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Sample records for hybrid microwave energy

  1. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of

  2. INEXPENSIVE, OFF THE SHELF HYBRID MICROWAVE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, T; Paul Burket, P; John Scogin, J

    2007-06-21

    A hybrid-heating microwave oven provides the energy to heat small 10-gram samples of spent metal tritide storage bed material to release tenaciously held decay product {sup 3}He. Complete mass balance procedures require direct measurement of added or produced gases on a tritide bed, and over 1100 C is necessary to release deep trapped {sup 3}He. The decomposition of non-radioactive CaCO{sub 3} and the quantitative measurement of CO{sub 2} within 3% of stoichiometry demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus to capture generated (released) gases.

  3. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  4. The Study of Microwave and Electric Hybrid Sintering Process of AZO Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the microwave sintering of ZnO by 3D modelling. A large-size Al-doped ZnO (AZO green ceramic compact was prepared by slurry casting. Through studying the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of the green compact, a relative density of up to 98.1% could be obtained by starting microwave heating at 1200°C and increasing the power 20 min later to 4 kW for an AZO ceramic target measuring 120 × 240 × 12 mm. The resistivity of AZO targets sintered with microwave assistance was investigated. The energy consumption of sintering could be greatly reduced by this heating method. Until now, few studies have been reported on the microwave and electric hybrid sintering of large-size AZO ceramic targets. This research can aid in developing sintering technology for large-size high-quality oxide ceramic targets.

  5. Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is...

  6. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  7. Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.

  8. ENERGY POTENTIAL OF SOLID STATE CW-MICROWAVE TRANCEIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gorelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters and block diagrams of CW-microwave transceivers are considered. The advisability of leading in conception of energy potential is founded. Qualitative assessment of three ways of CW-microwave transceivers composing is done. The some features for application of CW-microwave transceivers are discussed.

  9. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  10. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-01-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-06-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Thermal and microwave energy for shrimp processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M.R.R.; Novak, A.F.

    1975-12-01

    Gulf Coast shrimp were processed by 2450 MHz microwave energy and conventional boiling to determine if differences existed in organoleptic evaluation and vitamin retention. Chemical tests for vitamin A and ..beta..-carotene, and microbiological assays for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid were used to determine vitamin retention. Statistical analyses of all results were accomplished with the use of a 360 IBM computer. Results of the organoleptic tests showed no significant difference between the two processes; the only significant difference was among the judges, showing evidence of an untrained test panel which is typical of the consuming public. Vitamin A was not found in the tailmeat and thereafter samples were analyzed for ..beta..-carotene, one of the most important provitamins A. Apparent percent retentions were calculated from the mean values of the replicas for each vitamin and varied between 77.48 and 115.0 percent for different vitamins and processes and were based on values found for the raw control. The highest value, 115.0 percent, was found in the microwave samples assayed for thiamine, and was probably caused by thiaminase found in raw shrimp, which is responsible for destruction of thiamine.

  13. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  14. Comparative evaluation of surface porosities in conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin cured by water bath and microwave energy with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunint Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional heat cure poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most commonly used denture base resin despite having some short comings. Lengthy polymerization time being one of them and in order to overcome this fact microwave curing method was recommended. Unavailability of specially designed microwavable acrylic resin made it unpopular. Therefore, in this study, conventional heat cure PMMA was polymerized by microwave energy. Aim and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the surface porosities in PMMA cured by conventional water bath and microwave energy and compare it with microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Materials and Methods: Wax samples were obtained by pouring molten wax into a metal mold of 25 mm × 12 mm × 3 mm dimensions. These samples were divided into three groups namely C, CM, and M. Group C denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by water bath method, CM denotes conventional heat cure PMMA cured by microwave energy, M denotes specially designed microwavable acrylic denture base resin cured by microwave energy. After polymerization, each sample was scanned in three pre-marked areas for surface porosities using the optical microscope. As per the literature available, this instrument is being used for the first time to measure the porosity in acrylic resin. It is a reliable method of measuring area of surface pores. Portion of the sample being scanned is displayed on the computer and with the help of software area of each pore was measured and data were analyzed. Results: Conventional heat cure PMMA samples cured by microwave energy showed maximum porosities than the samples cured by conventional water bath method and microwavable acrylic resin cured by microwave energy. Higher percentage of porosities was statistically significant, but well within the range to be clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in-vitro study, conventional heat cure PMMA can be cured by

  15. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  16. Characterization of bulk stainless steel joints developed through microwave hybrid heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Amit, E-mail: amit.bansal978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Sharma, Apurbba Kumar, E-mail: akshafme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kumar, Pradeep, E-mail: kumarfme@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Das, Shantanu, E-mail: shantanu@barc.gov.in [Reactor Control Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)

    2014-05-01

    Processing of metallic materials through microwave heating is a challenging area of research. In the present work, joining of stainless steel-316 to stainless steel-316 in the bulk form has been carried out by placing stainless steel-316 powder at the interface and through targeted heating using microwave hybrid heating. The trials were carried out in a multimode microwave applicator at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and power 900 W. The developed joints were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and measurement of Vicker's microhardness, porosity and tensile strength. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the developed joint shows the presence of chromium carbide, iron carbide and iron silicide phases that eventually contribute to enhancement of the microhardness of the joint. The scanning electron microscope micrographs confirm classical metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the interface (molten powder) layer; the epitaxial growth rate was observed adjacent to the fusion zone. The average observed Vicker's microhardness in the joint zone on the grain boundary was significantly higher than that inside the grains due to the presence of various hard phases at the grain boundaries. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the joints showed an average ultimate tensile strength of 425.0 MPa with an average elongation of 9.44%. - Highlights: • Joining of stainless steel (SS-316) plates using microwave hybrid heating • Epitaxial growth rate observed adjacent to the fusion zone of welded joint • The ultimate tensile strength of the order of 425.0 MPa with 9.44% elongation.

  17. Validation of a Hybrid Microwave-Optical Monitor to Investigate Thermal Provocation in the Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Armaghany, Allann; Tong, Kenneth; Highton, David; Leung, Terence S

    2016-01-01

    We have previously developed a hybrid microwave-optical system to monitor microvascular changes in response to thermal provocation in muscle. The hybrid probe is capable of inducing deep heat from the skin surface using mild microwaves (1-3 W) and raises the tissue temperature by a few degrees Celsius. This causes vasodilation and the subsequent increase in blood volume is detected by the hybrid probe using near infrared spectroscopy. The hybrid probe is also equipped with a skin cooling system which lowers the skin temperature while allowing microwaves to warm up deeper tissues. The hybrid system can be used to assess the condition of the vasculature in response to thermal stimulation. In this validation study, thermal imaging has been used to assess the temperature distribution on the surface of phantoms and human calf, following microwave warming. The results show that the hybrid system is capable of changing the skin temperature with a combination of microwave warming and skin cooling. It can also detect thermal responses in terms of changes of oxy/deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations.

  18. Original Framework for Optimizing Hybrid Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amevi Acakpovi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original framework for optimizing hybrid energy systems. The recent growth of hybrid energy systems in remote areas across the world added to the increasing cost of renewable energy has triggered the inevitable development of hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems always pose a problem of optimization of cost which has been approached with different perspectives in the recent past. This paper proposes a framework to guide the techniques of optimizing hybrid energy systems in general. The proposed framework comprises four stages including identification of input variables for energy generation, establishment of models of energy generation by individual sources, development of artificial intelligence, and finally summation of selected sources. A case study of a solar, wind, and hydro hybrid system was undertaken with a linear programming approach. Substantial results were obtained with regard to how load requests were constantly satisfied while minimizing the cost of electricity. The developed framework gained its originality from the fact that it has included models of individual sources of energy that even make the optimization problem more complex. This paper also has impacts on the development of policies which will encourage the integration and development of renewable energies.

  19. Heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene ternary hybrids: synthesis, electromagnetic and excellent microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaosi; Hu, Qi; Cai, Hongbo; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2016-11-01

    In order to explore high efficiency microwave absorption materials, heteronanostructured Co@carbon nanotubes-graphene (Co@CNTs-G) ternary hybrids were designed and produced through catalytic decomposition of acetylene at the designed temperature (400, 450, 500 and 550 °C) over Co3O4/reduced graphene oxide (Co3O4/RGO). By regulating the reaction temperatures, different CNT contents of Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids could be synthesized. The investigations indicated that the as-prepared heteronanostructured Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties, and their electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties could be tuned by the CNT content. The minimum reflection loss (RL) value reached approximately ‑65.6, ‑58.1, ‑41.1 and ‑47.5 dB for the ternary hybrids synthesized at 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C, respectively. And RL values below ‑20 dB (99% of electromagnetic wave attenuation) could be obtained over the as-prepared Co@CNTs-G ternary hybrids in the large frequency range. Moreover, based on the obtained results, the possible enhanced microwave absorption mechanisms were discussed in details. Therefore, a simple approach was proposed to explore the high performance microwave absorbing materials as well as to expand the application field of graphene-based materials.

  20. Nonclassical correlation between optical and microwave photons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Chen, Xiang; Lin, Gongwei; Lin, Xiumin

    2016-10-01

    A scheme to correlate optical and microwave photons is proposed in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system, where mechanical resonator is coupled to both optical and microwave fields. Analytical and numerical simulation results show that the cross-correlation function between Stokes and anti-Stokes photons strongly violates the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, which confirms the nonclassical correlation between the optical and microwave photons. It is worth noting that the nonclassical photon pairs with vast different wavelengths, which may be useful for quantum communication, are generated under the experimentally accessible weak coupling limit rather than single-photon strong coupling regime. In addition, the protocol provides a possible route to combine the respective advantages of optical photons, microwave photons, and phonons in a hybrid electro-optomechanical system.

  1. A novel protection layer of superconducting microwave circuits toward a hybrid quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongmin

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel multilayer structure based on Bragg layers that can protect a superconducting microwave resonator from photons and blackbody radiation and have little effect on its quality factor. We also discuss a hybrid quantum system exploiting a superconducting microwave circuit and a two-color evanescent field atom trap, where surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation might deteriorate the system.

  2. Hybrid energy sources for embedded sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ramon; Farinholt, Kevin; Park, Gyuhae

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we present a series of hybrid energy configurations that are designed to provide a robust power source for embedded sensing hardware. The proper management of energy resources is a critical component in the design of any deployed sensing network. For systems that are installed in remote or inaccessible locations, or those with an operational lifespan that exceeds traditional battery technologies, energy harvesting is an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, the dependence on a single energy source (i.e. solar) can cause potential problems when environmental conditions preclude the system from operating at peak performance. In this paper we consider the use of a hybrid energy source that extracts energy from multiple sources and uses this collective energy to power sensing hardware. The sources considered in this work include: solar, vibration, thermal gradients, and RF energy capture. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  3. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  4. ORNL TNS program: microwave start-up of tokamak plasmas near electron cyclotron and upper hybrid resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Y. K.M.; Borowski, S. K.

    1977-12-01

    The scenario of toroidal plasma start-up with microwave initiation and heating near the electron cyclotron frequency is suggested and examined here. We assume microwave irradiation from the high field side and an anomalously large absorption of the extraordinary waves near the upper hybrid resonance. The dominant electron energy losses are assumed to be due to magnetic field curvature and parallel drifts, ionization of neutrals, cooling by ions, and radiation by low Z impurities. It is shown by particle and energy balance considerations that electron temperatures around 250 eV and densities of 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ can be maintained, at least in a narrow region near the upper hybrid resonance, with modest microwave powers in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) (120 kW at 28 GHz) and The Next Step (TNS) (0.57 MW at 120 GHz). The loop voltages required for start-up from these initial plasmas are also estimated. It is shown that the loop voltage can be reduced by a factor of five to ten from that for unassisted start-up without an increase in the resistive loss in volt-seconds. If this reduction in loop voltage is verified in the ISX experiments, substantial savings in the cost of power supplies for the ohmic heating (OH) and equilibrium field (EF) coils can be realized in future large tokamaks.

  5. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  6. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  7. Hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Rehrig, Paul W. (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system includes: (a) first and second symmetric, pre-curved piezoelectric elements mounted separately on a frame so that their concave major surfaces are positioned opposite to each other; and (b) a linear piezoelectric element mounted separately on the frame and positioned between the pre-curved piezoelectric elements. The pre-curved piezoelectric elements and the linear piezoelectric element are spaced from one another and communicate with energy harvesting circuitry having contact points on the frame. The hybrid piezoelectric energy harvesting transducer system has a higher electromechanical energy conversion efficiency than any known piezoelectric transducer.

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  9. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) ar...

  10. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  11. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Islam, Md Tariqul; Karim, Hasanul; Ramabadran, Navaneet; Noveron, Juan C.; Lin, Yirong

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO2 nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode-electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge-discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  12. Microwave-induced inactivation of DNA-based hybrid catalyst in asymmetric catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Shen, Kai

    2016-03-01

    DNA-based hybrid catalysts have gained strong interests in asymmetric reactions. However, to maintain the high enantioselectivity, these reactions are usually conducted at relatively low temperatures (e.g. DNA-based hybrid catalyst even at low temperatures (such as 5 °C). Circular dichroism (CD) spectra and gel electrophoresis of DNA suggest that microwave exposure degrades DNA molecules and disrupts DNA double-stranded structures, causing changes of DNA-metal ligand binding properties and thus poor DNA catalytic performance.

  13. Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

    2010-03-01

    Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

  14. Sub-femtosecond absolute timing jitter with a 10 GHz hybrid photonic-microwave oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, T. M.; Nelson, C. W.; Hati, A.; Quinlan, F.; Taylor, J.; Jiang, H.; Chou, C. W.; Rosenband, T.; Lemke, N.; Ludlow, A.; Howe, D.; Oates, C. W.; Diddams, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    We present an optical-electronic approach to generating microwave signals with high spectral purity. By circumventing shot noise and operating near fundamental thermal limits, we demonstrate 10 GHz signals with an absolute timing jitter for a single hybrid oscillator of 420 attoseconds (1 Hz-5 GHz).

  15. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  16. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, R.F.

    1978-09-01

    A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

  17. Ultra High Energy Comic Rays in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2011-01-01

    We consider the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR), for energies greater than E > 10^{14} eV but less than E < 10^{26} eV, in the cosmic medium of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We find that the CMB plays a pivot role in this energy range. As example, the observed "knee(s)" and the "ankle" could be understood in reasonable terms. What we may observe at energy near 10^{25} eV (W^\\pm bursts or Z^0 bursts) is also briefly discussed.

  18. Optimization of negative ion current in a compact microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, D; Bhattacharjee, S; Singh, M J; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2012-02-01

    Performance of a microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source as a volume negative ion source is reported. Microwaves are directly launched into the plasma chamber predominantly in the TE(11) mode. The source is operated at different discharge conditions to obtain the optimized negative H(-) ion current which is ∼33 μA (0.26 mA∕cm(2)). Particle balance equations are solved to estimate the negative ion density, which is compared with the experimental results. Future prospects of the source are discussed.

  19. Optimization of negative ion current in a compact microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, D.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-01

    Performance of a microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source as a volume negative ion source is reported. Microwaves are directly launched into the plasma chamber predominantly in the TE11 mode. The source is operated at different discharge conditions to obtain the optimized negative H- ion current which is ˜33 μA (0.26 mA/cm2). Particle balance equations are solved to estimate the negative ion density, which is compared with the experimental results. Future prospects of the source are discussed.

  20. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  1. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  2. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  3. Environmentally friendly microwave ionic liquids synthesis of hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Yan; He, Jing; Sun, Shao-Long; Ma, Ming-Guo; Fu, Lian-Hua; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this article was to explore an environmentally friendly strategy to synthesis of biomass-based hybrids. Herein, microwave-assisted ionic liquids method was applied to fabricate the hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br) using cellulose and AgNO3. The ionic liquids act simultaneously as a solvent, a microwave absorber, and a reactant. Ionic liquids provided Cl(-) or Br(-) to the synthesis of AgCl or AgBr crystals; thus no additional reactant is needed. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The cellulose-Ag/AgCl hybrid and cellulose-Ag/AgBr hybrid were also obtained by using cellulose-AgCl and cellulose-AgBr hybrids as precursors. This environmentally friendly microwave-assisted ionic liquids method is beneficial to the hybrids with high dispersion.

  4. Electrical-energy storage in hybrid ultracapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, MK; Niranjana, E; Sundar Rajan, A; Banerjee, A.; Gaffoor, SA; Shukla, AK

    2009-01-01

    There are several ways of storing electrical energy in chemical and physical forms and retrieving it on demand, and ultracapacitors are one among them. This article presents the taxonomy of ultracapacitor and describes various types of rechargeable-battery electrodes that can be used to realize the hybrid ultracapacitors in conjunction with a high-surface-area-graphitic-carbon electrode. While the electrical energy is stored in a battery electrode in chemical form, it is stored in physical...

  5. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of...) to amend the test procedures for microwave ovens. That SNOPR proposed amendments to the DOE test... measuring the standby mode and off mode energy use of products that combine a microwave oven with other...

  6. Dark energy and the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodelson, S.; Knox, L.

    2000-01-01

    We find that current cosmic microwave background anisotropy data strongly constrain the mean spatial curvature of the Universe to be near zero, or, equivalently, the total energy density to be near critical-as predicted by inflation. This result is robust to editing of data sets, and variation of other cosmological parameters (totaling seven, including a cosmological constant). Other lines of argument indicate that the energy density of nonrelativistic matter is much less than critical. Together, these results are evidence, independent of supernovae data, for dark energy in the Universe.

  7. Using Microwave Energy to Synthesize Light Weight/Energy Saving Magnesium Based Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Leong Eugene Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave energy can be used for the processing of a wide variety of materials. It is used most commonly for the heating of food and has been increasingly applied for processing of polymers; ceramics; metals; minerals and composites. The use of microwave energy allows rapid and volumetric heating where heat is generated from within the material instead of via radiative heat transfer from external heating elements. This paper aims to provide a review on the use of energy efficient and environment friendly microwave energy route to synthesize magnesium based materials reinforced with various types of metallic and ceramic reinforcements. Magnesium composites are extremely attractive for weight critical applications in automotive; aerospace; electronics and transportation sectors. The magnesium composites were prepared using blend—compact—microwave sintering—extrusion methodology. Microwave sintering allowed a significant reduction of 80% in both processing time and energy consumption over conventional sintering without any detrimental effect on the properties of the synthesized magnesium composites. Physical; microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered magnesium composites will also be discussed and compared with magnesium composites processed by conventional liquid and solid processing techniques.

  8. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  9. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  10. Hybrid microwave synthesis and characterization of the compounds in the Li-Ti-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li Hong; Dong, Cheng; Guo, Juan [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-01-03

    Hybrid microwave synthesis has been applied for preparation of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and LiTiO{sub 2} for the first time. Stepwise heating was used for avoiding the instantaneous release of gas by-product and obtaining well-shaped samples. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained samples have relatively uniform particle sizes. The electrochemical performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} were investigated. The first discharge capacity of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was 150 mAh g{sup -1} and 141 mAh g{sup -1} after 27 cycles and a very flat discharge and charge curve of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was shown at about 1.56 V. Similarly, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} exhibits good cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity is 118 mAh g{sup -1} and 30th cycle is still 112 mAh g{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Hybrid microwave synthesis and characterization of the compounds in the Li-Ti-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li Hong; Dong, Cheng; Guo, Juan

    Hybrid microwave synthesis has been applied for preparation of Li 4Ti 5O 12, Li 2Ti 3O 7, Li 2TiO 3 and LiTiO 2 for the first time. Stepwise heating was used for avoiding the instantaneous release of gas by-product and obtaining well-shaped samples. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained samples have relatively uniform particle sizes. The electrochemical performance of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and Li 2Ti 3O 7 were investigated. The first discharge capacity of Li 4Ti 5O 12 was 150 mAh g -1 and 141 mAh g -1 after 27 cycles and a very flat discharge and charge curve of Li 4Ti 5O 12 was shown at about 1.56 V. Similarly, Li 2Ti 3O 7 exhibits good cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity is 118 mAh g -1 and 30th cycle is still 112 mAh g -1.

  12. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  13. Hybrid nano-structure for enhanced energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaque

    The goal of this research is to develop electrode materials using various nano-structure hybrids for improved energy storage devices. Enhancing the performance of energy storage device has been gaining tremendous attention since it holds the key solution to advance renewable energy usage thus reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The application of energy storage devices such as super-capacitor and Li-ion-battery has seen significant growth; however, it is still limited mainly by charge/discharge rate and energy density. One of the solutions is to use nano-structure materials, which offer higher power at high energy density and improved stability during the charge discharge cycling of ions in and out of the storage electrode material. In this research, carbon-based materials (e.g. porous carbon, graphene) in conjunction with metal oxides such as CeO2 nanoparticles/TiO2 nanowires are synthesized utilizing low temperature hydrothermal method for the fabrication of advanced electrode materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for materials characterization. Poentio-galvanostat, battery analyzer, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used for evaluating the electrochemical performance. The testing results have shown that a maximum 500% higher specific capacitance could be obtained using porous carbon/CeO2 instead of porous carbon for super-capacitor application and microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO2 nanowire hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to porous carbon anode for Li-ion-battery application.

  14. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  15. Microwave-irradiation-assisted hybrid chemical approach for titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis: microbial and cytotoxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Rajendran, Bhavapriya; Avadhani, Ganesh S; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. It is used for protection against UV exposure due to its light-scattering properties and high refractive index. Though TNPs are increasingly used, the synthesis of TNPs is tedious and time consuming; therefore, in the present study, microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach was used for TNP synthesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNPs can be synthesized only in 2.5 h; however, the commonly used chemical approach using muffle furnace takes 5 h. The activity of TNP depends on the synthetic protocol; therefore, the present study also determined the effect of microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach synthetic protocol on microbial and cytotoxicity. The results showed that TNP has the best antibacterial activity in decreasing order from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The IC50 values of TNP for HCT116 and A549 were found to be 6.43 and 6.04 ppm, respectively. Cell death was also confirmed from trypan blue exclusion assay and membrane integrity loss was observed. Therefore, the study determines that the microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach is time-saving; hence, this technique can be upgraded from lab scale to industrial scale via pilot plant scale. Moreover, it is necessary to find the mechanism of action at the molecular level to establish the reason for greater bacterial and cytotoxicological toxicity. Graphical abstract A graphical representation of TNP synthesis.

  16. Investigation of direct solar-to-microwave energy conversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterton, N. E.; Mookherji, T. K.; Wunsch, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    Identification of alternative methods of producing microwave energy from solar radiation for purposes of directing power to the Earth from space is investigated. Specifically, methods of conversion of optical radiation into microwave radiation by the most direct means are investigated. Approaches based on demonstrated device functioning and basic phenomenologies are developed. There is no system concept developed, that is competitive with current baseline concepts. The most direct methods of conversion appear to require an initial step of production of coherent laser radiation. Other methods generally require production of electron streams for use in solid-state or cavity-oscillator systems. Further development is suggested to be worthwhile for suggested devices and on concepts utilizing a free-electron stream for the intraspace station power transport mechanism.

  17. An Energy Conserving Parallel Hybrid Plasma Solver

    CERN Document Server

    Holmstrom, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a hybrid plasma solver on the test problem of an ion beam. The parallel solver is based on cell centered finite differences in space, and a predictor-corrector leapfrog scheme in time. The implementation is done in the FLASH software framework. It is shown that the solver conserves energy well over time, and that the parallelization is efficient (it exhibits weak scaling).

  18. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  20. High power microwave diagnostic for the fusion energy experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Goncalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments....... The ITER CTS diagnostic will inject a 1 MW 60 GHz gyrotron beam into the ITER plasma and observe the scattering off fluctuations in the plasma — to monitor the dynamics of the fast ions generated in the fusion reactions....

  1. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  2. Microwave pretreatment of rape straw for bioethanol production: Focus on energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xuebin; Xi, Bo; Zhang, Yimin;

    2011-01-01

    The energy efficiency of microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rape straw for the production of ethanol was investigated. Different microwave energy inputs and solid loadings were tested to find economic pretreatment conditions. The lowest energy consumption was observed when so...

  3. 76 FR 65631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC26 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office... efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75...

  4. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-BT-TP-0011] RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY... 9, 2011, amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation... Secretary I. Background and Legal Authority Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42...

  5. A hybrid nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Towfighian, Shahrzad

    2017-06-01

    Vibration energy harvesting converts mechanical energy from ambient sources to electricity to power remote sensors. Compared to linear resonators that have poor performance away from their natural frequency, nonlinear vibration energy harvesters perform better because they use vibration energy over a broader spectrum. We present a hybrid nonlinear energy harvester that combines bi-stability with internal resonance to increase the frequency bandwidth. A two-fold increase in the frequency bandwidth can be obtained compared to a bi-stable system with fixed magnets. The harvester consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam carrying a movable magnet facing a fixed magnet. A spring allows the magnet to move along the beam and it provides an extra stored energy to further increase the amplitude of vibration acting as a mechanical amplifier. An electromechanically coupled mathematical model of the system is presented to obtain the dynamic response of the cantilever beam, the movable magnet and the output voltage. The perturbation method of multiple scales is applied to solve these equations and obtain approximate analytical solutions. The effects of various system parameters on the frequency responses are investigated. The numerical approaches of the long time integration (Runge-Kutta method) and the shooting technique are used to verify the analytical results. The results of this study can be used to improve efficiency in converting wasted mechanical vibration to useful electrical energy by broadening the frequency bandwidth.

  6. A simple and rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization microwave protocol for reliable dicentric chromosome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Ian M; Genet, Matthew D; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence in situhybridization (FISH) is an extremely effective and sensitive approach to analyzing chromosome aberrations. Until recently, this procedure has taken multiple days to complete. The introduction of telomeric and centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes has reduced the procedure's duration to several hours, but the protocols still call for a high temperature (80-90°C) step followed by 1-3 h of hybridization. The newest method to speed up the FISH protocol is the use of a microwave to shorten the heating element to less than a minute; however this protocol still calls for a 1-h hybridization period. We have utilized PNA centromere/telomere probes in conjunction with a microwave oven to show telomere and centromere staining in as little as 30 s. We have optimized the hybridization conditions to increase the sensitivity and effectiveness of the new protocol and can effectively stain chromosomes in 2 min and 30 s of incubation. We have found that our new approach to FISH produces extremely clear and distinct signals. Radiation-induced dicentric formation in mouse and human fibroblast cells was analyzed by two individual scorers and the observed dicentrics matched very well.

  7. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  8. Hybrid energy storage: the merging of battery and supercapacitor chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, D P; Ayyad, O; Ruiz, V; Gómez-Romero, P

    2015-04-07

    The hybrid approach allows for a reinforcing combination of properties of dissimilar components in synergic combinations. From hybrid materials to hybrid devices the approach offers opportunities to tackle much needed improvements in the performance of energy storage devices. This paper reviews the different approaches and scales of hybrids, materials, electrodes and devices striving to advance along the diagonal of Ragone plots, providing enhanced energy and power densities by combining battery and supercapacitor materials and storage mechanisms. Furthermore, some theoretical aspects are considered regarding the possible hybrid combinations and tactics for the fabrication of optimized final devices. All of it aiming at enhancing the electrochemical performance of energy storage systems.

  9. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  10. Microwave resonant activation in hybrid single-gap/two-gap Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabello, Steven; Lambert, Joseph G.; Mlack, Jerome; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto C.

    2016-09-01

    Microwave resonant activation is a powerful, straightforward technique to study classical and quantum systems, experimentally realized in Josephson junction devices cooled to very low temperatures. These devices typically consist of two single-gap superconductors separated by a weak link. We report the results of the first resonant activation experiments on hybrid thin film Josephson junctions consisting of a multi-gap superconductor (MgB2) and a single-gap superconductor (Pb or Sn). We can interpret the plasma frequency in terms of theories both for conventional and hybrid junctions. Using these models, we determine the junction parameters including critical current, resistance, and capacitance and find moderately high quality factors of Q0˜ 100 for these junctions.

  11. Basic principles of thermo-acoustic energy and temporal profile detection of microwave pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V G; Vdovin, V A

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles of a thermo-acoustic method developed for the detection of powerful microwave pulses of nanosecond duration are discussed.A proposed method is based on the registration of acoustic pulse profile originated from the thermal expansion of the volume where microwave energy was absorbed.The amplitude of excited acoustic transient is proportional to absorbed microwave energy and its temporal profile resembles one of a microwave pulse when certain conditions are satisfied.The optimal regimes of microwave pulse energy detection and sensitivity of acoustic transient registration with piezo-transducer are discussed.It was demonstrated that profile of a microwave pulse could be detected with temporal resolution of 1 - 3 nanosecond.

  12. Energy conservation by means of a closed hybrid medium cooler; Gesloten hybride mediumkoeler spaart veel energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland, Zuidwolde (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Closed hybrid cooling systems that are integrated into the overall system can, by evaporation of water reduce the condensation temperature and undercooling of the refrigerant. This results in a significant energy saving because of recycled compressor capacity and a reduction of CO2 emissions from the electric power plant. [Dutch] Gesloten hybride koelsystemen die zijn geintegreerd in de totale installatie zorgen door verdamping van water voor een verlaging van de condensatietemperatuur en onderkoeling van de koudemiddelvloeistof. Daardoor ontstaat een aanmerkelijke energiebesparing van her opgenomen compressorvermogen en een reductie van CO2-emissie bij de elektriciteitscentrale.

  13. Microwave Assisted Hot Air Convective Dehydration of Fish Slice: Drying Characteristics, Energy Aspects and Colour Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rozainee Taib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried fish is commonly produced by convective hot air drying. Microwave technology was presented in this paper to improve both process and product quality. Catfish (order Siluriformes slices were dehydrated in a microwave assisted hot air convective dehydration (MWHA system to investigate the effects of microwave power and hot air temperature on drying time, dehydration behaviour, energy consumption and colour of dried fish. Three different microwave power outputs namely medium (373 W, medium low (217 W and low (91 W combined with convective hot air temperature of 40°C, 70°C and 130°C accordingly were employed in the drying experiments. Results show that microwave accelerates drying time up to 120 folds faster compared to drying with hot air convective alone. It was also noted that increasing the hot air temperature was not as significant as increasing the microwave power in reducing the drying time. Experiments show that drying time was reduced about 75 % when an increase of microwave power from low (91 W to medium mode (373 W combining with convective hot air. However, drying with microwave alone required longer drying time. Energy consumption analysis shows that microwave assisted drying process requires less energy usage. Drying fish with microwave assisted hot air dehydration treatment make the colour brighter, shifting towards red and yellow.

  14. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  15. Properties of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics Determined Using Microwave and Hot-Press Hybrid Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Kazuaki; Qiu, Jinhao; Tani, Junji; Nagata, Kunihiro

    2001-09-01

    Piezoelectric materials play an important role in smart material and structural systems, and high-performance piezoelectric actuators with larger force and displacement output are in demand. It was shown in our previous work that the hybrid sintering process using a 28 GHz microwave technique and hot pressing offers advantages over conventional technologies reference. It was also confirmed that the maximum achieved value of piezoelectric constant d31 of the specimens of the hybrid-sintering process is approximately 360× 10-12 m/V, which is about 38% larger than 260× 10-12 m/V, the d31 of the conventionally sintered specimens. In this study, the material properties, including electromechanical coupling factor, Young’s modulus, frequency constant, Curie temperature and dielectric constant, of the specimens fabricated with the microwave sintering process were further investigated for different sintering temperatures. The Curie point Tc decreases, but the dielectric constant \\varepsilonr at Tc increases with the grain size of specimens for all sintering methods. The influence of grain size on Tc and \\varepsilonr can be attributed to the residual stress induced by the lattice mismatch between the cubic phase and the tetragonal-rhombohedral mixed phase.

  16. Preparation and characterization of ZnO/ZnS hybrid photocatalysts via microwave-hydrothermal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinglian ZHAO; Liang ZHAO; Xinping WANG

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/ZnS hybrid nanocomposite was largely higher than that of the mere ZnO or ZnS nanoparticles, but the complicated procedure and misdistribution of final products limited its large-scale productions. The exploration of a novel syn-thesis route of ZnO/ZnS hybrid photocatalysts with high catalytic performance is becoming a crucial step for the large-scale application of ZnO/ZnS hybrid photocatalytic technique. Preparation and characterization of nanosized ZnO/ZnS hybrid photocatalysts were studied in this paper. The photocatalysts were obtained via microwave-hydrothermal crystallization with the help of sodium cit-rate. The products were characterized by X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution (PSD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that so-synthesized ZnO/ZnS samples consisted of the high pure cubic (sphalerite) ZnS and hexagonal ZnO nanocrys-tallines with a narrow particle size distribution. The pos-sible formation mechanisms of ZnO/ZnS nanocrystallines were mainly attributed to the superficially protective effect of citrate. The photocatalytic experiments demon-strated that the ZnO/ZnS photocatalysts exhibited a higher catalytic activity for the degradation of acid fuchs-ine than other monocomponents.

  17. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing performance of ultra-thin Fe attached carbon nanotube hybrid buckypaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaowei; Zeng, Xianjun; Nie, Peng; Feng, Chunlin; Xiong, Xuhai; Ma, Keming

    2014-03-01

    The ultra-thin Fe attached multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid buckypaper (Fe/MWCNT hybrid buckypaper) was fabricated by vacuum filtration method with monodispersion solutions of MWCNTs and Fe nanoparticles. The morphology, element composition and magnetic properties of buckypapers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and vibrating sample magnetometer. The complex permittivity and permeability, the reflection loss (RL) properties of buckypapers attached composite were investigated in the frequency range of 12.4-18 GHz. The Fe/MWCNTs hybrid buckypaper attached composite posses much broader absorbing bandwidth and larger reflectivity than those of pure MWCNTs buckypaper attached composite with the same absorbing thickness (dm = 0.1 mm). The best reflectivity below -5 dB is at 14.0-18 GHz, and the minimum value is -14.4 dB at 16.8 GHz. The experimental result indicates that Fe/MWCNTs hybrid buckypaper has potential application in thin thickness and light-weight microwave absorbers.

  18. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-09-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data (R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy (Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), thermal diffusivity (α) and the rate constant of the best model (k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  19. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  20. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  1. Low-energy-consumption hybrid lasers for silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Ran, Qijiang; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed.......Physics and characteristics of a hybrid vertical-cavity laser that can be an on-chip Si light source with high speed and low energy consumption are discussed....

  2. X, Ku-band microwave-absorption properties of polyarylene ether nitriles terminated with phthalonitrile/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid submicron spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Lifen, E-mail: 361626614@qq.com; Pu, Zejun; Huang, Xu; Liu, Xiaobo, E-mail: liuxb@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • PEN-t-Ph/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid spheres were prepared via one-step solvothermal method. • Polymer compatibility is introduced into inorganic submicron spheres successfully. • PEN-t-Ph/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid submicron spheres possessed good ferrimagnetism. • Control the microwave absorption band of PEN-t-Ph/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid submicron spheres. - Abstract: A novel series of PEN-t-Ph/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid submicron spheres with different additions of PEN-t-Ph have been prepared successfully via solvothermal method, and their structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the crystallinity, dispersity, and size of hybrid submicron spheres can be controlled by altering the addition content of PEN-t-Ph. Magnetization measurement showed that the PEN-t-Ph/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid submicron spheres possessed good ferrimagnetism. The electromagnetic measurement indicated that the resonance peaks of complex permittivity, complex permeability, dielectric loss, and magnetic loss were shifted to the higher frequency as the addition of PEN-t-Ph increased. Moreover, the microwave absorption band was also shifted to higher frequency as the addition of PEN-t-Ph increased. Through this method, the polymer compatibility can be introduced into inorganic submicron spheres, which could provide the inorganic particles with more applications.

  3. The Application of Microwave Energy in Mineral Processing – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lovás

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the application of microwave energy in the field of mineral processing at the Institute of Geotechnics,Slovak Academy of Sciences. The influence of microwave radiation of rocks on the failure disintegration of minerals and ores as well as,a modification of magnetic properties and thermal processing of rocks was studied. Moreover, the rate of microwave heating of minerals,effect of microwaves on coal desulphurisation and the extraction of diterpanes from coal were investigated.

