap, respectively. And the dynamic current stiffness and the dynamic displacement stiffness between the AMB unit and the RMB unit are decoupled due to few coupling coefficients.

  19. LOW COMPLEXITY HYBRID LOSSY TO LOSSLESS IMAGE CODER WITH COMBINED ORTHOGONAL POLYNOMIALS TRANSFORM AND INTEGER WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new lossy to lossless image coding scheme combined with Orthogonal Polynomials Transform and Integer Wavelet Transform is proposed. The Lifting Scheme based Integer Wavelet Transform (LS-IWT is first applied on the image in order to reduce the blocking artifact and memory demand. The Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW subband coding algorithm is used in this proposed work for progressive image coding which achieves efficient bit rate reduction. The computational complexity of lower subband coding of EZW algorithm is reduced in this proposed work with a new integer based Orthogonal Polynomials transform coding. The normalization and mapping are done on the subband of the image for exploiting the subjective redundancy and the zero tree structure is obtained for EZW coding and so the computation complexity is greatly reduced in this proposed work. The experimental results of the proposed technique also show that the efficient bit rate reduction is achieved for both lossy and lossless compression when compared with existing techniques.

  20. Sorting of C4 olefins with interpenetrated hybrid ultramicroporous materials by combining molecular recognition and size-sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Qiwei; Cui, Xili; Yang, Lifeng; Bao, Zongbi; Ren, Qilong; Xing, Huabin

    2017-10-05

    C4 olefin separations present one of the grand challenges in hydrocarbon purifications due to their similar structures, in which case single separation mechanism often met with limited success. Here we report a series of anion-pillared interpenetrated copper coordination networks with fine-tuning cavity and functional site disposition in 0.2 Å scale increments through rational altering the anion pillars and organic linkers (GeFSIX-2-Cu-i (ZU-32), NbFSIX-2-Cu-i (ZU-52), GeFSIX-14-Cu-i (ZU-33)), which enable selective recognition of different C4 olefins. These materials achieve simultaneously an exquisite control on the rotation of organic linkers to create a contracted flexible pore window that excludes specific C4 olefins, while still adsorbs significant 1, 3-butadiene (C4H6) or 1-butene (n-C4H8). Combining the molecular recognition and size-sieving effect, these materials unexpectedly realized the sieving of C4H6/n-C4H8, C4H6/iso-C4H8 and n-C4H8/iso-C4H8 along with high capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  2. Process Management and Exception Handling in Multiprocessor Operating Systems Using Object-Oriented Design Techniques. Revised Sep. 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincent; Johnston, Gary; Campbell, Roy

    1988-01-01

    The programming of the interrupt handling mechanisms, process switching primitives, scheduling mechanism, and synchronization primitives of an operating system for a multiprocessor require both efficient code in order to support the needs of high- performance or real-time applications and careful organization to facilitate maintenance. Although many advantages have been claimed for object-oriented class hierarchical languages and their corresponding design methodologies, the application of these techniques to the design of the primitives within an operating system has not been widely demonstrated. To investigate the role of class hierarchical design in systems programming, the authors have constructed the Choices multiprocessor operating system architecture the C++ programming language. During the implementation, it was found that many operating system design concerns can be represented advantageously using a class hierarchical approach, including: the separation of mechanism and policy; the organization of an operating system into layers, each of which represents an abstract machine; and the notions of process and exception management. In this paper, we discuss an implementation of the low-level primitives of this system and outline the strategy by which we developed our solution.

  3. 抗除草剂杂交籼稻亲本的配合力分析%Combining Ability Analysis of Parents of Herbicide-resistant indica Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖本泽; 张征锋; 何亮; 龚耀; 赵爽

    2012-01-01

    Thirty hybrids were mated by NC II with 6 herbicide-resistant indica restorer lines as male and 5 popular sterile lines as female. The herbicide resistance of seedling and combining ability of main agronomic traits were analyzed in all these materials. The restorer lines and three-line hybrids showed completely resistant to herbicide , while two-line hybrids displayed over 90% resistant level. The significant difference of GCA (general combination ability) between female parents for all traits but PN (panicle number per plant) , whereas between male parents for all traits were detected. The SGA (specific combining ability) of hybrids reached signifipant difference for YP (yield per plant) , SSR (seed setting ratio), KGW (1000-grain weight) and DS (days from sowing to heading). Among the sterile lines, Jinke 1A had the highest GCA effect in traits such as YP, SSR and so on but the lowest VSCA (Variance of SCA); Guangzhan 63-4S showed the highest GCA and VSCA of KGW, most negative effect of GCA in DS; C815S showed the most negative effect of GCA and higher VSCA in PH (plant height). Among the restorer lines, Huakanghui 101 had the highest GCA and VSCA in PN; Huakanghui 104 had the highest GCA in PL (panicle length) , the highest negative effect in DS; Huakanghui 105 had the highest GCA in YP, SSR and so on, and negative GCA effect in PH; Huakanghui 106 had the highest GCA and VSCA in KGW. Taken together, it is fea-sible to obtain herbicide-resistant hybrids with strong heterosis using herbicide-resistant restorer lines as male through comprehensive mating of parents with high GCA and VSCA.%本试验以6份新育成的抗除草剂籼型恢复系为父本,5份生产上广泛应用的不育系为母本,采用不完全双列杂交设计配制了30份杂交组合,对其苗期除草剂抗性和主要农艺性状配合力进行了分析.除草剂抗性鉴定表明,亲本恢复系及三系杂交组合抗性接近完全,两系杂交组合抗性达90%以上.配合力分析

  4. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  5. Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin-Hong; Rao, Yun-Jiang; Yuan, Cheng-Xu; Li, Jin; Yan, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li; Wu, Han; Zhu, Ye-Yu; Peng, Fei

    2013-10-21

    A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.

