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Sample records for hybrid microcircuit technology

  1. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  2. Development of low cost custom hybrid microcircuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Selected potentially low cost, alternate packaging and interconnection techniques were developed and implemented in the manufacture of specific NASA/MSFC hardware, and the actual cost savings achieved by their use. The hardware chosen as the test bed for this evaluation ws the hybrids and modules manufactured by Rockwell International fo the MSFC Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS). Three potentially low cost packaging and interconnection alternates were selected for evaluation. This study was performed in three phases: hardware fabrication and testing, cost comparison, and reliability evaluation.

  3. Hybrid microcircuit via development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, D.P.

    1980-06-01

    Manufacturing processes were developed for making holes in alumina substrates, metallizing substrates on both sides and through the holes (vias), dry film photolithographing 6-..mu..m-thick gold to 127-..mu..m line widths and spacings, determining via quality, and protecting vias during HMC assembly processes. The few problems encountered were solved, and via technology is now established as a reliable and repeatable production technology for hybrid microcircuits. Via resistance on product HMCs usually measures from 4 to 6 m..cap omega.. which is well below the 10 m..cap omega.. maximum limit.

  4. Automatic visual inspection of hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    An automatic visual inspection system using a minicomputer and a video digitizer was developed for inspecting hybrid microcircuits (HMC) and thin-film networks (TFN). The system performed well in detecting missing components on HMCs and reduced the testing time for each HMC by 75%.

  5. Feasibilty of electroplated gold for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blessner, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    Electroplating was investigated as a method of providing thick gold films. Because electroplated gold has never been used for hybrid microcircuit (HMC) substrate metallization, this feasibility study was also designed to determine the characteristics of electroplated gold and its compatibility with present HMC fabrication processes. Ceramic substrates 95 by 114 mm (3.75 by 4.5 in.) were electroplated with 6, 10, and 25 ..mu..m of gold after 0.02 ..mu..m of chromium and 0.5 ..mu..m of gold had been either sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto the substrate surfaces. Substrates vacuum evaporated with 6 ..mu..m of gold were used as a control group. The substrates were evaluated for via resistance, RF electrical characteristics, conductor definition and resolution, solder wettability, thermocompression bondability, and environmental stability.

  6. Comparison of metallization systems for thin film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, R.A.; Raut, M.K.

    1980-08-01

    Five metallization systems were evaluated for fabricating thin film hybrid microcircuits. The titanium/palladium/electroplated gold system proved superior in terms of thermocompression bondability, corrosion resistance, and solderability.

  7. Development of lead-free solders for hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Frear, D.R.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive work has been conducted by industry to develop lead-free solders for electronics applications. The driving force behind this effort is pressure to ban or tax the use of lead-bearing solders. There has been further interest to reduce the use of hazardous chemical cleaners. Lead-free soldering and low-residue, ``no clean`` assembly processing are being considered as solutions to these environmental issues. Most of the work has been directed toward commercial and military printed wiring board (PWB) technology, although similar problems confront the hybrid microcircuit (HMC) industry, where the development of lead-free HMC solders is generally lagging. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for designing a variety of critical, high reliability hybrid components for radars. Sandia has consequently initiated a project, as part of its Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing program, to develop low-residue, lead-free soldering for HMCs. This paper discusses the progress of that work.

  8. Design and quality standards for custom hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A hybrid microcircuit standard was developed after a thorough review of applicable NASA, military, industry, and technical society specifications and standards and compilation of comments from technical reviewers throughout the hybrid industry. The draft of the standard submitted to the technical reviewers, the comments from the reviewers, and the completed standard are discussed.

  9. The technology of microcircuit assembly on flexible polyimide substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plis N. I.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to technology of microcircuit assembly on flexible polyimide substrate. It is proved that such microcircuits provide high reliability and have advantage over other IC models when applied in hermetic micro-assemblies in microelectronic devices that operate under high accelerations, shocks and strong radiation.

  10. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  11. Proceedings of the 1980 ERADCOM Hybrid Microcircuit Symposium, 1980, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

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  12. Hybrid microcircuit board assembly with lead-free solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    2000-01-11

    An assessment was made of the manufacturability of hybrid microcircuit test vehicles assembled using three Pb-free solder compositions 96.5Sn--3.5Ag (wt.%), 91.84Sn--3.33Ag--4.83Bi, and 86.85Sn--3.15Ag--5.0Bi--5.0Au. The test vehicle substrate was 96% alumina; the thick film conductor composition was 76Au--21Pt--3Pd. Excellent registration between the LCCC or chip capacitor packages and the thick film solder pads was observed. Reduced wetting of bare (Au-coated) LCCC castellations was eliminated by hot solder dipping the I/Os prior to assembly of the circuit card. The Pb-free solders were slightly more susceptible to void formation, but not to a degree that would significantly impact joint functionality. Microstructural damage, while noted in the Sn-Pb solder joints, was not observed in the Pb-free interconnects.

  13. Design guidelines for use of adhesives and organic coatings in hybrid microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Licari, J. J.; Perkins, K. L.; Schramm, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the reliability of organic adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. The objectives were twofold: (1) to identify and investigate problem areas that could result from the use of organic adhesives and (2) to develop evaluation tests to quantify the extent to which these problems occur for commercially available adhesives. Efforts were focused on electrically conductive adhesives. Also, a study was made to evaluate selected organic coatings for contamination protection for hybrid microcircuits.

  14. Proceedings of the ECOM Hybrid Microcircuit Symposium, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    For Low Cost Avionics W. W. Staley , Westinghouse Electric Corporation 372 SDI Modules J. Fishel, Circuit Technology Inc. 385 Hybrid Thick Film...or Gerber plotters. i Drawings, when required, are usually generated from the circuit layout. They may be used as assembly aids or inspection guides...TCVCXO-I (left) and TCVCXO-II. <A <•SA 4 . .4’.374 SEM/HYBRIDS, PARTN1.RS FOR LOW COST AVIONICS W. W. Staley Systems Development Division

  15. Mechanical properties of Pb-free solder alloys on thick film hybrid microcircuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hosking, F.M.

    1998-03-10

    The technology drivers of the electronics industry continue to be systems miniaturization and reliability, in addition to addressing a variety of important environmental issues. Although the Sn-Pb eutectic alloy is widely used as a joining material in the electronics industry, it has drawn environmental concern due to its Pb content. The solder acts both as an electrical and mechanical connection within the different packaging levels in an electronic device. New Pb-free solders are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The alloys are based on the Sn-Ag alloy, having Bi and Au additions. Prototype hybrid microcircuit (HMC) test vehicles have been assembled to evaluate Pb-free solders for Au-Pt-Pd thick film soldering. The test components consist of a variety of dummy chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCC`s). The mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated. The reflow profiles and the solid state intermetallic formation reaction will also be presented. Improved solder joint manufacturability and increased fatigue resistance solder alloys are the goals of these materials.

  16. Design guidelines for use of adhesives in hybrid microcircuits. [for electronic equipment in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S. V.; Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the use of adhesives in the assembly of hybrid microcircuits offers advantages over other bonding methods, there currently does not exist a set of guidelines for the selection of adhesives which will insure that hybrid microcircuits assembled with them will meet the long use-life, high-reliability requirements of electronic equipment for space applications. This study was directed to the identification of the properties of electrically insulative adhesives that potentially could cause problems in such an application, and to the development of evaluation tests to quantify these properties and thus form the basis for establishing suitable guidelines and, ultimately, specifications. Bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity were selected for detailed attention since they are considered to be especially critical. Introductory discussion includes enumeration and brief comments on the properties of adhesives considered to be important for the proposed application, a general review of polymeric types of adhesives, and identification of the major types of adhesives commercially available and specifically designed for microelectronic use. The specific tests developed to evaluate bond strength, outgassing after cure, and corrosivity are discussed in detail, and comparative results obtained for selected adhesives representative of the major types are given.

  17. Effect of interface microstructure on the mechanical properties of Pb-free hybrid microcircuit solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    Although Sn-Pb eutectic alloy is widely used as a joining material in the electronics industry, it has well documented environmental and toxicity issues. Sandia National Laboratories is developing alternative solder materials to replace traditional Pb-containing alloys. The alloys are based on the Sn-Ag, Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Bi-Au systems. Prototype hybrid microcircuit (HMC) test vehicles have been developed to evaluate these Pb-free solders, using Au-Pt-Pd thick film metallization. Populated test vehicles with surface mount devices have been designed and fabricated to evaluate the reliability of surface mount solder joints. The test components consist of a variety of dummy chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCC`s). Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer reaction products that form at the solder/substrate interface have been characterized and their respective growth kinetics quantified. Thicker IMC layers pose a potential reliability problem with solder joint integrity. Since the IMC layer is brittle, the likelihood of mechanical failure of a joint in service is increased. The effect of microstructure and the response of these different materials to wetting, aging and mechanical testing was also investigated. Solid-state reaction data for intermetallic formation and mechanical properties of the solder joints are reported.

  18. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  19. A hermetic sealing process for large irregularly shaped hybrid microcircuit enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A system for sealing vacuum baked hybrids in a dry inert atmosphere using an overlapping spot resistance weld is described. A unique electrode configuration and fixturing that permits sealing of large and irregularly shaped gold plated Kovar packages to the hermeticity requirements of MIL-STD-883 was discussed. Metallurgical considerations and comparisons to laser sealing were made. Problems encountered during the development and optimization of the process were highlighted. Solutions to plating, fixturing, warpage, weld splatter and cracked bead problems are presented.

  20. Investigation into environmentally friendly alternative cleaning processes for hybrid microcircuits to replace vapor degreasing with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.E.

    1997-02-01

    Two cleaning processes, one aqueous and one nonaqueous, were investigated as potential replacements for the vapor degreasing process using 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. The aqueous process was based upon saponification chemistry. A 10% solution of either Kester 5768 or Armakleen 2001, heated to 140 F, was sprayed on the hybrid at 450 psig and a flow rate of 5 gpm through a specially designed nozzle which created microdroplets. The nonaqueous process was based upon dissolution chemistry and used d-limonene as the solvent in an immersion and spray process. The d-limonene solvent was followed by an isopropyl alcohol spray rinse to remove the excess d-limonene. The aqueous microdroplet process was found to be successful only for solder reflow profiles that did not exceed 210 C. Furthermore, removal of component marking was a problem and the spray pressure had to be reduced to 130 psig to eliminate damage to capacitor end caps. The d-limonene cleaning was found to be successful for solder reflow temperature up to 250 C when using a four-step cleaning process. The four steps included refluxing the hybrid at 80 C, followed by soaking the hybrid in d-limonene which is heated to 80 C, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature d-limonene, followed by spray cleaning at 80 psig with room temperature IPA was developed to remove residual flux from the hybrid microcircuits. This process was the most robust and most closely matched the cleaning ability of TCA.