  4. Determination of the effect of microwave energy on maize kernel quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fakude, PM

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available to an interest in the possible use of microwave energy as a non-chemical insect control measure (Nelson, 1996). AIM • To determine microwave treatment conditions that can eradicate the most common insect pests in stored-grain products; and • To determine...

  5. Microwave beatwave excitation of electron plasma wave and high energy electron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Obata, K.; Nobuhara, S. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Two X-band microwave beams with a slightly different frequency and the maximum output power of 50 kW are injected into a target plasma antiparallel to each other through a standard horn. The resonant excitation of an electron plasma wave is observed when the difference in frequency between counterstreaming microwaves is equal to the electron plasma frequency. The excited wave propagates in the same direction as the higher-frequency microwave with a wave length which satisfies the resonance condition of wave number. The wave amplitude grows with an increase in incident microwave power, and reaches the density perturbation {delta}n/n{sub 0} of approximately 3.2 % at the incident microwave power of 40 kW and beat frequency of 600 MHz. A small amount of high-energy electrons with the speed of 27 eV are observed in the high-power region of incident microwave. (author)

  6. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  7. Equivalence of Optical and Electrical Noise Equivalent Power of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, R M J; de Visser, P J; Klapwijk, T M; Baselmans, J J A

    2014-01-01

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical NEP from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  8. Fast surrogate-assisted simulation-driven optimization of compact microwave hybrid couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgan, Piotr; Koziel, Slawomir

    2016-07-01

    This work presents a robust methodology for expedited simulation-driven design optimization of compact microwave hybrid couplers. The technique relies on problem decomposition, and a bottom-up design strategy, starting from the level of basic building blocks of the coupler, and finishing with a tuning procedure that exploits a fast surrogate model of the entire structure. The latter is constructed by cascading local response surface approximations of coupler elementary elements. The cross-coupling effects within the structure are neglected in the first stage of the design process; however, they are accounted for in the tuning phase by means of space-mapping correction of the surrogate. The proposed approach is demonstrated through the design of a compact rat-race and two branch-line couplers. In all cases, the computational cost of the optimization process is very low and corresponds to just a few high-fidelity electromagnetic simulations of respective structures. Experimental validation is also provided.

  9. Fabrication of alumina filled hybrid buckypaper composites and their enhancement of microwave absorbing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hsin-Yuan; Liu, Jih-Hsin; Saravanan, L.

    2015-06-01

    Alumina (Al2O3)-filled multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypapers (BPs) with different Al2O3 loadings (5-50 wt%) were successfully synthesised. Structural and morphological analysis performed with x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively, confirmed the presence of stable α-phase Al2O3 particles in the Al2O3-BP composites. The formation of flexible Al2O3-BP hybrid nanocomposites (5-15 wt%) was attributed to the strong interfacial polarisation and high conductivity; compared with pure Al2O3 and BP. The nanocomposites with optimised alumina loadings demonstrated enhanced microwave absorption (>90%) and a broader absorption bandwidth in the investigated high-frequency region.

  10. Superconductivity in LiTi2O4 Prepared by Hybrid Microwave Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-Hong; DONG Cheng; SONG Hui-Hua; GUO Juan; FU Guang-Cai

    2005-01-01

    @@ The well-known superconducting oxide LiTi2 O4 has a structural phase transition from spinel to ramsdellite around 900 ℃. We have successfully obtained the superconducting spinel phase and the non-superconducting ramsdellite phase of LiTi2O4 using a hybrid microwave method. The samples are characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and measurements of resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. The results show that the low-temperature spinel phase is a superconductor with Tc = 13 K, while the high-temperature ramsdellite phase is a semiconductor. By comparison between the crystal structures of the spinel and the ramsdellite phases, it is suggested that the geometrical frustration plays an important role in the superconductivity of the spinel LiTi2 O4.

  11. High- T_c superconducting thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金飚兵; 康琳; 伍瑞新; 张健羽; 程其恒; 吴培亨; 经东; 焦刚; 邵凯; 蒋明明; 张家宗; 孙敏松; 王蕴仪; 周岳亮; 吕惠宾; 许世发; 何萌; 王小平; 杨秉川; 卢剑; 张其邵

    1997-01-01

    A high- Tc superconducting (HTSC) thin film/GaAs MESFET hybrid microwave oscillator operated at 10 6 GHz has been designed, fabricated and characterized. Microstrip line structures were used throughout the circuit with superconducting thin film YBaiCuiO7 8(YBCO) as the conductor material. The YBCO thin films were deposited on 15 mm×10 mm×0. 5 mm LaAlO3 substrates. The oscillator was common-source, series feedback type using a GaAs-MESFET (NE72084) as the active device and a superconducting microstrip resonator as the frequency stabilizing element. By improving the unloaded quality factor Q0 of the superconducting microstrip resonator and adjusting the coupling coefficient between the resonator and the gate of the MESFET, the phase noise of the oscillator was decreased At 77 K, the phase noise of the oscillator at 10 kHz offset from carrier was - 87 dBc/Hz.

  12. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  13. Energy management and sizing of a hybrid locomotive

    OpenAIRE

    Akli, Cossi Rockys; Roboam, Xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Jeunesse, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The French national railways company (SNCF) is involved in a new project which aims at investigating and testing energy efficient and environmentally friendly traction systems of a hybrid locomotive called LHyDIE. This paper presents a new methodology for the hybrid electric vehicle design which exploits an energy management strategy based on a frequency approach. In particular, the design of the LHyDIE prototype and the energy management strategy implemented aboard are presented. The study m...

  14. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  15. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  16. Understanding the scabbling of concrete using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttress, A.J., E-mail: adam.buttress@nottingham.ac.uk [Industrial Microwave Processing Research Group, Energy and Sustainability Research Division (United Kingdom); Jones, D.A.; Dodds, C.; Dimitrakis, G. [Industrial Microwave Processing Research Group, Energy and Sustainability Research Division (United Kingdom); Campbell, C.J. [Sellafield Ltd, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Dawson, A. [Nottingham Transportation Engineering Centre, Infrastructure, Geomatics and Architecture Research Division (United Kingdom); Kingman, S.W. [Industrial Microwave Processing Research Group, Energy and Sustainability Research Division (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Concrete blocks supplied by the UK Sellafield nuclear site were treated with microwave energy using a 15 kW system operating at 2.45 GHz. The effect of aggregate type (Whinstone, Gravel and Limestone); standoff distance; and effect of surface coating were studied to determine their influence on the systems performance in terms of mass and area removal rates and evaluate the controllability of the process. All blocks were scabbled successfully, with mass and area removal rates averaging 11.3 g s{sup −} {sup 1} and 3 cm s{sup −} {sup 1} respectively on treating large areas to a depth of 25 mm. The use of a Kevlar barrier between the block and applicator was found to significantly reduce the generation of dust as only 1.6% of the scabbled mass was in the < 106 μm — that generally considered to be airborne. Importantly Brazilian disc testing of the scabbled block showed that the process did not adversely affect structural properties of the test blocks after treatment.

  17. Application of microwave energy for in-drum solidification of simulated precipitation sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.; Swanson, S.D.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1987-08-17

    The application of microwave energy for in-container solidification of simulated transuranic contaminated precipitation sludges has been tested. Results indicate volume reductions to 83% are achievable by the continuous feeding of pre-dried sludge into a waste container while applying microwave energy. An economic evaluation was completed showing achievable volume and weight reductions to 87% compared with a current immobilization process for wet sludge. 7 refs., 15 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Wide Temperature Range Hybrid Energy Storage Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal concerns the fabrication of a hybrid battery capacitor (HBC) using Eltron's knowledge gained in battery and capacitor research. Energy storage systems...

  19. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  20. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  1. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids: System Architectures and Energy Management Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    such as renewables (e.g., solar PV, wind power) and conventionals (e.g., diesel engines) as well as energy storage systems (ESSs) such as batteries, fuel cells and flywheels. To optimally manage different energy sources in a shipboard microgrid while meeting different technical/environmental constraints......Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation......, it is necessary to set up an energy management system. This paper provides an overview of hybrid shipboard microgrids and discusses different methods of power and energy management in such systems which are essential for control, monitoring and optimizing the overall system performance in various mission profiles....

  2. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hansen, Benjamin J.

    2010-07-27

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potential in vivo applications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy, such as from breathing or from the beat of a heart, and a flexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the biochemical (glucose/O2) energy in biofluid, which are two types of energy available in vivo. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, thereby boosting output and lifetime. Using the hybrid device, we demonstrate a "self-powered" nanosystem by powering a ZnO nanowire UV light sensor. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  4. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  5. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  6. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AB78 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens AGENCY.... Authority and Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq... essentially of four parts: (1) Testing, (2) labeling, (3) Federal energy conservation standards, and...

  7. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  8. Hybrids of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Hexagonal Boron Nitride: Lightweight Absorbers with Tunable and Highly Efficient Microwave Attenuation Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yue; Jiang, Zhenhua; Ma, Tian; Chu, Zengyong; Li, Gongyi

    2016-11-30

    Sandwichlike hybrids of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were prepared via heat treatment of the self-assemblies of graphene oxide (GO) and ammonia borane (AB). TG-DSC-QMS analysis indicate a mutually promoted redox reaction between GO and AB; 900 °C is a proper temperature to transfer the hybrids into inorganic sandwiches. XRD, XPS, and Raman spectra reveal the existence of h-BN embedded into the rGO frameworks. High-resolution SEM and TEM indicate the layer-by-layer structure of the hybrids. The content of h-BN can be increased with increase of the mass ratio of AB and the highest heat treatment temperature. The complex permittivity and the microwave absorption are tunable with the variation of the content of h-BN. When the mass ratio of GO/AB is 1:1, the microwave absorption of the hybrid treated at 900 °C is preferable in the range of 6-18 GHz. A minimum reflection loss, -40.5 dB, was observed at 15.3 GHz for the wax composite filled with 25 wt % hybrids at the thickness of 1.6 mm. The qualified frequency bandwidth reaches 5 GHz at this thickness with a low surface density close to 1.68 kg/m(2). The layer-by-layer structure of the hybrid makes great contributions to the increased approaches and possibilities of electron migrating and hopping, which has both highly efficient dielectric loss and excellent impedance matching for microwave consumption.

  9. Analysis and estimation of the threshold for a microwave "pellicle mirror" parametric oscillator, via energy conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiao, Raymond Y

    2012-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to observe the dynamical Casimir effect by means of two tandem, high Q, superconducting microwave cavities, which are separated from each other by only a very thin wall consisting of a flexible superconducting membrane that can be driven into motion by means of resonant "pump" microwaves injected into the left cavity. Degenerate "signal" and "idler" microwave signals can then be generated by the exponential amplification of vacuum fluctuations in the initially empty right cavity, above a certain threshold. The purpose of this paper is calculate the threshold for this novel kind of opto-mechanical parametric oscillation, using energy considerations.

  10. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  11. Design and management of energy-efficient hybrid electrical energy storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    This book covers system-level design optimization and implementation of hybrid energy storage systems. The author introduces various techniques to improve the performance of hybrid energy storage systems, in the context of design optimization and automation. Various energy storage techniques are discussed, each with its own advantages and drawbacks, offering viable, hybrid approaches to building a high performance, low cost energy storage system. Novel design optimization techniques and energy-efficient operation schemes are introduced. The author also describes the technical details of an act

  12. High-energy glycoconjugates: synthetic transformations of carbohydrates using microwave and ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Eugene A

    2008-01-01

    Methods to transform carbohydrates are often complex and tedious, both due to the vast array of naturally occurring and synthetically designed scaffolds which may manifest meager to drastic reactivity, dependent upon the transformation sought and the stereogenic site chosen. In order to facilitate and expedite desired synthetic transformation, many researchers are utililizing microwave and ultrasonic irradiation to achieve their goals, in generally high yields within a shorter period of time, and often without undesirous byproducts. The basic physical principles underlying the energy regimes are qualitatively discussed prior to review of the applications in carbohydrate syntheses and transformation. This literature review looks at research involving glycosylations, -OH group conversions, isotopic incorporation, and C-N bond formation. Instances of improved yields and selectivities resultant from the use of these high-energy sources will be highlighted.

  13. Hybrid RF and Digital Beamformer for Cellular Networks: Algorithms, Microwave Architectures, and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Vijay; Pivit, Florian; Guan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Modern wireless communication networks, particularly cellular networks utilize multiple antennas to improve the capacity and signal coverage. In these systems, typically an active transceiver is connected to each antenna. However, this one-to-one mapping between transceivers and antennas will dramatically increase the cost and complexity of a large phased antenna array system. In this paper, firstly we propose a \\emph{partially adaptive} beamformer architecture where a reduced number of transceivers with a digital beamformer (DBF) is connected to an increased number of antennas through an RF beamforming network (RFBN). Then, based on the proposed architecture, we present a methodology to derive the minimum number of transceivers that are required for marco-cell and small-cell base stations, respectively. Subsequently, in order to achieve optimal beampatterns with given cellular standard requirements and RF operational constraints, we propose efficient algorithms to jointly design DBF and RFBN. Starting from the proposed algorithms, we specify generic microwave RFBNs for optimal marco-cell and small-cell networks. In order to verify the proposed approaches, we compare the performance of RFBN using simulations and anechoic chamber measurements. Experimental measurement results confirm the robustness and performance of the proposed hybrid DBF-RFBN concept eventually ensuring that theoretical multi-antenna capacity and coverage are achieved at a little incremental cost.

  14. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S.; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw

    2016-04-26

    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.

  15. Energy management in hybrid electric vehicles: benefit of prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Jager, B. de; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles require a supervisory algorithm, often referred to as energy management strategy, which governs the drivetrain components. In general the energy management strategy objective is to minimize the fuel consumption subject to constraints on the components, vehicle performance and driver

  16. Application of microwave energy for curing of molding sands containing oil binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This works presents the results of studies concerning possibility of application of microwave heating in the curing process of molding sands containing oil binders. Molding sands prepared with three kinds of binders, that is oils C, DL and Retanol, have been subject to experiments. The sands have been dried with two methods: in a microwave chamber of 750W power and, for comparison, with classical method at the temperature of 200°C for 120 minutes. Tensile and bending strength of the samples have been determined after cooling down. It has been found that microwave drying in the low-power device used for experiments is effective only in case of molding sand prepared with addition of DL binder. The temperature of heated, even up to 32 minutes in a microwave chamber, blocks prepared from the remaining two masses, was insufficient to initiate binding process. The undertaken attempts of binder modification and introduction of additives intensifying microwave heating process allowed for achievement of satisfactory results. It has been found that power of the heating device is the main factor determining efficiency of microwave curing of molding sands containing oil binders. An additional experiment has been conducted on a laboratory workstation allowing for microwave heating of small mass samples with a high output power of magnetron concentrated in a small substrate volume. It has been observed that microwave drying process of molding sands was of dynamic character over a short period of time, not exceeding 120 seconds, thus assuring efficient curing of the sands containing the used oil binders. Therefore, application of devices of properly high microwave output power allows for efficient drying of oil molding sands, while simultaneously assuring the possibility to reduce time and energy consumption necessary for production of foundry cores of proper functional characteristics.

  17. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, R. M. J., E-mail: r.m.j.janssen@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Endo, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Visser, P. J. de [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands); Physics Department, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Baselmans, J. J. A. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  18. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  19. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  20. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  1. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  2. Real-Time Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Powertrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zaher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real-time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and mechanical (flywheel. The real-time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst-case scenario, only the engine is used and the hybrid system is completely disabled. A rule-based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and could be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work machine and its position via GPS and maps both of them to the gains.

  3. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  4. Melting of tin using muffle furnace and microwave energy and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthama, T. R.; Harisha, G.; Manjunatha, Y. R.; Mohana Kumara, S. M.; Srinath, M. S.; Shashank Lingappa, M.

    2016-09-01

    Conventional melting of metals consume significant amount of energy. Furthermore, there are possibilities of material and energy losses along with safety risks. To overcome these inherent disadvantages of conventional melting, a novel approach for melting of bulk tin using microwave energy is presented. In the present work, bulk Tin is melted using a conventional muffle furnace and a domestic multimode microwave oven. As received and as cast metals are characterised. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique is used to analyse the phases present. The average tensile strength of the metal casted using muffle furnace and microwave oven is 44.1982 MPa and 50.2867 MPa respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is made use for the study of fractured surface of the tensile specimen, which reveals the areas of plastic deformation. Microwave processed specimen shows 10% higher tensile strength compared to that processed using muffle furnace. Radiography clearly shows cast specimen free from defects. The average hardness of as received tin is higher compared to casted specimens. However, the average hardness value of microwave processed specimen is 19.28% higher than the specimen processed using muffle furnace.

  5. Hybrid Recentering Energy Dissipative Device for Seismic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid recentering energy dissipative device that has both recentering and energy dissipation capabilities is proposed and studied in this paper. The proposed hybrid device, referred to as the hybrid shape memory alloy (SMA recentering viscous fluid (RCVF energy dissipation device, connects the apex of a chevron brace to an adjoining beam using two sets of SMA wires arranged in series on either side of the brace and a viscous fluid damper arranged in parallel with the SMA wires. The viscous damper is used because being a velocity-dependent device it does not exert any force that counteracts the recentering force from the SMA wires after the vibration of the frame ceases. In the numerical study, the Wilde’s SMA constitutive model is used to model the SMA wires, and the Maxwell model is used to simulate the viscous fluid damper. To demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed hybrid device, comparative studies are performed on several single-story shear frames and a series of four-story steel frames. The results show that the frames equipped with the hybrid device have noticeably smaller peak top story displacements and residual story drifts when subjected to ground motions at three different intensity levels.

  6. Triboelectric-thermoelectric hybrid nanogenerator for harvesting frictional energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Eun; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator, an energy harvesting device that converts external kinetic energy into electrical energy through using a nano-structured triboelectric material, is well known as an energy harvester with a simple structure and high output voltage. However, triboelectric nanogenerators also inevitably generate heat resulting from the friction that arises from their inherent sliding motions. In this paper, we present a hybrid nanogenerator, which integrates a triboelectric generator and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) for harvesting both the kinetic friction energy and the heat energy that would otherwise be wasted. The triboelectric part consists of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film with nano-structures and a movable aluminum panel. The thermoelectric part is attached to the bottom of the PTFE film by an adhesive phase change material layer. We confirmed that the hybrid nanogenerator can generate an output power that is higher than that generated by a single triboelectric nanogenerator or a TEG. The hybrid nanogenerator was capable of producing a power density of 14.98 mW cm-2. The output power, produced from a sliding motion of 12 cm s-1, was capable of instantaneously lighting up 100 commercial LED bulbs. The hybrid nanogenerator can charge a 47 μF capacitor at a charging rate of 7.0 mV s-1, which is 13.3% faster than a single triboelectric generator. Furthermore, the efficiency of the device was significantly improved by the addition of a heat source. This hybrid energy harvester does not require any difficult fabrication steps, relative to existing triboelectric nanogenerators. The present study addresses a method for increasing the efficiency while solving other problems associated with triboelectric nanogenerators.

  7. Microwave transmission through one-dimensional hybrid quasi-regular (fibonacci and Thue-Morse)/periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Youssef; Benali, Naim; Bouazzi, Yassine; Kanzari, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    The transmission properties of hybrid quasi-periodic photonic systems (HQPS) made by the combination of one-dimensional periodic photonic crystals (PPCs) and quasi-periodic photonic crystals (QPCs) were theoretically studied. The hybrid quasi-periodic photonic lattice based on the hetero-structures was built from the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. We addressed the microwave properties of waves through the one-dimensional symmetric Fibonacci, and Thue-Morse system i.e., a quasi-periodic structure was made up of two different dielectric materials (Rogers and air), in the quarter wavelength condition. It shows that controlling the Fibonacci parameters permits to obtain selective optical filters with the narrow passband and polychromatic stop band filters with varied properties which can be controlled as desired. From the results, we presented the self-similar features of the spectra, and we also presented the fractal process through a return map of the transmission coefficients. We extracted powerfully the band gaps of hybrid quasi-periodic multilayered structures, called "pseudo band gaps", often containing resonant states, which could be considered as a manifestation of numerous defects distributed along the structure. The results of transmittance spectra showed that the cutoff frequency could be manipulated through the thicknesses of the defects and the type of dielectric layers of the system. Taken together, the above two properties provide favorable conditions for the design of an all-microwave intermediate reflector.

  8. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  9. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  10. A Hybrid Energy Sharing Framework for Green Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-12-09

    Cellular operators are increasingly turning towards renewable energy (RE) as an alternative to using traditional electricity in order to reduce operational expenditure and carbon footprint. Due to the randomness in both RE generation and mobile traffic at each base station (BS), a surplus or shortfall of energy may occur at any given time. To increase energy selfreliance and minimize the network’s energy cost, the operator needs to efficiently exploit the RE generated across all BSs. In this paper, a hybrid energy sharing framework for cellular network is proposed, where a combination of physical power lines and energy trading with other BSs using smart grid is used. Algorithms for physical power lines deployment between BSs, based on average and complete statistics of the net RE available, are developed. Afterwards, an energy management framework is formulated to optimally determine the quantities of electricity and RE to be procured and exchanged among BSs, respectively, while considering battery capacities and real-time energy pricing. Three cases are investigated where RE generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. Results investigate the time varying energy management of BSs and demonstrate considerable reduction in average energy cost thanks to the hybrid energy sharing scheme.

  11. Design of Energy Efficient Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The focus in the development has for both systems been to minimise energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. The natural next step in this development is to develop ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system[Mechanic......The focus in the development has for both systems been to minimise energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. The natural next step in this development is to develop ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system...

  12. Application of Microwave Energy at Treatment of Asbestos Cement (Eternit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znamenáčková, Ingrid; Dolinská, Silvia; Lovás, Michal; Hredzák, Slavomír; Matik, Marek; Tomčová, Jana; Čablík, Vladimír

    2016-10-01

    Asbestos is the common name applied to a group of natural, fibrous silicate minerals, which were once one of the most popular raw materials to be used in building materials. Asbestos was mainly used for the production of assortment asbestos cement products. Today it is generally known that asbestos belongs to the group of hazardous materials and shows carcinogenic activity. It is therefore advisable to attempt to dispose of asbestos minerals in asbestos-containing materials and to convert them into a harmless material. One of methods may be microwave thermal decomposition of asbestos minerals. The research was used for old etemit roof ceiling. X-ray analysis indicated the presence of undesirable chrysotile. Its thermal destruction was carried out in a microwave oven in the power of 2500 W. In case the heating time was 15 min, X-ray analysis was confirmed chrysotile change into harmless minerals. Thermal analysis was used for characterization and the thermal behaviour of the asbestos cement sample.

  13. Optimization of energy transfer in microwave electrothermal thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D. J.; Micci, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from preliminary tests conducted to evaluate the performance of a prototype microwave electrothermal thruster. The primary component of the device is a microwave resonant cavity. The device produces stable axial plasmas within a pressurized section of the cavity with the plasma positioned in the inlet region of the nozzle. Plasma stability is enhanced by axial power coupling, an optimal distribution of electric power density within the cavity, and a propellant gas flow which has a large vortical velocity component. The thruster has been operated with a number of propellant gases: helium, nitrogen, ammonia, and hydrogen. Plasmas can be formed in a reliable manner at cavity pressures of 1 kPa and incident power levels ranging from 50 W to 350 W, depending on the gas used, and can be operated at pressures up to 300 kPa at power levels up to 2200 W. Ideal performance results of vacuum Isp and thermal efficiency vs. specific power are presented for each gas. Representative results of this preliminary work are: He - Isp = 625 s, eta-thermal = 90 percent; N2 - Isp = 270 s, eta-thermal = 41 percent; NH3 - Isp = 475 s, eta-thermal= 55 percent; H2 - Isp = 1040 s, eta-thermal = 53 percent.

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  15. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  16. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  17. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  18. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  19. Computer Simulation and Optimization of the Process of Thawing of Grounds Using Microwave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, S. A.; Volkov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, consideration is given to a mathematical model and a numerical method to calculate and optimize the process of high-speed thawing of grounds using microwave energy. Relevant examples of calculations and an analysis of results are presented.

  20. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    .... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024... with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food and combination ovens. DOE..., including microwave ovens with or without thermal elements designed for surface browning of food. DOE...

  1. New hybrid 1971 energy intensities. Final report, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, P S; Herendeen, R A; Milke, T

    1978-12-01

    The Energy Research Group at the University of Illinois has computed a set of 1971 hybrid energy intensities from 1971 direct energy-use data and 1967 economic input/output information from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). Energy intensities represent the total energy used through the economy to produce one unit of output from each of the 90 sectors defined by BEA as spanning the U.S. economy in 1967. The program creating the intensities marks one of the few applications of the comprehensive National Energy Accounts data base. This data base contains, among other items, data on the consumption of over 100 fuel types by 154 consuming sectors in the U.S. economy. The energy-intensity program automatically aggregates the number of consuming sectors to 90 and the number of fuel types to 5: coal, crude oil and gas extraction (called crude), refined petroleum, electricity, and utility gas.

  2. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  3. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  4. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  5. Degradation of pentachlorophenol with zero-valence iron coupled with microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Chih-Ju

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the degradation of pentachlorophenol with zero-valence iron (Fe(0)) coupled with the use of microwave energy. The sample containing 1000 mg/L PCP solution was dosed with 0.5 g Fe(0) and then subject to 700 W microwave energy for 10s; 85% pentachlorophenol was noted to be removed. If the microwave treatment time was increased to 30s, the pentachlorophenol removal efficiency exceeded 99% with end products including H(2)O, CO(2), HCl, etc. Using Fe(0) as a medium, the microwave treatment is made an efficient method for degrading pentachlorophenol. The time needed to achieve a satisfactory treatment is also reduced leading to significant savings of energy consumption to make this method cost-effective. Since this technology applies Fe(0), which is amenable to natural environment, to speed up the decomposition of an industrial solvent, it is not only cost-effective but also environmental friendly for the industry to pursuit sustainable development.

  6. Rapid detection of t(15;17)(q24;q21) in acute promyelocytic leukaemia by microwave-assisted fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriani, Silvia; Mura, Cinzia; Panico, Anna Rita; Scarpa, Anna Maria; Recchimuzzo, Patrizia; Dadati, Raffaella; Farioli, Renata; De Canal, Gabriella; Mura, Maria Angela; Cesana, Clara

    2017-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by the rearrangement of the PML and RARα genes, mostly due to a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(15;17)(q24;q21). A quick APL diagnosis is essential for starting a prompt suitable therapy. We describe a new rapid diagnostic laboratory approach to detect the PML-RARα rearrangement, which gives clear genetic results within 30 min of hybridization. It combines quick cell harvesting, fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with commercial DNA probe and microwave beams supplied by a domestic microwave oven. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A microwave chip-based beam splitter for low-energy guided electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Jakob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the splitting of a low-energy electron beam by means of a microwave pseudopotential formed above a planar chip substrate. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double-well, thereby generating two separated output beams with $5\\,$mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to $3\\,$eV, in excellent agreement with particle tr...

  8. Only Ku-band microwave absorption by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ferrocenyl-CuPc hybrid nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Junji; Zhao Rui [Research Branch of Functional Materials, Institute of Microelectronic and Solid State Electronic, High-Temperature Resistant Polymers and Composites Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu Xiaobo, E-mail: liuxb@uestc.edu.cn [Research Branch of Functional Materials, Institute of Microelectronic and Solid State Electronic, High-Temperature Resistant Polymers and Composites Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2012-10-15

    A novel kind of hybrid nanospheres made of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and ferrocenyl-CuPc (FCP) was prepared via effective solvothermal method and performed microwave absorptivity only in Ku-band with minimum reflection loss of -25 dB at 16.0 GHz corresponding to absorbing about 99.7% content of microwave. Scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the nanospheres with uniform particle size distribution have the average diameter of 135 nm. Due to the synergistic reaction between magnetic ferrocenyl-CuPc and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the hybrid nanospheres showed novel electromagnetic properties. The real part of complex permittivity of hybrid nanospheres remains stable in the range of 0.5-12.0 GHz and has a large fluctuation at 16.5 GHz. Moreover, the dielectric loss of hybrid nanospheres also appeared a sharp peak at 16.3 GHz with the value of 2.7. The specific gravity of hybrid nanospheres is about 2.08. On the basis of these results, the novel hybrids are believed to have potential applications in the microwave absorbing area in Ku-band. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel kind of ferrocenyl-CuPc/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hybrid nanospheres was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrids performed microwave absorptivity only in Ku-band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimum absorbtion of hybrid nanospheres achieved -25 dB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material is believed to have broad application in notch filter in Ku-band.

  9. Experimental facility for investigation of gaseous pollutants removal process stimulated by electron beam and microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Bulka, S.; Roman, K.; Licki, J. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory unit for the investigation of toxic gases removal from flue gases based on an ILU 6 accelerator has been built at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. This installation was provided with independent pulsed and continuous wave (c.w.) microwave generators to create electrical discharge and another pulsed microwave generator for plasma diagnostics. This allows to investigate a combined removal process based on the simultaneous use of the electron beam and streams of microwave energy in one reaction vessel. Two heating furnaces, each of them being a water-tube boiler with 100 kW thermal power, were applied for the production of combustion gas with flow rates 5-400 Nm{sup 3}/h. Proper composition of the flue gas was obtained by introducing such components as SO{sub 2}, NO and NH{sub 3} to the gas stream. The installation consists of: inlet system (two boilers - house heating furnace, boiler pressure regulator, SO{sub 2}, NO and NH{sub 3} dosage system, analytical equipment); reaction vessel where the electron beam from ILU 6 accelerator and microwave streams from the pulse and c.w. generators can be introduced simultaneously or separately and plasma diagnostic pulsed microwave stream can be applied; outlet system (retention chamber, filtration unit, fan, off-take duct of gas, analytical equipment). The experiments have demonstrated that it is possible to investigate the removal process in the presence of NH{sub 3} by separate or simultaneous application of the electron beam and of microwave energy streams under stable experimental conditions. (author). 15 refs, 26 figs, 5 tabs.

  10. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  11. An easy two-step microwave assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, SC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available -ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis and DC conductivity measurement. The results showed that the microwave assisted synthesis is a very efficient method in producing CNTs that are heavily...

  12. Autonomous Hybrid Priority Queueing for Scheduling Residential Energy Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimullah, I. Q.; Shamroukh, M.; Sahar, N.; Shetty, S.

    2017-05-01

    The advent of smart grid technologies has opened up opportunities to manage the energy consumption of the users within a residential smart grid system. Demand response management is particularly being employed to reduce the overall load on an electricity network which could in turn reduce outages and electricity costs. The objective of this paper is to develop an intelligible scheduler to optimize the energy available to a micro grid through hybrid queueing algorithm centered around the consumers’ energy demands. This is achieved by shifting certain schedulable load appliances to light load hours. Various factors such as the type of demand, grid load, consumers’ energy usage patterns and preferences are considered while formulating the logical constraints required for the algorithm. The algorithm thus obtained is then implemented in MATLAB workspace to simulate its execution by an Energy Consumption Scheduler (ECS) found within smart meters, which automatically finds the optimal energy consumption schedule tailor made to fit each consumer within the micro grid network.

  13. Energy control strategy for parallel hydrostatic transmission hybrid vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Ji-hai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Aimed at the relatively lower energy density and complicated coordinating operation between two power sources, a special energy control strategy is required to maximize the fuel saving potential. Then a new type of configuration for hydrostatic transmission hybrid vehicles (PHHV) and the selection criterion for impor-tant components are proposed. Based on the optimization of planet gear transmission ratio and the analysis of op-timal energy distribution for the proposed PHHV on a representative urban driving cycle, a fuzzy torque control strategy and a braking energy regeneration strategy are designed and developed to realize the real-time control of energy for the proposed PHHV. Simulation results demonstrate that the energy control strategy effectively im-proves the fuel economy of PHHV.

  14. Cryogenic resonant microwave compressors with energy extraction through "warm" interference switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, S. N.; Samoilenko, G. M.; Shlapakovski, A. S.; Yushkov, Yu. G.

    2016-01-01

    A method of switching cryogenic resonant microwave compressors from the energy accumulation mode to the energy release mode is proposed and analyzed. The switching process is based on the resonant transfer of the microwave energy from a cryogenic storage cavity to a room temperature commutation cavity. The transfer can be realized using a cascade interference microwave switch weakly coupled to the storage cavity and consisting of two H-plane waveguide tees connected in series. The tees are made of a normally conducting material, located outside the cryostat, and contain commuting units in shorted side arms. The length of the cascade input arm (from the storage cavity to the first tee) is non-resonant, while the space between the storage cavity and the second tee is resonant. The weak coupling of the storage cavity to the cascade and the non-resonant length of its input arm allow one to minimize losses during the energy accumulation phase. When the commuting unit in the first tee is ignited, the tee opens, and the non-resonant volume of the cascade input arm is transformed into the volume of the resonant commutation cavity. The microwave energy is then transferred in a resonant way from the storage cavity to the commutation cavity, and when the transfer is complete, the commuting unit in the second tee is ignited to extract the energy into a load. It is shown analytically that, at a certain value of the coupling (the cryogenic storage cavity to the normally conducting cascade of tees) and length of the cascade input arm, the power gain in the storage cavity can be kept high. It is also shown that the energy accumulated in the storage cavity can be effectively transferred to the commutation cavity and from the commutation cavity to the load.

  15. Energy analyses and drying kinetics of chamomile leaves in microwave-convective dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics and energy aspects as well as mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of chamomile in a microwave-convective dryer are reported in this article. Drying experiments were carried out at 8 microwave power levels (200–900 W, air temperature of 50 °C, and air velocity of 0.5 m/s. Increasing the microwave output power from 200 to 900 W, decreased the drying time from 40 to 10 min. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The Midilli et al. model showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Moisture diffusivity values increase with decreasing moisture content down to 1.70 (kg water kg−1 dry matter but decrease with a further decrease in moisture content from 1.72 to 0.96 (kg water kg−1 dry matter. The average values of Deff increased with microwave power from 5.46 to 39.63 × 10−8 (m2 s−1. Energy consumption increased and energy efficiency decreased with moisture content of chamomile samples. Average specific energy consumption, energy efficiency and energy loss varied in the range 18.93–28.15 MJ kg−1 water, 8.25–13.07% and 16.79–26.01 MJ kg−1 water, respectively, while the best energy results were obtained at 400 W, 50 °C and 0.5 m s−1.

  16. Influence of Application of Microwave Energy on Quality Parameters of Mate Tea Leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cristina Ceni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase are enzymes responsible for browning and quality deterioration in mate tea leaves. The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of microwave energy on the oxidase activity, moisture content and colour of this raw material. The polyphenol oxidase was inactivated after 30 s of microwave treatment of the samples exposed to high and low light intensity. In samples exposed to low light intensity, the peroxidase activity was reduced for about 60 % after 120 s. The exposure of mate tea leaves to microwave energy for 220 s resulted in the moisture content required by the manufacturing process. The measured colour parameters showed that after microwave treatment, mate tea leaves showed a more intense green colour. In a general sense, the results show that the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase by microwave energy have an anti-browning effect on the colour evolution of mate tea leaves.

  17. Vibrational energies and full analytic potential energy functions of PbI and InI from pure microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ji Ho; Köckert, Hansjochen; Mullaney, John C.; Stephens, Susanna L.; Evans, Corey J.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Le Roy, Robert. J.

    2016-12-01

    Pure rotational spectra of PbI and InI are interpreted to yield a full analytic potential energy function for each molecule. Rotational spectra for PbI have been retrieved from literature sources to perform the analysis. Rotational transition frequencies for excited vibrational states of InI (0 program, dPOTFIT. The well-depth parameter, De , is fixed at a literature value, while values of the equilibrium distance re and EMO exponent-coefficient expansion (potential-shape) parameters are determined from the fits. Comparison with potential functions determined after including older mid-IR and visible electronic transition data shows that our analysis of the pure microwave data alone yields potential energy functions that accurately predict (to better than 1%) the overtone vibrational energies far beyond the range spanned by the levels for which the microwave data is available.