  6. Combined therapy using botulinum toxin A and single-joint hybrid assistive limb for upper-limb disability due to spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Kazuya; Morishita, Takashi; Hyakutake, Koichi; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Etsuji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Tooru

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the combination of robot-assisted rehabilitation (RT) using a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) as therapy for paretic arm with spasticity in post-stroke patients. Participants were seven patients (4 females, 3 males; mean (±SD) age: 60.6±8.4years) who had spastic hemiplegia following chronic stroke. On the day following BTX-A injection, we started RT, which was performed for 20 sessions of 60min each over a two-week period. Clinical outcome measures, including Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and Disability Assessment Scale (DAS), and cortical activity were evaluated at baseline, and two weeks, and four months following BTX-A injection. Cortical activity associated with elbow joint movement of the affected arm was assessed via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). FMA, MAL, and DAS scores significantly improved at two weeks and four months (phemiplegia due to stroke, and functional imaging study showed neuroplasticity induced by the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On the Performance Analysis of Hybrid ARQ With Incremental Redundancy and With Code Combining Over Free-Space Optical Channels With Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-07-16

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) and with code combining (CC) from an information-theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce new closed-form expressions for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of an FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading channel subject to pointing errors and using intensity modulation with direct detection technique at the receiver. Based on these formulas, we derive exact results for the average bit error rate and the capacity in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. Moreover, we present asymptotic expressions by utilizing the Meijer\\'s G function expansion and using the moments method, too, for the ergodic capacity approximations. Then, we provide novel analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. Besides, we offer asymptotic expressions for these results in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we compare the performance of HARQ with IR and HARQ with CC. Our analysis demonstrates that HARQ with IR outperforms HARQ with CC.

  8. A hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests: Accounting for partial verification bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoye; Chen, Yong; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao

    2014-05-26

    To account for between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies, bivariate random effects models have been recommended to jointly model the sensitivities and specificities. As study design and population vary, the definition of disease status or severity could differ across studies. Consequently, sensitivity and specificity may be correlated with disease prevalence. To account for this dependence, a trivariate random effects model had been proposed. However, the proposed approach can only include cohort studies with information estimating study-specific disease prevalence. In addition, some diagnostic accuracy studies only select a subset of samples to be verified by the reference test. It is known that ignoring unverified subjects may lead to partial verification bias in the estimation of prevalence, sensitivities, and specificities in a single study. However, the impact of this bias on a meta-analysis has not been investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid Bayesian hierarchical model combining cohort and case-control studies and correcting partial verification bias at the same time. We investigate the performance of the proposed methods through a set of simulation studies. Two case studies on assessing the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting lymph node metastases and of adrenal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in characterizing adrenal masses are presented.

  9. Clinical feasibility of interstitial brachytherapy using a "hybrid" applicator combining uterine tandem and interstitial metal needles based on CT for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Shan; Guo, Jie; Lin, Xia; Wang, Hong-Yong; Qiu, Ling; Ren, Xiao-Jun; Li, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Bing-Ya; Wang, Tie-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the dosimetric advantage of target volume and surrounding normal tissue by using interstitial (IS) brachytherapy (BT) based on three-dimensional CT in locally advanced cervical cancer, as a simple and effective clinical treatment approach. Fifty-two patients with poor tumor response to external beam radiotherapy and a residual tumor >5 cm at the time of the first BT were included. IS BT was performed using a "hybrid" applicator combining uterine tandem and free metal needles based on three-dimensional CT. The high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), intermediate-risk clinical target volume, and organs at risk were contoured. The total dose, including external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) and high-dose-rate BT (30 Gy in 5 fractions), was biologically normalized to conventional 2-Gy fractions. D90 and D100 for HR-CTV and intermediate-risk clinical target volume and D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were analyzed. The mean D90 value for HR-CTV was 88.4 ± 3.5 Gy. Totally, 88.5% of the patients received D90 for HR-CTV ≥87 Gy. The D2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 81.1 ± 5.6, 65.7 ± 5.1, and 63.1 ± 5.4 Gy, respectively. The mean number of needles was 6.9 ± 1.3 for each application. IS BT was associated with minor complications. IS BT using the "hybrid" applicator provides a dosimetric advantage for target volume and organs at risk in large-volume (>5 cm) tumors and is, thereby, clinically feasible. However, the long-term curative effect and possible toxicity need further clinical observation. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  11. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  12. Optimal enhancement of in situ hybridization for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues using a combined pretreatment of thermocycler and proteinase K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Chae, C

    2003-06-01

    Optimal enhancement of the hybridization signal was developed for the detection of porcine circovirus (PCV) 2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The hybridization signal obtained after thermocycler pretreatment was very uniform across the section, whereas the signal obtained after either proteinase K or microwave pretreatment not only was weaker but was of variable intensity across sections. Thermocycler pretreatment combined with brief proteinase K digestion can enhance signal detection for target viral nucleic acid in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues. A strong hybridization signal was detected in the cytoplasm of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in lymph node and spleen without background staining and morphological damage. The technical improvement results, therefore, in an identical background at the same time as an increased signal and, thus, may help detect lower levels of PCV2 DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-wax-embedded tissues.

  13. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  14. Solvatochromic shift of phenol blue in water from a combined Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics and ZINDO approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, N. Arul; Jha, Prakash Chandra; Rinkevicius, Z.; Ruud, Kenneth; Ågren, Hans

    2010-06-01

    The present work addresses the solvatochromic shift of phenol blue (PB) dye. For this purpose the results of Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations for PB in gas phase are compared with results obtained for PB in water from CPMD hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (CPMD-QM/MM) calculations. The absorption spectra were obtained using the intermediate neglect of differential overlap/spectroscopic-configuration interaction (INDO/CIS) method and were calculated for a multitude of configurations of the trajectory. The calculated λmax for PB in gas phase was found to be about 535 nm, which is considerably lower than the λmax reported for PB in nonpolar solvents. Different solvation shells for PB in water have been defined based on the solute-all-atoms and solvent center of mass radial distribution function (g(rX-O)). The electronic excitation energies for PB computed in the presence of solvent molecules in an increasing number of solvation shells were calculated in a systematic way to evaluate their contributions to the solvatochrmic shift. The inclusion of solvent molecules in the hydration shell yields a λmax of 640 nm, which contributes to almost 78% of the solvatochromic shift. The inclusion of solvent molecules up to 10 Å in the g(rX-O) rdf yields a λmax of 670 nm which is in good agreement with the experimentally reported value of 654-684 nm. Overall, the present study suggests that the combined CPMD-QM/MM and INDO-CIS approach can be used successfully to model solvatochromic shifts of organic dye molecules.