  1. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  2. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  3. Research News: Are VLSI Microcircuits Too Hard to Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    This research news article on microelectronics discusses the scientific challenge the integrated circuit industry will have in the next decade, for designing the complicated microcircuits made possible by advancing miniaturization technology. (HM)

  4. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  5. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  6. Mechatronics and hybrid technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology.......R&D international contributions to control and design of novel intelligent mechatronic products and solutions with sensor- and actuator technology....

  7. Advanced Hybrid Computer Systems. Software Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This software technology final report evaluates advances made in Advanced Hybrid Computer System software technology . The report describes what...automatic patching software is available as well as which analog/hybrid programming languages would be most feasible for the Advanced Hybrid Computer...compiler software . The problem of how software would interface with the hybrid system is also presented.

  8. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  9. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  10. Cellular signalling properties in microcircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; El Manira, Abdeljabbar; Wallén, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Molecules and cells are the signalling elements in microcircuits. Recent studies have uncovered bewildering diversity in postsynaptic signalling properties in all areas of the vertebrate nervous system. Major effort is now being invested in establishing the specialized signalling properties at th...

  11. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  12. Hybrid Nanoelectronics: Future of Computer Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Ming Liu; Andrew Hsu

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology may well prove to be the 21st century's new wave of scientific knowledge that transforms people's lives. Nanotechnology research activities are booming around the globe. This article reviews the recent progresses made on nanoelectronic research in US and China, and introduces several novel hybrid solutions specifically useful for future computer technology. These exciting new directions will lead to many future inventions, and have a huge impact to research communities and industries.

  13. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  14. Alternative technological development for RF hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio Finardi, Célio; da Fontoura Ponchet, André; Battesini Adamo, Cristina; Flacker, Alexander; Cotrin Teixeira, Ricardo; Panepucci, Roberto Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents a technological solution for high frequency packaging platform evaluated up to 40 GHz. The main purpose of this development was to define an alternative hybrid technology that is more flexible and faster to prototype compared with thin film or multi chip module (MCM-D). The alternative technology also shows adequate performance for high bit rate solutions integrating optical and electronics blocks. This approach consists of a soft substrate (laminate material), plating processes (electroless Ni-P/Au, electrolytic Au) and lithography patterning. Ground coplanar waveguide was used for microwave structures with excellent ground planes connections due to easy via holes implementation. We present results of high frequency packaging of important RF blocks, such as integrated broadband bias-T, transimpedance amplifier ICs and silicon photonics optical modulators. The paper demonstrates a solution for high frequency hybridization that can be implemented with standard substrates, designed with any shape and with large numbers of metalized via holes and compatible with usual assembling techniques.

  15. Hybrid laser technology and doped biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Písařík, Petr; Trávníčková, Martina; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid laser-based technologies for deposition of new types of doped thin films are presented. The focus is on arrangements combining pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with magnetron sputtering (MS), and on the setup with two simultaneously running PLD systems (dual PLD). Advantages and disadvantages of both arrangements are discussed. Layers of different dopants concentration were prepared. Experience with deposition of chromium and titanium doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for potential coating of bone implants is presented. Properties of the layers prepared by both technologies are compared and discussed. The suitability of the layers for colonization with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and human osteoblast-like cells, were also evaluated under in vitro conditions.

  16. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  18. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  19. Hybrid power technology for remote military facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) operates hundreds of test, evaluation, and training facilities across the US and abroad. Due to the nature of their missions, these facilities are often remote and isolated from the utility grid. The preferred choice for power at these facilities has historically been manned diesel generators. The DoD Photovoltaic Review Committee, estimates that on the order of 350 million gallons of diesel fuel is burned each year to generate the 2000 GWh of electricity required to operate these remote military facilities. Other federal agencies, including the National Park Service and the USDA Forest Service use diesel generators for remote power needs as well. The generation of power diesel generators is both expensive and detrimental to the environment. The augmentation of power from diesel generators with power processing and battery energy storage enhances the efficiency and utilization of the generator resulting in lower fuel consumption and lower generator run- time in proportion to the amount of renewables added. The hybrid technology can both reduce the cost of power and reduce environmental degradation at remote DoD facilities. This paper describes the expected performance and economics of photovoltaic/diesel hybrid systems. Capabilities and status of systems now being installed at DoD facilities are presented along with financing mechanisms available within DoD.

  20. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Luke Y.; Bacon, Travis J.; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval. PMID:27799909

  1. Neuromodulation of the feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Yuri Prince; Travis J Bacon; Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on...

  2. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Luke; Travis J Bacon; Tigaret, Cezar; Mellor, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on...

  3. Neuromodulation of the Feedforward Dentate Gyrus-CA3 Microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Luke Y; Bacon, Travis J; Tigaret, Cezar M; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  4. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program, phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The study program was contracted to evaluate concepts of hybrid propulsion, select the most optimum, and prepare a conceptual design package. Further, this study required preparation of a technology definition package to identify hybrid propulsion enabling technologies and planning to acquire that technology in Phase 2 and demonstrate that technology in Phase 3. Researchers evaluated two design philosophies for Hybrid Rocket Booster (HRB) selection. The first is an ASRM modified hybrid wherein as many components/designs as possible were used from the present Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design. The second was an entirely new hybrid optimized booster using ASRM criteria as a point of departure, i.e., diameter, thrust time curve, launch facilities, and external tank attach points. Researchers selected the new design based on the logic of optimizing a hybrid booster to provide NASA with a next generation vehicle in lieu of an interim advancement over the ASRM. The enabling technologies for hybrid propulsion are applicable to either and vehicle design may be selected at a downstream point (Phase 3) at NASA's discretion. The completion of these studies resulted in ranking the various concepts of boosters from the RSRM to a turbopump fed (TF) hybrid. The scoring resulting from the Figure of Merit (FOM) scoring system clearly shows a natural growth path where the turbopump fed solid liquid staged combustion hybrid provides maximized payload and the highest safety, reliability, and low life cycle costing.

  5. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  6. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  7. Integrated approach for hybrid rocket technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Francesco; Bellomo, Nicolas; Pavarin, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid rocket motors tend generally to be simple from a mechanical point of view but difficult to optimize because of their complex and still not well understood cross-coupled physics. This paper addresses the previous issue presenting the integrated approach established at University of Padua to develop hybrid rocket based systems. The methodology tightly combines together system analysis and design, numerical modeling from elementary to sophisticated CFD, and experimental testing done with incremental philosophy. As an example of the approach, the paper presents the experience done in the successful development of a hybrid rocket booster designed for rocket assisted take off operations. It is thought that following the proposed approach and selecting carefully the most promising applications it is possible to finally exploit the major advantages of hybrid rocket motors as safety, simplicity, low cost and reliability.

  8. Microcircuit failure analysis using the SEM. [Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope adds a new dimension to the knowledge that can be obtained from a failed microcircuit. When used with conventional techniques, SEM assists and clarifies the analysis, but it does not replace light microscopy. The most advantageous features for microcircuit analysis are long working distances and great depth of field. Manufacturer related failure modes of microcircuits are metallization defects, poor bonding, surface and particle contamination, and design and fabrication faults. User related failure modes are caused by abuse, such as overstress. The Physics of Failure Procedure followed by the Astrionics Laboratory in failure analysis is described, which is designed to obtain maximum information available from each step.

  9. Neuromodulation of the feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Yuri Prince

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The feedforward dentate gyrus-CA3 microcircuit in the hippocampus is thought to activate ensembles of CA3 pyramidal cells and interneurons to encode and retrieve episodic memories. The creation of these CA3 ensembles depends on neuromodulatory input and synaptic plasticity within this microcircuit. Here we review the mechanisms by which the neuromodulators aceylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin reconfigure this microcircuit and thereby infer the net effect of these modulators on the processes of episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation screening of microcircuits for long life applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, W. G.; Erickson, J. J.; Levy, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    The utility of X-rays as a stimulus for screening high reliability semiconductor microcircuits was studied. The theory of the interaction of X-rays with semiconductor materials and devices was considered. Experimental measurements of photovoltages, photocurrents, and effects on specified parameters were made on discrete devices and on microcircuits. The test specimens included discrete devices with certain types of identified flaws and symptoms of flaws, and microcircuits exhibiting deviant electrical behavior. With a necessarily limited sample of test specimens, no useful correlation could be found between the X-ray-induced electrical response and the known or suspected presence of flaws.

  11. TARDEC Hybrid Electric (HE) Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-05

    System Generator /Motor...ireDifferential Differential Energy Storage System Generator / Motor Inverter Engine Generator/Motor Transmission 3-Phase AC power into Motor Inverter When...Hybrid Electric Drive Propulsion TireTire Tire Energy Storage System Generator Controller 3Ø A/C to HV DC Generator Controller rectifies AC to DC

  12. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  13. Dendritic nonlinearities reduce network size requirements and mediate ON and OFF states of persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Papoutsi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have unraveled the existence of small clusters of co-active neurons in the neocortex. The functional implications of these microcircuits are in large part unexplored. Using a heavily constrained biophysical model of a L5 PFC microcircuit, we recently showed that these structures act as tunable modules of persistent activity, the cellular correlate of working memory. Here, we investigate the mechanisms that underlie persistent activity emergence (ON and termination (OFF and search for the minimum network size required for expressing these states within physiological regimes. We show that (a NMDA-mediated dendritic spikes gate the induction of persistent firing in the microcircuit. (b The minimum network size required for persistent activity induction is inversely proportional to the synaptic drive of each excitatory neuron. (c Relaxation of connectivity and synaptic delay constraints eliminates the gating effect of NMDA spikes, albeit at a cost of much larger networks. (d Persistent activity termination by increased inhibition depends on the strength of the synaptic input and is negatively modulated by dADP. (e Slow synaptic mechanisms and network activity contain predictive information regarding the ability of a given stimulus to turn ON and/or OFF persistent firing in the microcircuit model. Overall, this study zooms out from dendrites to cell assemblies and suggests a tight interaction between dendritic non-linearities and network properties (size/connectivity that may facilitate the short-memory function of the PFC.

  14. Pain processing by spinal microcircuits: afferent combinatorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Steven A; Ratté, Stéphanie

    2012-08-01

    Pain, itch, heat, cold, and touch represent different percepts arising from somatosensory input. How stimuli give rise to these percepts has been debated for over a century. Recent work supports the view that primary afferents are highly specialized to transduce and encode specific stimulus modalities. However, cross-modal interactions (e.g. inhibition or exacerbation of pain by touch) support convergence rather than specificity in central circuits. We outline how peripheral specialization together with central convergence could enable spinal microcircuits to combine inputs from distinctly specialized, co-activated afferents and to modulate the output signals thus formed through computations like normalization. These issues will be discussed alongside recent advances in our understanding of microcircuitry in the superficial dorsal horn.

  15. Extreme Environment Hybrid Gearbox Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nearly all mechanism applications require some form of gearbox. Wet lubricated gearbox technologies are limited to the relatively narrow temperature ranges of their...