  18. Flexible hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Zhang, Hulin; Zhu, Guang; Lee, Sangmin; Lin, Zong-Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-01-22

    We report the first flexible hybrid energy cell that is capable of simultaneously or individually harvesting thermal, mechanical, and solar energies to power some electronic devices. For having both the pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties, a polarized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film-based nanogenerator (NG) was used to harvest thermal and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on the flexible polyester (PET) substrate, a ZnO-poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) heterojunction solar cell was designed for harvesting solar energy. By integrating the NGs and the solar cells, a hybrid energy cell was fabricated to simultaneously harvest three different types of energies. With the use of a Li-ion battery as the energy storage, the harvested energy can drive four red light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  19. Effect of Mach number on the efficiency of microwave energy deposition in supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkov, V. A.; Karpenko, A. G.; Khoronzhuk, R. S.; Mashek, I. Ch.

    2016-05-01

    The article is devoted to experimental and numerical studies of the efficiency of microwave energy deposition into a supersonic flow around the blunt cylinder at different Mach numbers. Identical conditions for energy deposition have been kept in the experiments, thus allowing to evaluate the pure effect of varying Mach number on the pressure drop. Euler equations are solved numerically to model the corresponding unsteady flow compressed gas. The results of numerical simulations are compared to the data obtained from the physical experiments. It is shown that the momentum, which the body receives during interaction of the gas domain modified by microwave discharge with a shock layer before the body, increases almost linearly with rising of Mach number and the efficiency of energy deposition also rises.

  20. ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF WIND/PV AND BATTERY HYBRID SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Almi; M. Arrouf; H.Belmili; S. Boulouma; Bendib, B

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with power control of a wind and solar hybrid generation system for interconnection operation with electric distribution system. Power control strategy is to extract the maximum energy available from varying condition of wind speed and solar irradiance while maintaining power quality at a satisfactory level. In order to capture the maximum power, variable speed control is employed for wind turbine and maximum power point tracking is applied for photovoltaic system. The grid i...

  1. Two methods for microwave irradiation synthesis of TiO2–ZnO–graphene ternary hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Motahareh; Jamali-Paghaleh, Mina; Jamali-Paghaleh, Fatemeh; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, graphene–zinc oxide–titanium dioxide (RGO–ZnO–TiO2) ternary hybrids are successfully synthesized by two methods called ‘one step’ and ‘two steps’, by using a simple microwave treatment of a solution containing graphene oxide, ZnO, TiO2, water and ethanol. Their morphology, structure, and photocatalytic performance in degradation of methylene blue, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared and UV–vis analysis. The results show that RGO–ZnO–TiO2 (GZT) hybrids (containing 7% graphene mass ratio) improve photodegradation efficiency 1.39- and 1.8-fold, compared with RGO–ZnO (GZT0) (containing 7% graphene mass ratio) and pure ZnO, because of reduction of electron–hole recombination in ZnO due to introduction of TiO2. Furthermore, we found that the photocatalytic activity in the ‘one step’ method is higher than in ‘two steps’.

  2. A hybrid training method for neural energy estimation in calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Da Silva, P V M; Seixas, J

    2001-01-01

    A neural mapping is developed to improve the overall performance of Tilecal, which is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector. Feeding the input nodes of a multilayer feedforward neural network with the energy values sampled by the calorimeter cells in beam tests, it is shown that the original energy scale of pion beams is reconstructed over a wide energy range and linearity is significantly improved. As it happens for classical methods, a compromise between nonlinearity correction and the optimization of the energy resolution of the detector has to be accomplished. A hybrid training method for the neural mapping is proposed to achieve this design goal. Using the backpropagation algorithm, the method intercalates an epoch of training steps, for which the neural mapping mainly focus on linearity correction, with another block of training steps, in which the original energy resolution obtained by linearly combining the calorimeter cells becomes the main target. (6 refs).

  3. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  4. Research Update: Hybrid energy devices combining nanogenerators and energy storage systems for self-charging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Jaewoo; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Choi, Chang Ho; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-07-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for nanogenerators as energy harvesting devices utilizing both piezoelectric and triboelectric properties. Most recently, self-charging power units using both nanogenerators and energy storage systems have begun to be investigated for portable and wearable electronics to be used in our daily lives. This review focuses on these hybrid devices with self-charging combined with energy harvesting storage systems based on the most recent reports. In this research update, we will describe the materials, device structures, integration, applications, and research progress up to the present on hybrid devices.

  5. Microstructural and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy (Al 1050) melted by microwave hybrid heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank Lingappa, M.; Srinath, M. S.; Amarendra, H. J.

    2017-07-01

    Microwave processing of metals is an emerging area. Melting of bulk metallic materials through microwave irradiation is still immature. In view of this, the present paper discusses the melting of bulk Al 1050 metallic material through microwave irradiation. The melting process is carried out successfully in a domestic microwave oven with 900 W power at 2450 MHz frequency. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of the processed and as-received material is carried out. Aluminium phase is found to be dominant in processed material when tested through x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure study of as-cast metal through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the formation of uniform hexagonal grain structure free from pores and cavities. The average tensile strength of the cast material is found to be around 21% higher, when compared to as-received material. Vickers’ microhardness of the as-cast metal is measured and is 10% higher than that of the as-received metal. Radiography on as-cast metal shows no significant defects. Al 1050 material melted through microwave irradiation has exhibited superior properties than the as-received Al 1050.

  6. Optimisation and Integration of Hybrid Renewable Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E. L. V.; MacA Gray, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses renewable energy system concepts and integration techniques, and reviews modelling and optimization techniques for hybrid renewable energy systems for electricity provision. A proposal to use design criteria that are not limited to performance- and cost-related factors is introduced and forms a background to the following discussion. Optimization techniques in relation to constraints, reliability analysis and algorithms are discussed as well as software tools available for modelling/simulation, component sizing and optimization. The focus is on systems incorporating hydrogen, but the ideas presented have general relevance.

  7. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  8. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  9. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  10. Energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaul Haq Abbas

    2012-07-01

    Wireless Internet access is almost pervasive nowadays, and many types of wireless networks can be used to access the Internet. However, along with this growth, there is an even greater concern about the energy consumption and efficiency of mobile devices as well as of the supporting networks, triggering the appearance of the concept of green communication. While some efforts have been made towards this direction, challenges still exist and need to be tackled from diverse perspectives. Cellular networks, WLANs, and ad hoc networks in the form of wireless mesh networks are the most popular technologies for wireless Internet access. The availability of such a variety of access networks has also paved the way to explore synergistic approaches for Internet access, leading to the concept of hybrid networks and relay communications. In addition, many mobile devices are being equipped with multiple interfaces, enabling them to operate in hybrid networks. In contrast, the improvements in the battery technology itself have not matched the pace of the emerging mobile applications. The situation becomes more sophisticated when a mobile device functions also as a relay node to forward other station's data. In the literature, energy efficiency of mobile devices has been addressed from various perspectives such as protocol-level efforts, battery management efforts, etc. However, there is little work on energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks and devices with heterogeneous connections. For example, when there are multiple networks available to a mobile device, how to achieve optimum long-term energy consumption of such a device is an open question. Furthermore, in today's cellular networks, micro-, pico-, and femto-cells are the most popular network topologies in order to support high data rate services and high user density. With the growth of such small-cell solutions, the energy consumption of these networks is also becoming an important concern for operators

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Eiben, Sabine; Schneider, Jörg J

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET). A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  13. Energy density dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Ezumi, N. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Sawada, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano-city, Nagano (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kanazawa University, Kakuma-cho, Kanzawa-city, Ishikawa (Japan); Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K. [National Insitute for Fusion Science, Toki-city, Gifu (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The recovery of tritium in nuclear fusion plants is a key issue for safety. So far, the oxidation procedure using an atmospheric pressure plasma is expected to be part of the recovery method. In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen oxidation by plasma chemistry, we have investigated the dependence of hydrogen combustion efficiency on gas flow rate and input power in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma. It has been found that the combustion efficiency depends on energy density of absorbed microwave power. Hence, the energy density is considered as a key parameter for combustion processes. Also neutral gas temperatures inside and outside the plasma were measured by an optical emission spectroscopy method and thermocouple. The result shows that the neutral gas temperature in the plasma is much higher than the outside temperature of plasma. The high neutral gas temperature may affect the combustion reaction. (authors)

  14. Energy efficient microwave heating of carbon fibre reinforced plastic; Energieeffiziente Mikrowellentemperierung von kohlenstofffaserverstaerkten Duroplasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, Maksim

    2013-07-01

    The polymerization of carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites (CFRP) is a dull process step with high energy requirements within the production chain. His improvement would affect the economic and ecological balance of the fiber reinforced materials in a positive way. One possible approach investigated here is tempering of raw materials in a microwave oven. In this work the material to be processed - a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic laminate - is being characterized in the microwave field through electromagnetic and thermal parameters. The relationship between its design parameters (fiber orientation and number of layers), the energy levels (reflection, absorption and transmittance) and the thermal process parameters (temperature gradient achievable) will be established. Afterwards, constructive options will be examined and evaluated which are suitable to install a low-loss (both by means of wave reflections and heat losses) industrial process.

  15. Testing the Interacting Dark Energy Model with Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy and Observational Hubble Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The coupling between dark energy and dark matter provides a possible approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of the cosmological standard model. In this paper, we assumed the interacting term was related to the Hubble parameter, energy density of dark energy, and equation of state of dark energy. The interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter was a constant parameter, which was, Q = 3 H ξ ( 1 + w x ρ x . Based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we made a global fitting on the interacting dark energy model from Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy and observational Hubble data. We found that the observational data sets slightly favored a small interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter; however, there was not obvious evidence of interaction at the 1 σ level.

  16. Energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle equipped with a battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-yi LIANG; Jian-long ZHANG; Xi ZHANG; Shi-fei YUAN; Cheng-liang YIN

    2013-01-01

    To solve the low power density issue of hybrid electric vehicular batteries,a combination of batteries and ultracapacitors(UCs)could be a solution.The high power density feature of UCs can improve the performance of battery/UC hybrid energy storage systems(HESSs).This paper presents a parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV)equipped with an internal combustion engine and an HESS.An advanced energy management strategy(EMS),mainly based on fuzzy logic,is proposed to improve the fuel economy of the HEV and the endurance of the HESS.The EMS is capable of determining the ideal distribution of output power among the internal combustion engine,battery,and UC according to the propelling power or regenerative braking power of the vehicle.To validate the effectiveness of the EMS,numerical simulation and experimental validations are carried out.The results indicate that EMS can effectively control the power sources to work within their respective efficient areas.The battery load can be mitigated and prolonged battery life can be expected.The electrical energy consumption in the HESS is reduced by 3.91%compared with that in the battery only system.Fuel consumption of the HEV is reduced by 24.3% compared with that of the same class conventional vehicles under Economic Commission of Europe driving cycle.

  17. Hybrid energy harvesting/transmission system for embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Park, Gyuhae; Farinholt, Kevin

    2012-04-01

    In most energy harvesting applications the need for a reliable long-term energy supply is essential in powering embedded sensing and control electronics. The goal of many harvesters is to extract energy from the ambient environment to power hardware; however in some applications there may be conditions in which the harvester's performance cannot meet all of the demands of the embedded electronics. One method for addressing this shortfall is to supplement harvested power through the transmission of wireless energy, a concept that has successfully been demonstrated by the authors in previous studies. In this paper we present our findings on the use of a single electromagnetic coil to harvest kinetic energy in a solenoid configuration, as well as background and directed wireless energy in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) bands commonly used in WiFi and cellular phone applications. The motivation for this study is to develop a compact energy harvester / receiver that conserves physical volume, while providing multi-modal energy harvesting capabilities. As with most hybrid systems there are performance trade-offs that must be considered when capturing energy from different physical sources. As part of this paper, many of the issues related to power transmission, physical design, and potential applications are addressed for this device.

  18. Application of a Device for Uniform Web Drying and Preheating Using Microwave Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick W. Ahrens; C. Habeger; J. Loughran; T. Patterson

    2003-10-02

    The project summarized in this report dealt with an evaluation of new microwave applicator ideas for paper preheating and drying. The technical basis for success in this project is the fact that Industrial Microwave Systems has recently identified certain previously unrecognized wave guide ''design variables'' and hardware implementation concepts that can be employed to greatly improve the uniformity of microwave energy distribution for continuous flow processes. Two applicator concepts were ultimately evaluated, a Cross-Machine Direction (CD) oriented applicator and a Machine Direction (MD) oriented applicator. The economic basis for success is the result of several factors. Since 1985, the capital expenditure required for an industrial microwave applicator system has decreased by a factor of four. The maintenance costs have decreased by a factor of 10 and the life expectancy of the magnetron has increased by more than a factor of four to in excess of 8,000 hours (nearly one year at 24 hours/day operation).

  19. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  20. Hybrid system- a promising way solving future energy problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Bohn

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing demand for electricity,an efficiency improvement and thereby reduced CO2 emissions of the power plants are expected in order to reach the goals set in the Kyoto protocol.In comparison to conventional systems,the hybrid-systems with the use of synergetic effects offer the possibility to provide a substantial contribution to spare our natural resources and protect our environment.Combined Cycle Power Plants belongs innately hybrid system in the centralized energy market.They can provide large amounts of power and have a quick start-up time.The MGT/FC hybrid system is quite promising in the decentralized energy market.It is widely used in stand-alone applications.Furthermore,the combination of fossil and renewable power plant technologies contains a large synergy potential to increase the efficiency of processes for power plants.New materials,innovative cooling technology,new combustion concepts and optimized production methods are needed to make the potential of these new technologies accessible for a quantum leap in the efficiency.For this it needs considerable research work and good coordinated research projects between the state,industry,research laboratories and universities.

  1. High Performance Hybrid Energy Storage with Potassium Ferricyanide Redox Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhan; Choudhury, Soumyadip; Weingarth, Daniel; Kim, Daekyu; Presser, Volker

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate stable hybrid electrochemical energy storage performance of a redox-active electrolyte, namely potassium ferricyanide in aqueous media in a supercapacitor-like setup. Challenging issues associated with such a system are a large leakage current and high self-discharge, both stemming from ion redox shuttling through the separator. The latter is effectively eliminated when using an ion exchange membrane instead of a porous separator. Other critical factors toward the optimization of a redox-active electrolyte system, especially electrolyte concentration and volume of electrolyte, have been studied by electrochemical methods. Finally, excellent long-term stability is demonstrated up to 10 000 charge/discharge cycles at 1.2 and 1.8 V, with a broad maximum stability window of up to 1.8 V cell voltage as determined via cyclic voltammetry. An energy capacity of 28.3 Wh/kg or 11.4 Wh/L has been obtained from such cells, taking the nonlinearity of the charge-discharge profile into account. The power performance of our cell has been determined to be 7.1 kW/kg (ca. 2.9 kW/L or 1.2 kW/m(2)). These ratings are higher compared to the same cell operated in aqueous sodium sulfate. This hybrid electrochemical energy storage system is believed to find a strong foothold in future advanced energy storage applications.

  2. Power maximization for pyroelectric, piezoelectric, and hybrid energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Murtadha A.

    The goal of this dissertation consists of improving the efficiency of energy harvesting using pyroelectric and piezoelectric materials in a system by the proper characterization of electrical parameters, widening frequency, and coupling of both effects with the appropriate parameters. A new simple stand-alone method of characterizing the impedance of a pyroelectric cell has been demonstrated. This method utilizes a Pyroelectric single pole low pass filter technique, PSLPF. Utilizing the properties of a PSLPF, where a known input voltage is applied and capacitance C p and resistance Rp can be calculated at a frequency of 1 mHz to 1 Hz. This method demonstrates that for pyroelectric materials the impedance depends on two major factors: average working temperature, and the heating rate. Design and implementation of a hybrid approach using multiple piezoelectric cantilevers is presented. This is done to achieve mechanical and electrical tuning, along with bandwidth widening. In addition, a hybrid tuning technique with an improved adjusting capacitor method was applied. An toroid inductor of 700 mH is shunted in to the load resistance and shunt capacitance. Results show an extended frequency range up to 12 resonance frequencies (300% improvement) with improved power up to 197%. Finally, a hybrid piezoelectric and pyroelectric system is designed and tested. Using a voltage doubler, circuit for rectifying and collecting pyroelectric and piezoelectric voltages individually is proposed. The investigation showed that the hybrid energy is possible using the voltage doubler circuit from two independent sources for pyroelectrictity and piezoelectricity due to marked differences of optimal performance.

  3. Free energy estimation of short DNA duplex hybridizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leger Serge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of DNA duplex hybridization free energy is widely used for predicting cross-hybridizations in DNA computing and microarray experiments. A number of software programs based on different methods and parametrizations are available for the theoretical estimation of duplex free energies. However, significant differences in free energy values are sometimes observed among estimations obtained with various methods, thus being difficult to decide what value is the accurate one. Results We present in this study a quantitative comparison of the similarities and differences among four published DNA/DNA duplex free energy calculation methods and an extended Nearest-Neighbour Model for perfect matches based on triplet interactions. The comparison was performed on a benchmark data set with 695 pairs of short oligos that we collected and manually curated from 29 publications. Sequence lengths range from 4 to 30 nucleotides and span a large GC-content percentage range. For perfect matches, we propose an extension of the Nearest-Neighbour Model that matches or exceeds the performance of the existing ones, both in terms of correlations and root mean squared errors. The proposed model was trained on experimental data with temperature, sodium and sequence concentration characteristics that span a wide range of values, thus conferring the model a higher power of generalization when used for free energy estimations of DNA duplexes under non-standard experimental conditions. Conclusions Based on our preliminary results, we conclude that no statistically significant differences exist among free energy approximations obtained with 4 publicly available and widely used programs, when benchmarked against a collection of 695 pairs of short oligos collected and curated by the authors of this work based on 29 publications. The extended Nearest-Neighbour Model based on triplet interactions presented in this work is capable of performing accurate

  4. Reduced leakage current and improved ferroelectricity in magneto-electric composite ceramics prepared with microwave assisted radiant hybrid sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Upadhyay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of magneto-electric composite ceramics viz., 0.9 BaTi0.95Sn0.05O3 (BTSO- 0.1 Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 (NZFO prepared with microwave assisted radiant hybrid sintering (MARH are reported. Phase purity and isovalent substitution of Ti4+ by Sn4+ of the samples is confirmed from x-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mossbauer measurements respectively. Significant suppression of leakage current and improvement of ferroelectricity is observed for the composites prepared with MARH. The observed results are explained in terms of uniform dispersion of ferrite (NZFO phase in the ferroelectric (BTSO matrix as evidenced from back-scattered scanning electron micrographs.

  5. Hybrid Energy Scheduling in a Renewable Micro Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the energy scheduling issue in a hybrid energy micro grid, which consists of photovoltaic (PV, wind power, combined heat and power (CHP, energy storage and electric vehicles (EVs. The optimal scheduling model of these power sources is presented with consideration of the demand response. The objective function is minimum total operation costs, including gas cost, electric power purchase from the main grid and storage and EV charging-discharging costs. In the process of optimization, multi-team particle swarm optimization (MTPSO is proposed, which uses units, groups and swarm information to update the velocity (position with faster and more stable convergence. With simulation analysis, it is found that the proposed model is effective, and the presented MTPSO has a better global search ability than PSO.

  6. Long range energy transfer in graphene hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hugo; Bernardo, César; Moura, Cacilda; Ferreira, R. A. S.; André, P. S.; Stauber, Tobias; Belsley, Michael; Schellenberg, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this work we quantify the distance dependence for the extraction of energy from excited chromophores by a single layer graphene flake over a large separation range. To this end hybrid structures were prepared, consisting of a thin (2 nm) layer of a polymer matrix doped with a well chosen strongly fluorescent organic molecule, followed by an un-doped spacer layer of well-defined thicknesses made of the same polymer material and an underlying single layer of pristine, undoped graphene. The coupling strength is assessed through the variation of the fluorescence decay kinetics as a function of distance between the graphene and the excited chromophore molecules. Non-radiative energy transfer to the graphene was observed at distances of up to 60 nm a range much greater than typical energy transfer distances observed in molecular systems.

  7. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  8. Microwave Chip-Based Beam Splitter for Low-Energy Guided Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jakob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-26

    We present a novel beam splitter for low-energy electrons using a micro-structured guiding potential created above the surface of a planar microwave chip. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double well, thereby generating two separated output beams with 5 mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to 3 eV, in excellent agreement with particle tracking simulations. We discuss prospects of this novel beam splitter approach for electron-based quantum matter-wave optics experiments.

  9. Relations between Microwave Bursts and near-Earth High-Energy Proton Enhancements and their Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Grechnev, V V; Meshalkina, N S; Chertok, I M

    2015-01-01

    We further study the relations between parameters of bursts at 35 GHz recorded with the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters during 25 years, on the one hand, and solar proton events, on the other hand (Grechnev et al. in Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 65, S4, 2013a). Here we address the relations between the microwave fluences at 35 GHz and near-Earth proton fluences above 100 MeV in order to find information on their sources and evaluate their diagnostic potential. A correlation was found to be pronouncedly higher between the microwave and proton fluences than between their peak fluxes. This fact probably reflects a dependence of the total number of protons on the duration of the acceleration process. In events with strong flares, the correlation coefficients of high-energy proton fluences with microwave and soft X-ray fluences are higher than those with the speeds of coronal mass ejections. The results indicate a statistically larger contribution of flare processes to high-energy proton fluxes. Acceleration by shock wave...

  10. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  11. Direct Energy Supply to the Reaction Mixture during Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal and Combustion Synthesis of Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves to perform inorganic synthesis allows the direct transfer of electromagnetic energy inside the reaction mixture, independently of the temperature manifested therein. The conversion of microwave (MW radiation into heat is useful in overcoming the activation energy barriers associated with chemical transformations, but the use of microwaves can be further extended to higher temperatures, thus creating unusual high-energy environments. In devising synthetic methodologies to engineered nanomaterials, hydrothermal synthesis and solution combustion synthesis can be used as reference systems to illustrate effects related to microwave irradiation. In the first case, energy is transferred to the entire reaction volume, causing a homogeneous temperature rise within a closed vessel in a few minutes, hence assuring uniform crystal growth at the nanometer scale. In the second case, strong exothermic combustion syntheses can benefit from the application of microwaves to convey energy to the reaction not only during the ignition step, but also while it is occurring and even after its completion. In both approaches, however, the direct interaction of microwaves with the reaction mixture can lead to practically gradient-less heating profiles, on the basis of which the main observed characteristics and properties of the aforementioned reactions and products can be explained.

  12. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  13. A novel thermal accelerant for augmentation of microwave energy during image-guided tumor ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, William K. C.; Maxwell, Aaron W. P.; Frank, Victoria E.; Primmer, Michael P.; Paul, Jarod B.; Susai, Cynthia; Collins, Scott A.; Borjeson, Tiffany M.; Baird, Greyson L.; Lombardo, Kara A.; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2017-02-01

    The greatest challenge in image-guided thermal ablation (IGTA) of liver tumors is a relatively high recurrence rate (ca. 30%) due to incomplete ablation. To meet this challenge, we have developed a novel Thermal Accelerator (TA) to demonstrate its capability to, 1) augment microwave (MW) energy from a distance unattainable by antenna alone; 2) turn into a gel at body temperature; 3) act as a CT or US contrast. We have examined the TA efficiency using in vitro and ex vivo models: microwave power, TA dose, frequencies and TA-to-tip distance were varied, and temperature readings compared with and without TA. Using the in vitro model, it was established that both the rate and magnitude of increase in ablation zone temperature were significantly greater with TA under all tested conditions (panimal model are consistent with the observations made in in vitro and en vivo studies.

  14. A New Method to Optimize Semiactive Hybrid Energy Storage System for Hybrid Electrical Vehicle by Using PE Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both battery and super-capacitor are important power sources for hybrid electric vehicles, there is no accurate configuration theory to match the above two kinds of power sources which have significantly different characteristics on energy and power storage for the goal of making good use of their individual features without size wasting. In this paper, a new performance is presented that is used for analysis and optimal design method of battery and super-capacitor for hybrid energy storage system of a parallel hybrid electrical vehicle. In order to achieve optimal design with less consumption, the power-energy function is applied to establish direct mathematical relationship between demand power and the performance. During matching process, firstly, three typical operating conditions are chosen as the basis of design; secondly, the energy and power capacity evaluation methods for the parameters of battery and super-capacitor in hybrid energy storage system are proposed; thirdly, the mass, volume, and cost of the system are optimized simultaneously by using power-energy function. As a result, there are significant advantages on mass, volume, and cost for the hybrid energy storage system with the matching method. Simulation results fit well with the results of analysis, which confirms that the optimized design can meet the demand of hybrid electric vehicle well.

  15. Hybrid Simulation Modeling to Estimate U.S. Energy Elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylin-Stern, Adam C.

    This paper demonstrates how an U.S. application of CIMS, a technologically explicit and behaviourally realistic energy-economy simulation model which includes macro-economic feedbacks, can be used to derive estimates of elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and autonomous energy efficiency index (AEEI) parameters. The ability of economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions depends on the potential for households and industry to decrease overall energy usage, and move from higher to lower emissions fuels. Energy economists commonly refer to ESUB estimates to understand the degree of responsiveness of various sectors of an economy, and use estimates to inform computable general equilibrium models used to study climate policies. Using CIMS, I have generated a set of future, 'pseudo-data' based on a series of simulations in which I vary energy and capital input prices over a wide range. I then used this data set to estimate the parameters for transcendental logarithmic production functions using regression techniques. From the production function parameter estimates, I calculated an array of elasticity of substitution values between input pairs. Additionally, this paper demonstrates how CIMS can be used to calculate price-independent changes in energy-efficiency in the form of the AEEI, by comparing energy consumption between technologically frozen and 'business as usual' simulations. The paper concludes with some ideas for model and methodological improvement, and how these might figure into future work in the estimation of ESUBs from CIMS. Keywords: Elasticity of substitution; hybrid energy-economy model; translog; autonomous energy efficiency index; rebound effect; fuel switching.

  16. Performance of Hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors as Direct Detectors for Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, R M J; Endo, A; Ferrari, L; Yates, S J C; Baryshev, A M; Klapwijk, T M

    2014-01-01

    In the next decades millimeter and sub-mm astronomy requires large format imaging arrays and broad-band spectrometers to complement the high spatial and spectral resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array. The desired sensors for these instruments should have a background limited sensitivity and a high optical efficiency and enable arrays thousands of pixels in size. Hybrid microwave kinetic inductance detectors consisting of NbTiN and Al have shown to satisfy these requirements. We present the second generation hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs, which are photon noise limited in both phase and amplitude readout for loading levels $P_{850GHz} \\geq 10$ fW. Thanks to the increased responsivity, the photon noise level achieved in phase allows us to simultaneously read out approximately 8000 pixels using state-of-the-art electronics. In addition, the choice of superconducting materials and the use of a Si lens in combination with a planar antenna gives these resonators the flexibility to operate within t...

  17. Soybean drying characteristics in microwave rotary dryer with forced convection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifang WANG; Zhanyong LI; Yanhua LI; Jingsheng YE

    2009-01-01

    A new hybrid drying technique by combining microwave and forced convection drying within a rotary drum, i.e., microwave rotary drying, was developed with the purpose to improve the uniformity of microwave drying. In a laboratory microwave rotary dryer, rewetted soybean was utilized as experimental material to study the effects of drum rotating speed, ventilation flow rate, and specific microwave power on the drying kinetics and cracking ratio of soybean. It was found that, with rotation, the cracking ratio can be lowered but without distinct improvement in the drying rate. Increasing ventilation flow rate and specific microwave power can improve the drying rate, but the cracking ratio also increases as a negative result. The cracking ratio lower than 10% can be attained for ventilation flow rate lower than 2.0 m3·h-1 or specific microwave energy lower than 0.4 kW·kg-1 in the present experiments.

  18. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  19. Impact Energy Absorbing Capability of Metal/Polymer Hybrid Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyungil; Kwon, O Bum; Park, Hyung Wook [Ulsan Nat’l Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, the reduction of vehicle weight has been increasingly studied, in order to enhance the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. In particular, the seat frame is being studied actively, owing to considerations of driver safety from external impact damage. Therefore, this study focuses on high strength steel sheet (SPFC980)/polymer heterojunction hybrid materials, and their performance in regards to impact energy absorption. The ratio of impact energy absorption was observed to be relatively higher in the SPFC980/polymer hybrid materials under the impact load. This was found by calculating the equivalent flexural rigidity, which is the bending effect, according to the Castigliano theorem. An efficient wire-web structure was investigated through the simulation of different wire-web designs such as triangular, rectangular, octagonal, and hexagonal structures. The hexagonal wire-web structure was shown to have the least impact damage, according to the simulations. This study can be utilized for seat frame design for passengers’ safety, owing to efficient impact absorption.

  20. Hybrid energy harvesting systems, using piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornogolub, Alexandru; Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Petit, Lionel

    2016-09-01

    Interest in energy harvesting applications has increased a lot during recent years. This is especially true for systems using electroactive materials like dielectric polymers or piezoelectric materials. Unfortunately, these materials despite multiple advantages, present some important drawbacks. For example, many dielectric polymers demonstrated high energy densities; they are cheap, easy to process and can be easily integrated in many different structures. But at the same time, dielectric polymer generators require an external energy supply which could greatly compromise their autonomy. Piezoelectric systems, on the other hand, are completely autonomous and can be easily miniaturized. However, most common piezoelectric materials present a high rigidity and are brittle by nature and therefore their integration could be difficult. This paper investigates the possibility of using hybrid systems combining piezoelectric elements and dielectric polymers for mechanical energy harvesting applications and it is focused mainly on the problem of electrical energy transfer. Our objective is to show that such systems can be interesting and that it is possible to benefit from the advantages of both materials. For this, different configurations were considered and the problem of their optimization was addressed. The experimental work enabled us to prove the concept and identify the main practical limitations.

  1. Two Beam Energy Exchange in Hybrid Liquid Crystal Cells with Photorefractive Field Controlled Boundary Conditions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0209 TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID CRYSTAL CELLS WITH PHOTOREFRACTIVE FIELD CONTROLLED BOUNDARY...DATES COVERED (From - To) 29 August 2016 Interim 26 October 2015 – 29 July 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO BEAM ENERGY EXCHANGE IN HYBRID LIQUID... energy gain when two light beams intersect in a hybrid nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell with photorefractive crystalline substrates. A periodic space

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis of some new coumarin-pyrazoline hybrids and their antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Dongamanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrazolines 4a-g have been synthesized by Michael addition of chalcones 3a-g with hydrazine hydrate in presence of sodium acetate under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. Structures of the newly synthesized chalcones 3a-g and pyrazolines 4a-g have been established on the basis of IR, 1H & 13C NMR and mass spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Some of the compounds shown very good activity compared to standard drugs against all pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  3. Effects of continuous-wave, pulsed, and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated microwaves on brain energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A P; Joines, W T; Allis, J W

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of continuous-wave, sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-225 g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, and creatine phosphate (CP) concentration were determined as a function of modulation frequency. Brain temperatures of animals were maintained between -0.1 and -0.4 degrees C from the preexposure temperature when subjected to as much as 20 mW/cm2 (average power) CW, pulsed, or sinusoidal-amplitude modulated 591-MHz radiation for 5 min. Sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated exposures at 16-24 Hz showed a trend toward preferential modulation frequency response in inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence. The pulse-modulated and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated (16 Hz) microwaves were not significantly different from CW exposures in inducing increased brain NADH fluorescence and decreased ATP and CP concentrations. When the pulse-modulation frequency was decreased from 500 to 250 pulses per second the average incident power density threshold for inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence increased by a factor of 4--ie, from about 0.45 to about 1.85 mW/cm2. Since brain temperature did not increase, the microwave-induced increase in brain NADH and decrease in ATP and CP concentrations was not due to hyperthermia. This suggests a direct interaction mechanism and is consistent with the hypothesis of microwave inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain function of ATP production.

  4. Energy efficient hybrid computing systems using spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Mrigank

    Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of spin current facilitate non-Boolean computation like majority evaluation that can be used to model a neuron. The magneto-metallic neurons can operate at ultra-low terminal voltage of ˜20mV, thereby resulting in small computation power. Moreover, since nano-magnets inherently act as memory elements, these devices can facilitate integration of logic and memory in interesting ways. The spin based neurons can be integrated with CMOS and other emerging devices leading to different classes of neuromorphic/non-Von-Neumann architectures. The spin-based designs involve `mixed-mode' processing and hence can provide very compact and ultra-low energy solutions for complex computation blocks, both digital as well as analog. Such low-power, hybrid designs can be suitable for various data processing applications like cognitive computing, associative memory, and currentmode on-chip global interconnects. Simulation results for these applications based on device-circuit co-simulation framework predict more than ˜100x improvement in computation energy as compared to state of the art CMOS design, for optimal spin-device parameters.

  5. Reduced density matrix hybrid approach: application to electronic energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelbach, Timothy C; Markland, Thomas E; Reichman, David R

    2012-02-28

    Electronic energy transfer in the condensed phase, such as that occurring in photosynthetic complexes, frequently occurs in regimes where the energy scales of the system and environment are similar. This situation provides a challenge to theoretical investigation since most approaches are accurate only when a certain energetic parameter is small compared to others in the problem. Here we show that in these difficult regimes, the Ehrenfest approach provides a good starting point for a dynamical description of the energy transfer process due to its ability to accurately treat coupling to slow environmental modes. To further improve on the accuracy of the Ehrenfest approach, we use our reduced density matrix hybrid framework to treat the faster environmental modes quantum mechanically, at the level of a perturbative master equation. This combined approach is shown to provide an efficient and quantitative description of electronic energy transfer in a model dimer and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex and is used to investigate the effect of environmental preparation on the resulting dynamics.

  6. Development of an Experimental Vehicle with Hybrid Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ciancio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The first solar car competition in Latin America, in «The Solar Road» category, across the AtacamaDesert, Chile (2011 gave origin to an interdisciplinary project to encourage the use of sustainableenergy applied to the urban transport, without the use of fossil fuels damaging to the environment. Itaimed to develop a vehicle with minimum energy consumption for its transport, lightweight, stable,low-cost, and zero emission based on the combination of photovoltaic solar energy and electricpower obtained from a generator driven by human traction both stored in a battery. In this paper, theinherent aspects of the project and execution stages of an experimental hybrid vehicle, called PampaSolar, are presented. This includes the conception and sizing of the resistant structure, adoption ofthe solar cells configuration, battery sizing and choice, three-phase generator and electronicinstrumentation development, according to the basis of the competition and related loads. The analysisof the results of electric, electronic, mechanical, and vehicle energy systems during competitiondemonstrated a reliable performance, getting the award for the most efficient use of solar energy.

  7. Microwave treatment of dairy manure for resource recovery: Reaction kinetics and energy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2016-12-01

    A newly designed continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave wastewater treatment system was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) for treating dairy manure. After the treatment, about 84% of total phosphorus and 45% of total chemical oxygen demand were solubilized with the highest H2O2 dosage (0.4% H2O2 per %TS). The reaction kinetics of soluble chemical oxygen demand revealed activation energy to be in the range of 5-22 kJ mole(-1). The energy required by the processes was approximately 0.16 kWh per liter of dairy manure heated. A higher H2O2 dosage used in the system had a better process performance in terms of solids solubilization, reaction kinetics, and energy consumption. Cost-benefit analysis for a farm-scale MW/H2O2-AOP treatment system was also presented. The results obtained from this study would provide the basic knowledge for designing an effective farm-scale dairy manure treatment system.

  8. Evidence for Dark Energy from the Cosmic Microwave Background Alone Using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Lensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.