  15. Parallel implementation and evaluation of motion estimation system algorithms on a distributed memory multiprocessor using knowledge based mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alok Nidhi; Leung, Mun K.; Huang, Thomas S.; Patel, Janak H.

    1989-01-01

    Several techniques to perform static and dynamic load balancing techniques for vision systems are presented. These techniques are novel in the sense that they capture the computational requirements of a task by examining the data when it is produced. Furthermore, they can be applied to many vision systems because many algorithms in different systems are either the same, or have similar computational characteristics. These techniques are evaluated by applying them on a parallel implementation of the algorithms in a motion estimation system on a hypercube multiprocessor system. The motion estimation system consists of the following steps: (1) extraction of features; (2) stereo match of images in one time instant; (3) time match of images from different time instants; (4) stereo match to compute final unambiguous points; and (5) computation of motion parameters. It is shown that the performance gains when these data decomposition and load balancing techniques are used are significant and the overhead of using these techniques is minimal.

  16. Improved coronary in-stent visualization using a combined high-resolution kernel and a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique at 256-slice cardiac CT—Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Utsunomiya, Daisuke, E-mail: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori, E-mail: funama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Takaoka, Hiroko, E-mail: hiroko_takayoka@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yy26kk@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Honda, Keiichi, E-mail: k-book@osu.bbiq.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Noda, Katsuo, E-mail: k-noda@kumachu.gr.jp [Department of Cardiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Oshima, Shuichi, E-mail: shuoshima@e-mail.jp [Department of Cardiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 256-slice cardiac CT for the evaluation of the in-stent lumen by using a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) algorithm combined with a high-resolution kernel. Methods: This study included 28 patients with 28 stents who underwent cardiac CT. Three different reconstruction images were obtained with: (1) a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm with a standard cardiac kernel (CB), (2) an FBP algorithm with a high-resolution cardiac kernel (CD), and (3) an HIR algorithm with the CD kernel. We measured image noise and kurtosis and used receiver operating characteristics analysis to evaluate observer performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Results: Image noise with FBP plus the CD kernel (80.2 ± 15.5 HU) was significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB kernel (28.8 ± 4.6 HU) and HIR plus the CD kernel (36.1 ± 6.4 HU). There was no significant difference in the image noise between FBP plus the CB kernel and HIR plus the CD kernel. Kurtosis was significantly better with the CD- than the CB kernel. The kurtosis values obtained with the CD kernel were not significantly different between the FBP- and HIR reconstruction algorithms. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with HIR plus the CD kernel were significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel. The difference between FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel was not significant. The average sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 83.3, 50.0, 33.3, and 91.6% for FBP plus the CB kernel, 100, 29.6, 40.0, and 100% for FBP plus the CD kernel, and 100, 54.5, 40.0, and 100% for HIR plus the CD kernel. Conclusions: The HIR algorithm combined with the high-resolution kernel significantly improved diagnostic performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis.

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  18. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  20. 安徽省杂交粳稻的研究与利用%Research and Application of Japonic Hybrid Rice Combination in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德正; 王守海; 李成荃; 罗彦长

    2001-01-01

    阐述了安徽省杂交粳稻育种23a来的发展历程。介绍了BT型不育系、光(温)敏核不育系和恢复系选育的基本经验,以及主要三系、两系组合的产量、米质、抗性、高产制种技术经验和应用价值。提出了下一步研究策略。%The breeding development of Japonica hybrid rice in Anhui province for 23 years was described in the paper. In the study, there were not only some breeding experiences in breeding of BT type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility(CMS) line, Photo(thermo) Sensitive Genic Male Sterility(PGMS or TGMS) line and restore line, but also description of characteristics, high-yielding seed production techniques and application values for mainly three-line and two-line hybrids.Future reseraching strategies will be to improve morphological and phtotsynthesis characteristics of the hybrid for exploiting the heterosis of Puter -subspecific hybrids.On the other hand,the farmers' skill for planting high-yielding of Japonica hybrid should be trainned.

  1. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining Process LCA and Economic Input-Output LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-10

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer and human health non-cancer, caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 gCO2-eq /MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 gCO2-eq /MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except the eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and can't be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environment impacts of the biofuels more

  2. Extending the Performance of Hybrid NoCs beyond the Limitations of Network Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Opoku Agyeman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the performance and scalability demands of the fast-paced technological growth towards exascale and big data processing with the performance bottleneck of conventional metal-based interconnects (wireline, alternative interconnect fabrics, such as inhomogeneous three-dimensional integrated network-on-chip (3D NoC and hybrid wired-wireless network-on-chip (WiNoC, have emanated as a cost-effective solution for emerging system-on-chip (SoC design. However, these interconnects trade off optimized performance for cost by restricting the number of area and power hungry 3D routers and wireless nodes. Moreover, the non-uniform distributed traffic in a chip multiprocessor (CMP demands an on-chip communication infrastructure that can avoid congestion under high traffic conditions while possessing minimal pipeline delay at low-load conditions. To this end, in this paper, we propose a low-latency adaptive router with a low-complexity single-cycle bypassing mechanism to alleviate the performance degradation due to the slow 2D routers in such emerging hybrid NoCs. The proposed router transmits a flit using dimension-ordered routing (DoR in the bypass datapath at low-loads. When the output port required for intra-dimension bypassing is not available, the packet is routed adaptively to avoid congestion. The router also has a simplified virtual channel allocation (VA scheme that yields a non-speculative low-latency pipeline. By combining the low-complexity bypassing technique with adaptive routing, the proposed router is able to balance the traffic in hybrid NoCs to achieve low-latency communication under various traffic loads. Simulation shows that the proposed router can reduce applications’ execution time by an average of 16.9% compared to low-latency routers, such as SWIFT. By reducing the latency between 2D routers (or wired nodes and 3D routers (or wireless nodes, the proposed router can improve the performance efficiency in terms of average

  3. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  4. Bioinspired Synthesis of All-in-One Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Nanoflowers Combined with a Handheld pH Meter for On-Site Detection of Food Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ranfeng; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Yang; Lu, Qian; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Xu; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Dan; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-06-01

    With a mild elaborately bioinspired one-pot process, Con A-GOx-CaHPO4 nanoflowers are prepared. Employing the as-prepared all-in-one hybrid nanoflowers as signal tags, a simple but potentially powerful amplification biosensing technology for the detection of food pathogen with excellent simplicity, portability, sensitivity, and adaptability is achieved.