  16. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  17. Hybrid Vehicle Technologies and their potential for reducing oil use

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, John

    2006-04-01

    Vehicles with hybrid gasoline-electric powertrains are starting to gain market share. Current hybrid vehicles add an electric motor, battery pack, and power electronics to the conventional powertrain. A variety of engine/motor configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages. In general, efficiency is improved due to engine shut-off at idle, capture of energy during deceleration that is normally lost as heat in the brakes, downsizing of the conventional engine, and, in some cases, propulsion on the electric motor alone. Ongoing increases in hybrid market share are dependent on cost reduction, especially the battery pack, efficiency synergies with other vehicle technologies, use of the high electric power to provide features desired by customers, and future fuel price and availability. Potential barriers include historically low fuel prices, high discounting of the fuel savings by new vehicle purchasers, competing technologies, and tradeoffs with other factors desired by customers, such as performance, utility, safety, and luxury features.

  18. FPGA Simulation Engine for Customized Construction of Neural Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hugh T; Cong, Jason; Wu, Di

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we describe an FPGA-based platform for high-performance and low-power simulation of neural microcircuits composed from integrate-and-fire (IAF) neurons. Based on high-level synthesis, our platform uses design templates to map hierarchies of neuron model to logic fabrics. This approach bypasses high design complexity and enables easy optimization and design space exploration. We demonstrate the benefits of our platform by simulating a variety of neural microcircuits that perform oscillatory path integration, which evidence suggests may be a critical building block of the navigation system inside a rodent's brain. Experiments show that our FPGA simulation engine for oscillatory neural microcircuits can achieve up to 39× speedup compared to software benchmarks on commodity CPU, and 232× energy reduction compared to embedded ARM core.

  19. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  20. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    to digitally augment a paper medical record. We report on two studies: a field study in which we describe the benefits and challenges of using a combination of electronic and paper-based medical records in a large university hospital and a deployment study in which we analyze how 8 clinicians used the Hy......PR in a medical simulation. Based on these empirical studies, this paper introduces and discusses the concept of collaborative affordances, which describes a set of properties of the medical record that foster collaborative collocated work....... explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed...

  1. Hybrid microcircuit metallization system for the SLL micro actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampy, R. E.; Knauss, G. L.; Komarek, E. E.; Kramer, D. K.; Villaueva, J.

    1976-03-01

    A thin film technique developed for the SLL Micro Actuator in which both gold and aluminum can be incorporated on sapphire or fine grained alumina substrates in a two-level metallization system is described. Tungsten is used as a lateral transition metal permitting electrical contact between the gold and aluminum without the two metals coming in physical contact. Silicon dioxide serves as an insulator between the tungsten and aluminum for crossover purposes, and vias through the silicon dioxide permit interconnections where desired. Tungsten-gold is the first level conductor except at crossovers where tungsten only is used and aluminum is the second level conductor. Sheet resistances of the two levels can be as low as 0.01 ohm/square. Line widths and spaces as small as 0.025 mm can be attained. A second layer of silicon dioxide is deposited over the metallization and opened for all gold and aluminum bonding areas. The metallization system permits effective interconnection of a mixture of devices having both gold and aluminum terminations without creating undesirable gold-aluminum interfaces. Processing temperatures up to 400/sup 0/C can be tolerated for short times without effect on bondability, conductor, and insulator characteristics, thus permitting silicon-gold eutectic die attachment, component soldering, and higher temperatures during gold lead bonding. Tests conducted on special test pattern circuits indicate good stability over the temperature range -55 to +150/sup 0/C. Aging studies indicate no degradation in characteristics in tests of 500 h duration at 150/sup 0/C.

  2. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop technology for space thermal control. The proposed technology combines the high heat...

  3. Assessment of Technologies for Noncryogenic Hybrid Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Morrison, Carlos R.; Lowe, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program is researching aircraft propulsion technologies that will lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. One promising technology is noncryogenic electric propulsion, which could be either hybrid electric propulsion or turboelectric propulsion. Reducing dependence on the turbine engine would certainly reduce emissions. However, the weight of the electricmotor- related components that would have to be added would adversely impact the benefits of the smaller turbine engine. Therefore, research needs to be done to improve component efficiencies and reduce component weights. This study projects technology improvements expected in the next 15 and 30 years, including motor-related technologies, power electronics, and energy-storage-related technologies. Motor efficiency and power density could be increased through the use of better conductors, insulators, magnets, bearings, structural materials, and thermal management. Energy storage could be accomplished through batteries, flywheels, or supercapacitors, all of which expect significant energy density growth over the next few decades. A first-order approximation of the cumulative effect of each technology improvement shows that motor power density could be improved from 3 hp/lb, the state of the art, to 8 hp/lb in 15 years and 16 hp/lb in 30 years.

  4. Polymer waveguide based hybrid opto-electric integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinbin; Deng, Lingling; Jiang, Xiyan; Ren, Rong; Zhai, Yumeng; Wang, Jin

    2014-10-01

    While monolithic integration especially based on InP appears to be quite an expensive solution for optical devices, hybrid integration solutions using cheaper material platforms are considered powerful competitors because of the high freedom of design, yield optimization and relative cost-efficiency. Among them, the polymer planar-lightwave circuit (PLC) technology is regarded attractive as polymer offers the potential of fairly simple and low-cost fabrication, and of low-cost packaging. In our work, polymer PLC was fabricated by using the standard reactive ion etching (RIE) technique, while other active and passive devices can be integrated on the polymer PLC platform. Exemplary polymer waveguide devices was a 13-channel arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) chip, where the central channel cross-talk was below -30dB and the polarization dependent frequency shift was mitigated by inserting a half wave plate. An optical 900 hybrid was also realized with one 2×4 multi-mode interferometer (MMI). The excess insertion losses are below 4dB for the C-band, while the transmission imbalance is below 1.2dB. When such an optical hybrid was integrated vertically with mesa-type photodiodes, the responsivity of the individual PD was around 0.06 A/W, while the 3 dB bandwidth reaches 24 ~ 27 GHz, which is sufficient for 100Gbit/s receivers. Another example of the hybrid integration was to couple the polymer waveguides to fiber by applying fiber grooves, whose typical loss value was 0.2 dB per-facet over a broad spectral range from 1200-1600 nm.

  5. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  6. Structured Connectivity Shapes Microcircuit Function in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Stefanou - Stamatiadis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of new experimental techniques in vivo has shed light on the wiring diagram of cortical networks, revealing the highly non-random connectivity of pyramidal neurons. This structured connectivity is characterized by distance-dependent formation of neuronal clusters and over-represented structural ‘motifs’ (Perin 2011, Ko 2013. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC in particular, pyramidal neurons were shown to form hyper-clusters, compared to other sensory regions. Yet, very little is known about the functional properties of these microcircuits and their role in Persistent Activity (PA, a well known function of the PFC. PA is the spiking activity that persists beyond the stimulus presentation and is considered to be the cellular correlate of working memory. Although, PA was traditionally assumed to emerge in large scale networks, recent in vivo data in the PFC suggest that small microcircuits mediate its functional output (Durstwitz, 2010. Motivated by the above findings this work probes the role of realistic connectivity constraints in shaping the functional output of PFC, through simulations of biophysically and morphologically detailed PFC circuits. Towards this goal, we used a compartmental modeling approach, whereby layer 5 PFC pyramidal neurons are modeled with detailed morphological and biophysical properties. Three different types of interneurons were also implemented; the Fast-spiking (FS, Regular-spiking (RS, and Irregular-spiking (IS. These were biophysically detailed, yet morphologically simplified. Microcircuits consisted of 75 pyramidal neurons, 13 FS, 6 RS and 6 IS. Properties (location /number /amplitude /kinetics of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses were extensively validated against experimental data. The network model was used to investigate the effect of connectivity on the emergence of persistent activity. Two different connectivity profiles of pyramidal cells were implemented: one highly non

  7. Design, processing and testing of LSI arrays: Hybrid microelectronics task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, R. P.; Stuhlbarg, S. M.; Ravetti, R. G.; Zulueta, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical cost factors were generated for both hybrid microcircuit and printed wiring board packaging methods. A mathematical cost model was created for analysis of microcircuit fabrication costs. The costing factors were refined and reduced to formulae for computerization. Efficient methods were investigated for low cost packaging of LSI devices as a function of density and reliability. Technical problem areas such as wafer bumping, inner/outer leading bonding, testing on tape, and tape processing, were investigated.

  8. Three-dimensional mapping of microcircuit correlation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James eCotton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made towards understanding the properties of single neurons, yet the principles underlying interactions between neurons remain poorly understood. Given that connectivity in the neocortex is locally dense through both horizontal and vertical con-nections, it is of particular importance to characterize the activity structure of local popula-tions of neurons arranged in three dimensions. However, techniques for simultaneously measuring microcircuit activity are lacking. We developed an in vivo 3D high-speed, ran-dom-access two-photon microscope that is capable of simultaneous 3D motion tracking. This allows imaging from hundreds of neurons at several hundred Hz, while monitoring tissue movement. Given that motion will induce common artifacts across the population, accurate motion tracking is absolutely necessary for studying population activity with ran-dom-access based imaging methods. We demonstrate the potential of this imaging tech-nique by measuring the correlation structure of large populations of nearby neurons in the mouse visual cortex, and find that the microcircuit correlation structure is stimulus-dependent. Three-dimensional random access multiphoton imaging with concurrent mo-tion tracking provides a novel powerful method to characterize the microcircuit activity in vivo.

  9. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  10. Pixel Hybridization Technologies for the HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimonti, G.; Biasotti, M.; Ceriale, V.; Darbo, G.; Gariano, G.; Gaudiello, A.; Gemme, C.; Rossi, L.; Rovani, A.; Ruscino, E.

    2016-12-01

    During the 2024-2025 shut-down, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×1034 cm-2s-1. This upgrade of the collider is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). ATLAS and CMS detectors will be upgraded to meet the new challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 over ten years. In particular, the current trackers will be completely replaced. In HL-LHC the trackers should operate under high fluences (up to 1.4 × 1016 neq cm-2), with a correlated high radiation damage. The pixel detectors, the innermost part of the trackers, needed a completely new design in the readout electronics, sensors and interconnections. A new 65 nm front-end (FE) electronics is being developed by the RD53 collaboration compatible with smaller pixel sizes than the actual ones to cope with the high track densities. Consequently the bump density will increase up to 4 ·104 bumps/cm2. Preliminary results of two hybridization technologies study are presented in this paper. In particular, the on-going bump-bonding qualification program at Leonardo-Finmeccanica is discussed, together with alternative hybridization techniques, as the capacitive coupling for HV-CMOS detectors.

  11. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approache......PR in a medical simulation. Based on these empirical studies, this paper introduces and discusses the concept of collaborative affordances, which describes a set of properties of the medical record that foster collaborative collocated work.......The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches...... explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed...