  9. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  10. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Shen-Yun; Geyi, Wen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%), which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  11. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  12. Different energy management strategies of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors for vehicular applications

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEGRE, Anne-Laure; Trigui, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The energy storage is a key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a right size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors seems to be an appropriate device to fulfill these constraints. The objective of the paper is to propose different energy management strategies of HESS using batteries and supercapacitors. Four elabor...

  13. Different energy management strategies of Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors for vehicular applications

    OpenAIRE

    ALLEGRE, Anne-Laure; TRIGUI, Rochdi; Bouscayrol, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The energy storage is a key issue for traction applications like Electric Vehicles (EVs) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). Indeed, it needs a higher power and energy density, a right size, a long lifetime and a low cost. A Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) using batteries and supercapacitors seems to be an appropriate device to fulfill these constraints. The objective of the paper is to propose different energy management strategies of HESS using batteries and supercapacitors. Four elabor...

  14. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  15. An Optimization Framework for Dynamic Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenbo Du; Humberto E Garcia; Christiaan J.J. Paredis

    2014-03-01

    A computational framework for the efficient analysis and optimization of dynamic hybrid energy systems (HES) is developed. A microgrid system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) is modeled using the Modelica language in the Dymola environment. The optimization loop is implemented in MATLAB, with the FMI Toolbox serving as the interface between the computational platforms. Two characteristic optimization problems are selected to demonstrate the methodology and gain insight into the system performance. The first is an unconstrained optimization problem that optimizes the dynamic properties of the battery, reactor and generator to minimize variability in the HES. The second problem takes operating and capital costs into consideration by imposing linear and nonlinear constraints on the design variables. The preliminary optimization results obtained in this study provide an essential step towards the development of a comprehensive framework for designing HES.

  16. Improved debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by bimetallic iron-silver nanoparticles coupled with microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Si [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Shaogui, E-mail: yangdlut@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Cheng, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-07-01

    This study focused on the enhanced debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by Fe-Ag nano-particles under microwave radiation (Fe-Ag/MW). Fe-Ag bimetallic nano-particles were synthesized by reductive deposition of Ag on nano-iron and characterized with a number of techniques, including BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. Approximately 97% of BDE-209 or 78% of BDE-47 were rapidly transformed to its degradation products within 8 min in the Fe-Ag/MW system. The dehalogenation efficiency of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was enhanced apparently by microwave radiation. Moreover, the microwave thermal energy played a significant role in accelerating the degradation reactions. Compared with nano-iron alone, the deposition of Ag also increased the rates of degradation. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses of PBDEs' degradation products reveals that the possible degradation pathway proceeds through stepwise debromination from [n]-bromo- to [n-1]-bromo-DE, with bromine being substituted by hydrogen sequentially. Di- to nona-brominated congeners were formed during BDE-209 reduction, while diphenyl ether to tri-BDEs were observed during BDE-47 degradation. These results suggest that PBDEs can be debrominated rapidly by the innovative processes that may be environmentally friendly in applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe-Ag nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A highly efficient technology for debromination of PBDEs by Fe-Ag/MW was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of bromine's number on the stability against reduction of PBDEs was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of MW energy and Ag in the reactivity of the Fe-Ag/MW system was demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible degradation pathways of BDE-209 and BDE-47 were proposed.

  17. Teratology, survival, and reversal learning after fetal irradiation of mice by 2450-MHz microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernovetz, M.E. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK); Justesen, D.R.; King, N.W.; Wagner, J.E.

    1975-12-01

    Eighty primigravid mice of the C3H-HeJ strain were subjected to 2450-MHz sinusoidally modulated microwave radiation or to sham radiation (with or without an accompanying injection of 5 mg of cortisone as a teratological marker) on the 11th, 12th, 13th or 14th day of gestation. The radiation treatment consisted of a single intense dosing of microwave energy (38 mW/g for 600 sec = 22.8 J/g) in a multi-mode cavity. On the 19th day of gestation fetuses were taken via Caesarean section and were observed for gross structural abnormalities. While radiation of dams failed reliably to increase the incidence of fetal mortality or morbidity above that of controls, the dams treated with cortisone gave birth to reliably greater numbers of stillborn and deformed fetuses. During their 14th day of gestation 60 primigravid mice received the radiation or sham-radiation treatment, half with and half without the accompanying injection of cortisone. A virtually complete failure to survive to weaning characterized the pups born of the sham-radiated cortisone-treated group of dams, but the incidence of cortisone-induced mortality was reliably reduced in pups whose dams were also radiated by microwave energy. No differences in maze performances were observed in the mice as a function of their placement in the control or the radiation condition, but offspring of cortisone-treated, radiated dams made reliably more errors. Careful measurement of elevations of colonic temperatures of radiated dams shortly after treatment with cortisone revealed an averaged ..delta..T that is close to that observed in a comparably radiated volume of water of equivalent mass. If the finding has generality beyond the gravid mouse--if, that is, cortisone effectively and reversibly renders the mammal ectothermic--an important advance in biological dosimetry of non-ionizing radiation may be at hand.

  18. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for Adsorption-Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Saiha Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on synthesis of zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO nanocomposites in the presence of diethylenetriamine (DETA via a facile microwave method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the nanocomposites correspond to the ZnO hexagonal phase wurtzite structure. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM images revealed that the ZnO nanorods, with an average length : diameter ratio of 10, were successfully deposited on the rGO sheets. Under the irradiation of sunlight, the nanocomposites showed enhanced adsorption-photocatalysis by more than twofold and photocurrent response by sixfold compared to the ZnO. The excellent photoactivity performance of the nanocomposites is contributed by smaller ZnO nanorod and the presence of rGO that acts as a photosensitizer by transferring electrons to the conduction band of ZnO within the nanocomposite during sunlight illumination.

  19. Energy regenerative suspension test for EEV and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. A.; Jamil, J. F.; Muhammad, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    The world is demanding on the alternative fuel and reducing the fuel consumption of land transportation especially in the automotive industries. This paper emphasizes the development of the energy regenerative suspension system (EReSS) for energy efficient vehicle (EEV) or hybrid. The EReSS product is fabricated and tested on the laboratory and real vehicle. The test is conducted to test the function of the EReSS system on real vehicle. The test is done using the multimeter to record the reading of voltage produces by the EReSS system that is attached to the vehicle suspension system. The experiment starts by setting the parameters in the EReSS system which is the number of windings with a standard magnet. Road irregularity is one of the important parts of the experiment which is set to be various types of road condition and driving style. A domestic car model is selected for the EReSS test that the system can be installed. The test of the EReSS gives out the maximum output voltage of 5.6 V with 530 windings. Improvement on the material can increase the output voltage. The EReSS is function on the real vehicle by producing voltage by harvesting the kinetic energy from the suspension vibration.

  20. Energy and charge transfer in nanoscale hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basché, Thomas; Bottin, Anne; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Kim, Jeong-Hee; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Prabhakaran, Prem; Lee, Kwang-Sup

    2015-06-01

    Hybrid materials composed of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots and π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers have attracted continuous interest in recent years, because they may find applications in bio-sensing, photodetection, and photovoltaics. Fundamental processes occurring in these nanohybrids are light absorption and emission as well as energy and/or charge transfer between the components. For future applications it is mandatory to understand, control, and optimize the wide parameter space with respect to chemical assembly and the desired photophysical properties. Accordingly, different approaches to tackle this issue are described here. Simple organic dye molecules (Dye)/quantum dot (QD) conjugates are studied with stationary and time-resolved spectroscopy to address the dynamics of energy and ultra-fast charge transfer. Micellar as well as lamellar nanostructures derived from diblock copolymers are employed to fine-tune the energy transfer efficiency of QD donor/dye acceptor couples. Finally, the transport of charges through organic components coupled to the quantum dot surface is discussed with an emphasis on functional devices.

  1. Hybrid Topological Lie-Hamiltonian Learning in Evolving Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, a novel bidirectional algorithm for hybrid (discrete + continuous-time) Lie-Hamiltonian evolution in adaptive energy landscape-manifold is designed and its topological representation is proposed. The algorithm is developed within a geometrically and topologically extended framework of Hopfield's neural nets and Haken's synergetics (it is currently designed in Mathematica, although with small changes it could be implemented in Symbolic C++ or any other computer algebra system). The adaptive energy manifold is determined by the Hamiltonian multivariate cost function H, based on the user-defined vehicle-fleet configuration matrix W, which represents the pseudo-Riemannian metric tensor of the energy manifold. Search for the global minimum of H is performed using random signal differential Hebbian adaptation. This stochastic gradient evolution is driven (or, pulled-down) by `gravitational forces' defined by the 2nd Lie derivatives of H. Topological changes of the fleet matrix W are observed during the evolution and its topological invariant is established. The evolution stops when the W-topology breaks down into several connectivity-components, followed by topology-breaking instability sequence (i.e., a series of phase transitions).

  2. Quaternized Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Based Silver Nanoparticles Hybrid: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of uniform silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs was developed. The synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 8 min, using laboratory-prepared, water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC as a chemical reducer and stabilizer and silver nitrate as the silver source. The structure of the prepared QCMC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The formation, size distribution, and dispersion of the Ag NPs in the QCMC matrix were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM analysis, and the thermal stability and antibacterial properties of the synthesized QCMC-based Ag NPs composite (QCMC-Ag were also explored. The results revealed that (1 QCMC was successfully prepared by grafting quaternary ammonium groups onto carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC chains under microwave irradiation in water for 90 min and this substitution appeared to have occurred at -NH2 sites on C2 position of the pyranoid ring; (2 uniform and stable spherical Ag NPs could be synthesized when QCMC was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent; (3 Ag NPs were well dispersed in the QCMC matrix with a narrow size distribiution in the range of 17–31 nm without aggregation; and (4 due to the presence of Ag NPs, the thermal stability and antibacterial activity of QCMC-Ag were dramatically improved relative to QCMC.

  3. One-pot microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of graphene oxide-TiO{sub 2} hybrids for photodegradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Xipeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Zhang, Dafeng, E-mail: dafengzh@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Gao, Yanyan; Shao, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Ding, Guqiao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Songsong; Zhao, Shuping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GO-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized by a microwave-assistant combustion method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of GO, and nitrogen doping of TiO{sub 2} and graphene were one-pot achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GO-TiO{sub 2} hybrids show improved photocatalystic properties and photostability. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO)-TiO{sub 2} hybrids (GTHs) were synthesized by a one-pot microwave-assistant combustion method. The structures, morphologies, and photocatalytic properties of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The effects of microwave irradiation time and GO content on the photocatalystic performances of as-synthesized GTHs for methyl orange were investigated. The experimental results show that reduction of GO, synthesis of TiO{sub 2}, and nitrogen doping of TiO{sub 2} and graphene can be achieved simultaneously during the combustion process. GTHs showed improved photocatalystic properties than neat TiO{sub 2}, due to the effective transfer of photo-generated electron from TiO{sub 2} to GO and improved absorbance performance of GTHs. Moreover, the photostability of GTHs was characterized.

  4. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  5. Kajian Ekonomis Pembangkit Hybrid Renewable Energi Menuju Desa Mandiri Energi di Kabupaten Bone-Bolango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabhan Kanata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy crisis due to extensive uses of fossil fuel and environmental issues caused by unsustainable uses of energy driving the world and Indonesian government to accelerate the usage of renewable energy such as hydro, wind and solar. One of the government approaches is to implement a program called Independent Energy Village (IEV. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER serves to design a micropower systems and to facilitate the comparison between some of power generation technologies. Researcher models the power system based on the physical behavior and overall cost, which are the total cost of installation and operation of the system during operation of the system. HOMER allows researcher to compare various forms of system designs technically and economically. This research was conducted in the village of Lombongo, District Suwawa, in Bone-Bolango Gorontalo. Some of the modeling results showed that the combination of micro-hydro and solar power have the most favorable economic value if operated over 25 years with a Net Present Cost (NPC is US$ -369,087.00 and a Level Cost of Energy (LCOE of -0.106 US$/kWh below the level energy costs of PLN at 0.116 US$/kWh in whch made this hybrid plant is very competitive. The hybrid plant has micro-hydro generating capacity of 58,9 kW with annual production of 657,384 kW, while solar power plant with a production capacity of 15,7 kW per year 20.091 kW.

  6. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of mild steel-mild steel joint formed by microwave hybrid heating process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Bansal; Apurbba Kumar Sharma; Shantanu Das

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, mild steel–mild steel (MS-MS) joints fabricated through microwave hybrid heating (MHH) have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron probe micro analyser (EPMA), Vicker’s microhardness measurement and tensile strength. The XRD spectrum of the developed joints shows substitution type of solid solution form in the joint zone. The back scattered electron (BSE) images of the joint obtained by SEM show complete melting of powder particle and consequently diffusion bonding takes place between the substrate and the powder particle. The electron probe micro analysis shows diffusion of element across the joint. The Vicker’s micro hardness of the joints was measured to be 420 ± 30 Hv, which is higher than that of substrate hardness 230 ± 10 Hv. The tensile strength of the sample was measured by an universal testing machine and found to be 240 MPa which is about 50% of base material strength. The SEM micrographs of the fractured sample indicate mixed modes of failure during fracture of the joint; both ductile and brittle modes of failures occurred as indicated by dimple and cleavage of the brittle faces, respectively.

  7. Hybrid aqueous capacitors with improved energy/power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Menzel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a high-voltage, hybrid capacitor involving two separate redox reactions. Aqueous solutions of Mg(NO32 and KI have been used for negative and positive electrode, respectively. Adjusting pH=2 for electrode (+ with KI solution and modifying Mg(NO32 solution to pH=9 for negative side play a crucial role for a stable long-term operation of capacitor at enhanced voltage. A benefit from such a construction is a pseudocapacitive contribution from hydrogen sorption reaction on the negative electrode and high iodine/iodide activity on the positive electrode, enhancing the energy with no remarkable impact on the power profile. Proposed solution allows a high voltage (1.8 V to be reached and thereby high power and energy performance (~20 W h/kg at 1 kW/kg to be obtained. High long-term stability has been confirmed by floating and galvanostatic tests.

  8. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  9. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of AA 6061- Graphene - SiC hybrid nanocomposites processed through microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Siddhartha; Prashantha Kumar, H. G.; Xavior, . M. Anthony

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most essential industrial and engineering materials, Aluminum alloy 6061 have been extensively used in automobile industries and many engineering applications due to its impending properties like low density, good structural rigidity, feasibility to incorporate and enhance the strength by addition of various reinforcing materials. The essential criteria in enhancing the properties without sacrificing the ductility is always challenging in Aluminum and its alloys based composites. In the recent years, enormous research has been carried on ceramic based and carbon based reinforcement materials used in Aluminum metal matrix composites. But the combination of both is never tried so far due to lack of processing methods. The current research work is carried out to process, synthesize and perform the characterization of Al 6061 matrix nanocomposites with Graphene of flake size 10 μm and SiC of particle size 10 pm as reinforcement combinations in various proportions (weight percentage) which are carried out through powder metallurgy (PM) approach. The powders are processed through ultrasonic liquid processing method and the mixtures were ball milled by adding SiC particles followed by uniaxial hot compaction. Thus prepared compacts are sintered (conventional and microwave) and mechanical properties like hardness, density are investigated as a function of Graphene and SiC concentrations (weight fraction). Relevant strengthening mechanism involved in the Al6061 - Graphene -SiC composites in comparison with monolithic Al 6061 alloy were discussed.

  11. Tunable High Q Superconducting Microwave Resonator for Hybrid System with ^87Rb atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Zaeill; Voigt, K. D.; Lee, Jongmin; Hoffman, J. E.; Grover, J. A.; Ravets, S.; Zaretskey, V.; Palmer, B. S.; Hafezi, M.; Taylor, J. M.; Anderson, J. R.; Dragt, A. J.; Lobb, C. J.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a frequency tuning system for a ``lumped-element'' thin-film superconducting Al microwave resonator [1] on sapphire intended for coupling to hyperfine ground states of cold trapped ^87Rb atoms, which are separated by about fRb=6.83 GHz. At T=12 mK and on resonance at 6.81 GHz, the loaded quality factor was 120,000. By moving a carefully machined Al pin towards the inductor of the resonator using a piezo stage, we were able to tune the resonance frequency over a range of 35 MHz and within a few kHz of fRb. While measuring the power dependent response of the resonator at each tuned frequency, we observed anomalous decreases in the quality factor at several frequencies. These drops were more pronounced at lower power. We discuss our results, which suggest these resonances are attributable to discrete two-level systems.[4pt] [1] Z. Kim et al., AIP ADVANCES 1, 042107 (2011).

  12. Hybrid Synthetic/Real Aperture Antenna for High Resolution Microwave Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of key hydrological parameters at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology missions necessitate the use of very large apertures. Two-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (2-D STAR), though promising in the long term, has many technical challenges in the areas of power, and sensitivity for very large apertures (i.e. greater than 300 wavelengths). This paper will discuss an alternative approach to the pure 2-D STAR, which uses an offset parabolic cylinder reflector fed by multiple elements to form a 1-D STAR. In essence a single STAR element is composed of a feedhorn and parabolic cylinder reflector. The elements are sparsely arrayed and thus can share a single reflector. This antenna would have no moving parts once deployed, have much higher sensitivity than a Y-shaped 2-D STAR of equivalent size, many fewer receivers than that 2-D STAR, and the reflector could be made of a thin film and lightweight deployment system for high packing density. The instrument using this approach would be a cross track push broom imager. An overview of the design parameters, potential deployment mechanisms and applications will be presented.

  13. Hybrid Synthetic/Real Aperture Antenna for High Resolution Microwave Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Terence A.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of key hydrological parameters at the spatial and temporal scales required in the post-2002 era face significant technological challenges. These measurements are based on relatively low frequency thermal microwave emission (at 1.4 GHz for soil moisture and salinity, 10 GHz and up for precipitation, and 19 and 37 GHz for snow). The long wavelengths at these frequencies coupled with the high spatial and radiometric resolutions required by the various global hydrology missions necessitate the use of very large apertures. Two-dimensional Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometry (2-D STAR), though promising in the long term, has many technical challenges in the areas of power, and sensitivity for very large apertures (i.e. greater than 300 wavelengths). This paper will discuss an alternative approach to the pure 2-D STAR, which uses an offset parabolic cylinder reflector fed by multiple elements to form a 1-D STAR. In essence a single STAR element is composed of a feedhorn and parabolic cylinder reflector. The elements are sparsely arrayed and thus can share a single reflector. This antenna would have no moving parts once deployed, have much higher sensitivity than a Y-shaped 2-D STAR of equivalent size, many fewer receivers than that 2-D STAR, and the reflector could be made of a thin film and lightweight deployment system for high packing density. The instrument using this approach would be a cross track push broom imager. An overview of the design parameters, potential deployment mechanisms and applications will be presented.

  14. Recent Developments on Hybrid Time-Frequency Numerical Simulation Techniques for RF and Microwave Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of the promising doors that functional analysis techniques have recently opened in the field of electronic circuit simulation. Because of the modulated nature of radio frequency (RF signals, the corresponding electronic circuits seem to operate in a slow time scale for the aperiodic information and another, much faster, time scale for the periodic carrier. This apparent multirate behavior can be appropriately described using partial differential equations (PDEs within a bivariate framework, which can be solved in an efficient way using hybrid time-frequency techniques. With these techniques, the aperiodic information dimension is treated in the discrete time domain, while the periodic carrier dimension is processed in the frequency domain, in which the solution is evaluated within a space of harmonically related sinusoidal functions. The objective of this paper is thus to provide a general overview on the most important hybrid time-frequency techniques, as the ones found in commercial tools or the ones recently published in the literature.

  15. Sensitivity of the dispatch strategy in designing grid integrated hybrid energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Amarasinghage Tharindu Dasun; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Nik, Vahid M.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating renewable energy technologies based on solar PV (SPV) and wind energy in the energy system is challenging due to time dependence of the energy potential for these energy sources. Grid integrated hybrid energy systems combining SPV panels, wind turbines, battery bank and internal combustion generators (ICG) can be used in this regard specially for distributed generation. Energy-economic dispatch strategy plays a vital role in managing the energy flow of the system. However, it is d...

  16. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower...... switching control, distributed dynamic regulation and coordinated switching con-trol are designed fully dependent on the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and the logical relationships be-tween them, and interact with each other by means of the mul-ti-agent system to form hierarchical......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  17. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  18. Solution for Using the Microwave Energy in Order to Improve the Quality for Agricultural Seeds. Generation and Processing Microwave System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Hathazi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of theelectromagnetic field question into the microwavesystem. The study regarding the heating question forthe agricultural seeds and quality are also studied. Thisapplication has the character of an applicativeresearch, and the obtained results being of practicaluse together with the experimental results and has asthe main purpose to optimize the working parametersfor the mixed microwave and hot air system in order toimprove the quality of the stored agricultural seeds.

  19. On the Effect of Microwave Energy on Lipase-Catalyzed Polycondensation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pellis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microwave energy (MWe is, nowadays, widely used as a clean synthesis tool to improve several chemical reactions, such as drug molecule synthesis, carbohydrate conversion and biomass pyrolysis. On the other hand, its exploitation in enzymatic reactions has only been fleetingly investigated and, hence, further study of MWe is required to reach a precise understanding of its potential in this field. Starting from the authors’ experience in clean synthesis and biocatalyzed reactions, this study sheds light on the possibility of using MWe for enhancing enzyme-catalyzed polycondensation reactions and pre-polymer formation. Several systems and set ups were investigated involving bulk and organic media (solution phase reactions, different enzymatic preparations and various starting bio-based monomers. Results show that MWe enables the biocatalyzed synthesis of polyesters and pre-polymers in a similar way to that reported using conventional heating with an oil bath, but in a few cases, notably bulk phase polycondensations under intense microwave irradiation, MWe leads to a rapid enzyme deactivation.

  20. Constraints on the interaction and self-interaction of dark energy from cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, L; Tocchini-Valentini, D; Pasqui, A; Amendola, Luca; Quercellini, Claudia; Tocchini-Valentini, Domenico; Pasqui, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that even high quality cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations are not sufficient on their own to determine the equation of state of the dark energy, due to the effect of the so-called geometric degeneracy at large multipoles and the cosmic variance at small ones. In contrast, we find that CMB data can put tight constraints on another fundamental property of the dark energy, namely its coupling to dark matter. We compare the current high-resolution CMB data to models of dark energy characterized by an inverse power law or exponential potential and by the coupling to dark matter. We determine the curve of degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state and the dimensionless Hubble parameter h and show that even an independent perfect determination of h may be insufficient to distinguish dark energy from a pure cosmological constant with the current dataset. On the other hand, we find that the interaction with dark matter is firmly bounded, regardless of the potential. In terms of t...

  1. Use of microwave energy for accelerated curing of concrete: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ratanadecho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwaves (MWs are one of the most popular energy sources to heat dielectric materials in various industrial processes. One application is the rapid thermal cure of concrete. Due to the advantages of volumetric heating, MWs can be implemented in a reasonable way to accelerate the rate of strength development. However, these fields have been grown only gradually, as there has been not much research and practical work over the last years. The climate change issue and the discussion around the non-renewable energy resources triggered a change for better energy-utilizing systems. One is the useof clean energy in the cement and concrete production. Nevertheless, simultaneously efforts also needed to make towards an improvement of concrete properties. Therefore, suitable MWs curing method and processes involved are indispensable factors for research and subsequent developing into applications. The present paper reviews the historical evolution of the MWs energy implementation to cure concrete. It further provides a deeper understanding of this technology and proposes suitable points for future study and development. The first part describes the necessity of thermal curing on the strength development of concrete at early age and then discusses its factors affecting. Also curing criteria and the disadvantages of the conventional methods used to stimulate the rate of hydration reaction of concrete are summarized. The second partreports the implementing method for achieving this purpose covering dielectric properties involved and related heatingmechanisms. Finally, some aspects for future studies are proposed to build a forward-complementing knowledge from the current one.

  2. 77 FR 33106 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... on a review of the cooking manuals and recipe books supplied with convection microwave ovens that a... books supplied with convection microwave ovens, DOE noted that a majority of the recipes that used... contained in the cooking manuals and recipe books supplied with convection microwave ovens. Based...

  3. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  4. [Net power and energy of cooled antenna microwave ablation:ex vivo versus in vivo results in porcine liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Fan, Wei-jun; Zhang, Liang; Li, Xin; Zhang, Jian-lei

    2012-09-18

    To explore the net power and net energy of a cooled antenna radiator in ex vivo and in vivo porcine livers. All animal experiments complied with the guidelines of our animal use committee. Microwave ablation (MWA) was performed in ex vivo and in vivo porcine livers with a cooled-shaft antenna in different microwave ablation parameter groups (50, 80 and 110 W for 10 min). The energy losses from the microwave antenna or cables were calculated. And the net power, net energy and the relationship between net power and power readout were determined. When the power displayed by the machine indicated 50 W, 80 W and 110 W, the net power during MWA was 31.3 ± 0.6, 47.3 ± 0.8 and 62.1 ± 0.9 W ex vivo and 31.8 ± 0.8, 47.4 ± 0.3 and 61.7 ± 1.5 W in vivo. For the same power readout, the ex vivo or in vivo effective power was the same (P = 0.841, P = 0.133, P = 0.551). For both ex vivo and in vivo experiments, the ratio of microwave antenna energy loss to microwave antenna input energy was relatively constant (P = 0.613, 0.326). For the same treatment time and net power, the difference was significant between ex vivo and in vivo ablation volumes (P = 0.001, 0.006, 0.001). Using net power as a reference during MWA is more accurate compared to the traditional power readout. And net energy offers a more realistic reflection of MWA energy in tissues.

  5. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  6. A novel method for production of activated carbon from waste tea by chemical activation with microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emine Yagmur; Meryem Ozmak; Zeki Aktas [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This study presents the production of activated carbon from waste tea. Activated carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation with and without microwave treatment and carbonisation of the waste tea under nitrogen atmosphere at various temperatures and different phosphoric acid/precursor impregnation ratios. The surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated by elemental analysis, BET surface area, SEM, FTIR. Prior to heat treatment conducted in a furnace, the mixture of the waste tea and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was treated with microwave heating. The maximum BET surface area was 1157 m{sup 2}/g for the sample treated with microwave energy and then carbonised at 350{sup o}C. In case of application of conventional method, the BET surface area of the resultant material was 928.8 m{sup 2}/g using the same precursor and conditions. According to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) method the micropore surface area for the sample treated with microwave energy was higher than the sample obtained from the conventional method. Results show that microwave heating reasonably influenced the micropore surface area of the samples as well as the BET surface area. The samples activated were also characterised in terms of the cumulative pore and micropore volumes according to the BJH, DR and t-methods, respectively. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Hybrid energy storage system for wireless sensor node powered by aircraft specific thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangaraj, K.; Elefsiniotis, A.; Aslam, S.; Becker, Th.; Schmid, U.; Lees, J.; Featherston, C. A.; Pullin, R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for efficiently storing the energy harvested from a thermoelectric module for powering autonomous wireless sensor nodes for aeronautical health monitoring applications. A representative temperature difference was created across a thermo electric generator (TEG) by attaching a thermal mass and a cavity containing a phase change material to one side, and a heat source (to represent the aircraft fuselage) to the other. Batteries and supercapacitors are popular choices of storage device, but neither represents the ideal solution; supercapacitors have a lower energy density than batteries and batteries have lower power density than supercapacitors. When using only a battery for storage, the runtime of a typical sensor node is typically reduced by internal impedance, high resistance and other internal losses. Supercapacitors may overcome some of these problems, but generally do not provide sufficient long-term energy to allow advanced health monitoring applications to operate over extended periods. A hybrid energy storage unit can provide both energy and power density to the wireless sensor node simultaneously. Techniques such as acoustic-ultrasonic, acoustic-emission, strain, crack wire sensor and window wireless shading require storage approaches that can provide immediate energy on demand, usually in short, high intensity bursts, and that can be sustained over long periods of time. This application requirement is considered as a significant constraint when working with battery-only and supercapacitor-only solutions and they should be able to store up-to 40-50J of energy.

  8. Use of Sulfometuron in Hybrid Poplar Energy Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1995-01-01

    Reports that low rates of sulfometuron, 70 grams per hactare (1 ounce product or 0.75 ounces active ingredient per acre), applied when hybrid poplars are completely dormant, can provide season-long weed control and increase hybrid poplar growth. If plantation access is not possible before growth activity begins in the spring, late fall application of this herbicide...

  9. Graphene and its Hybrid Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation focuses on investigating the synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process, as well as their applications in nanoelectronics and energy conversion/storage. The substantial understanding of interaction of graphene layers between the bio-molecules and gas molecules will enable the improvement in the applications of graphene in bio-sensor and chemical sensor. To achieve these objectives, graphene field effect transistors are fabricated to study the interactions of graphene between single stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acids (ssDNA) and gas molecules. ssDNA is found to act as negative potential gating agent that increases the hole density in single layer graphene (SLG). The molecular photodesorption and absorption from pristine and functionalized graphene are studied. The photodesorption induced current decrease in functionalized graphene by concentrated HNO3 becomes less significant than pristine graphene layers. We suggest this is due to the passivation of oxygen-bearing functionalities to CVD grown graphene structure defects via HNO3 functionalization, which prevents the further absorption of gas molecules. The advance of synthesis of graphene and its hybrid nanostructures by CVD promotes their applications in the industrial level. We synthesize the graphene both on nickel thin film and copper foils by CVD, and investigate the grow kinetics, such as the effect of growth pressure on the uniformity and quality of Cu-grown graphene. By controlling the growth pressure we achieve uniform single layer graphene sheets and suggest the feasible methods of synthesizing uniform few-layer graphene. To decrease the sheet resistance, we stack the single layer graphene using layer-layer transfer technique. Highly concentrated HNO3 is employed to improve the conductivity and surface wettability of graphene layers. Four-layer graphene films with optical transmittance of 90% after HNO3 treatment are applied in organic

  10. Multi-agent system-based event-triggered hybrid control scheme for energy internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Han, Qing Long

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an event-triggered hybrid control for the energy Internet based on a multi-agent system approach with which renewable energy resources can be fully utilized to meet load demand with high security and well dynamical quality. In the design of control, a multi-agent system...... framework is first constructed. Then, to describe fully the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and logical relationships between them, a differential hybrid Petri-net model is established, which is an original work. The most important contributions based on this model propose four types...

  11. Extraction of Salinity-Gradient Energy by a Hybrid Capacitive-Mixing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Yoon, Hongsik; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Taeyoung; Yoon, Jeyong

    2017-01-23

    Salinity-gradient energy (SGE) is a renewable energy source available wherever two solutions with different salinity mix. Capacitive-mixing (Capmix) is a technology that directly extracts the SG potential through the movements of ions in high- and low-concentration solutions. However, the energy-harvesting performance of Capmix needs further improvement. Herein, a hybrid Capmix that consists of a battery and capacitive electrodes is proposed. In this system, sodium ions and anions are captured/released by the metal oxide and carbon electrodes, respectively. The hybrid Capmix extracted an energy density that was approximately three times higher (130 J m(-2) ) and exhibited a notable power output (97 mW m(-2) ) compared to the previous Capmix using ion-exchange membranes. Furthermore, the hybrid system operated successfully with real river water and seawater. These results suggest that the hybrid Capmix could be a viable option to harvest energy from salinity gradients.

  12. Review of the Optimal Design on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuan-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems, combining various kinds of technologies, have shown relatively high capabilities to solve reliability problems and have reduced cost challenges. The use of hybrid electricity generation/storage technologies is reasonable to overcome related shortcomings. While the hybrid renewable energy system is attractive, its design, specifically the determination of the size of PV, wind, and diesel power generators and the size of energy storage system in each power station, is very challenging. Therefore, this paper will focus on the system planning and operation of hybrid generation systems, and several corresponding topics and papers by using intelligent computing methods will be reviewed. They include typical case studies, modeling and system simulation, control and management, reliability and economic studies, and optimal design on a reliable hybrid generation system.

  13. Dielectric Properties and Oxidation Roasting of Molybdenite Concentrate by Using Microwave Energy at 2.45 GHz Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonglin, Jiang; Bingguo, Liu; Peng, Liu; Jinhui, Peng; Libo, Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat depends largely on the dielectric properties of the material being treated. Therefore, determining the dielectric properties of molybdenite concentrate and its microwave power penetration depth in relation to a temperature increment at the commercial frequency of 2.45 GHz is necessary to design industrial microwave processing units. In this study, the dielectric constants increased as the temperature increased in the entire experimental range. The loss factor presented an opposite trend, except for 298 K to 373 K (25 °C to 100 °C) in which a cavity perturbation resonator was used. The plots of nonlinear surface fitting indicate that the increase in dielectric loss causes a considerable decrease in penetration depth, but the dielectric constants exert a small positive effect. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DSC) of the molybdenite concentrate was carried out to track its thermal decomposition process, aim to a dielectric analysis during the microwave heating. MoO3 was prepared from molybdenite concentrate through oxidation roasting in a microwave heating system and a resistance furnace, respectively. The phase transitions and morphology evolutions during oxidation roasting were characterized through X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that microwave thermal technique can produce high-purity molybdenum trioxide.

  14. Finite element analysis of hybrid energy harvesting of piezoelectric and electromagnetic

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Yazid Muhammad Ammar Faris; Jamil Norlida; Muhmed Razali Nik Nurul Husna; Yusoff Ahmad Razlan

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient vibrations is a highly required method because of the wide range of available sources that produce vibration energy application from industrial machinery to human motion application. In this paper, the implementation of harvesting energy from two technologies to form a hybrid energy harvester system was analyzed. These two technologies involve the piezoelectric harvesting energy and the electromagnetic harvesting energy. A finite element model was developed usin...