  5. GOTPM: A Parallel Hybrid Particle-Mesh Treecode

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinski, J; Park, C; Humble, R J; Dubinski, John; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Humble, Robin

    2004-01-01

    We describe a parallel, cosmological N-body code based on a hybrid scheme using the particle-mesh (PM) and Barnes-Hut (BH) oct-tree algorithm. We call the algorithm GOTPM for Grid-of-Oct-Trees-Particle-Mesh. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and is optimized to run on Beowulf clusters as well as symmetric multi-processors. The gravitational potential is determined on a mesh using a standard PM method with particle forces determined through interpolation. The softened PM force is corrected for short range interactions using a grid of localized BH trees throughout the entire simulation volume in a completely analogous way to P$^3$M methods. This method makes no assumptions about the local density for short range force corrections and so is consistent with the results of the P$^3$M method in the limit that the treecode opening angle parameter, $\\theta \\to 0$. (abridged)

  6. A CLASS OF NEW PARALLEL HYBRID ALGEBRAIC MULTILEVEL ITERATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-zhi Bai

    2001-01-01

    For the large sparse system of linear equations with symmetric positive definite block coefficient matrix resulted from suitable finite element discretization of the second-order self-adjoint elliptic boundary value problem, by making use of the algebraic multilevel iteration technique and the blocked preconditioning strategy, we construct preconditioning matrices having parallel computing function for the coefficient matrix and set up a class of parallel hybrid algebraic multilevel iteration methods for solving this kind of system of linear equations. Theoretical analyses show that, besides much suitable for implementing on the high-speed parallel multiprocessor systems, these new methods are optimal-order methods. That is to say, their convergence rates are independent of both the sizes and the levels of the constructed matrix sequence, and their computational workloads are bounded by linear functions in the order number of the considered system of linear equations,respectively.

  7. Analysis of immune system gene expression in small rheumatoid arthritis biopsies using a combination of subtractive hybridization and high-density cDNA arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanders, E D; Goulden, M G; Kennedy, T C; Kempsell, K E

    2000-01-13

    Subtractive hybridization of cDNAs generated from synovial RNA which had been isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or normal controls was used in conjunction with high-density array hybridization to identify genes of immunological interest. The method was designed to detect gene expression in small needle biopsy specimens by means of a prior amplification of nanogram amounts of total RNA to full-length cDNA using PCR. The latter was cut with Rsa I, ligated with adapters, hybridized with unmodified driver cDNA, and subjected to suppression subtraction PCR. Differentially expressed products were cloned into E. coli and picked into 384 well plates. Inserts were obtained by PCR across the multiple cloning site, and the products arrayed at high density on nylon filters. The subtracted cDNAs were also labelled by random priming for use as probes for library screening. The libraries chosen were the subtracted one described above and a set of 45,000 ESTs from the I.M. A.G.E consortium. Clones showing positive hybridization were identified by sequence analysis and homology searching. The results showed that the subtracted hybridization approach could identify many gene fragments expressed at different levels, the most abundant being immunoglobulins and HLA-DR. The expression profile was characteristic of macrophage, B cell and plasma cell infiltration with evidence of interferon induction. In addition, a significant number of sequences without matches in the nucleotide databases were obtained, this demonstrates the utility of the method in finding novel gene fragments for further characterisation as potential members of the immune system. Although RA was studied here, the technology is applicable to any disease process even in cases where amounts of tissue may be limited.

  8. Hybrid technique (thoratic aotic replacement combined with endoluminal stent grafting) for aortic dissection%"杂交手术"治疗主动脉夹层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马少鸿; 张镜芳; 范瑞新; 吴若彬; 黄克力

    2008-01-01

    descending aortic,received descending aortic replaoernent and endoluminal stent grafting. Enhanced electric beam computed tomography (EBCT) wasperformed in each patient at two weeks and three months after surgery to check up the postoperative course. Results All patients suc-cessfully recovered from surgery procedure, time of cardiopulmonary bypass was 38-228 min (mean 92 min), arrest time of ascendingaortic was 118-186 min (mean 136 min) in Standford type A dissection, which time of selective cerebral perfusion was 33-68 min(mean 49 min). Tune of circulation arrest in Standford type B was 22 - 28 min. All patients were discharged from hospital. EBCT in-dicated smooth bloodstream in prosthesis, expansion of residual true lumen and reduction of false lumen, no inner-leak and no endo-stent dislocation at 2 weeks and 3 months after operation. Conclusion "Hybrid technique" (thoratic aotic replacement combined withendoluminal stent grafting) is a safe, effective and economic surgical treatment for complex aortic dissection.

  9. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  10. Effect of Ceramic Ball and Hybrid Stainless Steel Bearing/Wheel Combinations on the Lifetime of a Precision Translation Stage for the SIM Flight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. John; Klein, Kerry; Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.; Wemhoner, Jens

    2009-01-01

    A study of hybrid material couples using the Spiral Orbit Tribometer (SOT) was initiated to investigate both lubricated (Pennzane X2000 and Brayco 815Z) and unlubricated Si3N4, 440C SS, Rex 20, Cronidur X30 and X40 plates with Cerbec SN-101-C (Si3N4) and 440C balls. The hybrid wheel/bearing assembly will be used on the Linear Optical Delay Line (LODL) stage as an element of the NASA Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). SIM is an orbiting interferometer linking a pair of telescopes within the spacecraft and, by using an interferometry technique and several precision optical stages, is able to measure the motions of known stars much better than current ground or space based systems. This measurement will provide the data to "infer" the existence of any plants, undetectable by other methods, orbiting these known stars.

  11. Combining geometric morphometrics with molecular genetics to investigate a putative hybrid complex: a case study with barbels Barbus spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M F; Schreiner, C; Delmastro, G B; Herder, F

    2016-03-01

    This integrative study examined the morphological and genetic affinities of three endemic barbel species from Italy (brook barbel Barbus caninus, Italian barbel Barbus plebejus and horse barbel Barbus tyberinus) and of putative hybrid specimens to their species of origin. Two of the species frequently occur together with the non-native barbel Barbus barbus. DNA barcoding indicates that mitochondrial (mt) haplotypes often do not match the species expected from morphology. Linear distance measurements and meristics are not informative for discrimination of the species and putative hybrids, but a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of geometric landmark data produces reassignments largely in congruence with mt and nuclear genetic data. Cyto-nuclear conflicts confirm the presence of hybridization in B. plebejus and B. tyberinus and identify additional introgressed specimens. A comparison between mixed genotypes and their morphology-based assignment reveals no predictable pattern. The finding that most individuals of the morphologically similar B. plebejus and B. tyberinus have very high assignment probabilities to their respective species suggests that the presented approach may serve as a valuable tool to distinguish morphologically very similar taxa.