  12. Ultrawide Bandwidth 180°-Hybrid-Coupler in Planar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Scherr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of an ultrawide bandwidth 180°-hybrid-coupler is presented. The ultrawideband design approach is based on the excitation of a coplanar waveguide (CPW mode and a coupled slot line (CSL mode in the same double slotted planar waveguide. The coupler is suitable for realization in planar printed circuit board technology. For verification of the new concept a prototype was designed for the frequency range from 3 GHz to 11 GHz, built, and measured. The measurement results presented in this paper show a good agreement between simulation and measurement and demonstrate the very broadband performance of the new device. The demonstrated coupler with a size of 40 mm × 55 mm exhibits a fractional bandwidth of 114% centered at 7 GHz with a maximum amplitude imbalance of 0.8 dB and a maximum phase imbalance of 5°.

  13. Hybrid Cooling Loop Technology for Robust High Heat Flux Cooling Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) proposes to develop a hybrid cooling loop and cold plate technology for space systems thermal management. The proposed...

  14. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  15. S 400 BlueHYBRID. First hybrid vehicle with Li-ion technology; S 400 BlueHYBRID. Erstes Hybridfahrzeug mit Li-Ionen-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollrath, Oliver; Armstrong, Neil; Schenk, Juergen; Bitsche, Otmar; Lamm, Arnold [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Mercedes Benz advances the electrification of the drive strand in all performance classes and in all models from the start-stop system till to the full hybrid. Thereby, the S 400 BlueHYBRID presents the first Mercedes-Benz hybrid. Equipped with the characteristics of a start-stop system, with a recovery of the brake energy and with an electrical support of the drive, this hybrid obtains a saving of the consumption of approximately 20 %. By means of the design of the components and by means of the selection of a standard installation size, all hybrid-specific construction units in the vehicle porch could be arranged. Here, a special role comes to the used battery technology, since it became possible to arrange the hybrid battery in the size and the building area of a conventional starter battery accordingly.

  16. Conduction Mechanisms in Thick Film Microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    AREMCO 3100 Screen Printing Machine 53 3.11 Squeegee Design 55 3.12 Effect of Screen Printer Parameters on Filin Weight Deposited 59 3.13 Variation of...deviation of printing performance. This is discussed in greater detail sIfter the materials and machine are described. 3.5.2 Screening Material and...beyoni the range of monolithic technology can be satisfied by combining monolithic and thick film technologies. Design functions such as flexibility

  17. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high speed MOSFETs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Maiti; C K Maiti

    2012-10-01

    We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based on the combination of hybrid orientation technology (HOT) and process-induced local strain engineering,MOSFET RF performance is investigated using CAD (TCAD) technology. Transistor optimization on (100) substrate via silicon nitride (Si3N4) cap layer thickness for -MOSFETs, Ge mole fraction optimization for -MOSFETs on (110) substrates and channel length scaling have resulted in record RF performance, viz. the cut-off frequency, T.

  18. Thick film fabrication of aluminum nitride microcircuits. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdieu, L.H.

    1994-03-01

    A new substrate material, aluminum nitride (AlN), and 11 new thick film inks were analyzed to determine their chemical compatibility, their electrical properties, their mechanical properties, and their overall suitability for use in the manufacturing of high-power microcircuits with efficient thermal properties. Because high-power chips emit a great deal of heat in a small surface area, a new substrate material was needed to dissipate that heat faster than the substrate material currently in use. Overall, the new materials were found to be acceptable for accomplishing this purpose.

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Urban Delivery Truck Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Impllitti, Joseph [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States); Pascal, Amar [South Coast Air Quality Management District Building Corporation, Diamond Bar, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The I-710 and CA-60 highways are key transportation corridors in the Southern California region that are heavily used on a daily basis by heavy duty drayage trucks that transport the cargo from the ports to the inland transportation terminals. These terminals, which include store/warehouses, inland-railways, are anywhere from 5 to 50 miles in distance from the ports. The concentrated operation of these drayage vehicles in these corridors has had and will continue to have a significant impact on the air quality in this region whereby significantly impacting the quality of life in the communities surrounding these corridors. To reduce these negative impacts it is critical that zero and near-zero emission technologies be developed and deployed in the region. A potential local market size of up to 46,000 trucks exists in the South Coast Air Basin, based on near- dock drayage trucks and trucks operating on the I-710 freeway. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), California Air Resources Board (CARB) and Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) — the agencies responsible for preparing the State Implementation Plan required under the federal Clean Air Act — have stated that to attain federal air quality standards the region will need to transition to broad use of zero and near zero emission energy sources in cars, trucks and other equipment (Southern California Association of Governments et al, 2011). SCAQMD partnered with Volvo Trucks to develop, build and demonstrate a prototype Class 8 heavy-duty plug-in hybrid drayage truck with significantly reduced emissions and fuel use. Volvo’s approach leveraged the group’s global knowledge and experience in designing and deploying electromobility products. The proprietary hybrid driveline selected for this proof of concept was integrated with multiple enhancements to the complete vehicle in order to maximize the emission and energy impact of electrification. A detailed review of all

  20. The demise of plastic encapsulated microcircuit myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, E. B.; Agarwal, R. K.; Pecht, M.

    1994-10-01

    Production of microelectronic devices encapsulated in solid, molded plastic packages has rapidly increased since the early 1980's. Today, millions of plastic-encapsulated devices are produced daily. On the other hand, only a few million hermetic (cavity) packages are produced per year. Reasons for the increased use of plastic-encapsulated packages include cost, availability, size, weight, quality, and reliability. Markets taking advantage of this technology range from computers and telecommunications to automotive uses. Yet, several industries, the military in particular, will not accept such devices. One reason for this reluctance to use the best available commercial parts is a perceived risk of poor reliability, derived from antiquated military specifications, standards, and handbooks; other common justifications cite differing environments; inadequate screens; inadequate test data, and required government audits of suppliers' processes. This paper describes failure mechanisms associated with plastic encapsulation and their elimination. It provides data indicating the relative reliability of cavity and solid-encapsulated packaging, and presents possible approaches to assuring quality and reliability in the procuring and applying this successful commercial technology.

  1. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  2. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  3. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  4. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  5. Criteria for robustness of heteroclinic cycles in neural microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a test for robustness of heteroclinic cycles that appear in neural microcircuits modeled as coupled dynamical cells. Robust heteroclinic cycles (RHCs) can appear as robust attractors in Lotka-Volterra-type winnerless competition (WLC) models as well as in more general coupled and/or symmetric systems. It has been previously suggested that RHCs may be relevant to a range of neural activities, from encoding and binding to spatio-temporal sequence generation. The robustness or otherwise of such cycles depends both on the coupling structure and the internal structure of the neurons. We verify that robust heteroclinic cycles can appear in systems of three identical cells, but only if we require perturbations to preserve some invariant subspaces for the individual cells. On the other hand, heteroclinic attractors can appear robustly in systems of four or more identical cells for some symmetric coupling patterns, without restriction on the internal dynamics of the cells. PMID:22656192

  6. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system’s periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  7. Rapid Global Calibration Technology for Hybrid Visual Inspection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Yin, Shibin; Guo, Yin; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-06-19

    Vision-based methods for product quality inspection are playing an increasingly important role in modern industries for their good performance and high efficiency. A hybrid visual inspection system, which consists of an industrial robot with a flexible sensor and several stationary sensors, has been widely applied in mass production, especially in automobile manufacturing. In this paper, a rapid global calibration method for the hybrid visual inspection system is proposed. Global calibration of a flexible sensor is performed first based on the robot kinematic. Then, with the aid of the calibrated flexible sensor, stationary sensors are calibrated globally one by one based on homography. Only a standard sphere and an auxiliary target with a 2D planar pattern are applied during the system global calibration, and the calibration process can be easily re-performed during the system's periodical maintenance. An error compensation method is proposed for the hybrid inspection system, and the final accuracy of the hybrid system is evaluated with the deviation and correlation coefficient between the measured results of the hybrid system and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). An accuracy verification experiment shows that deviation of over 95% of featured points are less than ±0.3 mm, and the correlation coefficients of over 85% of points are larger than 0.7.

  8. Computational perspectives on forebrain microcircuits implicated in reinforcement learning, action selection, and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Daniel; Tan, Can Ozan; John, Yohan J

    2009-01-01

    Abundant new information about signaling pathways in forebrain microcircuits presents many challenges, and opportunities for discovery, to computational neuroscientists who strive to bridge from microcircuits to flexible cognition and action. Accurate treatment of microcircuit pathways is especially critical for creating models that correctly predict the outcomes of candidate neurological therapies. Recent models are trying to specify how cortical circuits that enable planning and voluntary actions interact with adaptive subcortical microcircuits in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, and in all behavior and cognition over which the frontal lobes exert flexible control. The persisting role of the basal ganglia shows that ancient vertebrate designs for motivated action selection proved adaptable enough to support many "modern" behavioral innovations, including fluent generation of language and speech. This paper summarizes how recent models have incorporated realistic representations of microcircuit features, and have begun to trace their computational implications. Also summarized are recent empirical discoveries that provide guidance regarding how to formulate the rules for synaptic modification that govern learning in cortico-striatal pathways. Such efforts are contributing to an emerging synthesis based on an interlocking set of computational hypotheses regarding cortical interactions with basal ganglia and thalamic nuclei. These hypotheses specify how specialized microcircuits solve learning and control problems inherent to the brain's parallel design.

  9. Noise and vibration reduction technology in hybrid vehicle development; Hybrid sha kaihatsu ni okeru shindo soon teigen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioa, T.; Sugita, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Accomplishing both environmental protection and good NVH performance has become a significant task in automotive development The first-in-the-world hybrid passenger car of mass production. 'Prius', has achieved superior NV performance compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine along with 50% reduction of fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. low HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions. This paper describes NV reduction technology for solving problems peculiar to the hybrid vehicle such as engine start/stop vibration, drone noise at low engine speed and motor/generator noise and vibration. It also mentions application technology of low rolling resistance tires with light weight wheels and recycled material for sound proofing. (author)

  10. Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

    2012-01-01

    To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

  11. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, A.C.; Dekker, C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Van Der Zant, H.S.J.; et. al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphen

  12. Hybrid Placemaking in the Library: Designing Digital Technology to Enhance Users' On-Site Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandzic, Mark; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research findings and design strategies that illustrate how digital technology can be applied as a tool for "hybrid" placemaking in ways that would not be possible in purely digital or physical spaces. Digital technology has revolutionised the way people learn and gather new information. This trend has challenged the…

  13. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Falko, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap (STR) for graphene, related twodimensional (2d) crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. The roadmap was developed within the framework of the Euro...