  15. Aboveground dendromass allometry of hybrid black poplars for energy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stankova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of energy crops is concerned with estimation of the total lignified biomass (dendromass production, which is based on the plantation density and individual plant dendromass. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allometry of aboveground leafless biomass of juvenile black poplar hybrids (Populus deltoides x P. nigra , traditionally used for timber and cellulose production, and to derive generic allometric models for dendromass prediction, relevant to energy crop cultivation in Bulgaria. The study material comprised a variety of growth sites, tree ages and clones, specific to poplar plantings in Bulgaria. We used three principal quantitative predictors: diameter at breast height, total tree height and mean stand (stock height. The models were not differentiated by clone, because the black poplar hybrids tested were not equally represented in the data, and the inclusion of tree age as a predictor variable seemed unreliable, because of the significant, up to 3 years, variation, which was possible within the narrow age range investigated. We defined the mean stand (stock height as a composite quantitative variable, which reflected the interaction between the time since planting (age, site quality and the intrinsic growth potential. Stepwise and backward multiple regression analyses were applied to these quantitative variables and their products and sets of adequacy and goodnessof-fit criteria were used to derive individual biomass models for stem and branches. Then we developed compatible additive systems of models for stem, branch and total lignified biomass in log-transformed form. Finally, the prediction data were back-transformed, applying correction for bias, and were cross-validated. Three systems of generic equations were derived to enable flexible model implementation. Equation system M1 proposes a stem biomass model based on tree and stand heights and stem diameter, and a model for

  16. Aboveground dendromass allometry of hybrid black poplars for energy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stankova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of energy crops is concerned with estimation of the total lignified biomass (dendromass production, which is based on the plantation density and individual plant dendromass. The main objective of this study was to investigate the allometry of aboveground leafless biomass of juvenile black poplar hybrids (Populus deltoides x P. nigra , traditionally used for timber and cellulose production, and to derive generic allometric models for dendromass prediction, relevant to energy crop cultivation in Bulgaria. The study material comprised a variety of growth sites, tree ages and clones, specific to poplar plantings in Bulgaria. We used three principal quantitative predictors: diameter at breast height, total tree height and mean stand (stock height. The models were not differentiated by clone, because the black poplar hybrids tested were not equally represented in the data, and the inclusion of tree age as a predictor variable seemed unreliable, because of the significant, up to 3 years, variation, which was possible within the narrow age range investigated. We defined the mean stand (stock height as a composite quantitative variable, which reflected the interaction between the time since planting (age, site quality and the intrinsic growth potential. Stepwise and backward multiple regression analyses were applied to these quantitative variables and their products and sets of adequacy and goodnessof-fit criteria were used to derive individual biomass models for stem and branches. Then we developed compatible additive systems of models for stem, branch and total lignified biomass in log-transformed form. Finally, the prediction data were back-transformed, applying correction for bias, and were cross-validated. Three systems of generic equations were derived to enable flexible model implementation. Equation system M1 proposes a stem biomass model based on tree and stand heights and stem diameter, and a model for

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE KINETICS OF DRYING SEEDS THISTLE IN VORTEX CHAMBER WITH MICROWAVE ENERGY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kazartsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of the current state of the theory, techniques and technologies for processing of milk thistle showed up a number of problems. One of those moments - the need to promptly provide quality and efficient process for drying seeds, but Russia has not produced special equipment for postharvest processing of seeds of milk thistle, and used for drying grain domestic appliances, represented mainly by mining and drum dryers, it is not suitable for thistle. This is due to the fact that, firstly, in the dewatering process is necessary to provide a relatively low final moisture drying product (5-6 %, and, secondly, to keep their beneficial substance in full, which imposes additional restrictions on the conditions of drying. One way of creating a new drying technology development and implementation in the industry of high-intensive devices with active hydrodynamic regimes with microwave energy supply, providing in many cases, higher technical and economic indicators. Therefore, the use of devices with swirling flow of heat-carrier for the intensification of the process of drying of dispersed materials is both theoretical interest and practical value. Microwave drying is based on the fact that the dielectric properties of water and dry food substances are different: the wet material is heated much faster than dry. During the microwave drying temperature wetter internal layers higher than the exterior more dehydrated (which creates a "right" - from the inner to the outer layers of the product - the gradient of moisture mass transfer is not realizable in any of the other known methods of drying. Milk thistle seeds have a unique composition: 25-32 % fatty oil, 15-17 % protein, 26 % fat, in the-soluble (B group and fat-soluble (A, D, E, K, F vitamins, mono- and disaccharides, macro- and trace elements (copper, zinc, selenium, dietary fiber and enzymes, mucus, up to 5 % (glucose, etc., phenolic compounds including flaviolignans 2-3% (silibinin

  18. Time evolution of the electron energy distribution function in pulsed microwave magnetoplasma in H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauberteau, J. L., E-mail: jean-louis.jauberteau@unilim.fr; Jauberteau, I. [UMR 7315 CNRS, SPCTS, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Cortázar, O. D. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII-INEI, Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071-Ciudad Real (Spain); Megía-Macías, A. [ESS Bilbao Consortium, Polígono Ugaldeguren-III Pol. A 7B, 48170-Zamudio, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Time evolution of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) is measured in pulsed hydrogen microwave magnetoplasma working at 2.45 GHz. Analysis is performed both in resonance (B = 0.087 T) and off-resonance conditions (B = 0.120 T), at two pressures (0.38 Pa and 0.62 Pa), respectively, and for different incident microwave powers. The important effect of the magnetic field on the electron kinetic is discussed, and a critical analysis of Langmuir probe measurements is given. The Electron Energy Distribution Function is calculated using the Druyvesteyn theory (EEDF) and is corrected using the theory developed by Arslanbekov in the case of magnetized plasma. Three different components are observed in the EEDF, whatever the theory used. They are: (a) a low electron energy component at energy lower than 10 eV, which is ascribed to the electron having inelastic collisions with heavy species (H{sub 2}, H, ions), (b) a high energy component with a mean energy ranging from 10 to 20 eV, which is generally ascribed to the heating of the plasma by the incident microwave power, and (c) a third component observed between the two other ones, mainly at low pressure and in resonance conditions, has been correlated to the electron rotation in the magnetic field.

  19. Harvesting Broad Frequency Band Blue Energy by a Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Zi, Yunlong; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Wang, Xin; Deng, Jianan; Wang, Jie; Li, Shengming; Hu, Chenguo; Zhu, Liping; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    Ocean wave associated energy is huge, but it has little use toward world energy. Although such blue energy is capable of meeting all of our energy needs, there is no effective way to harvest it due to its low frequency and irregular amplitude, which may restrict the application of traditional power generators. In this work, we report a hybrid nanogenerator that consists of a spiral-interdigitated-electrode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) and a wrap-around electromagnetic generator (W-EMG) for harvesting ocean energy. In this design, the S-TENG can be fully isolated from the external environment through packaging and indirectly driven by the noncontact attractive forces between pairs of magnets, and W-EMG can be easily hybridized. Notably, the hybrid nanogenerator could generate electricity under either rotation mode or fluctuation mode to collect energy in ocean tide, current, and wave energy due to the unique structural design. In addition, the characteristics and advantages of outputs indicate that the S-TENG is irreplaceable for harvesting low rotation speeds (10 Hz). The complementary output can be maximized and hybridized for harvesting energy in a broad frequency range. Finally, a single hybrid nanogenerator unit was demonstrated to harvest blue energy as a practical power source to drive several LEDs under different simulated water wave conditions. We also proposed a blue energy harvesting system floating on the ocean surface that could simultaneously harvest wind, solar, and wave energy. The proposed hybrid nanogenerator renders an effective and sustainable progress in practical applications of the hybrid nanogenerator toward harvesting water wave energy offered by nature.

  20. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J H

    2000-01-01

    decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe sub ( sub 1 sub - sub x sub ) S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe sub 2 O sub 3). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir gold ore, in which gold was finely disseminated in pyrite and marcasite, was an extremely refractory gold ore. Without pretreatment, only 37 approx 39% of the gold could be extracted with sodium cyanide. However, this was improved after the head ores or floatation concentrates were pretreated by microwave radiation. 74.5 approx 81.2% of the gold was extracted from the microwave treated head ore. The hydrometallurgical pretreatment of pyrite and marcasite in a microwave field and a conventional...

  1. Microwave Ablation of Pulmonary Malignancies Using a Novel High-energy Antenna System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Mark W.; Chung, Daniel; Boardman, Philip; Gleeson, Fergus V.; Anderson, Ewan M., E-mail: ewan.anderson@ouh.nhs.uk [Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate the technical success, safety, and imaging follow-up of malignant pulmonary nodules treated with a novel high-energy percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) system. Between July 2010 and September 2011, a total of 23 patients, 12 men, mean age 68 (range 30-87) years with 29 pulmonary malignancies of median diameter 19 (range 8-57) mm, underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided MWA with a 16G microwave needle antenna enabling power up to 180 W. Technical success was defined as needle placement in the intended lesion without death or serious injury. Adequacy of ablation was assessed at 24 h on contrast-enhanced CT. Circumferential solid or ground glass opacification >5 mm was used to define an ideal ablation. Local tumor recurrence was assessed at 1, 3, and 6 months after ablation on contrast-enhanced CT. MWA was technically successful in 93 % (n = 27). Mean ablation duration was 3.6 (range 1-9) min. Ten patients (43 %) developed a pneumothorax as a result of the MWA; only 3 (13 %) required placement of a chest drain. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0 %. The mean hospital stay was 1.5 (range 1-7) days. A total of 22 lesions (75 %) were surrounded by {>=}5 mm ground glass or solid opacification after the procedure. At a median follow-up of 6 months, local recurrence was identified in 3 out of 26 lesions, giving a local control rate of 88 %. MWA using a high-power antenna of pulmonary malignancies is safe, technically achievable, and enables fast ablation times.

  2. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  3. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2016-06-01

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  4. Ultrafast synthesis of MoS2 or WS2-reduced graphene oxide composites via hybrid microwave annealing for anode materials of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Duck Hyun; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-11-01

    An ultrafast and simple strategy to synthesize metal sulfides (MoS2 and WS2) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites is reported as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Metal sulfide nanocrystals with homogeneous dispersion onto conducting RGO sheets are obtained in only 45 s by hybrid microwave annealing (HMA) method. The synthesized materials, especially MoS2/RGO composite, exhibit a high Li capacity, an excellent rate capability, and a stable cycling performance, comparable to the reported best MS2/carbon composite electrodes. The results highlight the effectiveness of HMA method to fabricate the metal sulfide/RGO composites with excellent electric properties.

  5. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  6. Microwave-assisted low temperature fabrication of ZnO thin film electrodes for solar energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirmal Peiris, T.A.; Sagu, Jagdeep S.; Hazim Yusof, Y.; Upul Wijayantha, K.G., E-mail: U.Wijayantha@lboro.ac.uk

    2015-09-01

    Metallic Zn thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates and oxidized under air by conventional radiant and microwave post-annealing methods to obtain ZnO thin film electrodes. The temperature of each post-annealing method was varied systematically and the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of electrodes was evaluated. The best photocurrent density achieved by the conventional radiant annealing method at 425 °C for 15 min was 93 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and the electrode showed an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 28.2%. X-ray diffractogram of this electrode showed that the oxidation of Zn to ZnO was not completed during the radiant annealing process as evident by the presence of metallic Zn in the electrode. For the electrode oxidized from Zn to ZnO under microwave irradiation, a photocurrent of 130 μA cm{sup −2} at 1.23 V vs. NHE and IPCE of 35.6% was observed after annealing for just 3 min, during which the temperature reached 250 °C. The photocurrent was 40% higher for the microwave annealed sample; this increase was attributed to higher surface area by preserving the nanostructure, confirmed by SEM surface topographical analysis, and better conversion yields to crystalline ZnO. Overall, it was demonstrated that oxidation of Zn to ZnO can be accomplished by microwave annealing five times faster than that of conventional annealing, thus resulting in a ~ 75% power saving. This study shows that microwave processing of materials offers significant economic and performance advantages for industrial scale up. - Highlights: • Conversion of Zn to ZnO by microwave and radiant annealing was conducted. • Microwave conversion was 5 times faster compared to radiant annealing. • Photoelectrochemical performance of microwave annealed ZnO was 40% higher. • Microwave annealing results in a 75% energy saving.

  7. Effects of introducing nonlinear components for a random excited hybrid energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoya; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Guan, Yanwei

    2017-01-01

    This work is mainly devoted to discussing the effects of introducing nonlinear components for a hybrid energy harvester under random excitation. For two different types of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters subjected to random excitation, the analytical solutions of the mean output power, voltage and current are derived from Fokker-Planck (FP) equations. Monte Carlo simulation exhibits qualitative agreement with FP theory, showing that load values and excitation’s spectral density have an effect on the total mean output power, piezoelectric (PE) power and electromagnetic power. Nonlinear components affect output characteristics only when the PE capacitance of the hybrid energy harvester is non-negligible. Besides, it is also demonstrated that for this type of nonlinear hybrid energy harvesters under random excitation, introducing nonlinear components can improve output performances effectively.

  8. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarchuk Sergey S.; Bondarchuk Iliya S.; Borisov Boris V.; Zhukov Alexandr S.

    2016-01-01

    A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer) providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  9. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, Sergey S.; Bondarchuk, Iliya S.; Borisov, Boris V.; Zhukov, Alexandr S.

    2016-02-01

    A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer) providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  10. The International Energy Agency's implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed implementing agreements and programs developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for hybrid and electric vehicles. The agreement was designed to provide an international platform for the coordination of ideas, themes, and technologies related to hybrid and electric vehicles. Industries, governments, and users must also communicate to ensure the successful deployment of new technologies, laws and incentives. International collaboration programs will lower the cost for implementing new technologies in addition to enhancing information exchange. The IEA's Hybrid Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) program was designed to promote pre-competitive research projects and provide information on hybrid vehicles and their impacts on energy efficiency and the environment. Annex groups related to the program include: (1) an information exchange on HEV technologies and programs; (2) an annex on hybrid electric vehicles; (3) clean city vehicles; (4) electrochemical systems; (5) electric cycles; (6) heavy-duty hybrid vehicles; (7) fuel cells for vehicles; and (8) deployment of HEVs. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Annex Group was established in 1994 to exchange information and prepare a series of reports on subjects related to components for hybrid vehicles, as well as on topics related to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A new annex group has been proposed to study advanced battery technologies, policy issues, charging, marketability, and group administration. It was concluded that the group will report on progress and make all its research and findings available. Details of the IEA structure and governing board were provided. 6 figs.

  11. A new transcutaneous energy transmission system with hybrid energy coils for driving an implantable biventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Akasaka, Yuhta; Motomura, Tadashi; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Nosé, Yukihiko

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a new transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system for a totally implantable biventricular assist device (BVAD) system in the New Energy and Industrial Development Organization (NEDO) artificial heart project. The TET system mainly consists of an energy transmitter, a hybrid energy coil unit, an energy receiver, an internal battery system, and an optical telemetry system. The hybrid energy coil unit consists of an air-core energy transmission coil and an energy-receiving coil having a ferrite core. Internal units of the TET system are encapsulated in a titanium alloy casing, which has a size of 111 mm in width, 73 mm in length, and 25 mm in height. In in vitro experiments, the TET system can transmit a maximum electric energy of 60 Watts, and it has a maximum transmission efficiency of 87.3%. A maximum surface temperature of 46.1 degrees C was measured at the ferrite core of the energy-receiving coil during an energy transmission of 20 Watts in air. The long-term performance test shows that the TET system has been able to operate stably for over 4 years with a decrease of energy-transmission efficiency from 85% to 80%. In conclusion, the TET system with the hybrid energy coil can overcome the drawback of previously reported TET systems, and it promises to be the highest performance TET system in the world.

  12. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-01

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  13. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maclay, JD; J. Brouwer; Samuelsen, GS

    2007-01-01

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utili...

  14. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); mckellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most

  16. Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum using hybrid events of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settimo, Mariangela; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, IFM; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A; Anchordoqui, L.; Andring, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A.M.; Barber, K.B.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Bauml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker, K.H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J.A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P.L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blumer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boroda, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W.C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R.E.; Cabellero-Mora, K.S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S.H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J.A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R.W.; Cocciolo, G.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M.R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M.J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C.E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B.R.; de Almeida, R.M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S.J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W.J.M.; de Mello Neto, J.R.T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; del Peral, L.; del Rio, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz Castro, M.L.; Diep, P.N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Dong, PN; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, JC; Dova, M.T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C.O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A.C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A.P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Filevich, A.; Filevich, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C.E.; Fraenkel, E.D.; Fratu, O.; Frohlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R.F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S.T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P.L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gold, M.S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P.F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A.F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G.P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T.A.; Harton, J.L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A.E.; Hill, G.C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V.C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J.R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K.H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R.M.; Klages, H.O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Kromer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J.K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M.S.A.B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M.C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A.G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I.C.; Marquez Falcon, H.R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, [No Value; Mathes, H.J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P.O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Messina, S.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M.I.; Minaya, I.A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J.C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C.A.; Muller, M.A.; Muller, G.; Munchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J.L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P.T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlager, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I.M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez, G.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A.C.; Ruhle, C.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C.E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E.M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroder, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S.J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R.C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Silva Lopez, H.H.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G.R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y.N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A.D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M.S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N.T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C.J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D.B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J.F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A.M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Vazquez, JR; Vazquez, R.A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A.A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B.J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays above 10(18)eV is measured using the hybrid events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory between November 2005 and September 2010. The large exposure of the Observatory allows the measurement of the main features of the energy spectrum with hi

  17. Energy management strategy for fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on prediction of energy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, Mauro G.; Costa-Castelló, Ramon; Roda, Vicente; Nigro, Norberto M.; Junco, Sergio; Feroldi, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Offering high efficiency and producing zero emissions Fuel Cells (FCs) represent an excellent alternative to internal combustion engines for powering vehicles to alleviate the growing pollution in urban environments. Due to inherent limitations of FCs which lead to slow transient response, FC-based vehicles incorporate an energy storage system to cover the fast power variations. This paper considers a FC/supercapacitor platform that configures a hard constrained powertrain providing an adverse scenario for the energy management strategy (EMS) in terms of fuel economy and drivability. Focusing on palliating this problem, this paper presents a novel EMS based on the estimation of short-term future energy demand and aiming at maintaining the state of energy of the supercapacitor between two limits, which are computed online. Such limits are designed to prevent active constraint situations of both FC and supercapacitor, avoiding the use of friction brakes and situations of non-power compliance in a short future horizon. Simulation and experimentation in a case study corresponding to a hybrid electric bus show improvements on hydrogen consumption and power compliance compared to the widely reported Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy. Also, the comparison with the optimal strategy via Dynamic Programming shows a room for improvement to the real-time strategies.

  18. Fuzzy Energy Management for a Catenary-Battery-Ultracapacitor based Hybrid Tramway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibin, Yang; Jiye, Zhang; Pengyun, Song

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, an energy management strategy (EMS) based on fuzzy logic control for a catenary-battery-ultracapacitor powered hybrid modern tramway was presented. The fuzzy logic controller for the catenary zone and catenary-less zone was respectively designed by analyzing the structure and working mode of the hybrid system, then an energy management strategy based on double fuzzy logic control was proposed to enhance the fuel economy. The hybrid modern tramway simulation model was developed based on MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the proposed EMS can satisfy the demand of dynamic performance of the tramway and achieve the power distribution reasonably between the each power source.

  19. Optimization of Hybrid PV/Wind Energy System Using Genetic Algorithm (GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Ramoji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach of optimum design for a Hybrid PV/Wind energy system is presented in order to assist the designers to take into consideration both the economic and ecological aspects. When the stand alone energy system having photovoltaic panels only or wind turbine only are compared with the hybrid PV/wind energy systems, the hybrid systems are more economical and reliable according to climate changes. This paper presents an optimization technique to design the hybrid PV/wind system. The hybrid system consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and storage batteries. Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization technique is utilized to minimize the formulated objective function, i.e. total cost which includes initial costs, yearly replacement cost, yearly operating costs and maintenance costs and salvage value of the proposed hybrid system. A computer program is designed, using MATLAB code to formulate the optimization problem by computing the coefficients of the objective function. The method mentioned in this article is proved to be effective using an example of hybrid energy system. Finally, the optimal solution is achieved by Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization method.

  20. Application of a coupled microwave, energy and water transfer model to relate passive microwave emission from bare soils to near-surface water content and evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Simmonds

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the stability of the relation between microwave emission from the soil and the average near-surface water content in the case of relatively smooth, bare soils, and then considers the extent to which microwave radiometry can be used to estimate the effective surface resistance to vapour transfer, which is also related to the near-surface water status. The analysis is based on the use of a model (MICRO-SWEAT which couples a microwave radiative transfer model with a SVAT scheme that describes the exchanges of water vapour, energy and sensible heat at the land surface. Verification of MICRO-SWEAT showed good agreement (about 3K RMSE between predicted L band (1.4 GHz brightness temperature over soils with contrasting texture during a multi-day drydown, and those measured using a truck-mounted radiometer. There was good agreement between the measured and predicted relations between the average water content of the upper 2 cm of the soil profile and the brightness temperature normalised with respect to the radiometric surface temperature. Some of the scatter in this relationship was attributable to diurnal variation in the magnitude of near-surface gradients in temperature and water content, and could be accounted for by using the physically-based simulation model. The influence of soil texture on this relationship was well-simulated using MICRO-SWEAT. The paper concludes by demonstrating how MICRO-SWEAT can be used to establish a relationship between the normalised brightness temperature and the surface resistance for use in the prediction of evaporation using the Penman-Montheith equation.

  1. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    OpenAIRE

    Lingguo Kong; Guowei Cai; Sidney Xue; Shaohua Li

    2015-01-01

    An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV)/energy storage (ES) hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS) and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC), is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static sy...

  2. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  3. Conductive Fabric-Based Stretchable Hybridized Nanogenerator for Scavenging Biomechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Yang, Ya

    2016-04-26

    We demonstrate a stretchable hybridized nanogenerator based on a highly conductive fabric of glass fibers/silver nanowires/polydimethylsiloxane. Including a triboelectric nanogenerator and an electromagnetic generator, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver output voltage/current signals from stretchable movements by both triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, maximizing the efficiency of energy scavenging from one motion. Compared to the individual energy-harvesting units, the hybridized nanogenerator has a better charging performance, where a 47 μF capacitor can be charged to 2.8 V in only 16 s. The hybridized nanogenerator can be integrated with a bus grip for scavenging wasted biomechanical energy from human body movements to solve the power source issue of some electric devices in the pure electric bus.

  4. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  5. Limits on SUSY GUTs and Defects Formation in Hybrid Inflationary Models with Three-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraisse, A A

    2006-01-01

    We confront the predicted effects of hybrid inflationary models on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with three years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Using model selection, we compare the ability of a simple flat power-law LCDM model to describe the data to hybrid inflationary models involving global or local cosmic strings, or global textures. We find that it is statistically impossible to distinguish between these models: they all give a similar description of the data, the maximum ratio of the various evidences involved being never higher than e^{0.1 \\pm 0.5}. We then derive the maximum contribution that topological defects can make to the CMB, and place an upper bound on the possible value of cosmic strings tension of G\\mu \\leq 2.1 \\times 10^{-7} (68% CL). Finally, we give the corresponding constraints on the strings and D-strings masses, as well as limits on the D- and F-term coupling constants (\\kappa and \\lambda) and mass scales (M and \\sqrt{\\xi}).

  6. The use of microwave irradiation as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization for the detection of measles virus and chicken anaemia virus in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.; McQuaid, S. [Royal Group of Hospitals, Belfast (United Kingdom). Neuropathology Lab.]|[Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Microwave irradiation was investigated as a pretreatment to in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Two probe/tissue systems were used: a single-stranded RNA probe for the detection of measles virus nucleocapsid genome in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brain tissue, and a double stranded DNA probe for chicken anaemia virus in thymus of chicken infected with the virus. Microwaving, when used as sold pretreatment, was not as effective as the more traditional enzyme pretreatments for in situ hybridization. However, when used in combination with existing pretreatments, a significant increase was found in hybridization signal in both brain and thymus tissue. This was emphasized when combination enzyme/microwave pretreatments were used prior to detection of measles virus by in situ hybridization in a series of five archival subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases. The use of microwave irradiation would be recommended as a means of supplementing in situ hybridization methods, especially when using long-term formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. (Author).

  7. Microwave assisted synthesis of a noble metal-graphene hybrid photocatalyst for high efficient decomposition of organic dyes under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Kefayat; Ye, Shu; Zhu, Lei; Meng, Ze-Da; Sarkar, Sourav; Oh, Won-Chun, E-mail: wc_oh@hanseo.ac.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Pt/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via facile, fast, and scalable microwave irradiation method. • MB and Rh.B were used as sample dye solutions. • The Pt/graphene nanocomposites displayed distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activities. • UV–vis spectroscopic analysis was carried out to measure decomposition effect. -- Abstract: We report fast and facile synthesis of Pt/graphene nanocomposite via microwave assisted techniques. The “as-prepared” composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorbance spectra analysis, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) analysis and Raman spectroscopic analysis. The visible light photo catalytic activities of Pt/graphene nanocomposite were tested by rhodamine B (Rh.B) and methylene blue (MB) as a standard model dyes. These analysis provide a promising development toward graphene based high efficient photocatalyst under visible light as an energy source.

  8. The hybrid energy storages based on batteries and ultracapacitors for contact microwelding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yu. V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro resistance welding is an effective way to reliably join small-scale parts. It is widely used in electronics and instrument-making. The important particularities of micro resistance welding are pulse character of energy consumption, non-linear load and special form of current pulses. So, these particularities of welding process cause negative influence on the mains. One of the known ways to avoid it is to use autonomous power supplies for micro resistance welding machines. The important task for building autonomous power supplies is to choose effective energy storages, which have high capacity and small internal resistance, and which are capable to be charged and deliver energy to load very quickly. The solution of this task is seen in using hybrid energy storages, which include accumulators and ultracapacitors. The accumulators are able to provide high energy capacitance and the ultracapacitors are able to provide fast energy delivery. The possibility of application of hybrid energy storages, based on accumulator batteries and ultracapacitors, in micro resistance welding machines is confirmed with computer simulation. Two variants of hybrid energy storages are proposed. These hybrid energy storages have high power and dynamic characteristics, which are sufficient to generate current pulses for welding according to necessary settings.

  9. Modelling and control of hybrid renewable energy system connected to AC grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Younsi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of new control and supervision method for the optimum operation of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES connected to AC grid. The hybrid system consists of wind generator (WG, diesel generator (DG, and flywheel energy storage system (FESS. These subsystems are based on permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM which are controlled by sliding mode control. A supervisor control is designed to determine the energy transfer type of flywheel energy storage system (charging / discharging / no transfer energy, to take decision on diesel generators ON/OFF status, and to determine the reference powers for these two subsystems. The supervisor inputs are the power requested by AC grid, the power generated by wind generator, and the energy stored in flywheel. The objectives of the control and supervision for hybrid renewable energy system are to satisfy the power requested by AC grid, to manage the energy transfer between hybrid system and AC grid, to optimize the use of wind energy, and to reduce fuel of diesel generator. The system is simulated with Matlab – Simulink software and it gave good results.

  10. Diagnose Physical Conditions Near the Flare Energy-release Sites from Observations of Solar Microwave Type III Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how do diagnose these physical conditions. Solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of magnetic field on the plasma density and developed s set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We applied these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in a X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flar...

  11. Feasibility study of a hybrid wind turbine system – integration with compressed air energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Wind has been recognized as one of major realistic clean energy sources for power generation to meet the continuously increased energy demand and to achieve the carbon emission reduction targets. However, the utilisation of wind energy encounters an inevitable challenge resulting from the nature of wind intermittency. To address this, the paper presents the recent research work at Warwick on the feasibility study of a new hybrid system by integrating a wind turbine with compressed air energy ...

  12. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dariusz Smolen1, Tadeusz Chudoba1, Iwona Malka1, Aleksandra Kedzierska1, Witold Lojkowski1, Wojciech Swieszkowski2, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydlowski2, Malgorzata Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska3, Malgorzata Lewandowska-Szumiel31Polish Academy of Science, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 µmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material

  13. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  14. Chemically Integrated Inorganic-Graphene Two-Dimensional Hybrid Materials for Flexible Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Li, Hongsen; Yu, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    State-of-the-art energy storage devices are capable of delivering reasonably high energy density (lithium ion batteries) or high power density (supercapacitors). There is an increasing need for these power sources with not only superior electrochemical performance, but also exceptional flexibility. Graphene has come on to the scene and advancements are being made in integration of various electrochemically active compounds onto graphene or its derivatives so as to utilize their flexibility. Many innovative synthesis techniques have led to novel graphene-based hybrid two-dimensional nanostructures. Here, the chemically integrated inorganic-graphene hybrid two-dimensional materials and their applications for energy storage devices are examined. First, the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of inorganic-graphene hybrid nanostructures are summarized, and then the most relevant applications of inorganic-graphene hybrid materials in flexible energy storage devices are reviewed. The general design rules of using graphene-based hybrid 2D materials for energy storage devices and their current limitations and future potential to advance energy storage technologies are also discussed.

  15. Energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic for a fuel cell hybrid bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dawei; Jin, Zhenhua; Lu, Qingchun

    Fuel cell vehicles, as a substitute for internal-combustion-engine vehicles, have become a research hotspot for most automobile manufacturers all over the world. Fuel cell systems have disadvantages, such as high cost, slow response and no regenerative energy recovery during braking; hybridization can be a solution to these drawbacks. This paper presents a fuel cell hybrid bus which is equipped with a fuel cell system and two energy storage devices, i.e., a battery and an ultracapacitor. An energy management strategy based on fuzzy logic, which is employed to control the power flow of the vehicular power train, is described. This strategy is capable of determining the desired output power of the fuel cell system, battery and ultracapacitor according to the propulsion power and recuperated braking power. Some tests to verify the strategy were developed, and the results of the tests show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy and the good performance of the fuel cell hybrid bus.

  16. Hybrid Energy System Design of Micro Hydro-PV-biogas Based Micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishrina; Abdullah, A. G.; Risdiyanto, A.; Nandiyanto, ABD

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid renewable energy system is an arrangement of one or more sources of renewable energy and also conventional energy. This paper describes a simulation results of hybrid renewable power system based on the available potential in an educational institution in Indonesia. HOMER software was used to simulate and analyse both in terms of optimization and economic terms. This software was developed through 3 main principles; simulation, optimization, and sensitivity analysis. Generally, the presented results show that the software can demonstrate a feasible hybrid power system as well to be realized. The entire demand in case study area can be supplied by the system configuration and can be met by ¾ of electricity production. So, there are ¼ of generated energy became an excess electricity.

  17. Effective photocatalytic degradation of atrazine over titania-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coupled with microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhe; Yang, Shaogui; Yu, Kai; Ju, Yongming; Sun, Cheng

    2011-04-14

    Microwave-assisted photocatalytic (MAPC) degradation of atrazine over nanotitania coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (TiO(2)/MWCNTs) was investigated in this study. As a result, degradation efficiency of atrazine over TiO(2)/CNTs prepared by hydrothermal method was about 30% and 20% higher than that of titania P25 and anatase prepared hydrothermally in given time. The TiO(2)/CNTs composite samples were characterized by TGA-DSC, TEM, UV-vis DRS, XRD and BET, to explain the reason for efficient degradation and adsorption process of atrazine. Microwave thermal effect in this process was also investigated. Intermediates of degradation both in MAPC process and microwave-assisted photodegradation (MAPD) process were identified by LC/MS. It suggests that MWCNTs have special effects on atrazine degradation during MAPC process, like strong microwave absorption capability.

  18. Alternative energy input: Mechanochemical, microwave and ultrasound-assisted organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave, ultrasound, sunlight and mechanochemical mixing can be used to augment conventional laboratory techniques. By applying these alternative means of activation, a number of chemical transformations have been achieved thereby improving many existing protocols with superi...

  19. Fully Packaged Blue Energy Harvester by Hybridizing a Rolling Triboelectric Nanogenerator and an Electromagnetic Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wu, Changsheng; He, Xu; Lin, Long; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    Ocean energy, in theory, is an enormous clean and renewable energy resource that can generate electric power much more than that required to power the entire globe without adding any pollution to the atmosphere. However, owing to a lack of effective technology, such blue energy is almost unexplored to meet the energy requirement of human society. In this work, a fully packaged hybrid nanogenerator consisting of a rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (R-TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) is developed to harvest water motion energy. The outstanding output performance of the R-TENG (45 cm(3) in volume and 28.3 g in weight) in the low-frequency range (energy conversion efficiency and broaden the operating frequency simultaneously. In terms of charging capacitors, this hybrid nanogenerator provides not only high voltage and consistent charging from the TENG component but also fast charging speed from the EMG component. The practical application of the hybrid nanogenerator is also demonstrated to power light-emitting diodes by harvesting energy from stimulated tidal flow. The high robustness of the R-TENG is also validated based on the stable electrical output after continuous rolling motion. Therefore, the hybrid R-TENG and EMG device renders an effective and sustainable approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting in a broad frequency range.

  20. A Wireless Power Sharing Control Strategy for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jie; Jin, Xinmin; Wu, Xuezhi

    2017-01-01

    In order to compensate multiple time scales power fluctuation resulted from distributed energy resources and loads, hybrid energy storage systems are employed as the buffer unit in DC microgrid. In this paper, a wireless hierarchical control strategy is proposed to realize power sharing between...

  1. Lyapunov based control of hybrid energy storage system in electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, H.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Lyapunov based control principle in a hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle. The storage system consists on fuel cell (FC) as a main power source and a supercapacitor (SC) as an auxiliary power source. The power stage of energy conversion consists on a boost...

  2. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  3. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  4. Non-Radiative Energy Transfer Mediated by Hybrid Light-Matter States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaolan; Chervy, Thibault; Wang, Shaojun; George, Jino; Thomas, Anoop; Hutchison, James A; Devaux, Eloise; Genet, Cyriaque; Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-05-17

    We present direct evidence of enhanced non-radiative energy transfer between two J-aggregated cyanine dyes strongly coupled to the vacuum field of a cavity. Excitation spectroscopy and femtosecond pump-probe measurements show that the energy transfer is highly efficient when both the donor and acceptor form light-matter hybrid states with the vacuum field. The rate of energy transfer is increased by a factor of seven under those conditions as compared to the normal situation outside the cavity, with a corresponding effect on the energy transfer efficiency. The delocalized hybrid states connect the donor and acceptor molecules and clearly play the role of a bridge to enhance the rate of energy transfer. This finding has fundamental implications for coherent energy transport and light-energy harvesting.

  5. A Rule Based Energy Management System of Experimental Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simple and efficient rule based energy management system for battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS used in electric vehicles is presented. The objective of the proposed energy management system is to focus on exploiting the supercapacitor characteristics and on increasing the battery lifetime and system efficiency. The role of the energy management system is to yield battery reference current, which is subsequently used by the controller of the DC/DC converter. First, a current controller is designed to realize load current distribution between battery and supercapacitor. Then a voltage controller is designed to ensure the supercapacitor SOC to fluctuate within a preset reasonable variation range. Finally, a commercial experimental platform is developed to verify the proposed control strategy. In addition, the energy efficiency and the cost analysis of the hybrid system are carried out based on the experimental results to explore the most cost-effective tradeoff.

  6. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    OpenAIRE

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal) . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid en...

  7. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    OpenAIRE

    Station Md. Ibrahim; Mohammad Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid ...

  8. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami; Mehdi Ali Ehyaei; Marc A. Rosen; Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid sy...

  9. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZAIBI, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; ROBOAM, xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  10. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  11. Sizing and Energy Management of a Hybrid Locomotive Based on Flywheel and Accumulators

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Amine; Akli, Cossi Rockys; Sareni, Bruno; Roboam, Xavier; Jeunesse, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The French National Railways Company (SNCF) is interested in the design of a hybrid locomotive based on various storage devices (accumulator, flywheel, and ultracapacitor) and fed by a diesel generator. This paper particularly deals with the integration of a flywheel device as a storage element with a reduced-power diesel generator and accumulators on the hybrid locomotive. First, a power flow model of energy-storage elements (flywheel and accumulator) is developed to achieve the design of...

  12. Application of microwave energy in the manufacture of enhanced-quality green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ashu; Rawat, Renu; Singh, Brajinder; Ravindranath, S D

    2003-07-30

    Green tea manufacture was standardized with respect to the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rolling, and drying for quality manufacture. Inactivation of PPO by parching, steaming, microwave heating, and oven heating was monitored in tea shoots. The inactivated shoots were rolled under regimens of high and low pressures and dried by microwave heating, oven heating, or sun-drying; total phenols and catechins were estimated. Parched and sun-dried teas contained the lowest levels of total phenols and catechins, and their infusions were dull in color with a slightly burnt odor. Microwave-inactivated and-dried teas showed the highest levels of total phenols and catechins, and their infusions were bright in color and sweet in taste with a subtle pleasant odor. In steam-inactivated and oven/microwave-dried teas, total phenol and catechin contents were intermediate between parched and sun-dried teas and microwave-inactivated and microwave-dried teas, and their infusions were bright with a umami taste.

  13. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging biomechanical energy for sustainably powering wearable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report a hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for highly efficient scavenging of biomechanical energy to sustainably power wearable electronics by human walking. Based on the effective conjunction of triboelectrification and electromagnetic induction, the hybridized nanogenerator, with dimensions of 5 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm and a light weight of 60 g, integrates a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can deliver a peak output power of 4.9 mW under a loading resistance of 6 MΩ and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) that can deliver a peak output power of 3.5 mW under a loading resistance of 2 kΩ. The hybridized nanogenerator exhibits a good stability for the output performance and a much better charging performance than that of an individual energy-harvesting unit (TENG or EMG). Furthermore, the hybridized nanogenerator integrated in a commercial shoe has been utilized to harvest biomechanical energy induced by human walking to directly light up tens of light-emitting diodes in the shoe and sustainably power a smart pedometer for reading the data of a walking step, distance, and energy consumption. A wireless pedometer driven by the hybrid nanogenerator can work well to send the walking data to an iPhone under the distance of 25 m. This work pushes forward a significant step toward energy harvesting from human walking and its potential applications in sustainably powering wearable electronics.