  12. 一种基于Taguchi方法的混合NSGA-Ⅱ算法%A Hybrid NSGA-H Algorithm Combined with Taguchi Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔士东; 刘忠; 黄金才; 张维明

    2011-01-01

    Some effective modifications upon NSGA-11 were proposed to further improve its optimization ability,which results in a hybrid multi-objective optimization algorithm.In the hybrid algorithm,Taguchi-method was incorporated into the crossover and mutation options of NSGA-Ⅱ,whose effectiveness was approved by experiments on typical test functions,and the hybrid algoathm call be easily implemented since it makes no change on the framework of NSGA-Ⅱ.%提出一种基于Taguchi方法的混合NSGA-Ⅱ算法,即用Taguchi方法来改造NSGA-Ⅱ算法的交叉操作和变异操作,目的是提升NSGA-Ⅱ算法的优化能力.针对多目标优化测试问题的实验表明该方法能够显著提高NSGA-Ⅱ算法的优化效果,而且该方法不改变NSGA-Ⅱ的算法框架,易于实现.

  13. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  14. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  15. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  16. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  17. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  18. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  19. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  20. Hybrid Decomposition Method in Parallel Molecular Dynamics Simulation Based on SMP Cluster Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing; SHU Jiwu; ZHENG Weimin; WANG Jinzhao; CHEN Min

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid decomposition method for molecular dynamics simulations was presented, using simultaneously spatial decomposition and force decomposition to fit the architecture of a cluster of symmetric multi-processor (SMP) nodes. The method distributes particles between nodes based on the spatial decomposition strategy to reduce inter-node communication costs. The method also partitions particle pairs within each node using the force decomposition strategy to improve the load balance for each node. Simulation results for a nucleation process with 4 000 000 particles show that the hybrid method achieves better parallel performance than either spatial or force decomposition alone, especially when applied to a large scale particle system with non-uniform spatial density.

  1. Partition-Based Hybrid Decoding (PHD: A Class of ML Decoding Schemes for MIMO Signals Based on Tree Partitioning and Combined Depth- and Breadth-First Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Park

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hybrid maximum likelihood (ML decoding scheme for multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO systems. After partitioning the searching tree into several stages, the proposed scheme adopts thecombination of depth- and breadth-first search methods in an organized way. Taking the number of stages, the size ofsignal constellation, and the number of antennas as the parameter of the scheme, we provide extensive simulationresults for various MIMO communication conditions. Numerical results indicate that, when the depth- and breadth-firstsearch methods are employed appropriately, the proposed scheme exhibits substantially lower computationalcomplexity than conventional ML decoders while maintaining the ML bit error performance.

  2. 农区不同品种肉羊杂交组合模式效益分析%Benefit analysis of different breeds of meat sheep hybrid combination mode in agricultural areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐家

    2012-01-01

    选择波尔山羊、南江黄羊、本地羊进行杂交组合,分析不同组合模式的产羔数、初生重、双月龄断奶重、六月龄出栏重等生产指标,筛选农区适度规模舍饲肉羊的最优杂交组合。结果表明:不同品种肉羊杂交生产性能明显提高:不同杂交组合模式效益依次为本♀×波♂×波♂〉本♀×南♂×波♂〉本♀×波♂。%Select the Boer goat, nanjiang, local sheep crossbreeding combinations, Analysis of different patterns of litter, Birth weight ,Two -months -weaning weight ,June slaughter age production index. Screening appropriate scale in agricultural areas feeding optimal hybrid combinations of mutton sheepo Results showed that: Different breeds of sheep crossbreeding of productive can significantly improve; Different hybrid modes benefit in order to Local sheep ♀×Boer goat ♂×Boer goat ♂〉Local sheep ♀×nanjiang ♂×Boer goat ♂〉Local sheep ♀×Boer goat ♂〉Local sheep ♀ ×nanjiang ♂〉Local sheep ♀× xLoeal sheep ♂ o

  3. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  4. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  5. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  6. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex genetic alterations in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenter Gemma G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma develops as a result of multiple genetic alterations. Different studies investigated genomic alterations in cervical cancer mainly by means of metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (mCGH and microsatellite marker analysis for the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Currently, high throughput methods such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array and gene expression arrays are available to study genome-wide alterations. Integration of these 3 platforms allows detection of genomic alterations at high resolution and investigation of an association between copy number changes and expression. Results Genome-wide copy number and genotype analysis of 10 cervical cancer cell lines by array CGH and SNP array showed highly complex large-scale alterations. A comparison between array CGH and SNP array revealed that the overall concordance in detection of the same areas with copy number alterations (CNA was above 90%. The use of SNP arrays demonstrated that about 75% of LOH events would not have been found by methods which screen for copy number changes, such as array CGH, since these were LOH events without CNA. Regions frequently targeted by CNA, as determined by array CGH, such as amplification of 5p and 20q, and loss of 8p were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Genome-wide, we did not find a correlation between copy-number and gene expression. At chromosome arm 5p however, 22% of the genes were significantly upregulated in cell lines with amplifications as compared to cell lines without amplifications, as measured by gene expression arrays. For 3 genes, SKP2, ANKH and TRIO, expression differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Conclusion This study showed that copy number data retrieved from either array CGH or SNP array are comparable and that the integration of genome-wide LOH, copy number and gene

  7. 不同杂交组合肉用羔羊生长发育与育肥效果的研究%Growith Development and Fattening Effect Study on Different Hybridized Combination of Meat Lamb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋烈戈; 景亚平; 崔北亮; 贾晓林; 赵建新; 赵伟