  14. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Boggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, Jose A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhaenen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Gregory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hong, Byung Hee; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Loefwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari

    2015-01-01

    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European

  15. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  16. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  17. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  18. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. The Innovative Directions In Development And Implementations Of Hybrid Technologies In Surface Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkiewicz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the development of modern technology depends, to a great extent, on the possibilities of producing the innovative materials with high functionality parameters, which could be used in modern, highly advanced technological processes. Surface engineering plays a very important role in this area. This is mainly due to the fact that, for many structural materials, the possibilities of classical formation of their properties (e.g., by heat treatment or the selection of the microstructure, chemical and phase composition have been practically used up. The material and technological achievements in the surface engineering area allow the modification of the properties of the surface layer of tool and machine components. As a result, they may be better suited to work in increasingly difficult and more demanding conditions. The hybrid technologies, combining several different methods of surface treatment in one complex technological process, are the most advanced solutions compared to already known surface engineering methods. In the article, the authors present the possibilities of shaping the functional properties of the surface layer. The authors describe problems associated with the development of the hybrid technology and provide the examples of physical modelling, design, technological development, and the practical application of a hybrid technology. In this work, the authors also identify the areas whose development is needed for more effective transfer of surface engineering innovations to business applications.

  1. Hybrid spherical particle field measurement based on interference technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Ye; Jia, Dagong; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-03-01

    Interferometric particle imaging is widely used in particle size measurement. Conventional algorithms, which focus on single size particle fields, have difficulties in extracting each interference fringe in a hybrid spherical particle field due to the noise. To solve this problem, an iterative mean filter (IMF) algorithm is proposed. Instead of the specific mean filter template coefficient, the noise is reduced by iterating the calculation results under different template coefficients. The average value of the calculation results excluding the gross error is output as the final result. The effect of different template coefficients are simulated, furthermore, the value range of template coefficients has been analyzed. The interferogram of the hybrid spherical particle field from 21.3 µm to 57.9 µm is processed by the conventional algorithms with specific template coefficients of 2, 8, 12 and the IMF algorithm. The corresponding measurement errors are 17.22%, 10.69%, 9.04% and 5.11%. The experimental results show that the IMF algorithm would reduce measurement error, and could be potentially applied in particle field measurement.

  2. Considerations for a QD0 with Hybrid Technology in ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, M; Garcia, H; Gatignon, L; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline design of the QD0 magnet for ILC, the International Linear Collider, is a very compact superconducting quadrupole (coil-dominated magnet). A prototype of this quadrupole is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). In CLIC, the Compact Linear Collider under study at CERN, we are studying a different conceptual solution for the QD0. This is due to two main reasons: all the magnets of the Beam Delivery System will need to be stabilized in the nano-meter range and extremely tight alignment tolerances are required. The proposed solution, now baseline for CLIC, is a room temperature hybrid quadrupole based on resistive coils and permanent magnet blocks (iron-dominated magnet). In this paper we present a conceptual design for a hybrid solution studied and adapted also to the ILC project. A super-ferric solution (superconducting coils with warm iron poles) is proposed to make the cross section compatible with the layout of the experiments. This design matches the compactness requiremen...

  3. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Diego José; Boj, Clara; Portalés, Cristina

    2016-04-23

    This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds). HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.). Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.

  4. HybridPLAY: A New Technology to Foster Outdoors Physical Activity, Verbal Communication and Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego José Díaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i.e., not restricted to the playgrounds. HybridPLAY was born in 2007 as an artistic concept, and evolved after different phases of research and testing by almost 2000 users around the world (in workshops, artistic events, conferences, etc.. Here, we present the temporal evolution of HybridPLAY with the different versions of the sensors and the video games, and a detailed technical description of the sensors and the way interactions are produced. We also present the outcomes after the evaluation by users at different events and workshops. We believe that HybridPLAY has great potential to contribute to increased physical activity in kids, and also to improve the learning process and monitoring at school centres by letting users create the content of the apps, leading to new narratives and fostering creativity.

  5. Dense neuron clustering explains connectivity statistics in cortical microcircuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V Klinshov

    Full Text Available Local cortical circuits appear highly non-random, but the underlying connectivity rule remains elusive. Here, we analyze experimental data observed in layer 5 of rat neocortex and suggest a model for connectivity from which emerge essential observed non-random features of both wiring and weighting. These features include lognormal distributions of synaptic connection strength, anatomical clustering, and strong correlations between clustering and connection strength. Our model predicts that cortical microcircuits contain large groups of densely connected neurons which we call clusters. We show that such a cluster contains about one fifth of all excitatory neurons of a circuit which are very densely connected with stronger than average synapses. We demonstrate that such clustering plays an important role in the network dynamics, namely, it creates bistable neural spiking in small cortical circuits. Furthermore, introducing local clustering in large-scale networks leads to the emergence of various patterns of persistent local activity in an ongoing network activity. Thus, our results may bridge a gap between anatomical structure and persistent activity observed during working memory and other cognitive processes.

  6. Role of cortical feedback in regulating inhibitory microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowbridge, Ben W

    2009-07-01

    The olfactory bulb contains an impressive array of specialized inhibitory local circuits. The most frequent inhibitory microcircuit in this brain region is the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapse formed between the lateral dendrites of mitral cells and distal dendritic spines of GABAergic granule cells. Recent work discussed in this review suggests that release of GABA from granule cell spines may reflect near-coincident activation of both mitral cell-to-granule cell synapses and proximal excitatory synapses on granule cells that originate from pyramidal cells in piriform cortex. Recent work using two-photon guided microstimulation demonstrated that proximal and distal excitatory synapses onto granule cells exhibit different forms of short-term plasticity, with feedback inputs from piriform cortex facilitating when tested with brief ( approximately 50 ms) interstimulus intervals. One consequence of this synaptic plasticity is that short duration, gamma-frequency, oscillatory discharges in piriform cortical cells evoke summating excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in granule cells that effectively trigger action potentials. Piriform cortex stimulation can gate dendrodendritic inhibition onto mitral cells, presumably through the ability of EPSP-driven action potentials in granule cells to temporarily relieve the tonic blockade of NMDA receptors by extracellular Mg(2+) ions. Feedback projections in other CNS systems also may target inhibitory neurons, such as the backprojection from CA3 pyramidal neurons to GABAergic hilar interneurons. The ability of downstream processing areas to rapidly and selectively activate inhibitory interneurons in other brain regions may provide an important mechanism to dynamically modulate biological information processing.

  7. Resistance blow-up effect in micro-circuit engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michael L. P.; Saxena, Tanuj; Arora, Vijay K.

    2010-12-01

    The nonlinearity in the I- V characteristics of a scaled-down micro/nano-scale resistive channel is shown to elevate the DC and signal resistance as current approaches its saturation value. The deviation from traditional circuit engineering takes place when the applied voltage is increased beyond the critical voltage V c = ( V t/ ℓ) L, where V t is the thermal voltage, ℓ is the ohmic mean free path, and L is the length of the conducting channel. This resistance blow-up is more pronounced for a smaller-length resistor in a micro-circuit of two resistors with same ohmic value. The power consumed P = VI not only is lower but also is a linear function of voltage V as compared to the quadratic rise with V in the ohmic regime. The resistance blow-up effect also gives enhanced RC time constant for transients when a digital signal switches from low to high or vice versa. These results are of immense value to circuit designers and those doing device characterization to extract parasitic and transport parameters.

  8. Accurate Identification of Cancerlectins through Hybrid Machine Learning Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieru Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancerlectins are cancer-related proteins that function as lectins. They have been identified through computational identification techniques, but these techniques have sometimes failed to identify proteins because of sequence diversity among the cancerlectins. Advanced machine learning identification methods, such as support vector machine and basic sequence features (n-gram, have also been used to identify cancerlectins. In this study, various protein fingerprint features and advanced classifiers, including ensemble learning techniques, were utilized to identify this group of proteins. We improved the prediction accuracy of the original feature extraction methods and classification algorithms by more than 10% on average. Our work provides a basis for the computational identification of cancerlectins and reveals the power of hybrid machine learning techniques in computational proteomics.

  9. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  10. Laser-Hybrid welding, an innovative technology to join automotive body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Manuel; Brunnecker, Frank

    The design of Tail lamps has been changed dramatically since cars built. At modern lamps, the lenses are absolutely transparent and allow a direct view onto the weld seam. Conventional welding technologies, such as vibration and hot plate welding cannot compete with this demand. Focused on this targeted application, LPKF Laser & Electronics AG has developed in cooperation with the Bavarian Laser Centre a unique Laser welding technology called hybrid welding.

  11. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.; Barradas, A.M.C.; Boer, de J.; Moroni, L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Habibovic, P.

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP), ele

  12. Design and Construction Transceiver Module Using Polymer PLC Hybrid Integration Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jerabek, Vitezslav; Huttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Vaclav; Busek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper were presented first steps, which guide to the design and construction of a VHGT attached WDM triplex transceiver module TRx using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology. We report on the results measuring of the optical attenuation of the

  13. Pressurisation of IP-SOFC technology for second generation hybrid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.

    2005-07-01

    The Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) technology developed by Rolls-Royce plc is a hybrid fuel cell technology considered highly suitable for the distributed power generation market. This report presents the results of a project to examine the technical viability of the IP-SOFC technology and some of the associated hybrid system component technologies under pressurised conditions and to investigate the validity of the predicted pressurisation phenomena. The work included: identification of critical material specifications, construction processes, control parameters, etc; the design and commissioning of two pressurised IP-SOFC test rigs at Rolls Royce in Derby; testing two multi-bundle strips at high temperature and atmospheric pressure; testing an active IP-SOFC bundle at high temperature and pressure; testing an experimental steam reforming unit at high temperature and pressure; testing a novel low pressure drop, off-gas combustor concept under atmospheric and pressurised conditions; design studies to identify key parameters affecting the successful integration and packaging of the fuel cell stack with certain associated hybrid components; and designing a hybrid system experimental verification rig. Significant progress was made in addressing the development challenges associated with the IP-SOFC of leakage, performance, durability, yield and geometry, the reaction rate of steam reforming and emissions from the off-gas combustor. Recommendations for future work are made.

  14. Modelling a technology push by using hybrid franchising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriks, Jan; Pennink, Bartjan; Simaputang, T.; Siswanto, J.

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a technology push to stimulate entrepreneurship in remote areas in developing countries can be examined in the context of a franchising model (social or commercial franchising). The results of this study (fieldwork in Kalimantan, Indonesia) point to a high feasibility of introducing a te

  15. Hybrid rice technology for food security in the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Long-ping

    2004-01-01

    @@ The current world population is over 6 billion and will reach 8 billion in 2030. Meanwhile, the annual loss of land to other use is 10 to 35 million ha, with half of this lost land coming from cropland.Facing such severe situation of population growth pressure plus cropland reduction, it is obvious that the only way to solve food shortage problem is to greatly enhance the yield level of food crops per unit land area through advance of science and technology.