  14. Energy-Saving Traffic Scheduling in Hybrid Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunkai; Ma, Xiaohui; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yijin

    2017-09-15

    Software Defined Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (SDWRSNs) are an inexorable trend for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), including Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network (WRSNs). However, the traditional network devices cannot be completely substituted in the short term. Hybrid SDWRSNs, where software defined devices and traditional devices coexist, will last for a long time. Hybrid SDWRSNs bring new challenges as well as opportunities for energy saving issues, which is still a key problem considering that the wireless chargers are also exhaustible, especially in some rigid environment out of the main supply. Numerous energy saving schemes for WSNs, or even some works for WRSNs, are no longer suitable for the new features of hybrid SDWRSNs. To solve this problem, this paper puts forward an Energy-saving Traffic Scheduling (ETS) algorithm. The ETS algorithm adequately considers the new characters in hybrid SDWRSNs, and takes advantage of the Software Defined Networking (SDN) controller's direct control ability on SDN nodes and indirect control ability on normal nodes. The simulation results show that, comparing with traditional Minimum Transmission Energy (MTE) protocol, ETS can substantially improve the energy efficiency in hybrid SDWRSNs for up to 20-40% while ensuring feasible data delay.

  15. Rotating-Sleeve Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator for High Efficiency of Harvesting Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ran; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bin; Yin, Yingying; Yuan, Zuqing; Li, Congju; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-22

    Currently, a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) have been hybridized to effectively scavenge mechanical energy. However, one critical issue of the hybrid device is the limited output power due to the mismatched output impedance between the two generators. In this work, impedance matching between the TENG and EMG is achieved facilely through commercial transformers, and we put forward a highly integrated hybrid device. The rotating-sleeve triboelectric-electromagnetic hybrid nanogenerator (RSHG) is designed by simulating the structure of a common EMG, which ensures a high efficiency in transferring ambient mechanical energy into electric power. The RSHG presents an excellent performance with a short-circuit current of 1 mA and open-circuit voltage of 48 V at a rotation speed of 250 rpm. Systematic measurements demonstrate that the hybrid nanogenerator can deliver the largest output power of 13 mW at a loading resistance of 8 kΩ. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a wind-driven RSHG can light dozens of light-emitting diodes and power an electric watch. The distinctive structure and high output performance promise the practical application of this rotating-sleeve structured hybrid nanogenerator for large-scale energy conversion.

  16. Energy supply chain optimization of hybrid feedstock processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine A; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2014-01-01

    The economic, environmental, and social performances of energy systems depend on their geographical locations and the surrounding market infrastructure for feedstocks and energy products. Strategic decisions to locate energy conversion facilities must take all upstream and downstream operations into account, prompting the development of supply chain modeling and optimization methods. This article reviews the contributions of energy supply chain studies that include heat, power, and liquid fuels production. Studies are categorized based on specific features of the mathematical model, highlighting those that address energy supply chain models with and without considerations of multiperiod decisions. Studies that incorporate uncertainties are discussed, and opportunities for future research developments are outlined.

  17. Dynamic modeling of hybrid energy storage systems coupled to photovoltaic generation in residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclay, James D.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    A model of a photovoltaic (PV) powered residence in stand-alone configuration was developed and evaluated. The model assesses the sizing, capital costs, control strategies, and efficiencies of reversible fuel cells (RFC), batteries, and ultra-capacitors (UC) both individually, and in combination, as hybrid energy storage devices. The choice of control strategy for a hybrid energy storage system is found to have a significant impact on system efficiency, hydrogen production and component utilization. A hybrid energy storage system comprised of batteries and RFC has the advantage of reduced cost (compared to using a RFC as the sole energy storage device), high system efficiency and hydrogen energy production capacity. A control strategy that preferentially used the RFC before the battery in meeting load demand allows both grid independent operation and better RFC utilization compared to a system that preferentially used the battery before the RFC. Ultra-capacitors coupled with a RFC in a hybrid energy storage system contain insufficient energy density to meet dynamic power demands typical of residential applications.

  18. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-07-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  19. Integration of a vanadium-redox-flow-battery into a hybrid renewable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, L.; Grahn, J.; Kluge, A.; Boggasch, E.; Kuehl, L. [Ostfalia Univ. of Applied Science, Wolfenbuettel (Germany). Inst. of Energy Optimized Systems EOS

    2012-07-01

    Today's renewable energy systems, like wind turbines or solar power plants, are depending on weather conditions (windy or sunny days). In order to compensate these fluctuations of energy production it is necessary to store produced energy by using one of several options which are available at this time. The planned substitution of nuclear power issues a challenge to Germany and its energy-politics. This paper deals with the efforts of Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences to alleviate a part of the most important problem of this century. Ostfalia's compares of different energy storages will give a help to develop efficient energy management strategies for hybrid systems.

  20. Electrical-field distribution and penetration by microwave energy deposition in a biological tissue for therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afuwape, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in biological tissue is a function of the characteristics of the biomedium and the excitation frequency of the microwave source thus, a wave model numerically solved by finite element method (FEM), can be utilized as an advance tool to analyze the spatial distribution and the penetration depth of the EM field and the absorption of microwave energy in the biological media. The specific methods employed in this study were: (a) A system of nonhomogeneous Helmholtz (wave) equations was derived from the macroscopic Maxwell's equations with natural boundary conditions which related EM interaction within a discrete biomedium. (b) The system model was solved, (1) by the numerical technique of FEM, (2) by analytical methods using Bessel and Spherical functions, and (3) a physical model (phantom muscle tissue) was experimentally demonstrated using thermographic technique.

  1. Hybrid utilization of solar energy. Part 2. Performance analyses of heating system with air hybrid collector; Taiyo energy no hybrid riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Kuki shunetsu hybrid collector wo mochiita danbo system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, M.; Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the effective utilization of solar energy at houses, a heating system using an air hybrid collector (capable of simultaneously performing heat collection and photovoltaic power generation). As the specimen house, a wooden house of a total floor area of 120m{sup 2} was simulated. Collected air is fanned into a crushed stone heat accumulator (capable of storing one day`s collection) or into a living room. The output of solar cell arrays is put into a heat pump (capable of handling a maximum hourly load of 36,327kJ/h) via an inverter so as to drive the fan (corresponding to average insolation on the heat collecting plate of 10.7MJ/hm{sup 2} and heat collecting efficiency of 40%), and shortage in power if any is supplied from the system interconnection. A hybrid collector, as compared with the conventional air collector, is lower in thermal efficiency but the merit that it exhibits with respect to power generation is far greater than what is needed to counterbalance the demerit. When the hybrid system is in heating operation, there is an ideal heat cycle of collection, accumulation, and radiation when the load is light, but the balance between accumulation and radiation is disturbed when the load is heavy. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Developing energy forecasting model using hybrid artificial intelligence method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahram Mollaiy-Berneti

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in demand planning for energy consumption is developing an accurate energy forecasting model. In fact, it is not possible to allocate the energy resources in an optimal manner without having accurate demand value. A new energy forecasting model was proposed based on the back-propagation (BP) type neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm. The proposed method offers the advantage of local search ability of BP technique and global search ability of imperialist competitive algorithm. Two types of empirical data regarding the energy demand (gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export and energy demand) in Turkey from 1979 to 2005 and electricity demand (population, GDP, total revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption) in Thailand from 1986 to 2010 were investigated to demonstrate the applicability and merits of the present method. The performance of the proposed model is found to be better than that of conventional back-propagation neural network with low mean absolute error.

  3. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  5. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  6. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  7. Microfibre-nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Wang, Xudong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2008-02-01

    A self-powering nanosystem that harvests its operating energy from the environment is an attractive proposition for sensing, personal electronics and defence technologies. This is in principle feasible for nanodevices owing to their extremely low power consumption. Solar, thermal and mechanical (wind, friction, body movement) energies are common and may be scavenged from the environment, but the type of energy source to be chosen has to be decided on the basis of specific applications. Military sensing/surveillance node placement, for example, may involve difficult-to-reach locations, may need to be hidden, and may be in environments that are dusty, rainy, dark and/or in deep forest. In a moving vehicle or aeroplane, harvesting energy from a rotating tyre or wind blowing on the body is a possible choice to power wireless devices implanted in the surface of the vehicle. Nanowire nanogenerators built on hard substrates were demonstrated for harvesting local mechanical energy produced by high-frequency ultrasonic waves. To harvest the energy from vibration or disturbance originating from footsteps, heartbeats, ambient noise and air flow, it is important to explore innovative technologies that work at low frequencies (such as textile fibres. By entangling two fibres and brushing the nanowires rooted on them with respect to each other, mechanical energy is converted into electricity owing to a coupled piezoelectric-semiconductor process. This work establishes a methodology for scavenging light-wind energy and body-movement energy using fabrics.

  8. Hybrid LSA-ANN Based Home Energy Management Scheduling Controller for Residential Demand Response Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham S. Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR program can shift peak time load to off-peak time, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions and allowing energy conservation. In this study, the home energy management scheduling controller of the residential DR strategy is proposed using the hybrid lightning search algorithm (LSA-based artificial neural network (ANN to predict the optimal ON/OFF status for home appliances. Consequently, the scheduled operation of several appliances is improved in terms of cost savings. In the proposed approach, a set of the most common residential appliances are modeled, and their activation is controlled by the hybrid LSA-ANN based home energy management scheduling controller. Four appliances, namely, air conditioner, water heater, refrigerator, and washing machine (WM, are developed by Matlab/Simulink according to customer preferences and priority of appliances. The ANN controller has to be tuned properly using suitable learning rate value and number of nodes in the hidden layers to schedule the appliances optimally. Given that finding proper ANN tuning parameters is difficult, the LSA optimization is hybridized with ANN to improve the ANN performances by selecting the optimum values of neurons in each hidden layer and learning rate. Therefore, the ON/OFF estimation accuracy by ANN can be improved. Results of the hybrid LSA-ANN are compared with those of hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO based ANN to validate the developed algorithm. Results show that the hybrid LSA-ANN outperforms the hybrid PSO based ANN. The proposed scheduling algorithm can significantly reduce the peak-hour energy consumption during the DR event by up to 9.7138% considering four appliances per 7-h period.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  10. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Liu; Linzhi Liu; Gang Xu; Feifei Liang; Yongping Yang; Weide Zhang; Ying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG) as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-f...

  11. Compact hybrid cell based on a convoluted nanowire structure for harvesting solar and mechanical energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    A fully integrated, solid-state, compact hybrid cell (CHC) that comprises ''convoluted'' ZnO nanowire structures for concurrent harvesting of both solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The compact hybrid cell is based on a conjunction design of an organic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and piezoelectric nanogenerator in one compact structure. The CHC shows a significant increase in output power, clearly demonstrating its potential for simultaneously harvesting multiple types of energy for powering small electronic devices for independent, sustainable, and mobile operation. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  13. Fuzzy energy management for hybrid fuel cell/battery systems for more electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcau, Jenica-Ileana; Dinca, Liviu; Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Tudosie, Alexandru-Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    In this paper is presented the simulation and analysis of a Fuzzy Energy Management for Hybrid Fuel cell/Battery Systems used for More Electric Aircraft. The fuel cell hybrid system contains of fuel cell, lithium-ion batteries along with associated dc to dc boost converters. In this configuration the battery has a dc to dc converter, because it is an active in the system. The energy management scheme includes the rule based fuzzy logic strategy. This scheme has a faster response to load change and is more robust to measurement imprecisions. Simulation will be provided using Matlab/Simulink based models. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance.

  14. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  15. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Charge Density Wave and Crystal Structure of KxWO3 (x=0.20 and 0.22) Prepared by Hybrid Microwave Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Runze; Gao, Chaojun; Bu, Kun; Hao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zichen; Wen, Lianjun; Guo, Juan; Chao, Mingju; Liang, Erjun; Yang, Lihong; Dong, Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Potassium tungsten bronzes KxWO3 (x=0.20 and 0.22) with the coexistence of charge density wave (CDW) and superconductivity (SC) were prepared from K2WO4, WO3 and W powders using a hybrid microwave method. The structure refinement confirmed that all samples had a pure hexagonal phase with the space group of P63 /mcm. The distortion degree of W-O octahedron declines with x and is independent of synthesis condition for the same x (=0.20). The CDW transition is studied as a function of residual resistivity ratio. By increasing the crystallinity of sample, this transition can be suppressed, which is probably attributed to the interaction between CDW and defects in crystallites. The CDW transition temperature increases with x, which may be related to the decline of the distortion degree of W-O octahedron. The competition between CDW and SC is observed according to the resistivity and magnetization measurements.

  17. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE: Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzi V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  18. High-Energy-Low-Temperature Technologies for the Synthesis of Nanoparticles: Microwaves and High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Lojkowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microwave Solvothermal Synthesis (MSS is a chemical technology, where apart from possible effects of microwaves on the chemical reaction paths, microwave heating allows the precise planning of a time-temperature schedule, as well as to achieve high super-saturation of the reagents uniformly in the reactor vessel. Thus, MSS is suitable for production of nanoparticles with small grain size distribution and a high degree of crystallinity. A further advantage of the technology is a much lower synthesis temperature than for gas phase, plasma or sol-gel technologies. New reactors have been developed to exploit these advantages of the MSS technology of nanoparticles synthesis and to scale up the production rate. Reactor design and realization has been shown to be decisive and critical for the control of the MSS technology. Examples of oxidic and phosphatic nanoparticles synthesis have been reported.

  19. Autonomous Control of Interlinking Converter With Energy Storage in Hybrid AC–DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Li, Ding; Chai, Yi Kang

    2013-01-01

    The coexistence of ac and dc subgrids in a hybrid microgrid is likely given that modern distributed sources can either be ac or dc. Linking these subgrids is a power converter, whose topology should preferably be not too unconventional. This is to avoid unnecessary compromises to reliability......, simplicity, and industry relevance of the converter. The desired operating features of the hybrid microgrid can then be added through this interlinking converter. To demonstrate, an appropriate control scheme is now developed for controlling the interlinking converter. The objective is to keep the hybrid...... microgrid in autonomous operation with active power proportionally shared among its distributed sources. Power sharing here should depend only on the source ratings and not their placements within the hybrid microgrid. The proposed scheme can also be extended to include energy storage within...

  20. The hybrid two stage anticlockwise cycle for ecological energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyklis Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticlockwise cycle is commonly used for refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumps applications. The application of refrigerant in the compression cycle is within the temperature limits of the triple point and the critical point. New refrigerants such as 1234yf or 1234ze have many disadvantages, therefore natural refrigerants application is favourable. The carbon dioxide and water can be applied only in the hybrid two stages cycle. The possibilities of this solutions are shown for refrigerating applications, as well some experimental results of the adsorption-compression double stages cycle, powered with solar collectors are shown. As a high temperature cycle the adsorption system is applied. The low temperature cycle is the compression stage with carbon dioxide as a working fluid. This allows to achieve relatively high COP for low temperature cycle and for the whole system.

  1. Synthesis, structural and field emission properties of multiwall carbon nanotube-graphene-like nanocarbon hybrid films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chockalingam, Sreekumar, E-mail: sreekuc@nplindia.org [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Bisht, Atul [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kesarwani, A.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, B.P. [Physics and Engineering of Carbon, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Chand, Jagdish [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, V.N. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-graphene-like nanocarbon hybrid films were directly deposited on nickel substrate without any pre-treatment in a single-step by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PECVD) technique at 600 °C. The effects of hydrogen partial pressure on the growth of MWCNT-graphene-like nanocarbon hybrid films and their structural, morphological and field emission properties were investigated. High resolution scanning electron microscope revealed MWCNT structure. High resolution transmission electron microscope images and Raman spectra revealed graphene-like nanocarbon film. Raman spectra showed 2D, G, D and D + G peaks at approximately 2690, 1590, 1350 and 2930 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The minimum threshold field for electron emission was found to be 3.6 V/μm corresponding to 1 μA/cm{sup 2} current density for the MWCNT-graphene-like nanocarbon hybrid film deposited at 20 Torr pressure whereas the maximum current density of 0.12 mA/cm{sup 2} and field enhancement factor of ∼3356 was obtained for the sample deposited at 5 Torr pressure. - Highlights: • MWCNT-graphene-like nanocarbon hybrid films were synthesized by MWPECVD technique. • Effect of pressure on the structural and field emission properties has been studied. • FESEM revealed MWCNT and HRTEM revealed graphene-like nanocarbon film structure. • Minimum E{sub T} = 3.6 V/μm with β = 3164 has been obtained in the film deposited at 20 Torr. • Maximum J = 0.12 mA/cm{sup 2} with β = 3356 has been obtained in the film deposited at 5 Torr.

  2. High brightness microwave lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  3. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid

  4. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  5. Summary Report of the INL-JISEA Workshop on Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antkowiak, M.; Ruth, M.; Boardman, R.; Bragg-Sitton, S.; Cherry, R.; Shunn, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Energy Science and Technology (INEST) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) co-sponsored an international workshop to identify research topics important in advancing the potential use of hybrid systems with a specific focus on nuclear-renewable hybrid systems. The workshop included presentations ranging from energy challenges and research and development directions being pursued by nations to multiple options for hybrid systems. Those options include one that is being commercialized to other opportunities and analysis results quantifying them. The workshop also involved two breakout sessions--one focused on thermal energy management issues especially at unit-operation scale and the second focused on system operations issues including system controls, regulatory issues, technical and economic analysis, and market challenges. A discussion involving the full group focused on more general issues such as societal involvement and participation. Key criteria for selecting hybrid energy system projects and metrics for comparing them were also identified by the full group.

  6. AGRI-ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF CULTIVATION OF NEW VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS OF SWEET SORGHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlina G. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The organization of animal feeding in the summer and procurement of fodder for the winter are of great importance. The sowings of sugar sorghum can become a reliable and stable source of fodder even in the regions with insufficient humidity. It is a unique drought tolerant crop, which can be used as green mass, hay, silage, grain, mono fodder, briquettes. The article gives the study results of green mass and absolutely dry substance, and the assessment of cultivation efficiency of such sugar sorghum varieties and hybrids grown in FSBSI ‘I.G. Kalinenko ARRIGC’ as ‘Zernogradsky yantar’, ‘Debyut’, ‘Listvenit’, ‘Zersil F1’, ‘Elisey F1’. The productivity of green mass and dry substance of the new variety ‘Listvenit’ and the hybrid ‘Elisey’ exceeded the standard variety on 7,0-5,0 t/ha and 2,30-0,74 t/ha respectively. The cultivation technologies of sweet sorghum varieties and hybrids produced the high net energy of 69,6-121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 3,72- 5,08. As for the energy, the cultivation technology of the sweet sorghum hybrid ‘Elisey’ can be considered as the most efficient variant, as it produced the maximum net energy of 121,9 GJ/ha with the coefficient of energy efficiency of 5,08

  7. Efficient light emission from inorganic and organic semiconductor hybrid structures by energy-level tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, R; Bianchi, F; Blumstengel, S; Christodoulou, C; Ovsyannikov, R; Kobin, B; Moudgil, K; Barlow, S; Hecht, S; Marder, S R; Henneberger, F; Koch, N

    2015-04-15

    The fundamental limits of inorganic semiconductors for light emitting applications, such as holographic displays, biomedical imaging and ultrafast data processing and communication, might be overcome by hybridization with their organic counterparts, which feature enhanced frequency response and colour range. Innovative hybrid inorganic/organic structures exploit efficient electrical injection and high excitation density of inorganic semiconductors and subsequent energy transfer to the organic semiconductor, provided that the radiative emission yield is high. An inherent obstacle to that end is the unfavourable energy level offset at hybrid inorganic/organic structures, which rather facilitates charge transfer that quenches light emission. Here, we introduce a technologically relevant method to optimize the hybrid structure's energy levels, here comprising ZnO and a tailored ladder-type oligophenylene. The ZnO work function is substantially lowered with an organometallic donor monolayer, aligning the frontier levels of the inorganic and organic semiconductors. This increases the hybrid structure's radiative emission yield sevenfold, validating the relevance of our approach.

  8. Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films directly onto conductive substrates via selective thermolysis using microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Theodore R; Hanson, Parker J; Aydil, Eray S; Penn, R Lee

    2014-06-04

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) thin films were deposited from homogeneous solutions of precursors and directly onto conductive films via selective thermolysis by microwave heating. Microwave energy is absorbed strongly by conductive films, which enables preferential heating to a sufficiently high temperature for the deposition of CZTS exclusively on the conductive layer without homogeneous nucleation of CZTS in the liquid phase or heterogeneous nucleation of CZTS on uncoated portions of substrates.

  9. Application of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic and fulvic acids from marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2007-10-29

    The feasibility of microwave energy to speed up the alkaline extraction of humic substances (humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) from marine sediments has been checked. Extractions were performed by using 20 mL of sodium hydroxide at 0.1 M (two repeated extractions) after an ultrasound-assisted acid pre-treatment of samples to remove the carbonate fraction (ultrasound power at 17 kHz, 10 mL of 6.0 M hydrochloric acid for 15 min). After separation of HA and FA fractions by acidifying with 6 M HCl, the FA fraction (supernatant) was purified by passing the solution through a column of Amberlite XAD-8. Both HA and FA extracts were measured by UV-visible spectrophotometry. All variables affecting the extraction process (sodium hydroxide concentration and volume, ramp and hold times, temperature and number of repeated extractions) have been screened by using a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as multivariate approach. The variables temperature and number of repeated extractions were the most significant factors (P=95%) affecting the extraction of both FA and HA from marine sediments. These two variables have led optimum values of 150 degrees C and two repeated extractions. The developed method has been found precise (R.S.D.s of 9% for HA and 12% for FA, for 11 determinations) and its results were comparable in terms of elemental (C, H and N) composition to those obtained after applying methods based on mechanical stirring and ultrasounds assisting. However, higher HA and FA concentrations than those obtained after conventional stirring and ultrasound irradiation were obtained when applying microwave energy. This means a higher efficiency of microwave energy than ultrasounds or mechanical stirring to extract HA and FA fractions from marine sediments. The method was finally applied to different surface marine sediments from the Ría de Arousa estuary.

  10. Hybrid centralized-distributed power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator with high energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min;

    2013-01-01

    The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized-distribu......The unbalanced temperature distribution influences the power output of thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, which leads to mismatch power among TEG modules. This mismatch power degrades the energy efficiency of TEG systems based on the series-connected TEG modules. A hybrid centralized...... the proposed system, which benefits for implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A hybrid MPPT control strategy is proposed for this HCD power conditioning system. The characteristics, circuit implementation and operation principles of the proposed system are presented...

  11. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  12. Barium Titanate Film Interfaces for Hybrid Composite Energy Harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowland, Christopher C; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2017-02-01

    Energy harvesting utilizing piezoelectric materials has become an attractive approach for converting mechanical energy into electrical power for low-power electronics. Structural composites are ideally suited for energy scavenging due to the large amount of mechanical energy they are subjected to. Here, a multifunctional composite with embedded sensing and energy harvesting is developed by integrating an active interface into carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. By modifying the composite matrix, both rigid and flexible multifunctional composites are fabricated. Through electromechanical testing of a cantilever beam of the rigid composite, it reveals a power density of 217 pW/cc from only 1 g root-mean-square acceleration when excited at its resonant frequency of 47 Hz. Electromechanical sensor testing of the flexible multifunctional composite reveals an average voltage generation of 23.5 mV/g at its resonant frequency of 96 Hz. This research introduces a route for integrating nonstructural functionality into structural fiber composites by utilizing BaTiO3 coated woven carbon fiber fabrics with power scavenging and passive sensing capabilities.

  13. Magnetic carbon nanostructures: microwave energy-assisted pyrolysis vs. conventional pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Pallavkar, Sameer; Chen, Minjiao; Yerra, Narendranath; Luo, Zhiping; Colorado, Henry A; Lin, Hongfei; Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Khasanov, Airat; Ho, Thomas C; Young, David P; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2013-01-11

    Magnetic carbon nanostructures from microwave assisted- and conventional-pyrolysis processes are compared. Unlike graphitized carbon shells from conventional heating, different carbon shell morphologies including nanotubes, nanoflakes and amorphous carbon were observed. Crystalline iron and cementite were observed in the magnetic core, different from a single cementite phase from the conventional process.

  14. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) conducted a round-robin testing program to evaluate...-robin test program. (AHAM, No. 18 at pp. 2-3; \\8\\ Whirlpool, No. 15 at p. 1) AHAM and Whirlpool..., whereas a hood fan used for cooling an over-the-range microwave oven is typically rated at 100-200 watts...

  15. Impact of intersection type and a vehicular fleet's hybridization level on energy consumption and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are two major constraints in sustainable development. Both of them have proportionally raised in recent decades with the exponential growth of world traffic demands. The reduction of road traffic-generated energy consumption and emissions have thus become unprecedentedly challenging and worth examining. This paper investigates energy consumption and environmental problems present at roundabout and signalized intersection to analyze the impact of the hybridization level's fleet and intersection type on vehicle consumption and pollution. Instantaneous fuel consumption and emission models coupled with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO are in this study. The authors started with modeling energy consumption. Then, an emission model emissions from traffic (EMIT was implemented to quantify vehicle emissions of CO2, CO and NOx. These models help investigate the influence of intersection type on energy consumption and environmental conditions. The authors implemented a signalized intersection and roundabout using SUMO. The input data are collected from the roundabout of Sousse (Tunisia using video data collection. Since there is a lack of econometric models that emulate hybridized stream behavior near intersections, two energy consumption models for the roundabout and crossroad are developed using traffic flow and hybridization level as the input variables. Compared to crossroads, a roundabout can obtain more environmental improvements and substantial reductions in energy consumption and road traffic emissions.

  16. A low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, A. D.; Fink, E.; Garcia, E.

    2013-09-01

    Embedded systems have decreased in size and increased in capability; however, small-scale energy storage technologies still significantly limit these advances. Energy neutral operation using small-scale energy harvesting technologies would allow for longer device operation times and smaller energy storage masses. Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive method due to the prevalence of energy sources in many environments. Losses in efficiency due to AC-DC rectification and conditioning circuits limit its application. This work presents a low-loss hybrid rectification technique for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting using magnetically actuated reed switches and a passive semiconductor full-bridge rectifier. This method shows the capability to have higher efficiency levels and the rectification of low-voltage harvesters without the need for active electrical components. A theoretical model shows that the hybrid rectification technique performance is highly dependent on the proximity delay and the hysteresis behavior of the reed switches. Experimental results validate the model and support the hypothesis of increased performance using the hybrid rectification technique.

  17. Microwave energy attenuators of high thermal conductivity based on AlN and SiC with addition of molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasnyk V. I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermal conductivity and microwave absorption in aluminum nitride based composites with different percentages of silicium carbide and molybdenum. It is shown that the optimal composition of the studied materials is the composite with 46% of silicium carbide and 4% of molybdenum. This composition reveals high UHF-energy absorption level of 42 dB/cm in the frequency range of 9.5—10.5 GHz and high thermal conductivity of 65 W/(m*K.

  18. Microwave energy attenuators of high thermal conductivity based on AlN and SiC with addition of molybdenum

    OpenAIRE

    Chasnyk V. I.; Fesenko I. P.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of thermal conductivity and microwave absorption in aluminum nitride based composites with different percentages of silicium carbide and molybdenum. It is shown that the optimal composition of the studied materials is the composite with 46% of silicium carbide and 4% of molybdenum. This composition reveals high UHF-energy absorption level of 42 dB/cm in the frequency range of 9.5—10.5 GHz and high thermal conductivity of 65 W/(m*K).

  19. A new sensor-based self-configurable bandstop filter for reducing the energy leakage in industrial microwave ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Fernández, F. J.; Monzó-Cabrera, J.; Pedreño-Molina, J. L.; Lozano-Guerrero, A. J.; Fayos-Fernández, J.; Díaz-Morcillo, A.

    2012-06-01

    In this work a new sensor-based self-configurable waveguide bandstop filter that uses a combination of metallic irises and reconfigurable posts for reducing the energy leakage in industrial microwave ovens is presented and validated through a procedure fully based on measurements. Several optimization and reconfiguration alternatives of the moving posts such as genetic algorithms and parametric sweeps are assessed. Results show that good attenuation values can be obtained for all the analyzed scenarios. In particular, genetic algorithms are shown as the best search strategy. Design and optimization times are also reduced when using the proposed filter compared to computer simulations.

  20. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jain, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications.The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active v...

  1. Energy Spectrum of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Observed with the Telescope Array Using a Hybrid Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, E J; Cho, W R; Fujii, H; Fujii, T; Fukuda, T; Fukushima, M; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, K; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Hiyama, K; Honda, K; Iguchi, T; Ikeda, D; Ikuta, K; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Iwamoto, S; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kanbe, T; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, H K; Kim, J H; Kitamoto, K; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Kondo, Y; Kuramoto, K; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, S; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuura, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Miyata, K; Murano, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nam, S W; Nonaka, T; Ogio, S; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Oku, D; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Roh, S Y; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, J I; Shirahama, T; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, M; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Tsuyuguchi, Y; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Ukai, H; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wada, Y; Wong, T; Yamakawa, Y; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshii, H; Zhou, X; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

    2013-01-01

    We measure the spectrum of cosmic rays with energies greater than $10^{18.2}$ eV with the Fluorescence Detectors (FDs) and the Surface Detectors (SDs) of the Telescope Array Experiment using the data taken in our first 2.3-year observation from May 27 2008 to September 7 2010. A hybrid air shower reconstruction technique is employed to improve accuracies in determination of arrival directions and primary energies of cosmic rays using both FD and SD data. The energy spectrum presented here is in agreement with our previously published spectra and the HiRes results.

  2. Evolution of Wave Energy Deposition Profile in HT-7 Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方瑜德; 石跃江; 匡光力; 刘岳修; 沈慰慈; 丁伯江

    2001-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves (LHWs) with a selected n‖ spectrum have been used to control the energy deposition profiles, and then the wave driven current profiles effectively in tokamak discharges. In our lower hybrid current drive experiment in the HT-7 tokamak, it was found that the set-up of the wave energy deposition profile is a graduation process. In the beginning phase of the wave injection duration, the waves (with different n‖ spectra)deposit almost all their energy in the central region of the plasma column, even if their n‖ are very different. Up to around one hundred milliseconds, the wave energy deposition profiles can only take their corresponding shapes according to the n‖ spectra of LHWs. It also shown that this evolution process is affected obviously by the LHW driven current profile, which has been formed early.

  3. Utilizing wind and solar energy as power sources for a hybrid building ventilation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shun, Simon; Ahmed, Noor A. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Wind and solar energy are currently used to power many building ventilation devices. Such devices rely exclusively on either solar or wind energy, which limits their usefulness. A low-cost hybrid ventilation device that utilizes both wind and solar energy as power sources was designed to overcome some of the shortcomings of these devices. Wind tunnel testing conducted at the aerodynamics laboratory of the University of New South Wales revealed that the hybrid device had improved operational and performance benefits compared with conventional commercial roof top ventilators, particularly at zero to low wind speeds. This represents a significant step forward and will have an immediate impact in promoting the use of clean energy for the purposes of building ventilation. (author)

  4. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrouazin, A., E-mail: derrsid@gmail.com [University Hassiba BenBouali of Chlef, LGEER,Chlef (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr; Charles, J. P. [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Mekkakia-Maaza, N. [Université des sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, Mohamed Boudiaf-USTO MB,LMSE, Oran Algérie (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Design, Modeling and Energy Management of a PEM Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahib Andari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the study and the modeling of hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell electric vehicle. In fact, the paper deals with the model description of the powertrain which includes two energy sources: a PEM Fuel Cell as a primary source and a supercapacitor as a secondary source. The architecture is two degrees of freedom permitting a stability of the DC bus voltage. The hybridation of primary source with an energy storage system can improve vehicle dynamic response during transients and hydrogen consumption. The proposed energy management algorithm allows us to have a minimum hydrogen consumption. This algorithm is based on supercapacitor state of charge (SOC control and acceleration/deceleration phases making possible braking energy recovery. The proposed model is simulated and tested using Matlab/Simulink software allowing rapid transitions between sources. The obtained results with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC cycle demonstrate a 22% gain in hydrogen consumption.

  6. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  7. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  8. Experimental assessment of an energy management strategy on a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell hybrid power trains comprise an energy storage to supply peaks in the power demand and to facilitate regenerative braking. In terms of control systems, the presence of storage provides additional freedom to minimize the vehicle’s fuel consumption. In a previous paper [1] an analytical

  9. Integrated energy & emission management for hybrid electric truck with SCR aftertreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Schoot, W.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Energy management in hybrid vehicles typically relates to the vehicle powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in fuel economy and regulated pollutants, the concept of (model-based) Integrated Powertrai

  10. Solar energy in double-pack? Hybrid collectors; Sonne im Doppelpack? Hybridkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The scarce roof space could be utilized more efficient by means of modules which supply electricity as well as thermal energy for the generation of hot water or heating processes. Nethertheless, these solar modules do not harmonize optimally. Thus, the so-called hybrid technology prevails only hesitantly.

  11. Energy and Propulsion Optimization of Solid-Propellant Grain of a Hybrid Power Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarchuk Sergey S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of distribution of an additional solid-phase component (oxidizer providing uniformity of grain burning for the purpose of evaluation and optimization of energy and propulsion parameters of hybrid solid-propellant motor is proposed in the paper.

  12. How migrating 0.0001% of address space saves 12% of energy in hybrid storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Khatib, Mohammed G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, operating- system independent method to reduce the num- ber of seek operations and consequently reduce the energy consumption of a hybrid storage device consisting of a hard disk and a flash memory. Trace-driven simulations show that migrating a tiny amount of the address space (

  13. Energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, battery hybrid power supply system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at an energy performance analysis for a photovoltaic, diesel, and battery hybrid power supply system. The procedure starts by the identification of the hourly load requirements for a typical target consumer and the concept of load...

  14. A Direct Power Conversion Topology for Grid Integration of Hybrid AC/DC Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiple-input versatile matrix converter (VMC) for integrating hybrid ac/dc energy resources and storages to the power grid. The VMC is developed from the traditional indirect matrix converter but operates in the reverse-boost mode rather than in the forward-buck mode. The ...

  15. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  16. A framework for simulation and control of hybrid energy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geysen, D.; Booij, P.S.; Warmer, C.

    2014-01-01

    For the built environment it is envisaged that in the next decades the total annual energy demand, both thermal and electric, could be covered by renewable sources generated within the built environment. An increasing number of thermoelectric elements, such as heat pumps and thermal storage, will en

  17. A framework for simulation and control of hybrid energy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geysen, D.; Booij, P.S.; Warmer, C.

    2014-01-01

    For the built environment it is envisaged that in the next decades the total annual energy demand, both thermal and electric, could be covered by renewable sources generated within the built environment. An increasing number of thermoelectric elements, such as heat pumps and thermal storage, will en

  18. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs+ beams (hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs+ ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  19. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Materials Depth Profiling Using Low Energy Cesium Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Céline; Houssiau, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The structures developed in organic electronics, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaics (OPVs) devices always involve hybrid interfaces, joining metal or oxide layers with organic layers. No satisfactory method to probe these hybrid interfaces physical chemistry currently exists. One promising way to analyze such interfaces is to use in situ ion beam etching, but this requires ion beams able to depth profile both inorganic and organic layers. Mono- or diatomic ion beams commonly used to depth profile inorganic materials usually perform badly on organics, while cluster ion beams perform excellently on organics but yield poor results when organics and inorganics are mixed. Conversely, low energy Cs(+) beams (organic and inorganic materials depth profiling with comparable erosion rates. This paper shows a successful depth profiling of a model hybrid system made of metallic (Au, Cr) and organic (tyrosine) layers, sputtered with 500 eV Cs(+) ions. Tyrosine layers capped with metallic overlayers are depth profiled easily, with high intensities for the characteristic molecular ions and other specific fragments. Metallic Au or Cr atoms are recoiled into the organic layer where they cause some damage near the hybrid interface as well as changes in the erosion rate. However, these recoil implanted metallic atoms do not appear to severely degrade the depth profile overall quality. This first successful hybrid depth profiling report opens new possibilities for the study of OLEDs, organic solar cells, or other hybrid devices.