    2012-01-01

    在农九师161团、168团对70只肉用羔羊进行生长发育及育肥试验,试验结果表明,德国肉用美利奴杂交F1代羊的屠宰率、净肉重和眼肌面积分别比当地土种羊提高了8.2%、13.1%和12.6%(P〈0.01);胴体切块显示德国肉用美利奴杂交F1代羊的后腿和后腰总重为9.89 kg,当地土种羊为7.68 kg,差异极显著;以德国肉用美利奴为父本的杂交组合生长发育速度明显提高,外观胴体脂肪厚度变薄、脂臀变小,胴体整体品质提高,平均每只可增收50元左右,经济效益高;充分说明了以德国肉用美利奴为父本的杂交组合在产肉性能明显优于当地土种羊。%The research work was carried out at 161 division and 168 division in No.9 production and construction corps.The results shows that,the slaughter rate、 net meat weight and loin eye area of F1 hybrid German Mutton Merino sheep are 8.2%,13.1% and 12.6% higher than the local sheep respectively(P〈0.01);German Mutton Merino F1 hybrid sheep had heavier hind legs and waist weight(9.89 kg versus 7.68kg) compared to local sheep(P〈0.01);German Mutton Merino used as paternal of hybrid combinations has remarkable increase in growth rate,appearance carcass with thin fat thickness,small collar fat,and improved quality of whole carcass.The average profit of one carcass will increase about $50,which shows a high economic benefit,From the research result we find that the German Mutton Merino as male parent of hybrid combinations in meat production performance is significantly better than the local sheep.

  8. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge. PMID:28167891

  9. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of hybrid coatings on aluminum alloy by combining 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilan to silicon–zirconium sol solutions for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mei; Xue, Bing; Liu, Jianhua, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Songmei; Zhang, You

    2015-09-01

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) silicon–zirconium organic–inorganic hybrid coatings were applied on LC4 aluminum alloy for corrosion protection. 3-Glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GTMS) and Zirconium (IV) n-propoxide (TPOZ) were used as precursors. 3-Aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APS) was added to enhance the corrosion protective performance of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize morphology, microstructure and component. The results show that the addition of APS leads to the enhanced migration and deposition of positively charged colloidal particles on the surface of metal substrate, which results in the thickness increasing of coatings. However, loading an excessive amount of APS gives a heterogeneous coating surface. The corrosion protective performance of coatings were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that the addition of APS improves corrosion protective performance of coatings. The optimal addition content of APS is about 15%. The 15% APS coating is uniform and dense, as well as has good corrosion protective performance. The impedance value (1.58 × 10{sup 5} Ω·cm{sup 2}, at the lowest frequency) of 15% APS coating is half order of magnitude higher than that of coating without APS, and 15% APS coating always keeps the best corrosion protective performance with prolonged immersion time. This kind of coating is identified with “double-structure” properties based on the analysis of EIS and potentiodynamic polarization. Furthermore, the equivalent circuit results indicate that the intermediate oxide layer plays a main role in corrosion protection. - Highlights: • Electrophoretic deposition hybrid coatings are prepared on LC4 aluminum alloy. • 3-Aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APS) enhances the corrosion protective performance. • The

  11. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  12. Contribution of interspecific hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is directed at improving sunflower using hybrid forms resulted from interspecific hybridization. The aim is to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific hybrid forms that are resistant to diseases, the parasite broomrape, herbicides, and other stress factors and are characterized with high combining ability and to obtain on this basis highly productive oilseed sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid composition of oil. The investigat...

  13. Solution-based colloidal synthesis of hybrid P3HT: Ternary CuInSe2 nanocomposites using a novel combination of capping agents for low-cost photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh Narain; Chawla, Parul; Akanksha; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, ternary CuInSe2 (CISe) chalcopyrite nanocrystallites efficiently passivated by a novel combination of capping agents viz: aniline and 1-octadecene during chemical route synthesis were dispersed in conducting polymer matrix poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). By varying the composition and concentration of the ligands, the properties of the resulting CISe nanocrystallites and its corresponding polymer nanocomposites thus could be tailored. The structural, morphological and optical studies accomplished by various complimentary techniques viz. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Contact angle, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman have enabled us to compare the different hybrid organic (polymer)-inorganic nanocomposites. On the basis of aniline-octadecene equilibrium phase diagram, the polydispersity of the CISe nanocrystals could be tuned by using controlled variations in the reaction conditions of nucleation and growth such as composition of the solvent and temperature. To the best of author's knowledge, the beneficial effects of both the capping agents; aniline and octadecene contributing well in tandem in the development of large-sized (100-125 nm) high quality, sterically- and photo-oxidative stable polycrystalline CISe and its corresponding polymer (P3HT):CISe composites with enhanced charge transfer efficiency has been reported for the first time. The low-cost synthesis and ease of preparation renders this method of great potential for its possible application in low-cost hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaics. The figure shows the Temperature vs Mole fraction graph of two different phases (aniline and 1-octadecene) in equilibrium.

  14. Safe self-scheduling: A parallel loop scheduling scheme for shared-memory multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J. [Western Oregon State College, Monmouth, OR (United States); Saletore, V.A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Lewis, T.G. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we present Safe Self-Scheduling (SSS), a new scheduling scheme that schedules parallel loops with variable length iteration execution times not known at compile time. The scheme assumes a shared memory space. SSS combines static scheduling with dynamic scheduling and draws favorable advantages from each. First, it reduces the dynamic scheduling overhead by statistically scheduling a major portion of loop iterations. Second, the workload is balanced with simple and efficient self-scheduling scheme by applying a new measure, the smallest critical chore size. Experimental results comparing SSS with other scheduling schemes indicate that SSS surpasses other scheduling schemes. In the experiment on Gauss-Jordan, an application that is suitable for static scheduling schemes, SSS is the only self-scheduling scheme that outperforms the static scheduling scheme. This indicates that SSS achieves a balanced workload with a very small amount of overhead.

  15. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with bioinformatics method: an integrated functional annotation approach for analysis of differentially expressed immune-genes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badapanda, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach, a PCR based approach which amplifies differentially expressed cDNAs (complementary DNAs), while simultaneously suppressing amplification of common cDNAs, was employed to identify immuneinducible genes in insects. This technique has been used as a suitable tool for experimental identification of novel genes in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes; whose genomes have been sequenced, or the species whose genomes have yet to be sequenced. In this article, I have proposed a method for in silico functional characterization of immune-inducible genes from insects. Apart from immune-inducible genes from insects, this method can be applied for the analysis of genes from other species, starting from bacteria to plants and animals. This article is provided with a background of SSH-based method taking specific examples from innate immune-inducible genes in insects, and subsequently a bioinformatics pipeline is proposed for functional characterization of newly sequenced genes. The proposed workflow presented here, can also be applied for any newly sequenced species generated from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms.