  16. Hybrid-integrated coherent receiver using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoi; Choe, Joong-Seon; Choi, Kwang-Seong; Youn, Chun-Ju; Kim, Duk-Jun; Jang, Sun-Hyok; Kwon, Yong-Hwan; Nam, Eun-Soo

    2011-12-01

    A hybrid-integrated coherent receiver module has been achieved using flip-chip bonding technology, consisting of a silica-based 90°-hybrid planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform, a spot-size converter integrated waveguide photodiode (SSC-WG-PD), and a dual-channel transimpedance amplifier (TIA). The receiver module shows error-free operation up to 40Gb/s and OSNR sensitivity of 11.5 dB for BER = 10-3 at 25 Gb/s.

  17. Neural Dynamics and Information Representation in Microcircuits of Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro eTsubo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to analyze and respond to external events that can change rapidly from time to time, suggesting that information processing by the brain may be essentially dynamic rather than static. The dynamical features of neural computation are of significant importance in motor cortex that governs the process of movement generation and learning. In this paper, we discuss these features based primarily on our recent findings on neural dynamics and information coding in the microcircuit of rat motor cortex. In fact, cortical neurons show a variety of dynamical behavior from rhythmic activity in various frequency bands to highly irregular spike firing. Of particular interest are the similarity and dissimilarity of the neuronal response properties in different layers of motor cortex. By conducting electrophysiological recordings in slice preparation, we report the phase response curves of neurons in different cortical layers to demonstrate their layer-dependent synchronization properties. We then study how motor cortex recruits task-related neurons in different layers for voluntary arm movements by simultaneous juxtacellular and multiunit recordings from behaving rats. The results suggest an interesting difference in the spectrum of functional activity between the superficial and deep layers. Furthermore, the task-related activities recorded from various layers exhibited power law distributions of inter-spike intervals (ISIs, in contrast to a general belief that ISIs obey Poisson or Gamma distributions in cortical neurons. We present a theoretical argument that this power law of in vivo neurons may represent the maximization of the entropy of firing rate with limited energy consumption of spike generation. Though further studies are required to fully clarify the functional implications of this coding principle, it may shed new light on information representations by neurons and circuits in motor cortex.

  18. Morphological evidence for local microcircuits in rat vestibular maculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that intramacular, unmyelinated segments of vestibular afferent nerve fibers and their large afferent endings (calyces) on type I hair cells branch. Many of the branches (processes) contain vesicles and are presynaptic to type II hair cells, other processes, intramacular nerve fibers, and calyces. This study used serial section transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction methods to document the origins and distributions of presynaptic processes of afferents in the medial part of the adult rat utricular macula. The ultrastructural research focused on presynaptic processes whose origin and termination could be observed in a single micrograph. Results showed that calyces had 1) vesiculated, spine-like processes that invaginated type I cells and 2) other, elongate processes that ended on type II cells pre- as well as postsynaptically. Intramacular, unmyelinated segments of afferent nerve fibers gave origin to branches that were presynaptic to type II cells, calyces, calyceal processes, and other nerve fibers in the macula. Synapses with type II cells occurred opposite subsynaptic cisternae (C synapses); all other synapses were asymmetric. Vesicles were pleomorphic but were differentially distributed according to process origin. Small, clear-centered vesicles, approximately 40-60 nm in diameter, predominated in processes originating from afferent nerve fibers and basal parts of calyces. Larger vesicles approximately 70-120 nm in diameter having approximately 40-80 nm electron-opaque cores were dominant in processes originating from the necks of calyces. Results are interpreted to indicate the existence of a complex system of intrinsic feedforward (postsynaptic)-feedback (presynaptic) connections in a network of direct and local microcircuits. The morphological findings support the concept that maculae dynamically preprocess linear acceleratory information before its transmission to the central nervous system.

  19. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  1. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-27

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  2. Plant diseases in landrace varieties and hybrid maize cultivated using different technology levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vinicius de Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Local soil and climate conditions as well as management techniques used in maize cropping affect disease development. In the present study, the incidence and severity of diseases were evaluated in four maize genotypes cultured in three management systems with different technology levels. We tested two landrace varieties from the North of Minas Gerais state, one double-cross hybrid and 1 singlecross hybrid. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block in lays (four varieties and three management systems and three repetitions. Disease incidence was determined by calculating the percentage of plants with symptoms, and its severity was assessed using a scale diagram to categorize symptom levels from 0 to 5. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by mean contrasts using the Scott-Knott test at a significance level of 0.05. In conclusion, cropping system affects the incidence and severity of southern rust, which is increased by high technology systems. Landrace varieties Argentino and BR da Várzea and double-cross hybrid SHS 4080 have higher resistance to southern rust than single-cross hybrid IAC 8333.

  3. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  4. Magneto switch microcircuit and wind speed measurement’s sensor on its base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimov F. D.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The magneto switch microcircuit on the base of Hall-effect is developed. The electric scheme of the magneto sensitive IC was designed and its basic technical characteristics are described. The gauge of wind speed on its base is fabricated.

  5. Performance of astronomical beam combiner prototypes fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Askari; Leite, A M P; Alexandre, D; Reynaud, F; Marques, P V S; Garcia, P J V; Moreira, P J

    2010-04-26

    Integrated optics coaxial two, three and four telescope beam combiners have been fabricated by hybrid sol-gel technology for astronomical applications. Temporal and spectral analyses of the output interferometric signal have been performed, and their results are in mutual good agreement. The results of the characterization method employed are cross-checked using contrast measurements obtained independently, demonstrating that the chromatic differential dispersion is the main contributer to contrast reduction. The mean visibility of the fabricated devices is always higher than 95 %, obtained using a source with spectral bandwidth of 50 nm. These results show the capability of hybrid sol-gel technology for fast prototyping of complex chip designs used in astronomical applications.

  6. Comparison of hybridization-based and sequencing-based gene expression technologies on biological replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepko Connie L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput systems for gene expression profiling have been developed and have matured rapidly through the past decade. Broadly, these can be divided into two categories: hybridization-based and sequencing-based approaches. With data from different technologies being accumulated, concerns and challenges are raised about the level of agreement across technologies. As part of an ongoing large-scale cross-platform data comparison framework, we report here a comparison based on identical samples between one-dye DNA microarray platforms and MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing. Results The DNA microarray platforms generally provided highly correlated data, while moderate correlations between microarrays and MPSS were obtained. Disagreements between the two types of technologies can be attributed to limitations inherent to both technologies. The variation found between pooled biological replicates underlines the importance of exercising caution in identification of differential expression, especially for the purposes of biomarker discovery. Conclusion Based on different principles, hybridization-based and sequencing-based technologies should be considered complementary to each other, rather than competitive alternatives for measuring gene expression, and currently, both are important tools for transcriptome profiling.

  7. Hybrid reprocessing technology of fluoride volatility and solvent extraction. New reprocessing technology, FLUOREX, for LWR fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Fumio [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction (FLUOREX) has been objected to develop a low cost reprocessing technology for collection of U and MOX (mixture U and Pu) in LWR fuel cycle. Outline, characteristics, technologies, problems and material balance of FLUOREX are explained. LWR spent fuel consists of about 96% U, 1% Pu and about 3% fission products (FP) and minor actinides (MA). FLUOREX method is hybrid system, which isolates about 90% U at high speed and refines by fluoride volatility process and residue about 10% U, Pu, MA and FP are processed by PUREX method after dissolution in acid. The special features are low cost by small type and lightweight, stable without gas Pu and stop of fluorine gas, reducing load of environment, resistance of nuclear proliferation, application of technologies demonstrated and flexible method for fast reactor. Three problems for development are selective fluoridation of U, transportation of oxides in the fluoride residue and dissolution of transported oxides. The preliminary examination of plan showed 800GWD/t processing volume, 200 day/year operation day, about 51 ten-thousand cubic meter volume of plant, about 1/3 Rokkasho reprocessing plant. (S.Y.)

  8. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  9. U.S. EPA honors San Francisco Bay Area firm Hybrid Coating Technologies with Green Chemistry Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Hybrid Coating Technologies of Daly City, Calif. with a Presidential Green Chemistry Award for developing a safer, plant-based polyurethane for use on floors, furniture and in

  10. Hybrid electric vehicles and electrochemical storage systems — a technology push-pull couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Günter

    In the advance of fuel cell electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) can contribute to reduced emissions and energy consumption of personal cars as a short term solution. Trade-offs reveal better emission control for series hybrid vehicles, while parallel hybrid vehicles with different drive trains may significantly reduce fuel consumption as well. At present, costs and marketing considerations favor parallel hybrid vehicles making use of small, high power batteries. With ultra high power density cells in development, exceeding 1 kW/kg, high power batteries can be provided by adapting a technology closely related to consumer cell production. Energy consumption and emissions may benefit from regenerative braking and smoothing of the internal combustion engine (ICE) response as well, with limited additional battery weight. High power supercapacitors may assist the achievement of this goal. Problems to be solved in practice comprise battery management to assure equilibration of individual cell state-of-charge for long battery life without maintenance, and efficient strategies for low energy consumption.

  11. Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) ceramic design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This ceramic component design manual was an element of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP). The ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the ceramic automotive gas turbine engine as a primary power plant. Of the several technologies requiring development before such an engine could become a commercial reality, structural ceramic components represented the greatest technical challenge, and was the prime focus of the program. HVTE-TS, which was created to support the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program, continued the efforts begun in ATTAP to develop ceramic components for an automotive gas turbine engine. In HVTE-TS, the program focus was extended to make this technology applicable to the automotive gas turbine engines that form the basis of hybrid automotive propulsion systems consisting of combined batteries, electric drives, and on-board power generators as well as a primary power source. The purpose of the ceramic design manual is to document the process by which ceramic components are designed, analyzed, fabricated, assembled, and tested in a gas turbine engine. Interaction with ceramic component vendors is also emphasized. The main elements of the ceramic design manual are: an overview of design methodology; design process for the AGT-5 ceramic gasifier turbine rotor; and references. Some reference also is made to the design of turbine static structure components to show methods of attaching static hot section ceramic components to supporting metallic structures.

  12. Development of a hybrid scaffold with synthetic biomaterials and hydrogel using solid freeform fabrication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Min; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Young, E-mail: dwcho@postech.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Natural biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, gelatin and collagen provide excellent environments for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, gel-state natural biomaterials are advantageous for encapsulating cells and growth factors. In cell printing technology, hydrogel which contains cells was printed directly to form three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue or organ regeneration using various types of printers. However, maintaining the 3D shape of the printed structure, which is made only of the hydrogel, is very difficult due to its weak mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a hybrid scaffold consisting of synthetic biomaterials and natural hydrogel using a multi-head deposition system, which is useful in solid freeform fabrication technology. The hydrogel was intentionally infused into the space between the lines of a synthetic biomaterial-based scaffold. The cellular efficacy of the hybrid scaffold was validated using rat primary hepatocytes and a mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, the collagen hydrogel, which encapsulates cells, was dispensed and the viability of the cells observed. We demonstrated superior effects of the hybrid scaffold on cell adhesion and proliferation and showed the high viability of dispensed cells.