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  1. The mechanical hybrid vehicle: an investigation of a flywheel-based vehicular regenerative energy capture system

    OpenAIRE

    Diego-Ayala, U.; Martinez-Gonzalez, P.; McGlashan, N; Pullen, K. R.

    2008-01-01

    Capturing braking energy by regeneration into an onboard energy storage unit offers the potential to reduce significantly the fuel consumption of vehicles. A common technique is to generate electricity in the motors of a hybrid electric vehicle when braking, and to use this to charge an onboard electrochemical battery. However, such batteries are costly, bulky, and generally not amenable to fast charging as this affects battery life and capacity. In order to overcome these problems, a mechani...

  2. Nanowire Structured Hybrid Cell for Concurrently Scavenging Solar and Mechanical Energies

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Chen

    2009-04-29

    Conversion cells for harvesting solar energy and mechanical energy are usually separate and independent entities that are designed and built following different physical principles. Developing a technology that harvests multiple-type energies in forms such as sun light and mechanical around the clock is desperately desired for fully utilizing the energies available in our living environment. We report a hybrid cell that is intended for simultaneously harvesting solar and mechanical energies. Using aligned ZnO nanowire arrays grown on surfaces of a flat substrate, a dye-sensitized solar cell is integrated with a piezoelectric nanogenerator. The former harvests solar energy irradiating on the top, and the latter harvests ultrasonic wave energy from the surrounding. The two energy harvesting approaches can work simultaneously or individually, and they can be integrated in parallel and serial for raising the output current and voltage, respectively, as well as power. It is found that the voltage output from the solar cell can be used to raise the output voltage of the nanogenerator, providing an effective approach for effectively storing and utilizing the power generated by the nanogenerator. Our study demonstrates a new approach for concurrently harvesting multiple types of energies using an integrated hybrid cell so that the energy resources can be effectively and complementary utilized whenever and wherever one or all of them is available. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Finite element analysis of hybrid energy harvesting of piezoelectric and electromagnetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yazid Muhammad Ammar Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting energy from ambient vibrations is a highly required method because of the wide range of available sources that produce vibration energy application from industrial machinery to human motion application. In this paper, the implementation of harvesting energy from two technologies to form a hybrid energy harvester system was analyzed. These two technologies involve the piezoelectric harvesting energy and the electromagnetic harvesting energy. A finite element model was developed using the Ansys software with the harmonic analysis solver to analyze and examine hybrid harvesting energy system. Both power output generated from the magnet and the piezoelectric is then combined to form one unit of energy. Further, it was found that the result shows the system generate the maximum power output of 14.85 μW from 100 Hz, 4.905 m/s2, and 0.6 cm3 for resonance frequency, acceleration, and the volume respectively from the optimal energy harvester design. Normalized Power Density (NPD result of 10.29 kgs/m3 comparable with other literature also can be used in energy harvesting system for vibration application.

  4. Design and development of hybrid energy generator (photovoltaics) with solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Sabarudin, Mohamad Syabil Bin; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Izan Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the outcome of a small scale hybrid energy generator (hydro and photovoltaic) project. It contains the photovoltaics part of the project. The demand of energy resources is increasing day by day. That is why people nowadays tend to move on and changes their energy usage from using fossil fuels to a cleaner and green energy like hydro energy, solar energy etc. Nevertheless, energy is hard to come by for people who live in remote areas and also campsites in the remote areas which need continuous energy sources to power the facilities. Thus, the purpose of this project is to design and develop a small scale hybrid energy generator to help people that are in need of power. This main objective of this project is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of solar trackers in order to increase the electricity generation from solar energy. Software like Solidworks and Arduino is used to sketch and construct the design and also to program the microcontroller respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed solar tracker sytem.

  5. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Bogdan

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  6. Performance analysis of different ORC configurations for thermal energy and LNG cold energy hybrid power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shujia; Xu, Fuquan; Lin, Kui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal energy and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy hybrid power generation system. Performances of four different Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) configurations (the basic, the regenerative, the reheat and the regenerative-reheat ORCs) are studied based on the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Dry organic fluid R245fa is selected as the typical working fluid. Parameter analysis is also conducted in this paper. The results show that regeneration could not increase the thermal efficiency of the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. ORC with the reheat process could produce more specific net power output but it may also reduce the system thermal efficiency. The basic and the regenerative ORCs produce higher thermal efficiency while the regenerative-reheat ORC performs best in the exergy efficiency. A preheater is necessary for the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. And due to the presence of the preheater, there will be a step change of the system performance as the turbine inlet pressure rises.

  7. Photothermally Activated Pyroelectric Polymer Films for Harvesting of Solar Heat with a Hybrid Energy Cell Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Teahoon; Na, Jongbeom; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Younghoon; Shin, Haijin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2015-12-22

    Photothermal effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s (PEDOTs) were explored for pyroelectric conversion. A poled ferroelectric film was coated on both sides with PEDOT via solution casting polymerization of EDOT, to give highly conductive and effective photothermal thin films of PEDOT. The PEDOT films not only provided heat source upon light exposure but worked as electrodes for the output energy from the pyroelectric layer in an energy harvester hybridized with a thermoelectric layer. Compared to a bare thermoelectric system under NIR irradiation, the photothermal-pyro-thermoelectric device showed more than 6 times higher thermoelectric output with the additional pyroelectric output. The photothermally driven pyroelectric harvesting film provided a very fast electric output with a high voltage output (Vout) of 15 V. The pyroelectric effect was significant due to the transparent and high photothermal PEDOT film, which could also work as an electrode. A hybrid energy harvester was assembled to enhance photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of a solar cell with a thermoelectric device operated by the photothermally generated heat. The PCE was increased more than 20% under sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G) utilizing the transmitted light through the photovoltaic cell as a heat source that was converted into pyroelectric and thermoelectric output simultaneously from the high photothermal PEDOT electrodes. Overall, this work provides a dynamic and static hybrid energy cell to harvest solar energy in full spectral range and thermal energy, to allow solar powered switching of an electrochromic display.

  8. Novel solar energy harvesting options based on solution-processable inorganic/organic hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingelin, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    The growing demand for energy and increasing concerns for the effect of the excessive abuse of fossil fuels on the environment force the scientific world to search for alternative, clean and safe energy sources. Finding ways to harvest solar energy is thereby one of the most appealing options. Here, we present a novel approach that exploits the versatile properties of recently developed, photoactive organic/inorganic hybrid fluids based on titanium oxide hydrates and polyalcohols for the production of versatile solar fuels. We will show that such systems can absorb light in the UV-near visible wave-length range. The sunlight's energy is then converted into chemical energy in the form of reduced titanium species, which can be re-oxidised by oxygen when required. Therefore, the absorbed energy is stored as long as oxygen is excluded by the hybrid system. We, furthermore, demonstrate that once discharged, the fluid can be activated again by exposing it to sunlight and recycled - a property that is important technologically. The same hybrids can also be exploited to produce structures that permit efficient management of light. We will illustrate the potential of this class of materials based on some of our recent approaches to fabricate light-scattering and light in-coupling structures, and discuss future opportunities they open up.

  9. When the lowest energy does not induce native structures: parallel minimization of multi-energy values by hybridizing searching intelligences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lü

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein structure prediction (PSP, which is usually modeled as a computational optimization problem, remains one of the biggest challenges in computational biology. PSP encounters two difficult obstacles: the inaccurate energy function problem and the searching problem. Even if the lowest energy has been luckily found by the searching procedure, the correct protein structures are not guaranteed to obtain. RESULTS: A general parallel metaheuristic approach is presented to tackle the above two problems. Multi-energy functions are employed to simultaneously guide the parallel searching threads. Searching trajectories are in fact controlled by the parameters of heuristic algorithms. The parallel approach allows the parameters to be perturbed during the searching threads are running in parallel, while each thread is searching the lowest energy value determined by an individual energy function. By hybridizing the intelligences of parallel ant colonies and Monte Carlo Metropolis search, this paper demonstrates an implementation of our parallel approach for PSP. 16 classical instances were tested to show that the parallel approach is competitive for solving PSP problem. CONCLUSIONS: This parallel approach combines various sources of both searching intelligences and energy functions, and thus predicts protein conformations with good quality jointly determined by all the parallel searching threads and energy functions. It provides a framework to combine different searching intelligence embedded in heuristic algorithms. It also constructs a container to hybridize different not-so-accurate objective functions which are usually derived from the domain expertise.

  10. Multi objective decision making in hybrid energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Gabriel Guillermo

    The design of grid-connected photovoltaic wind generator system supplying a farmstead in Nebraska has been undertaken in this dissertation. The design process took into account competing criteria that motivate the use of different sources of energy for electric generation. The criteria considered were 'Financial', 'Environmental', and 'User/System compatibility'. A distance based multi-objective decision making methodology was developed to rank design alternatives. The method is based upon a precedence order imposed upon the design objectives and a distance metric describing the performance of each alternative. This methodology advances previous work by combining ambiguous information about the alternatives with a decision-maker imposed precedence order in the objectives. Design alternatives, defined by the photovoltaic array and wind generator installed capacities, were analyzed using the multi-objective decision making approach. The performance of the design alternatives was determined by simulating the system using hourly data for an electric load for a farmstead and hourly averages of solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed from eight wind-solar energy monitoring sites in Nebraska. The spatial variability of the solar energy resource within the region was assessed by determining semivariogram models to krige hourly and daily solar radiation data. No significant difference was found in the predicted performance of the system when using kriged solar radiation data, with the models generated vs. using actual data. The spatial variability of the combined wind and solar energy resources was included in the design analysis by using fuzzy numbers and arithmetic. The best alternative was dependent upon the precedence order assumed for the main criteria. Alternatives with no PV array or wind generator dominated when the 'Financial' criteria preceded the others. In contrast, alternatives with a nil component of PV array but a high wind generator component

  11. Energy transfer processes in semiconductor quantum dots: bacteriorhodopsin hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovich, Aliaksandra; Sukhanova, Alyona; Bouchonville, Nicolas; Molinari, Michael; Troyon, Michel; Cohen, Jacques H. M.; Rakovich, Yury; Donegan, John F.; Nabiev, Igor

    2009-05-01

    The potential impact of nanoscience on energy transfer processes in biomolecules was investigated on the example of a complex between fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and photochromic membrane protein. The interactions between colloidal CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein were studied by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including integrated and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies, zeta potential and size measurement, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. QDs' luminescence was found to be strongly modulated by bacteriorhodopsin, but in a controllable way. Decreasing emission lifetimes and blue shifts in QDs' emission at increasing protein concentrations suggest that quenching occurs via Förster resonance energy transfer. On the other hand, concave Stern-Volmer plots and sigmoidal photoluminescence quenching curves imply that the self-assembling of NCs and bR exists, and the number of nanocrystals (NCs) per bacteriorhodopsin contributing to energy transfer can be determined from the inflection points of sigmoidal curves. This number was found to be highly dependent not only on the spectral overlap between NC emission and bR absorption bands, but also on nanocrystal surface charge. These results demonstrate the potential of how inorganic nanoscale materials can be employed to improve the generic molecular functions of biomolecules. The observed interactions between CdTe nanocrystals and bacteriorhodopsin can provide the basis for the development of novel functional materials with unique photonic properties and applications in areas such as all-optical switching, photovoltaics and data storage.

  12. MICROWAVE COMBUSTION AND SINTERING WITHOUT ISOSTATIC PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This project is devoted to the development of an innovative technique for the disposal of mixed waste utilizing microwave energy. Because most uranium and plutonium components as well as most fission products have dielectric properties that allow excellent microwave and high-frequency energy coupling, dielectric heating has the potential for application in many processes for treating hazardous wastes. This technology, whether used on its own or as hybrid in conjunction with a conventional process, has positive features, such as energy efficiency. increased throughput, volume reduction, and reduction of disposal and transportation cost, and provides a technique not feasible by conventional means. The hazardous waste will be converted into a dense, stable, and vitrified form so that it may qualify for eventual off-site disposal. If successful, this program will lead to major cost saving for the DOE system.

  13. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  14. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Makbul A. M. Ramli; Ayong Hiendro; H. R. E. H. Bouchekara

    2014-01-01

    The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discu...

  15. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China: A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  16. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  17. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  18. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  19. Dynamic hybrid life cycle assessment of energy and carbon of multicrystalline silicon photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Pei; Williams, Eric D

    2010-10-15

    This paper advances the life cycle assessment (LCA) of photovoltaic systems by expanding the boundary of the included processes using hybrid LCA and accounting for the technology-driven dynamics of embodied energy and carbon emissions. Hybrid LCA is an extended method that combines bottom-up process-sum and top-down economic input-output (EIO) methods. In 2007, the embodied energy was 4354 MJ/m(2) and the energy payback time (EPBT) was 2.2 years for a multicrystalline silicon PV system under 1700 kWh/m(2)/yr of solar radiation. These results are higher than those of process-sum LCA by approximately 60%, indicating that processes excluded in process-sum LCA, such as transportation, are significant. Even though PV is a low-carbon technology, the difference between hybrid and process-sum results for 10% penetration of PV in the U.S. electrical grid is 0.13% of total current grid emissions. Extending LCA from the process-sum to hybrid analysis makes a significant difference. Dynamics are characterized through a retrospective analysis and future outlook for PV manufacturing from 2001 to 2011. During this decade, the embodied carbon fell substantially, from 60 g CO(2)/kWh in 2001 to 21 g/kWh in 2011, indicating that technological progress is realizing reductions in embodied environmental impacts as well as lower module price.

  20. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  1. The importance of gap states for energy level alignment at hybrid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racke, D.A.; Kelly, L.L.; Monti, O.L.A., E-mail: monti@u.arizona.edu

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The electronic structure of CuPc on related layered van der Waals materials is compared. • Gap states need to be considered to understand energy level alignment. • Hybrid interfaces require new models of the interfacial electronic structure. - Abstract: Energy level alignment and electronic structure at organic semiconductor interfaces must be controlled to ensure efficient carrier harvesting or injection in next-generation organic optoelectronic technologies. In this context, hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor interfaces exhibit particularly rich physics. Here, we show that states in the band gap of the inorganic layered van der Waals dichalcogenide SnS{sub 2} play an important role in determining energy level alignment at the hybrid interface with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). By taking advantage of the closely related CuPc film growth on SnS{sub 2} and the well-studied interface of CuPc/HOPG, we are able to trace spectroscopic differences to the fundamentally different electronic interactions across the two interfaces. We provide a detailed picture of the role of gap states at the hybrid interface and shed light on the electronic properties of inorganic semiconductors in general and metal dichalcogenides in particular.

  2. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yufu, E-mail: Yufu.Ren@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Zhou, Huan [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Nabiyouni, Maryam [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Bhaduri, Sarit B. [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Division of Dentistry, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10 min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7 days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5 days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials. - Highlights: • A microwave assisted coating process for biodegradable Mg alloy. • CDHA coatings were successfully developed on AZ31 alloy in minutes. • The as-deposited CDHA coatings significantly reduced the degradation rate of AZ31 alloy. • The CDHA coated AZ31 alloy showed good bioactivity and biocompatibility in vitro. • The microwave assisted coating process can be used as rapid surface modification for bioimplants.

  3. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2-CNTs Hybrid Nanocomposites with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuisheng Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available SnO2 nanoparticles coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs were prepared via a simple microwave-hydrothermal route. The as-obtained SnO2-CNTs composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2-CNTs for degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2-CNTs nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 due to the rapid transferring of electrons and the effective separation of holes and electrons on SnO2-CNTs.

  4. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2-CNTs Hybrid Nanocomposites with Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuisheng; Dai, Weili

    2017-01-01

    SnO2 nanoparticles coated on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared via a simple microwave-hydrothermal route. The as-obtained SnO2-CNTs composites were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared SnO2-CNTs for degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results show that SnO2-CNTs nanocomposites have a higher photocatalytic activity than pure SnO2 due to the rapid transferring of electrons and the effective separation of holes and electrons on SnO2-CNTs. PMID:28336888

  5. Perancangan Konstruksi Turbin Angin Diatas Hybrid Energi Gelombang Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musfirotul Ula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbin angin adalah kincir angin yang digunakan untuk membangkitkan tenaga listrik. Prinsip dasar kerjanya yaitu mengubah energi mekanis dari angin menjadi energi putar, lalu putaran kincir digunakan untuk memutar generator, yang akhirnya akan menghasilkan listrik. Turbin angin yang dirancang yaitu diatas floating. Maka diperlukan perancangan konstruksi turbin angin dengan dipilih tipe Vertical Axis Wind Turbine dengan blade yang sudah ada di pasaran dengan merk ‘Richuan’. Dengan spesifikasi power 5 KW, dimensi blade (4x0,6 m, jumlah blade 5, tinggi tower 8 m, diameter rotor 2,5 m, kecepatan laju angin 10 m / s, kecepatan angin beroperasi 3-25 m / s, dan 100 rpm. Kemudian konstruksi turbin angin akan digambarkan menggunakan software Solidworks dengan pembuat pemodelan terlebih dahulu. Model yang sudah dibuat kemudian di simulasikan untuk mendapatkan hasil analisa. Beban eksternal untuk di input sebesar 655 N dan 1300 N. Dari hasil simulasi dan analisa turbin angin diperoleh hasil untuk stress von mises sebesar 10,583,224.00 N / m2, displacement sebesar 7.781 mm, strain maksimal yaitu sebesar 3.84126, dan safety factor minimal yaitu sebesar 23.62. Dapat disimpulkan perancangan konstruksi turbin angin ini aman untuk pembebanan yang sudah ditentukan

  6. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems - Regional Studies. West Texas and Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases - not generic examples - based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  8. Cooperative Energy Management of Hybrid DC Renewable Grid Using Decentralized Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Beykverdi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to control a hybrid DC microgrid in islanded operation mode using decentralized power management strategies. Proposed adaptive I/V characteristic for hybrid photovoltaic (PV and battery energy storage system (BESS and wind turbine generator (WTG adapts the distributed energy resources (DER behavior independently in accordance with the load demand. Hence, the PV module can spend its maximum power on load demand and spend the extra power for charging the BESS, which will regulate DC bus voltage and maintain the power balance within the microgrid. When load demand is beyond the maximum generation power of PV unit, WTG will supply the energy shortage. The proposed control system was applied on the DC microgrid in order to achieve control objectives through a decentralized procedure, without telecommunication links. In order to validate the proposed strategies, the control system was implemented on a DC microgrid within MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the simulation results were analyzed and validated.

  9. Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: 15 years of development at the Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzoni Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to document 15 years of hybrid electric vehicle energy management research at The Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research (OSUCAR. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV technology encompasses many diverse aspects. In this paper we focus exclusively on the evolution of supervisory control strategies for on-board energy management in HEV. We present a series of control algorithms that have been developed in simulation and implemented in prototype vehicles for charge-sustaining HEVs at OSU-CAR. These solutions span from fuzzy-logic control algorithms to more sophisticated model-based optimal control methods. Finally, methods developed for plug-in HEVs energy management are also discussed

  10. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbul A. M. Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV penetration and battery storage on energy production, cost of energy, number of operational hours of diesel generators, fuel savings, and reduction of carbon emission for the given configurations. The simulation results indicate that the energy cost of the hybrid PV/diesel/battery system with 15% PV penetration, battery storage of 186.96 MWh, and energy demand of 32,962 MWh/day is $0.117/kWh.

  11. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  12. Fabrication of biomolecule copolymer hybrid nanovesicles as energy conversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dean; Chu, Benjamin; Lee, Hyeseung; Brooks, Evan K.; Kuo, Karen; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2005-12-01

    This work demonstrates the integration of the energy-transducing proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium halobium and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides into block copolymeric vesicles towards the demonstration of coupled protein functionality. An ABA triblock copolymer-based biomimetic membrane possessing UV-curable acrylate endgroups was synthesized to serve as a robust matrix for protein reconstitution. BR-functionalized polymers were shown to generate light-driven transmembrane pH gradients while pH gradient-induced electron release was observed from COX-functionalized polymers. Cooperative behaviour observed from composite membrane functionalized by both proteins revealed the generation of microamp-range currents with no applied voltage. As such, it has been shown that the fruition of technologies based upon bio-functionalizing abiotic materials may contribute to the realization of high power density devices inspired by nature.

  13. Analysis of a model of fuel cell - gas turbine hybrid power system for enhanced energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calay, Rajnish K.; Mustafa, Mohamad Y.; Virk, Mohammad S.; Mustafa, Mahmoud F.

    2012-11-01

    A simple mathematical model to evaluate the performance of FC-GT hybrid system is presented in this paper. The model is used to analyse the influence of various parameters on the performance of a typical hybrid system, where excess heat rejected from the solid-oxide fuel cell stack is utilised to generate additional power through a gas turbine system and to provide heat energy for space heating. The model is based on thermodynamic analysis of various components of the plant and can be adapted for various configurations of the plant components. Because there are many parameters defining the efficiency and work output of the hybrid system, the technique is based on mathematical and graphical optimisation of various parameters; to obtain the maximum efficiency for a given plant configuration.

  14. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T., E-mail: t.wang@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-21

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces.

  15. Enhanced non-radiative energy transfer in hybrid III-nitride structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Athanasiou, M.; Bai, J.; Liu, B.; Wang, T.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of surface states has been investigated in hybrid organic/inorganic white light emitting structures that employ high efficiency, nearfield non-radiative energy transfer (NRET) coupling. The structures utilize blue emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanorod arrays to minimize the separation with a yellow emitting F8BT coating. Surface states due to the exposed III-nitride surfaces of the nanostructures are found to reduce the NRET coupling rate. The surface states are passivated by deposition of a silicon nitride layer on the III-nitride nanorod surface leading to reduced surface recombination. A low thickness surface passivation is shown to increase the NRET coupling rate by 4 times compared to an un-passivated hybrid structure. A model is proposed to explain the increased NRET rate for the passivated hybrid structures based on the reduction in surface electron depletion of the passivated InGaN/GaN MQW nanorods surfaces.

  16. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  17. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  18. One-step microwave-assisted colloidal synthesis of hybrid silver oxide/silver nanoparticles: characterization and catalytic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, S. P.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-04-01

    This study reports the characterization and catalytic activities of silver-oxide/silver nanoparticles (Ag2O/Ag NPs) synthesized by microwave-assisted colloidal method in the presence of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. To promote different contents of silver in silver oxide, the volume ratio (VR) of ethylene glycol (EG) was varied (VR: 10% to 14%) in relation to the total volume of distilled water solvent. The plasmonic resonance of Ag2O/Ag NPs could be detected around a wavelength of 350 nm, and it is suggested that Ag2O/Ag NPs were successfully formed in the colloid solution following exposure to microwaves. Additionally, the growth rate for each crystal phase within Ag2O and Ag was influenced by an increase of EG as revealed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The morphology, average diameter, and uniformity of Ag2O/Ag NPs were studied simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy. Infrared absorption measurement of Ag2O/Ag NPs confirmed the existence of SDS surfactant as a protective agent. Based on the characterization data, Ag2O/Ag NPs synthesized using this technique exhibited good properties, with high-yield production of NPs. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate the key role of the crystal phase of Ag2O/Ag NPs in photocatalytic efficiency.

  19. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Initial Integrated Case Study Development and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy established the Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) project to develop a systematic, rigorous, technically accurate set of methods to model, analyze, and optimize the integration of dispatchable nuclear, fossil, and electric storage with an industrial customer. Ideally, the optimized integration of these systems will provide economic and operational benefits to the overall system compared to independent operation, and it will enhance the stability and responsiveness of the grid as intermittent, nondispatchable, renewable resources provide a greater share of grid power.

  20. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two-stage model for optimal planning and operation of a distribution network. Optimal siting and sizing of renewable energy sources (RES) as well as electrical energy storage (EES) systems are considered in the proposed hybrid energy system. In this context, the planning...... problem is considered as a master problem, while there are different sub-problems associated with the short-term operational problem. To properly handle the uncertainties of forecasted load as well as renewable power generations, fair stochastic models are involved in the sub-problems based on historical...

  1. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  2. Multiway study of hybridization in nanoscale semiconductor labeled DNA based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Somayeh; Kompany Zare, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The resolution of the ternary-binary complex competition of a target sequence and of its two complementary probes in sandwich DNA hybridization is reported. To achieve this goal, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between oligonucleotide-functionalized quantum dot (QD) nanoprobes (QD...... in the photoluminescence excitation (PLE) plot. From the obtained data, energy transfer efficiency and Forster radius (R-0) were calculated. In particular, our results demonstrated that energy transfer by using QD donor-QD acceptor FRET pairs is more efficient in comparison with QD donor-organic dye acceptor pairs. Soft...

  3. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of a hybrid renewable energy system on the Mures valley using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragoş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth, and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. This paper deals with the modeling and analysis of a hybrid system based on renewable energy resources, located on the Mureş valley, using a dedicated software named HOMER. Different types and topologies of renewable resources for the energy supply are analyzed; a small consumer situated on the Mureş Valley is modeled based on a load curve. Finally, the energy flows between the renewable energy system and the local supplying network are analyzed.

  5. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for a Hybrid Energy System Using the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To secure a stable energy supply and bring renewable energy to buildings within a reasonable cost range, a hybrid energy system (HES that integrates both fossil fuel energy systems (FFESs and new and renewable energy systems (NRESs needs to be designed and applied. This paper presents a methodology to optimize a HES consisting of three types of NRESs and six types of FFESs while simultaneously minimizing life cycle cost (LCC, maximizing penetration of renewable energy and minimizing annual greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is utilized for multi-objective optimization. As an example, we have designed the optimal configuration and sizing for a HES in an elementary school. The evolution of Pareto-optimal solutions according to the variation in the economic, technical and environmental objective functions through generations is discussed. The pair wise trade-offs among the three objectives are also examined.

  6. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  7. A Monte Carlo Resampling Approach for the Calculation of Hybrid Classical and Quantum Free Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave-Ayland, Christopher; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Essex, Jonathan W

    2017-02-14

    Hybrid free energy methods allow estimation of free energy differences at the quantum mechanics (QM) level with high efficiency by performing sampling at the classical mechanics (MM) level. Various approaches to allow the calculation of QM corrections to classical free energies have been proposed. The single step free energy perturbation approach starts with a classically generated ensemble, a subset of structures of which are postprocessed to obtain QM energies for use with the Zwanzig equation. This gives an estimate of the free energy difference associated with the change from an MM to a QM Hamiltonian. Owing to the poor numerical properties of the Zwanzig equation, however, recent developments have produced alternative methods which aim to provide access to the properties of the true QM ensemble. Here we propose an approach based on the resampling of MM structural ensembles and application of a Monte Carlo acceptance test which in principle, can generate the exact QM ensemble or intermediate ensembles between the MM and QM states. We carry out a detailed comparison against the Zwanzig equation and recently proposed non-Boltzmann methods. As a test system we use a set of small molecule hydration free energies for which hybrid free energy calculations are performed at the semiempirical Density Functional Tight Binding level. Equivalent ensembles at this level of theory have also been generated allowing the reverse QM to MM perturbations to be performed along with a detailed analysis of the results. Additionally, a previously published nucleotide base pair data set simulated at the QM level using ab initio molecular dynamics is also considered. We provide a strong rationale for the use of the Monte Carlo Resampling and non-Boltzmann approaches by showing that configuration space overlaps can be estimated which provide useful diagnostic information regarding the accuracy of these hybrid approaches.

  8. OPTIMIZATION AND SIZING OF A GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID PV-WIND ENERGY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. SUPRIYA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energies are highly advantageous compared to the conventional sources of power in many ways that they clean and available infinitely. But the onlydrawback is that their outputs depend upon the climatic conditions. Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System (WPHS utilization is becoming popular due to increasing energy costs and decreasing prices of turbines and Photo-Voltaic (PV panels. However, prior to construction of a renewable generation station, it is necessary to determine the optimum number of PV panels and wind turbines for minimal cost during continuity of generated energy to meet the desired consumption. The aim of this project is to determine the optimal design of a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or grid-linked applications. The proposed analysis employs quadratic programming techniques to minimize the cost while meeting the load requirements in a reliable manner. Using this procedure, optimum number of PV modules and wind turbines subject to minimum cost can be obtained with good accuracy. Results show that the hybrid systems have considerable reductions in carbon emission and cost of the system.

  9. Hybridized electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator for scavenging air-flow energy to sustainably power temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuhua; Yang, Ya; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-28

    We report a hybridized nanogenerator with dimensions of 6.7 cm × 4.5 cm × 2 cm and a weight of 42.3 g that consists of two triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) and two electromagnetic generators (EMGs) for scavenging air-flow energy. Under an air-flow speed of about 18 m/s, the hybridized nanogenerator can deliver largest output powers of 3.5 mW for one TENG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 8.8 mW/g and 14.6 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 3 MΩ and 1.8 mW for one EMG (in correspondence of power per unit mass/volume: 0.3 mW/g and 0.4 kW/m(3)) at a loading resistance of 2 kΩ, respectively. The hybridized nanogenerator can be utilized to charge a capacitor of 3300 μF to sustainably power four temperature sensors for realizing self-powered temperature sensor networks. Moreover, a wireless temperature sensor driven by a hybridized nanogenerator charged Li-ion battery can work well to send the temperature data to a receiver/computer at a distance of 1.5 m. This work takes a significant step toward air-flow energy harvesting and its potential applications in self-powered wireless sensor networks.

  10. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  11. A Hybrid Indoor Ambient Light and Vibration Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.

  12. A hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvester for wireless sensor nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Yue, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jielin; Wang, Wei

    2014-05-19

    To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%.

  13. Transfer of microwave energy along a filament plasma column in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, B.; Houard, A.; Larour, J.; Pellet, M.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of microwave radiation into a plasma channel formed by laser filamentation in air, leading to the amplification by two orders of magnitude of longitudinal oscillations of the plasma. Transfer of this longitudinal excitation toward unexcited region of the plasma column occurs over >10 cm, in good agreement with a theoretical model describing the propagation of a TM wave guided along the surface between air and plasma. We foresee that high-power low-frequency electromagnetic waves injected into a multi-filament plasma could initiate and sustain a long-lived plasma over several meters distance.

  14. Structure and properties of poly(benzyl acrylate) synthesized under microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberti, Tamara G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Organicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Schiavoni, M. Mercedes [Laboratorio de Estudio de Compuestos Organicos (LADECOR), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cortizo, M. Susana [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: gcortizo@inifta.unlp.edu.ar

    2008-05-15

    Benzyl acrylate was polymerized under microwave irradiation using radical initiation (benzoyl peroxide, BP). The effect of the concentration of BP and power irradiation on the conversion, average molecular weights and the polydispersity index (M{sub w}/M{sub n}) were investigated. The {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra analysis showed tendency to syndiotacticity and branched polymers were obtained at high conversion of reactions. A significant enhancement of the rates of polymerization and similar thermodynamic behavior, as compared with those obtained under thermal conditions was found.

  15. Eco-friendly and cleaner process for isolation of essential oil using microwave energy: experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Asma; Ginies, Christian; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chemat, Farid

    2009-06-26

    Microwave steam diffusion (MSD) was developed as a cleaner and new process design and operation for isolation of essentials oils and was compared to conventional steam diffusion (SD). The essential oils extracted by MSD for 3 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional steam diffusion for 20 min. In addition, an optimal operating steam flow rate of 25 g min(-1) and microwave power 200 W were found to ensure complete extraction yield with reduced extraction time. To confirm the efficiency of this process a mathematical model was proposed to describe the mass transfer of essential oil from lavender. Solid-steam mass transfer coefficients obtained by MSD were six times higher than obtained by SD. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the extraction mechanism of the essential oil present in the glandular trichomes of the flowers from lavender outer surface. MSD was better than SD in terms of energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water.

  16. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup; Pak, Dohyun

    2016-08-29

    For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN), WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  17. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongHyup Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN, WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  18. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC URBAN BUSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yuanjun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2008-01-01

    A novel parallel hybrid electrical urban bus (PHEUB) configuration consisting of an extra one-way clutch and an automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) is taken as the study subject. An energy management strategy combining a logic threshold approach and an instantaneous optimization algorithm is proposed for the investigated PHEUB. The objective of the energy management strategy is to achieve acceptable vehicle performance and drivability requirements while simultaneously maximizing the engine fuel consumption and maintaining the battery state of charge in its operation range at all times. Under the environment of Matlab/Simulink, a computer simulation model for the PHEUB is constructed by using the model building method combining theoretical analysis and bench test data. Simulation and experiment results for China Typical Bus Driving Schedule at Urban District (CTBDS_UD) are obtained, and the results indicate that the proposed control strategy not only controls the hybrid system efficiently but also improves the fuel economy significantly.

  20. Polymer/Graphene Hybrids for Advanced Energy-Conversion and -Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linfan; Gao, Jian; Xu, Tong; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2016-04-20

    Polymer/graphene-based materials with interesting physical and chemical properties have been attracting considerable attention and have been shown to have great potential as active materials in the field of energy conversion and storage. In this review, we focus on recent significant advances in the fabrication and application of polymer/graphene hybrids as electrocatalysts and electrode materials. Synthetic strategies and application of these materials in energy conversion and storage are presented, particularly in devices such as fuel cells, actuators, and supercapacitors, accompanied with a discussion of the challenges and research directions necessary for the future development of polymer/graphene hybrids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  2. Hybrid Vehicle Comparison Testing Using Ultracapacitor vs. Battery Energy Storage (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2010-02-01

    With support from General Motors, NREL researchers converted and tested a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with three energy storage configurations: a nickel metal-hydride battery and two ultracapacitor (Ucap) modules. They found that the HEV equipped with one Ucap module performed as well as or better than the HEV with a stock NiMH battery configuration. Thus, Ucaps could increase the market penetration and fuel savings of HEVs.

  3. Energy-Efficient Scheduling for Hybrid Tasks in Control Devices for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT, energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs and soft real-time tasks (SRTs. The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks’ Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%–80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks’ ideal speeds.

  4. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  5. Stochastic analysis and simulation of hydrometeorological processes for optimizing hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Georgios; Ioannou, Christos; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The drawbacks of conventional energy sources including their negative environmental impacts emphasize the need to integrate renewable energy sources into energy balance. However, the renewable sources strongly depend on time varying and uncertain hydrometeorological processes, including wind speed, sunshine duration and solar radiation. To study the design and management of hybrid energy systems we investigate the stochastic properties of these natural processes, including possible long-term persistence. We use wind speed and sunshine duration time series retrieved from a European database of daily records and we estimate representative values of the Hurst coefficient for both variables. We conduct simultaneous generation of synthetic time series of wind speed and sunshine duration, on yearly, monthly and daily scale. To this we use the Castalia software system which performs multivariate stochastic simulation. Using these time series as input, we perform stochastic simulation of an autonomous hypothetical hybrid renewable energy system and optimize its performance using genetic algorithms. For the system design we optimize the sizing of the system in order to satisfy the energy demand with high reliability also minimizing the cost. While the simulation scale is the daily, a simple method allows utilizing the subdaily distribution of the produced wind power. Various scenarios are assumed in order to examine the influence of input parameters, such as the Hurst coefficient, and design parameters such as the photovoltaic panel angle.

  6. Modeling and Optimizing Energy Utilization of Steel Production Process: A Hybrid Petri Net Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel industry is responsible for nearly 9% of anthropogenic energy utilization in the world. It is urgent to reduce the total energy utilization of steel industry under the huge pressures on reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Meanwhile, the steel manufacturing is a typical continuous-discrete process with multiprocedures, multiobjects, multiconstraints, and multimachines coupled, which makes energy management rather difficult. In order to study the energy flow within the real steel production process, this paper presents a new modeling and optimization method for the process based on Hybrid Petri Nets (HPN in consideration of the situation above. Firstly, we introduce the detailed description of HPN. Then the real steel production process from one typical integrated steel plant is transformed into Hybrid Petri Net model as a case. Furthermore, we obtain a series of constraints of our optimization model from this model. In consideration of the real process situation, we pick the steel production, energy efficiency and self-made gas surplus as the main optimized goals in this paper. Afterwards, a fuzzy linear programming method is conducted to obtain the multiobjective optimization results. Finally, some measures are suggested to improve this low efficiency and high whole cost process structure.