  16. Investigating the etiology of bovine digital dermatitis by a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Rasmussen, Marianne; Capion, Nynne

    Bovine digital dermatitis, the cause of lameness and wasting in cattle, was first reported in 1974. Today, this disease has considerable negative effects on animal welfare and production economy in many parts of the world. A bacterial etiology of digital dermatitis is now well documented, and the......Bovine digital dermatitis, the cause of lameness and wasting in cattle, was first reported in 1974. Today, this disease has considerable negative effects on animal welfare and production economy in many parts of the world. A bacterial etiology of digital dermatitis is now well documented...... and previously examined digital dermatitis lesions. All skin samples were evaluated histopathologically for possible predisposing abnormalities. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for Fusobacterium. necrophorum and D. nodosus was applied. All lesions revealed intermingled infections......, and were histopathologically categorized as subclinical digital dermatitis. We propose that external noxious stimuli allow D. nodosus to break down the epidermal barrier creating a suitable environment for the secondary invaders, Treponema species, which gradually take over the infection site. The variety...

  17. Enhanced emission from Eu(III) beta-diketone complex combined with ether-type oxygen atoms of di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrids

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, C; Messaddeq, Y; Ribeiro, S J L; Silva, M A P; Zea-Bermudez, V D; Carlos, L D

    2003-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrids, named di-ureasils and described by polyether-based chains grafted to both ends to a siliceous backbone through urea cross linkages, were used as hosts for incorporation of the well-known coordination complex of trivalent europium (Eu sup 3 sup +) ions described by the formula [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] (where TTA stands for thenoyltrifluoroacetone). By comparing with Eu sup 3 sup + -doped di-ureasil without complex form the new materials prepared here enhanced the quantum efficiency for photoemission of Eu sup 3 sup + ions. The enhancement can be explained by the coordination ability of the organic counterpart of the host structure which is strong enough to displace water molecules in [Eu(TTA) sub 3 (H sub 2 O) sub 2] from the rare earth neighbourhood after the incorporation process. High intensity of Eu sup 3 sup + emission was observed with a low non-radiative decay rate under ultraviolet excitation. The quantum efficiency calculated from the decay of sup 5 D sub 0 emission...

  18. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  19. Identification of human DNA in forensic evidence by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a colorimetric gold nanoparticle hybridization probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanapanpituck, Khanistha; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Chu, Eric; Panvisavas, Nathinee

    2014-11-01

    A DNA test based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and colorimetric gold nanoparticle (AuNP) hybridization probe to detect the presence of human DNA in forensic evidence was developed. The LAMP primer set targeted eight regions of the human cytochrome b, and its specificity was verified against the DNA of 11 animal species, which included animals closely related to humans, such as chimpanzee and orangutan. By using the AuNP probe, sequence-specific LAMP product could be detected and the test result could be visualized through the change in color. The limit of detection was demonstrated with reproducibility to be as low as 718 fg of genomic DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 100 plasmid DNA copies containing the cytochrome b DNA target region. A simple DNA extraction method for the commonly found forensic biological samples was also devised to streamline the test process. This LAMP-AuNP human DNA test showed to be a robust, specific, and cost-effective tool for the forensic identification of human specimens without requiring sophisticated laboratory instruments.

  20. 杂交稻元丰优86在永定种植表现及高产栽培技术%Planting Performance and High-yielding Cultivation Techniques of Hybrid Rice Combination Yuanfengyou 86 in Yongding Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游梅兰

    2014-01-01

    Yuanfengyou 86, derived from the CMS line Yuanfeng A and a restorer line Minghui 86, was a new hybrid rice combination. Yuanfengyou 86 was registered and released for commercial production by National Crop Variety Appraisal Committee in Fujian province in 2011. During the year of 2012-1013, Yuanfengyou 86 was introduced and planted in Yongding county of Fujian province. In this paper, we introduced planting performance and high-yielding cultivation techniques of Yuanfengyou 86.%元丰优86是用元丰A×明恢86配组育成的三系杂交稻新品种,2011年通过福建省品种审定。2012—2013年在永定县仙师乡示范种植,掌握其特征特性和高产栽培技术。

  1. Rate and power allocation strategy for MBSFN systems employing hybrid-ARQ with chase combining%使用HARQ的MBSFN系统的速率和功率分配方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅妍; 邱玲

    2013-01-01

    Long term evolution (LTE) offers the opportunity to transmit Multimedia Broadcast/ Multicast Service (MBMS) over a single frequency network (MBSFN), which significantly improves the spectral efficiency of Broadcast/Multicast systems. However, using a conventional multicast scheme which allocates data rate according to the lowest SNR of multicast users, the throughput of MBSFN systems is largely limited by the worst user. A scheme where MBSFN is combined with hybrid-automatic repeat request was proposed to solve this problem. First, the throughput of MBSFN systems employing hybrid-automatic repeat request with chase combining (HARQ-CC) was analyzed. Then a joint rate and power allocation strategy for the HARQ-aided MBSFN system was introduced. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed HARQ-aided MBSFN scheme over conventional MBSFN.%LTE支持组播/广播单频网技术,这可以显著提高组播/广播系统的频谱效率.传统的多播方案根据多播用户中最小SNR可支持的数据速率进行传输,因此MBSFN系统吞吐量受限于信道最差用户.为此提出一种MBSFN与HARQ相结合的方案.首先对使用HARQ的MBSFN系统可达吞吐率进行分析,然后给出一种速率和功率联合分配方案.仿真结果表明,相对于传统的MBSFN本文提出的HARQ-MBSFN方案有着优异的性能提升.