  13. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-07-26

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  14. An evaluation of the hybrid car technology for the Mexico Mega City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; Reynoso, Agustin Garcia; Grutter, Michel; Delgado, Javier; Ayala, Ulises Diego; Lastra, Manuel Suarez; Zuk, Miriam; Oropeza, Rogelio Gonzalez; Lents, Jim; Davis, Nicole

    The introduction of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology in the private car fleet of Mexico City is evaluated in terms of private costs, energy, public health and CO 2 emission benefits. In addition to constructing plausible scenarios for urban expansion, emission, car fleet, and fuel consumption for year 2026 and comparing them with a 2004 base case, a time series is built to obtain accumulated economic benefits. Experimental techniques were used to build a vehicle library for a car simulator that included a Prius 2002, chosen as the HEV technology representative for this work. The simulator is used to estimate the emissions and fuel consumption of the car fleet scenarios. In the context of an urban scenario for year 2026, a complex air quality model obtains the concentrations of criterion pollutants corresponding to these scenarios. Using a technology penetration model, the hybridized fleet starts unfolding in year 2009 reaching to 20% in 2026. In this year, the hybridized fleet resulted in reductions of about 10% of CO 2 emissions, and yielded reductions in daytime mean concentrations of up to 7% in ozone and 3.4% in PM 2.5 compared to the 2004 base case. These reductions are concentrated in the densely populated areas of Mexico City. By building a time series of costs and benefits it is shown that, depending on fuel prices and using a 5% return rate, positive accumulated benefits (CO 2 benefits + energy benefits + public health benefits - private costs) will start generating in year 2015 reaching between 2.8 and 4.5 billion US Dlls in 2026. Another modernized private fleet consisting exclusively of Tier I and II cars did not yield appreciable results, signaling that a change in private car technology towards HEV's is needed to obtain significant accumulated benefits.

  15. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  16. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...... developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012...

  17. Advancing Plug-In Hybrid Technology and Flex Fuel Application on a Chrysler Minivan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Abdullah [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Barnhart, Steven [Chrysler Group LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed this DOE funding as a historic opportunity to begin the process of achieving required economies of scale on technologies for electric vehicles. The funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies to future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components, and common modules, as well as first-responder training and battery recycling. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also used this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original project proposal was submitted in December 2009 and selected in January 2010. The project ended in December 2014.

  18. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.I.; Bakopoulos, P.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can...... the potential that all-optical technology can find application in future data-centric networks with efficient and dynamic bandwidth utilization. This paper also reports on the latest photonic integration breakthroughs as a potential migration path for reducing fabrication cost by developing photonic systems...

  19. Hybrid Placemaking in the Library: Designing Digital Technology to Enhance Users' On-Site Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandzic, Mark; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research findings and design strategies that illustrate how digital technology can be applied as a tool for "hybrid" placemaking in ways that would not be possible in purely digital or physical spaces. Digital technology has revolutionised the way people learn and gather new information. This trend has challenged the…

  20. Propagation of Homeostatic Sleep Signals by Segregated Synaptic Microcircuits of the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Divya; Aso, Yoshinori; Jin, Xin; Chen, Nan; Felix, Mario; Rubin, Gerald M; Nitabach, Michael N

    2015-11-16

    The Drosophila mushroom body (MB) is a key associative memory center that has also been implicated in the control of sleep. However, the identity of MB neurons underlying homeostatic sleep regulation, as well as the types of sleep signals generated by specific classes of MB neurons, has remained poorly understood. We recently identified two MB output neuron (MBON) classes whose axons convey sleep control signals from the MB to converge in the same downstream target region: a cholinergic sleep-promoting MBON class and a glutamatergic wake-promoting MBON class. Here, we deploy a combination of neurogenetic, behavioral, and physiological approaches to identify and mechanistically dissect sleep-controlling circuits of the MB. Our studies reveal the existence of two segregated excitatory synaptic microcircuits that propagate homeostatic sleep information from different populations of intrinsic MB "Kenyon cells" (KCs) to specific sleep-regulating MBONs: sleep-promoting KCs increase sleep by preferentially activating the cholinergic MBONs, while wake-promoting KCs decrease sleep by preferentially activating the glutamatergic MBONs. Importantly, activity of the sleep-promoting MB microcircuit is increased by sleep deprivation and is necessary for homeostatic rebound sleep (i.e., the increased sleep that occurs after, and in compensation for, sleep lost during deprivation). These studies reveal for the first time specific functional connections between subsets of KCs and particular MBONs and establish the identity of synaptic microcircuits underlying transmission of homeostatic sleep signals in the MB.

  1. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cetiner, M. Sacit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, T. Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. Lou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors—the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers— is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, James Gerald [ORNL

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  3. Evaluation of condition and technological performance of hybrid bester reared in standard and aquaponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Dediu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bester sturgeon is considered a hybrid (cross between beluga Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758female and sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 male with great potential for intensiveaquaculture technology due to its quality caviar and meat production. Apart from Russia, firstpromising experiments on sturgeon culture have been carried out in several European countries(Germany, Hungary, France and Japan as well as the U.S.A. Yet, in the field of bester sturgeonnutrition many authors consider that further investigation is desirable. In this context, the presentexperiment has as main goal the evaluation of bester capability for nutrients utilization and feedconversion under different feeding rates and environmental conditions. The trails were conducted in anexperimental recirculating system and an aquaponic system in different development stages. For bothexperiments “Troco supreme” fodder with 46% protein content was used. The feeding efficiency wasassessed through technological indicators. The fish condition (allometric factor and growthperformance was assessed for both rearing systems: standard RAS and aquaponic RAS.

  4. ASICs in nanometer and 3D technologies for readout of hybrid pixel detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Piotr; Grybos, Pawel; Kmon, Piotr; Szczygiel, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors working in a single photon counting mode are very attractive solutions for material science and medical X-ray imaging applications. Readout electronics of these detectors has to match the geometry of pixel detectors with an area of readout channel of 100 μm × 100 μm (or even less) and very small power consumption (a few tens of μW). New solutions of readout ASICs are going into directions of better spatial resolutions, higher data throughput and more advanced functionality. We report on the design and measurement results of two pixel prototype ASICs in nanometer technology and 3D technology which offer fast signal processing, low noise performance and advanced functionality per single readout pixel cell.

  5. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  6. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  7. Suspensions Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Hybrid Water-Stabilized Plasma Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Radek; Medricky, Jan; Tesar, Tomas; Kotlan, Jiri; Pala, Zdenek; Lukac, Frantisek; Chraska, Tomas; Curry, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Technology of water-stabilized plasma torch was recently substantially updated through introduction of a so-called hybrid concept that combines benefits of water stabilization and gas stabilization principles. The high-enthalpy plasma provided by the WSP-H ("hybrid") torch may be used for thermal spraying of powders as well as liquid feedstocks with high feed rates. In this study, results from three selected experiments with suspension plasma spraying with WSP-H technology are presented. Possibility of deposition of coatings with controlled microstructures was demonstrated for three different ceramics (YSZ—yttria-stabilized zirconia, YAG—yttrium aluminum garnet and Al2O3) introduced into ethanol-based suspensions. Shadowgraphy was used for optimization of suspension injection and visualization of the liquid fragmentation in the plasma jet. Coatings were deposited onto substrates attached to the rotating carousel with integrated temperature monitoring and air cooling, which provided an excellent reproducibility of the deposition process. Deposition of columnar-like YSZ and dense YAG and Al2O3 coatings was successfully achieved. Deposition efficiency reached more than 50%, as evaluated according to EN ISO 17 836 standard.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  9. Fuel cycle analysis based evaluation of the fuel and emissions reduction potential of adapting the hybrid technology to tricycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biona, J.B.M. [Don Bosco Technical College, Mandaluyong City (Philippines); De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Culaba, A.B. [De La Salle University, Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research, Manila (Philippines); Purvis, M.R.I. [University of Portsmouth, Department of Mechanical Design and Engineering, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    A preliminary analysis has been conducted to investigate the fuel use and emissions reduction potential of incorporating hybrid systems to two stroke powered tricycles in Metro Manila. Carbureted and direct injection two stroke engine hybrid systems were investigated and compared with the impact of shifting to four stroke engines. Results showed that hybridized direct injection retrofitted two stroke powered systems would be able to provide far better environmental and fuel reduction benefits than the shift to new four strokes tricycles. It is thus recommended that the development of such technology specifically for tricycles be seriously pursued. (orig.)

  10. Developing hybrid near-space technologies for affordable access to suborbital space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badders, Brian David

    High power rockets and high altitude balloons are two near-space technologies that could be combined in order to provide access to the mesosphere and, eventually, suborbital space. This "rockoon" technology has been used by several large budget space programs before being abandoned in favor of even more expensive, albeit more accurate, ground launch systems. With the increased development of nano-satellites and atmospheric sensors, combined with rising interest in global atmospheric data, there is an increase in desire for affordable access to extreme altitudes that does not necessarily require the precision of ground launches. Development of hybrid near-space technologies for access to over 200k ft. on a small budget brings many challenges within engineering, systems integration, cost analysis, market analysis, and business planning. This research includes the design and simulation testing of all the systems needed for a safe and reusable launch system, the cost analysis for initial production, the development of a business plan, and the development of a marketing plan. This project has both engineering and scientific significance in that it can prove the space readiness of new technologies, raise their technology readiness levels (TRLs), expedite the development process, and also provide new data to the scientific community. It also has the ability to stimulate university involvement in the aerospace industry and help to inspire the next generation of workers in the space sector. Previous development of high altitude balloon/high power rocket hybrid systems have been undertaken by government funded military programs or large aerospace corporations with varying degrees of success. However, there has yet to be a successful flight with this type of system which provides access to the upper mesosphere in a university setting. This project will aim to design and analyze a viable system while testing the engineering process under challenging budgetary constraints. The

  11. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground gasification enables them to

  12. Nano-electromechanical switch-CMOS hybrid technology and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B H; Hwang, H J; Cho, C H; Lim, S K; Lee, S Y; Hwang, H

    2011-01-01

    Si-based CMOS technology is facing a serious challenge in terms of power consumption and variability. The increasing costs associated with physical scaling have motivated a search for alternative approaches. Hybridization of nano-electromechanical (NEM)-switch and Si-based CMOS devices has shown a theoretical feasibility for power management, but a huge technical gap must be bridged before a nanoscale NEM switch can be realized due to insufficient material development and the limited understanding of its reliability characteristics. These authors propose the use of a multilayer graphene as a nanoscale cantilever material for a nanoscale NEM switchwith dimensions comparable to those of the state-of-the-art Si-based CMOS devices. The optimal thickness for the multilayer graphene (about five layers) is suggested based on an analytical model. Multilayer graphene can provide the highest Young's modulus among the known electrode materials and a yielding strength that allows more than 15% bending. Further research on material screening and device integration is needed, however, to realize the promises of the hybridization of NEM-switch and Si-based CMOS devices.