  7. Energy harvesting from pavements via PVDF: hybrid piezo-pyroelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junliang; Hu, Jie; Wu, Guangxi

    2016-04-01

    In the U.S., there are over 4 million miles (6 million km) of roadways and more than 250 million registered vehicles. The energy lost in the pavement system due to traffic-induced vibration and deformation is enormous. If effectively harvested, such energy can serve as an alternative sustainable energy source that can be easily integrated to the transportation system. The potential of PVDF, which is a piezoelectric polymer material, is investigated as a potential energy harvester integrated in pavement systems. The uniqueness of this study lies in that the electrical response of PVDF under coupled mechanical and thermal stimulations are studied. It is well known that most piezoelectric materials are also pyroelectric materials, which convert temperature change into electricity. However, the potential of PVDF as a hybrid piezo-pyroelectric energy harvester has been seldom studied. Through series of well controlled experiments, it is found that there exists interesting coupling phenomenon between piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects of PVDF: the voltage generated by simultaneous mechanical and thermal stimulations is the sum of voltages generated by separate stimulations. In addition, an estimation of power generation through piezoelectric and pyroelectric effect is conducted. Finally, the overall effects of temperature on hybrid piezo-pyroelectric energy harvesting are discussed.

  8. Energy-efficient scheduling for hybrid tasks in control devices for the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhigang; Wu, Yifan; Dai, Guojun; Xia, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    In control devices for the Internet of Things (IoT), energy is one of the critical restriction factors. Dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) has been proved to be an effective method for reducing the energy consumption of processors. This paper proposes an energy-efficient scheduling algorithm for IoT control devices with hard real-time control tasks (HRCTs) and soft real-time tasks (SRTs). The main contribution of this paper includes two parts. First, it builds the Hybrid tasks with multi-subtasks of different function Weight (HoW) task model for IoT control devices. HoW describes the structure of HRCTs and SRTs, and their properties, e.g., deadlines, execution time, preemption properties, and energy-saving goals, etc. Second, it presents the Hybrid Tasks' Dynamic Voltage Scaling (HTDVS) algorithm. HTDVS first sets the slowdown factors of subtasks while meeting the different real-time requirements of HRCTs and SRTs, and then dynamically reclaims, reserves, and reuses the slack time of the subtasks to meet their ideal energy-saving goals. Experimental results show HTDVS can reduce energy consumption about 10%-80% while meeting the real-time requirements of HRCTs, HRCTs help to reduce the deadline miss ratio (DMR) of systems, and HTDVS has comparable performance with the greedy algorithm and is more favorable to keep the subtasks' ideal speeds.

  9. Overview of Power Generation Sector of Bangladesh and Proposed Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raju Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is the most usable form of energy, and one of the most crucial strategic issues for the sustainable development of a country. The projection of demand of electricity is an integral part of the planning process. Severe power crisis compelled the government to enter into contractual agreements for high-cost temporary solution such as rental power and small IPPS, on an emergency basis, most of these are diesel or liquid-fuel based. Load shading is an acute problem for the country. The country is confronting a simultaneous shortage of electricity. However, the country has substantial amount of renewable energy resources. The overview of power generation section of Bangladesh is presented; the potentiality of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh is discussed. Finally, a grid connected hybrid renewable energy system is proposed to overcome the problem of power crisis using sustainable clean energy at rural area.

  10. A novel hybrid process of reverse electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for low energy seawater desalination and brine management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, W.; Krantz, W.B.; Cornelissen, E.R.; Post, J.W.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Tang, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept for a hybrid desalination system that combines reverse electrodialysis (RED) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. In this hybrid process the RED unit harvests the energy in the form of electricity from the salinity gradient between a highly concentrated solution

  11. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  12. Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in ter

  13. The Economic Potential of Two Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Ruth, Dylan Cutler, Francisco Flores-Espino, Greg Stark, Thomas Jenkin, Travis Simpkins ...

    2016-08-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that investigate the technical and economic aspects of Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System. It provides the results of an analysis of two scenarios. The first is a Texas-syntheic gasoline scenario and the second is an Arizona-desalination scenario. The analysis focuses on the economics of the N-R HESs and how they compare to other options, including configurations without all the subsystems in each N-R HES and alternatives in which natural gas provides the energy.

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cetiner, M. Sacit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, T. Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. Lou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors—the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers— is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean

  15. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  16. A Self-Powered Hybrid Energy Scavenging System Utilizing RF and Vibration Based Electromagnetic Harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Gharehbaghi, K.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a novel hybrid system that combines the power generated simultaneously by a vibration-based Electromagnetic (EM) harvester and a UHF band RF harvester. The novel hybrid scavenger interface uses a power management circuit in 180 nm CMOS technology to step-up and to regulate the combined output. At the first stage of the system, the RF harvester generates positive DC output with a 7-stage threshold compensated rectifier, while the EM harvester generates negative DC output with a self-powered AC/DC negative doubler circuit. At the second stage, the generated voltages are serially added, stepped-up with an on-chip charge pump circuit, and regulated to a typical battery voltage of 3 V. Test results indicate that the hybrid operation enables generation of 9 μW at 3 V output for a wide range of input stimulations, which could not be attained with either harvesting mode by itself. Moreover the hybrid system behaves as a typical battery, and keeps the output voltage stable at 3 V up to 18 μW of output power. The presented system is the first battery-like harvester to our knowledge that generates energy from two independent sources and regulates the output to a stable DC voltage.

  17. Renewable Energy Systems: Development and Perspectives of a Hybrid Solar-Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shashidhar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the intermittent natural energy resources and the seasonal un-balance, a phtovoltaic-wind hybrid electrical power supply system was developed to accommodate remote locations where a conventional grid connection is inconvenient or expensive. However, the hybrid system can also be applied with grid connection and owners are allowed to sell excessive power back to the electric utility. The proposed set-up consists of a photo-voltaic solar-cell array, a mast mounted wind generator, lead-acid storage batteries, an inverter unit to convert DC to AC, electrical lighting loads, electrical heating loads, several fuse and junction boxes and associated wiring, and test instruments for measuring voltages, currents, power factors, and harmonic contamination data throughout the system. The proposed hybrid solar-wind power generating system can be extensively used to illustrate electrical concepts in hands-on laboratories and also for demonstrations in the Industrial Technology curriculum. This paper describes an analysis of local PV-wind hybrid systems for supplying electricity to a private house, farmhouse or small company with electrical power depending on the site needs. The major system components, work principle and specific working condition are presented.

  18. Slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct-current glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the formulation of slow electron energy balance for hybrid models of direct current (DC) glow discharge. Electrons originating from non-local ionization (secondary) contribute significantly to the energy balance of slow electrons. An approach towards calculating effective energy brought by a secondary electron to the group of slow electrons by means of Coulomb collisions is suggested. The value of effective energy shows a considerable dependence on external parameters of a discharge, such as gas pressure, type, and geometric parameters. The slow electron energy balance was implemented into a simple hybrid model that uses analytical formulation for the description of non-local ionization by fast electrons. Simulations of short (without positive column) DC glow discharge in argon are carried out for a range of gas pressures. Comparison with experimental data showed generally good agreement in terms of current-voltage characteristics, electron density, and electron temperature. Simulations also capture the trend of increasing electron density with decreasing pressure observed in the experiment. Analysis shows that for considered conditions, the product of maximum electron density ne and electron temperature Te in negative glow is independent of gas pressure and depends on the gas type, cathode material, and discharge current. Decreasing gas pressure reduces the heating rate of slow electrons during Coulomb collisions with secondary electrons, which leads to lower values of Te and, in turn, higher maximum ne.

  19. Electron beam energy stabilization using a neural network hybrid controller at the Australian Synchrotron Linac.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.; Morgan, M. J.; Biedron, S. G.; LeBlanc, G.; Wu, J. (OTD-ESE); (Monash Univ.); (Australian Synchrotron Project); (SLAC National Accelerator Lab.)

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a neural network hybrid controller for energy stabilization at the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The structure of the controller consists of a neural network (NNET) feed forward control, augmented by a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) feedback controller to ensure stability of the system. The system is provided with past states of the machine in order to predict its future state, and therefore apply appropriate feed forward control. The NNET is able to cancel multiple frequency jitter in real-time. When it is not performing optimally due to jitter changes, the system can successfully be augmented by the PI controller to attenuate the remaining perturbations. With a view to control the energy and bunch length at the FERMI{at}Elettra Free Electron Laser (FEL), the present study considers a neural network hybrid feed forward-feedback type of control to rectify limitations related to feedback systems, such as poor response for high jitter frequencies or limited bandwidth, while ensuring robustness of control. The Australian Synchrotron Linac is equipped with a beam position monitor (BPM), that was provided by Sincrotrone Trieste from a former transport line thus allowing energy measurements and energy control experiments. The present study will consequently focus on correcting energy jitter induced by variations in klystron phase and voltage.

  20. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  1. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  2. Energy Management and Control of Electric Vehicles, Using Hybrid Power Source in Regenerative Braking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s battery powered electric vehicles still face many issues: (1 Ways of improving the regenerative braking energy; (2 how to maximally extend the driving-range of electric vehicles (EVs and prolong the service life of batteries; (3 how to satisfy the energy requirements of the EVs both in steady and dynamic state. The electrochemical double-layer capacitors, also called ultra-capacitors (UCs, have the merits of high energy density and instantaneous power output capability, and are usually combined with power battery packs to form a hybrid power supply system (HPSS. The power circuit topology of the HPSS has been illustrated in this paper. In the proposed HPSS, all the UCs are in series, which may cause an imbalanced voltage distribution of each unit, moreover, the energy allocation between the batteries and UCs should also be considered. An energy-management scheme to solve this problem has been presented. Moreover, due to the parameter variations caused by temperature changes and produced errors, the modelling procedure of the HPSS becomes very difficult, so an H∞ current controller is presented. The proposed hybrid power source circuit is implemented on a laboratory hardware setup using a digital signal processor (DSP. Simulation and experimental results have been put forward to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  3. Distinguishing different scenarios of early energy release with spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Deviations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) frequency spectrum from a pure blackbody tell an exciting story about the thermal history of our Universe. In this paper we show how well future CMB measurements could decipher this tale, envisioning a PIXIE-like spectrometer, which could improve the distortion constraints obtained with COBE/FIRAS some 20 years ago by at least three orders of magnitude. This opens a large discovery space, offering deep insights to particle and early-universe physics, opportunities that no longer should be left unexplored. Specifically, we consider scenarios with annihilating and decaying relic particles, as well as signatures from the dissipation of primordial small-scale power. PIXIE can potentially rule out different early-universe scenarios, and moreover will allow unambiguous detections in many of the considered cases, as we demonstrate here. We also discuss slightly more futuristic experiments, with several times improved sensitivities, to highlight the large potential ...

  4. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  5. Particle production and chemical freezeout from the hybrid UrQMD approach at NICA energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Shalaby, Asmaa G; Hanafy, Mahmoud; Sorin, Alexander; Rogachevsky, Oleg; Scheinast, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The energy dependence of various particle ratios is calculated within the Ultra-Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics approach and compared with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model and measurements from various experiments, including RHIC-BES, SPS and AGS. It is found that the UrQMD particle ratios agree well with the experimental results at the RHIC-BES energies. Thus, we have utilized UrQMD in simulating particle ratios at other beam energies down to 3 GeV, which will be accessed at NICA and FAIR future facilities. We observe that the particle ratios for crossover and first-order phase transition, implemented in the hybrid UrQMD v3.4, are nearly indistinguishable, especially at low energies (at large baryon chemical potentials or high density).

  6. Particle production and chemical freezeout from the hybrid UrQMD approach at NICA energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser Tawfik, Abdel [Modern University for Technology and Information (MTI), Egyptian Center for Theoretical Physics (ECTP), Cairo (Egypt); World Laboratory for Cosmology and Particle Physics (WLCAPP), Cairo (Egypt); Abou-Salem, Loutfy I. [Benha University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Shalaby, Asmaa G.; Hanafy, Mahmoud [World Laboratory for Cosmology and Particle Physics (WLCAPP), Cairo (Egypt); Benha University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha (Egypt); Sorin, Alexander [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubna International University, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rogachevsky, Oleg; Scheinast, Werner [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The energy dependence of various particle ratios is calculated within the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics approach and compared with the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model and measurements from various experiments, including RHIC-BES, SPS and AGS. It is found that the UrQMD particle ratios agree well with the experimental results at the RHIC-BES energies. Thus, we have utilized UrQMD in simulating particle ratios at other beam energies down to 3GeV, which will be accessed at NICA and FAIR future facilities. We observe that the particle ratios for crossover and first-order phase transition, implemented in the hybrid UrQMD v3.4, are nearly indistinguishable, especially at low energies (at large baryon chemical potentials or high density). (orig.)

  7. Collision Energy Evolution of Elliptic and Triangular Flow in a Hybrid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Auvinen, Jussi

    2013-01-01

    While the existence of a strongly interacting state of matter, known as 'quark-gluon plasma' (QGP), has been established in heavy ion collision experiments in the past decade, the task remains to map out the transition from the hadronic matter to the QGP. This is done by measuring the dependence of key observables (such as particle suppression and elliptic flow) on the collision energy of the heavy ions. This procedure, known as 'beam energy scan', has been most recently performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Utilizing a Boltzmann+hydrodynamics hybrid model, we study the collision energy dependence of initial state eccentricities and the final state elliptic and triangular flow. This approach is well suited to investigate the relative importance of hydrodynamics and hadron transport at different collision energies.

  8. Design and control strategy for a hybrid green energy system for mobile telecommunication sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-07-01

    The rising energy costs and carbon footprint of operating mobile telecommunication sites in the emerging world have increased research interests in green technology. The intermittent nature of most green energy sources creates the problem of designing the optimum configuration for a given location. This study presents the design analysis and control strategy for a cost effective and reliable operation of the hybrid green energy system (HGES) for GSM base transceiver station (BTS) sites in isolated regions. The design constrains the generation and distribution of power to reliably satisfy the energy demand while ensuring safe operation of the system. The overall process control applies the genetic algorithm-based technique for optimal techno-economic sizing of system's components. The process simulation utilized meteorological data for 3 locations (Abuja, Benin City and Sokoto) with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Simulation results presented for green GSM BTS sites are discussed and compared with existing approaches.

  9. Biosolar energy generation and harvesting from biomolecule-copolymer hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bong-Chieh Benjamin

    Alternative energy sources have become an increasingly important topic as energy needs outpace supply. Furthermore, as the world moves into the digital age of portable electronics, highly efficient and lightweight energy sources will need to be developed. Current technology, such as lithium ion batteries, provide enough power to run portable electronics for hours or days, but can still allow for improvement in their power density (W/kg). Utilizing energy-transducing membrane proteins, which are by nature highly efficient, it is possible to engineer biological-based energy sources with energy densities far greater than any solid-state systems. Furthermore, solar powered membrane proteins have the added benefit of a virtually unlimited supply of energy. This work has developed protein-polymer hybrid films and nanoscale vesicles for a variety of applications from fuel-cell technology to biological-based photovoltaics. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-activated proton pump, and Cytochrome C Oxidase (COX), a protein involved in the electron transport chain in mitochondria, were reconstituted into biomimetic triblock copolymer membranes. Block copolymer membranes mimic the amphiphilic nature of a natural lipid bilayer but exhibit greater mechanical stability due to UV-polymerizable endgroups. In BR/COX functionalized nanovesicles, proton gradients generated by the light-activated proton pumping of BR are used to drive COX in reverse to generate electrons, providing a hybrid biologically-active polymer to convert solar energy to chemical energy, and finally to electrical energy. This work has found protein activity in planar membranes through the photoelectric current generation by BR and the proton pumping activity of BR-functionalized polymer membranes deposited onto proton exchange membranes, as well as the coupled functionality of BR and COX through current generation in cyclic voltammetry and direct current measurements. Current switching between light and dark

  10. Design and Modeling of Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kishore Reddy,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design and modeling of grid connected hybrid renewable energy power generation. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV panel, Srg wind turbine and fuel cell (sofc for continuous power flow management. Fuel cells (storage & generating are added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. Renewable energy generated during times of plenty can be stored for use during periods when sufficient electricity is not available. But storing this energy is a difficult task: batteries and similar technologies perform well over short timescales, but over periods of weeks or months a different approach is necessary. Energy storage in the form of hydrogen is one such possibility: excess electricity is fed into an electrolyser to split water into its constituent parts, oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is then used in fuel cells to produce electricity when needed which will overcome the problem of storage. This work is mainly concentrated on the design, analysis and modelling of Fuel cells and Analysis and modelling of Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG in the application of Wind Energy Generation and pv cell. Also an effective approach is proposed in this thesis to ensure renewable energy diversity and effective utilization. The pv cell, wind and fuel cell renewable energy system is digitally simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software environment and fully validated for efficient energy utilizations and enhanced interface power quality under different operating conditions and load excursions

  11. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanbin Yu; Dongdong Zhang; Haitao Min; Yi Tang; Tao Zhu(GCAP-CASPER, Physics Department, Baylor University, One Bear Place, # 97316, Waco, TX 76798-7316, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE) function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS), and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC) coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB). In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between s...

  12. Triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell for high-efficiency energy-harvesting and self-powered sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Lin, Long; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Chen, Jun; Fan, Xing; Yang, Po-Kang; Yi, Fang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-08

    A triboelectric-pyroelectric-piezoelectric hybrid cell, consisting of a triboelectric nanogenerator and a pyroelectric-piezoelectric nanogenerator, is developed for highly efficient mechanical energy harvesting through multiple mechanisms. The excellent performance of the hybrid cell enhances the energy-harvesting efficiency significantly (by 26.2% at 1 kΩ load resistance), and enables self-powered sensing, which will lead to a variety of advanced applications.

  13. From Energy to Environmental Analysis : Improving the Resolution of the Environmental Impact of Dutch Private Consumption with Hybrid Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Rene M. J.; Moll, Henri C.; Nijdam, Durk S.

    2012-01-01

    Unsustainable private consumption causes energy and environmental problems. This occurs directly (resource depletion and emissions through using cars for transport) or indirectly (purchase of consumer goods and services for which the production uses energy and emits damaging gases). A hybrid energy

  14. Intelligent Energy Management Strategy for a Separated-Axle Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fallahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV in addition to provide the benefits of electric vehicles could satisfy consumers for some performances of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles such as acceleration and long range. On this way, suitable energy optimization strategies should be employed to get desired efficiency, less fuel consumption and pollution. One of the favorite and simple configurations of HEVs is parallel type. A student team at University of Kashan, IRAN have designed and manufactured Shaheb 2 hybrid electric vehicle. It is a separated-axle (or Through-to-Road (TTR parallel HEV type based on Pride platform. Employed energy management in Shaheb 2 is on/off strategy and three modes; motor, engine and hybrid have been implemented. This paper investigates the modeling of separated-axle (or TTR parallel type of HEV in ADVISOR software and then evaluates two control strategies for Shaheb 2; on/off strategy and an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic. On this way, maximizing the engine is considered as objective function. The simulation results indicate that the fuzzy strategy leads to less fuel consumption and lower pollution for given UDDS driving cycle rather than on/off strategy for Shaheb 2.

  15. Tin-based inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for high energy-density applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huan; Kuma, Arun; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2014-03-01

    In one of our recent works[1], an organotin polymer was synthesized and suggested to be promising polymeric dielectric, simultaneously exhibiting a high dielectric constant ɛ and a high band gap Eg. Motivated by this result, we study a family of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers based on -(SnF2) x-(CH2) y - as the repeating structural unit (x = 2 , y = 4 , 8 , and 12). The stable structures of these hybrid polymers, predicted by the minima-hopping method, are studied by first-principles calculations at the level of density functional theory. Our calculations show that these polymers are wide band gap materials (up to 6.07 eV). In addition, their dielectric constants are between 4.6 and 7.8, well above that of polypropylene (ɛ ~= 2 . 2), the standard dielectric material for high energy-density capacitors. Therefore, we suggest that the hybrid polymers based on -(SnF2) x-(CH2) y - are promising candidates for high energy-density applications. Our work is supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI).

  16. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal . For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77o.23'and Latitude 23o.21' and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  17. Nanostructure of PDMS–TEOS–PrZr hybrids prepared by direct deposition of gamma radiation energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancastre, Joana J.H., E-mail: jlancastre@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Falcão, António N. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Margaça, Fernanda M.A., E-mail: fmargaca@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Luís M. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 (km 139.7), 2695-066 Bobadela, LRS (Portugal); Miranda Salvado, Isabel M. [CICECO & Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais e Cerâmica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Almásy, László [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, PO Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Casimiro, Maria H. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Meiszterics, Anikó [Gedeon Richter Ltd., PO Box 27, H-1475 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Hybrid materials were prepared by direct energy deposition. • The influence of the catalyst content (PrZr) was investigated. • The developed oxide network was found to be strongly dependent on the PrZr content. • A model is proposed for the development of the oxide network in these materials. - Abstract: Organic–inorganic materials have been the object of intense research due to their wide range of properties and therefore innumerous applications. We prepared organic–inorganic hybrid materials by direct energy deposition on a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane silanol terminated (33 wt% fixed content), tetraethylorthosilicate and a minor content of zirconium propoxide that varied from 1 to 5 wt% using gamma radiation from a Co-60 source. The samples, dried in air at room temperature, are bulk, flexible and transparent. Their nanostructure was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. It was found that the inorganic oxide network has fractal structure, which becomes denser as the zirconium propoxide content decreases. The results suggest that oxide nanosized regions grow from the OH terminal group of PDMS which are the condensation seeds. Their number and position remains unaltered with the variation of zirconium propoxide content that only affects their microstructure. A model is proposed for the nanostructure of the oxide network that develops in the irradiation processed hybrid materials.

  18. PV-solar / wind hybrid energy system for GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nema, Pragya; Rangnekar, Saroj [Energy Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology , Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India); Nema, R.K. [Electrical Engineering Department, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal-462007 M.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    This paper gives the design idea of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in central India (Bhopal). For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Bhopal-Central India (Longitude 77 deg.23'and Latitude 23 deg.21' ) and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. It should reduced approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the newly developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  19. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  20. PV-solar / Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA Type Mobile Telephony Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Station Md. Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of optimized PV-Solar and Wind Hybrid Energy System for GSM/CDMA type mobile base station over conventional diesel generator for a particular site in south India (Chennai. For this hybrid system ,the meteorological data of Solar Insolation, hourly wind speed, are taken for Chennai (Longitude 80ο .16’and Latitude 13ο .5’ and the pattern of load consumption of mobile base station are studied and suitably modeled for optimization of the hybrid energy system using HOMER software. The simulation and optimization result gives the best optimized sizing of wind turbine and solar array with diesel generator for particular GSM/CDMA type mobile telephony base station. This system is more cost effective and environmental friendly over the conventional diesel generator. The presented system reduce approximate 70%-80% fuel cost over conventional diesel generator and also reduced the emission of CO2 and other harmful gasses in environments. It is expected that the proposed developed and installed system will provide very good opportunities for telecom sector in near future.

  1. Energy performance of an integrated bio-and-thermal hybrid system for lignocellulosic biomass waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jingxin; Tong, Yen Wah; Yang, Wenming; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass waste, a heterogeneous complex of biodegradables and non-biodegradables, accounts for large proportion of municipal solid waste. Due to limitation of single-stage treatment, a two-stage hybrid AD-gasification system was proposed in this work, in which AD acted as pre-treatment to convert biodegradables into biogas followed by gasification converting solid residue into syngas. Energy performance of single and two-stage systems treating 3 typical lignocellulosic wastes was studied using both experimental and numerical methods. In comparison with conventional single-stage gasification treatment, this hybrid system could significantly improve the quality of produced gas for all selected biomass wastes and show its potential in enhancing total gas energy production by a maximum value of 27% for brewer's spent grain treatment at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3gVS/L/day. The maximum overall efficiency of the hybrid system for horticultural waste treatment was 75.2% at OLR of 11.3gVS/L/day, 5.5% higher than conventional single-stage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Offshore energy structures for wind power, wave energy and hybrid marine platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Karimirad, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    This book provides all the key information needed to design offshore structures for renewable energy applications successfully. Suitable for practicing engineers and students, the author conveys design principles and best practices in a clear, concise manner, focusing on underlying physics while eschewing complicated mathematical detail. The text connects underlying scientific theory with industry standards and practical implementation issues for offshore wind turbines, wave energy converters and current turbines. Combined concepts such as wave-wind energy platforms are discussed, as well. Cov

  3. The weakly bound He-HCCCN complex: High-resolution microwave spectra and intermolecular potential-energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Wendy C.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound He-HCCCN and He-DCCCN van der Waals complexes were observed using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the 7-26-GHz frequency region. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the N14 and D nuclei (both with nuclear-spin quantum number I =1) were resolved and assigned. Both strong a and weaker b-type transitions were observed and the assigned transitions were used to fit the parameters of a distortable asymmetric rotor model. The dimers are floppy, near T-shaped complexes. Three intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative inclusion of triple excitations. Bound-state rotational energy levels supported by these surfaces were determined. The quality of the potential-energy surfaces was assessed by comparing the experimental and calculated transition frequencies and also the corresponding spectroscopic parameters. Simple scaling of the surfaces improved both the transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants. Five other recently reported surfaces [O. Akin-Ojo, R. Bukowski, and K. Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8379 (2003)], calculated using a variety of methods, and their agreement with spectroscopic properties of He-HCCCN are discussed.

  4. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  5. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately...... estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active voltage regulation, active power control, and fault ride-through.Simulation and experimental results...... demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed closed-loop control system....

  6. A Novel Tunable Multi-Frequency Hybrid Vibration Energy Harvester Using Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Conversion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel tunable multi-frequency hybrid energy harvester (HEH. It consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH and an electromagnetic energy harvester (EMEH, which are coupled with magnetic interaction. An electromechanical coupling model was developed and numerically simulated. The effects of magnetic force, mass ratio, stiffness ratio, and mechanical damping ratios on the output power were investigated. A prototype was fabricated and characterized by experiments. The measured first peak power increases by 16.7% and 833.3% compared with that of the multi-frequency EMEH and the multi-frequency PEH, respectively. It is 2.36 times more than the combined output power of the linear PEH and linear EMEH at 22.6 Hz. The half-power bandwidth for the first peak power is also broadened. Numerical results agree well with the experimental data. It is indicated that magnetic interaction can tune the resonant frequencies. Both magnetic coupling configuration and hybrid conversion mechanism contribute to enhancing the output power and widening the operation bandwidth. The magnitude and direction of magnetic force have significant effects on the performance of the HEH. This proposed HEH is an effective approach to improve the generating performance of the micro-scale energy harvesting devices in low-frequency range.

  7. Sodium-ion hybrid electrolyte battery for sustainable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S. T.; Abirami, Mari; Kim, Junsoo; Go, Wooseok; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-02-01

    Sustainable, safe, and low-cost energy storage systems are essential for large-scale electrical energy storage. Herein, we report a sodium (Na)-ion hybrid electrolyte battery with a replaceable cathode system, which is separated from the Na metal anode by a Na superionic conducting ceramic. By using a fast Na-ion-intercalating nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) cathode along with an eco-friendly seawater catholyte, we demonstrate good cycling performance with an average discharge voltage of 3.4 V and capacity retention >80% over 100 cycles and >60% over 200 cycle. Remarkably, such high capacity retention is observed for both the initial as well as replaced cathodes. Moreover, a Na-metal-free hybrid electrolyte battery containing hard carbon as the anode exhibits an energy density of ∼146 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 10 mA g-1, which is comparable to that of lead-acid batteries and much higher than that of conventional aqueous Na-ion batteries. These results pave the way for further advances in sustainable energy storage technology.

  8. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  9. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  10. Control Systems for a Dynamic Multi-Physics Model of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Fugate, David W [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different local markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  11. Deoxyribonucleic acid-based hybrid thin films for potential application as high energy density capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Donna M.; Venkat, Narayanan; Ouchen, Fahima; Singh, Kristi M.; Smith, Steven R.; Grabowski, Christopher A.; Terry Murray, P.; Grote, James G.

    2014-03-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) based hybrid films incorporating sol-gel-derived ceramics have shown strong promise as insulating dielectrics for high voltage capacitor applications. Our studies of DNA-CTMA (cetyltrimethylammonium) complex/sol-gel ceramic hybrid thin film devices have demonstrated reproducibility and stability in temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric properties with dielectric constant k ˜ 5.0 (1 kHz), as well as reliability in DC voltage breakdown measurements, attaining values consistently in the range of 300-350 V/μm. The electrical/dielectric characteristics of DNA-CTMA films with sol-gel-derived ceramics were examined to determine the critical energy storage parameters such as voltage breakdown and dielectric constant.

  12. Low energy architecture for a severe US climate: Design and evaluation of a hybrid ventilation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomas, K.J.; Cook, M.J.; Dusan Fiala [De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom). Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development

    2007-01-15

    Natural ventilation, relying on openings in the facade, is applicable to a limited range of climates, sites and building types. Advanced naturally ventilated buildings, such as those using stacks to encourage buoyancy driven airflow, or hybrid buildings, which integrate both natural and mechanical systems, can extend the range of buildings and climate within which natural ventilation might be used. This paper describes the design of a new library building for a college, located near Chicago, which uses a new hybrid ventilation concept despite the severe continental climate. The likely operation of the building is illustrated using dynamic thermal modelling and computational fluid dynamics analyses. The new building challenges ingrained preconceptions about building designs for severe climates and exposes barriers to low energy buildings posed by national standards and guidelines. (author)

  13. Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF hybrid for high efficient As(V) removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huiyun; Lv, Kangle; Du, Ying; Ye, Hengpeng; Du, Dongyun, E-mail: dydu666@mail.scuec.edu.cn

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, an efficient adsorbent, iron-modified activated carbon fiber (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF), was rapidly fabricated by microwave-assisted heating treatment strategy, which is used to remove As(V) from simulated wastewater. The adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), TEM, N{sub 2} sorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The characterization results showed that rod-like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in sizes of about 20 nm × 50 nm were homogeneously anchored on the surface of ACF. The goal of high As(V) removal efficiency was achieved with maximum adsorption capacity of 20.33 mg g{sup −1}. The effects of temperature on thermodynamics and kinetics of As(V) adsorption were systematically studied. It was found that the adsorption of As(V) on the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF is an endothermic process with a standard enthalpy change (ΔH{sup 0}) of 24.79 kJ mol{sup −1}. Batch experimental result showed that almost all of the As(V) with initial concentration of 3.0 mg L{sup −1} can be removed in the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF, where the residual As(V) in filtrate was less than 0.01 mg L{sup −1}, below the tolerance level of drinking water suggested by World Health Organization (WHO). The presence of salt such as NaCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and MgSO{sub 4} showed little effects on the adsorption of As(V), indicating the promising application of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF in industrial wastewater. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF hybrid was rapidly fabricated using a microwave-assisted heating strategy. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods in sizes of 20 × 50 nm were homogeneously anchored on the surface of ACF. • The maximum adsorption capacity of 20.33 mg g{sup −1} As (V) on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ACF was achieved. • The adsorption of As (V) is an endothermic process (ΔH{sup 0} = 24.79 kJ mol{sup −1}). • The presence of salt shows little effect on the adsorption of As (V).

  14. Proximity-induced low-energy renormalization in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor Majorana structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Tudor D.; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2017-07-01

    A minimal model for the hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowire Majorana platform is developed that fully captures the effects of the low-energy renormalization of the nanowire modes arising from the presence of the parent superconductor. In this model, the parent superconductor is an active component that participates explicitly in the low-energy physics, not just a passive partner that only provides proximity-induced Cooper pairs for the nanowire. This treatment on an equal footing of the superconductor and the semiconductor has become necessary in view of recent experiments, which do not allow a consistent interpretation based just on the bare semiconductor properties. The general theory involves the evaluation of the exact semiconductor Green's function that includes a dynamical self-energy correction arising from the tunnel-coupled superconductor. Using a tight-binding description, the nanowire Green's function is obtained in various relevant parameter regimes, with the parent superconductor being treated within the BCS-BdG prescription. General conditions for the emergence of topological superconductivity are worked out for single-band as well as multiband nanowires and detailed numerical results are given for both infinite and finite wire cases. The topological quantum phase diagrams are provided numerically and the Majorana bound states are obtained along with their oscillatory energy-splitting behaviors due to wave function overlap in finite wires. Renormalization effects are shown to be both qualitatively and quantitatively important in modifying the low-energy spectrum of the nanowire. The results of the theory are found to be in good qualitative agreement with Majorana nanowire experiments, leading to the conclusion that the proximity-induced low-energy renormalization of the nanowire modes by the parent superconductor is of fundamental importance in superconductor-semiconductor hybrid structures, except perhaps in the uninteresting limit of

  15. Intraurethral prostate injections with mepivacaine epinephrine: effects on patient comfort, treatment time and energy consumption during high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Tomas; Johansson, Annika; Damber, Jan-Erik; Fall, Magnus; Vesely, Stepan; Peeker, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effects of intraprostatic mepivacaine epinephrine injections administered by the Schelin catheter during high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) using the CoreTherm Prostalund Feedback Treatment (PLFT) system. The study included 85 men with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement. One group had intraprostatic injections with mepivacaine epinephrine by the new Schelin catheter, while patients in the other group were treated without intraprostatic injections. All men were treated by TUMT using the PLFT system. Before treatment, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) volume was measured. During the procedure, treatment time, energy consumption, cell-kill parameter and maximal prostate temperature were recorded. Patients who needed perioperative intravenous analgesics and the rate of perioperative and postoperative complications were registered. The patients who had intraprostatic and periprostatic injections with mepivacaine epinephrine had shorter effective treatment time and reduced energy consumption. There was also a difference between the two groups in that 70% of patients without intraprostatic injections and only 11% of injected patients needed intravenous analgesics. No differences were found in TRUS volume, estimated cell-kill, maximal prostate temperature or complication rates. Intraprostatic injections with mepivacaine epinephrine distributed by the Schelin catheter reduce the number of patients needing intravenous analgesics during PLFT, as well as the treatment time and energy consumption during treatment. Besides improved patient comfort, intraprostatic and periprostatic injections condense the treatment time without side-effects, making PLFT less cumbersome for most patients.

  16. The energy of a building : the simplicity and efficiency of a hybrid system; Energie de batiment : simplicite et efficacite d'un systeme hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaule, C. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Hydronic hybrid heat pump (HHHP) systems are suitable for recuperating the energy from air conditioners and transferring it to the perimeter of buildings. This principal can be applied when interior air conditioning is required throughout the year in a building, while the periphery of the building requires air conditioning or heating during specific times of the year. The transfer of heat from the air conditioner to the periphery of buildings can be compared to a type of internal geothermal system. This article presented two case studies involving extensive heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) retrofits. They both had different needs. The 7-storey Hotel Place D'Armes in Montreal is 135 years old, and uses electricity and natural gas as source of energy. It was important to choose an HVAC system that would be in accordance with the architectural style of the building while facilitating repair and upkeep of a sustainable HVAC system. The 7-storey Isabella-Decarie office building is 45 years old and also uses electricity and natural gas. The requirements of this building were to adapt the new HVAC system into the restrained space on each level; reduce HVAC energy costs; reduce the size of the mechanical rooms to simplify upkeep; retrofit without disturbing the clientele; upgrade thermal comfort; select a sustainable HVAC system that could be readily adapted to the building's future energy needs; and, stay within the budget. The historical and patrimonial aspects of the building were the main constraints in the renovation projects. The 3 major factors that led to the selection of the HHHP system were: (1) the modular HVAC units could be repaired by staff within 30 minutes and the installation of cooling pipes for the ventilation shafts were readily adaptable to the historical building, (2) the cooling system was composed of two pipes rather than four, requiring a less cumbersome installation of HVAC ducts, thereby reducing mechanical installation

  17. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  18. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymer composites. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIC Materials Program, will allow us, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of thermoset resins will be studied because it hold the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  19. Microwave Oven Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  20. Microwave Oven Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)