  2. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  3. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  4. Guiding of Long-Distance Electric Discharges by Combined Femtosecond and Nanosecond Pulses Emitted by Hybrid KrF Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    laser pulse initiated HV discharge with a time delay of tens nanoseconds – evidently it is developing due to an avalanche -like growth of electron...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0040 Guiding of long-distance electric discharges by combined femtosecond and nanosecond pulses emitted by...and guiding electric discharge , KrF laser, femtosecond pulse , nanosecond pulse , filamentation, plasma channel, lightning control, laser control of

  5. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  6. 一种两自由度的压电-电磁复合能量收集器%A 2DOF hybrid energy harvester based on combined piezoelectric and electromagnetic conversion mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan WANG; Li-hua TANG; Yuan GUO; Xiao-biao SHAN; Tao XIE

    2014-01-01

    研究目的:对一种两自由度的压电-电磁复合能量收集器进行发电性能研究。创新要点:建立了一种两自由度压电-电磁复合能量收集器发电性能的数学模型,该数学模型可以评估两自由度压电-电磁复合能量收集器中压电元件、电磁元件以及系统总输出功率。研究方法:对一种两自由度的压电-电磁复合能量收集器进行数学建模,并实验验证数学模型的正确性。基于实验测试得到的系统参数值,理论研究压电元件和电磁元件的机电耦合系数对不同能量收集器发电性能的影响关系,并对几种能量收集器的发电能力进行对比分析。重要结论:对于非强耦合(弱或中间耦合)的两自由度机电转换器,复合能量收集器(压电+电磁)具有比单一能量收集器(压电或电磁)更高的发电能力。%This paper presents a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) hybrid piezoelectric-electromagnetic energy harvester (P-EMEH). Such a 2DOF system is designed to achieve two close resonant frequencies. The combined piezoelectric- electromagnetic conversion mechanism is exploited to further improve the total power output of the system in comparison to a stand-alone piezoelectric or electromagnetic conversion mechanism. First, a mathematical model for the 2DOF hybrid P-EMEH is established. Subsequently, the maximal power output of the 2DOF hybrid P-EMEH is compared both experimentally and theo-retically with those from the 1DOF piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), 1DOF electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH), 2DOF PEH, and 2DOF EMEH. Based on the validated mathematical model, the effect of the effective electromechanical coupling coefficients (EMCC) on the maximal power outputs from various harvester configurations is analyzed. The results indicate that for the 2DOF hybrid P-EMEH, although the increase of the power output from one electromechanical transducer will lead to the decrease of the

  7. Fabrication of free-standing pure carbon-based composite material with the combination of sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybridizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, M., E-mail: varga@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic); Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vretenar, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics of the SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kotlar, M. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Skakalova, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Physics of Nanostructured Materials, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Composite structures have been in a center of interest for many decades. Carbon–carbon composites combine different carbon-based allotropes. Combining different carbon structures each with its unique property results in a new composite material with designed properties. In this contribution we present a technological procedure for preparation of a new flexible material consisting of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). The fabrication process starts from the preparation of a paper made of SWNTs bundles followed by the CVD-growth of NCD in the interior of the SWNT paper. Keeping balance between the two competing processes during the CVD, i.e. growth of diamond particles versus etching SWNTs, is found as a key factor for the formation of a compact SWNT/NCD composite material. From a technological point of view, both processes are influenced mainly by the CVD conditions (temperature, gas composition, etc.) and/or substrate pretreatment. The essential idea of the diamond integration into the SWNT paper is demonstrated and discussed in more details. The morphology and structural aspects of the prepared composite material are further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  9. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-07

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems.

  10. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  11. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  12. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ShaoJun

    2010-04-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (male), and RCC (2n=100) (female) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (male) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (female) x CC (male), bisexual fertile F(3)-F(18) allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (female) x BSB (male), different ploidy fishes were

  13. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  14. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  15. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  16. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  17. [Effect of rye Secale cereale L. chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony expression in hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and wheat T. aestivum L.-rye S. cereale L. substitution lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershina, L A; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Silkova, O G; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2007-07-01

    The effect of rye chromosomes on polyembryony was studied for reciprocal hybrid combinations between (Hordeum vulgare L.)-Triticum aestivum L. alloplasmic recombinant lines and five wheat T. aestivum L. (cultivar Saratovskaya 29)-rye Secale cereale L. (cultivar Onokhoiskaya) substitution lines: IR(1D), 2R(2D), 3R(3B), 5R(5A), and 6R(6A), and for direct hybrid combinations between the [H. marinum ssp. gussoneanum (H. geniculatum All.)]-T. aestivum alloplasmic recombinant line and the wheat-rye substitution lines 1R (1A), 1R (1D), and 3R(3B). Chromosomes 1R and 3R of rye cultivar Onokhoiskaya proved to affect the expression of polyembryony in the hybrid combinations that involved the alloplasmic recombinant lines of common wheat as maternal genotypes. Based on this finding, polyembryony was regarded as a phenotypic expression of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions where an important role is played by rye chromosomes 1R and 3R and the H. vulgare cytoplasm. Consideration is given to the association between the effect of rye chromosomes 1R and 3R on polyembryony in the [(Hordeum)-T. aestivum x wheat-rye substitution lines] hybrid combinations and their stimulating effect on the development on angrogenic embryoids in isolated anther cultures of the wheat-rye substitution lines.

  18. A Performance-Prediction Model for PIC Applications on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors: Validation with Hierarchical HPF+OpenMP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Briguglio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance-prediction model is presented, which describes different hierarchical workload decomposition strategies for particle in cell (PIC codes on Clusters of Symmetric MultiProcessors. The devised workload decomposition is hierarchically structured: a higher-level decomposition among the computational nodes, and a lower-level one among the processors of each computational node. Several decomposition strategies are evaluated by means of the prediction model, with respect to the memory occupancy, the parallelization efficiency and the required programming effort. Such strategies have been implemented by integrating the high-level languages High Performance Fortran (at the inter-node stage and OpenMP (at the intra-node one. The details of these implementations are presented, and the experimental values of parallelization efficiency are compared with the predicted results.

  19. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  20. Use of fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay in DNA damage and repa%彗星荧光原位杂交技术在检测特定基因损伤与修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳珍; 王志萍

    2011-01-01

    @@ 彗星荧光原位杂交技术(fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the Comet assay,Comet-FISH)是彗星试验(Comet assay,又称单细胞凝胶电泳)和荧光原位杂交(fluorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)技术的结合,是一种在单细胞水平上检测特定基因损伤和修复的有效方法[1].