  13. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  14. An Experimental Study of Laboratory Hybrid Power System with the Hydrogen Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minarik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents very small laboratory hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen power system. The system was primarily assembled to verify the operability of the control algorithms and practical deployment of available commercial hydrogen technologies that are directly usable for storage of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in a small island system. This energetic system was installed and tested in Laboratory of fuel cells that is located in the university campus of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. The energetic system consists of several basic components: a photovoltaic field, accumulators bank, water commercial electrolyzer and compact fuel cell system. The weather conditions recorded in two different weeks as model weather and solar conditions are used as case studies to test the energetic system and the results for two different cases are compared each other. The results show and illustrate selected behaviour curves of the power system and also average energy storage efficiency for accumulation subsystem based on hydrogen technologies or at the energetic system embedded components. On the basis of real measurement and its evaluation the ideal parameters of the photovoltaic field were calculated as well as the hydrogen technologies for supposed purpose and the power requirements.

  15. Parameters Matching and Control Method of Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles with Secondary Regulation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui; JIANG Jihai; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV) with secondary regulation technology has the potential of improving fuel economy by operating the engine in the optimum efficiency range and making use of regenerative braking. Hydrostatic transmission technology has the advantage of higher power density and the ability to accept the high rates and high frequencies of charging and discharging, both of which are not favorable for batteries, but the lower energy density requires special power matching design and control strategy to coordinate all the powertrain components in an optimal manner. A multi-objective optimization method is proposed to distinguish the components size values of HHV by considering the requirements of driving cycles and technology aspects. The regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy based on the optimized HHV is proposed to recovery the braking energy and distribute the regenerated braking energy. Simulation results show that by taking the optimized configuration of HHV, adopting the regenerative braking strategy and energy control strategy are helpful to improve the system efficiency and fuel economy of HHV under urban driving cycles.

  16. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  17. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  18. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  19. Design of Pass Band Filter in Hybrid Architecture Planar/Non-Radiative Dielectric Waveguide Integration Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizi Hanen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The expansion of RF, microwave and millimeter devices has revolutionized today’s ommunication and sensor systems. Low-cost, high-performance and mass producible millimeter wave technologies are vital for commercial broadband systems. Challenging issues are commonly faced in the design of low-loss integrated circuits for example high-Q band pass filter, which the planar technique is fundamentally limited in performance. Approach: In this study, we present a design of a nonradiative dielectric waveguide band pass filter based on hybrid architecture of micro strip line and non-radiative dielectric waveguide. Results: The simulation with High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS three dimensional analyses is presented. Conclusion: The non radiative dielectric resolves most of the drawbacks of dielectric waveguide in connection with the radiation loss."

  20. Hybrid Cleaning Technology for Enhanced Post-Cu/Low-Dielectric Constant Chemical Mechanical Planarization Cleaning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Manivannan; Cho, Byoung-Jun; Kwon, Tae-Young; Park, Jin-Goo

    2013-05-01

    During chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a copper/low-k surface is often contaminated by abrasive particles, organic materials and other additives. These contaminants need to be removed in the subsequent cleaning process with minimum material loss. In this study, a dilute amine-based alkaline cleaning solution is used along with physical force in the form of megasonic energy to remove particles and organic contaminants. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) are used as an organic base and complexing agent, respectively, in the proposed solution. Ethanolamine acts as a corrosion inhibitor in the solution. Organic residue removal was confirmed through contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Electrochemical studies showed that the proposed solution increases protection against corrosion, and that the hybrid cleaning technology resulted in higher particle removal efficiency from both the copper and low-k surfaces.

  1. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy.

  2. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  3. The contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the functional evaluation of microcircuits in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Ziemann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) activates a number of different neuron types in the cortex, the final output elicited in corticospinal neurones is surprisingly stereotyped. A single TMS pulse evokes a series of descending corticospinal volleys that are separated from each other by about 1.5 ms (i.e., ~670 Hz). This evoked descending corticospinal activity can be directly recorded by an epidural electrode placed over the high cervical cord. The earliest wave is thought to originate from the direct activation of the axons of fast-conducting pyramidal tract neurones (PTN) and is therefore termed "D" wave. The later waves are thought to originate from indirect, trans-synaptic activation of PTNs and are termed "I" waves. The anatomical and computational characteristics of a canonical microcircuit model of cerebral cortex composed of layer II and III and layer V excitatory pyramidal cells, inhibitory interneurons, and cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical inputs can account for the main characteristics of the corticospinal activity evoked by TMS including its regular and rhythmic nature, the stimulus intensity-dependence and its pharmacological modulation. In this review we summarize present knowledge of the physiological basis of the effects of TMS of the human motor cortex describing possible interactions between TMS and simple canonical microcircuits of neocortex. According to the canonical model, a TMS pulse induces strong depolarization of the excitatory cells in the superficial layers of the circuit. This leads to highly synchronized recruitment of clusters of excitatory neurons, including layer V PTNs, and of inhibitory interneurons producing a high frequency (~670 Hz) repetitive discharge of the corticospinal axons. The role of the inhibitory circuits is crucial to entrain the firing of the excitatory networks to produce a high-frequency discharge and to control the number and magnitude of evoked excitatory discharge in layer V PTNs. In summary

  4. Technological and Physical Compatibilities in Hybrid Integration of Laser and Monolithic Integration of Waveguide, Photodetector and CMOS Circuits on Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.J.; Ikkink, T.; Chalmers, J.; Kranenburg, H. van; Albers, H.; Holleman, J.; Lambeck, P.V.; Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  5. Technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of laser and monolithic integration of waveguide, photodetector and CMOS circuits on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Ikkink, Ton; Chalmers, John; Kranenburg, van Herma; Albers, Hans; Holleman, Jisk; Lambeck, Paul; Joppe, Jan Leendert; Bekman, Herman; Krijger, de Ton; Lambeck, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  6. Obtaining raised density connections by thermosonic microwelding in 3D integrated microcircuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanin V. L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the processes of obtaining raised density microwelded connections in 3D-integrated microcircuits by the thermosonic microwelding. The processes include the use of the raised frequencies of ultrasound, application of the microinstrument with a thinning of the working end and precision devices for ball formation, which provide reproducibility of connections quality. At a small step of contact pads, the use of a wire of small diameter (not more than 25 µm is necessary for devices with a multilevel arrangement of leads and chess arrangement of contact pads on the chip, providing the maximum length of the formed crosspieces does not exceed 4—5 mm.

  7. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and construction of a VHGT-attached WDM-type triplex transceiver module using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerábek, Vitezslav; Hüttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Václav; Busek, K.; Seliger, P.

    2008-11-01

    We report about design and construction of the bidirectional transceiver TRx module for subscriber part of the passive optical network PON for a fiber to the home FTTH topology. The TRx module consists of a epoxy novolak resin polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology with volume holographic grating triplex filter VHGT, surface-illuminated photodetectors and spot-size converted Fabry-Pérot laser diode in SMD package. The hybrid PLC has composed from a two parts-polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section. The both parts are placed on the composite substrate.

  9. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  10. IEA implementing agreement for hybrid and electric vehicle technologies and programmes, Annex VII hybrid vehicles : Topic 13, assessment of the energy consumption of hybrid trucks using ADVISOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, J.; Winkel, R.G.; Geraets, R.; Verbakel, M.J.L.

    2002-01-01

    This topic report focuses on the possible benefits of the application of a hybrid powertrain in heavy-duty vehicles. The main objective is to assess whether a significant reduction in fuel consumption is feasible. An average Dutch distribution truck with a conventional driveline will be compared to

  11. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Inst. for Energy Technology, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    recently assisted INL in establishing the technical infrastructure for implementation of HSI prototypes from HAMMLAB into the HSSL to demonstrate relevant control room replacement systems in support of the LWRS program. In March, 2014, IFE delivered the first HSI prototype utilizing this infrastructure — a large screen overview display for INL's simulator. The co-operation now continues by developing Procedure Support Displays targeted for operators in hybrid control room settings. These prototypes are being validated with U.S. reactor operators in the HSSL and optimized to enhance their performance. This research serves as a crucial stepping stone toward incorporation of advanced display technologies into conventional main control rooms.

  12. Modeling the Cerebellar Microcircuit: New Strategies for a Long-Standing Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Egidio; Antonietti, Alberto; Casali, Stefano; Casellato, Claudia; Garrido, Jesus A.; Luque, Niceto Rafael; Mapelli, Lisa; Masoli, Stefano; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Prestori, Francesca; Rizza, Martina Francesca; Ros, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellar microcircuit has been the work bench for theoretical and computational modeling since the beginning of neuroscientific research. The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry could control motor learning and coordination. Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering the geometrical organization of local microcircuits. However, with the advancement in anatomical and physiological investigations, new discoveries have revealed an unexpected richness of connections, neuronal dynamics and plasticity, calling for a change in modeling strategies, so as to include the multitude of elementary aspects of the network into an integrated and easily updatable computational framework. Recently, biophysically accurate “realistic” models using a bottom-up strategy accounted for both detailed connectivity and neuronal non-linear membrane dynamics. In this perspective review, we will consider the state of the art and discuss how these initial efforts could be further improved. Moreover, we will consider how embodied neurorobotic models including spiking cerebellar networks could help explaining the role and interplay of distributed forms of plasticity. We envisage that realistic modeling, combined with closed-loop simulations, will help to capture the essence of cerebellar computations and could eventually be applied to neurological diseases and neurorobotic control systems. PMID:27458345

  13. Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Klefenz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform.

  14. Simulated human patients and patient-centredness: The uncanny hybridity of nursing education, technology, and learning to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Aileen V

    2017-01-01

    Positioned within a hybrid of the human and technology, professional nursing practice has always occupied a space that is more than human. In nursing education, technology is central in providing tools with which practice knowledge is mobilized so that students can safely engage with simulated human patients without causing harm to real people. However, while there is an increased emphasis on deploying these simulated humans as emissaries from person-centred care to demonstrate what it is like to care for real humans, the nature of what is really going on in simulation-what is real and what is simulated-is very rarely discussed and poorly understood. This paper explores how elements of postcolonial critical thought can aid in understanding the challenges of educating nurses to provide person-centred care within a healthcare culture that is increasingly reliant on technology. Because nursing education is itself a hybrid of real and simulated practice, it provides an appropriate case study to explore the philosophical question of technology in healthcare discourse, particularly as it relates to the relationship between the human patient and its uncanny simulated double. Drawing on postcolonial elements such as the uncanny, diaspora, hybridity, and créolité, the hybrid conditions of nursing education are examined in order to open up new possibilities of thinking about how learning to care is entangled with this technological space to assist in shaping professional knowledge of person-centred care. Considering these issues through a postcolonial lens opens up questions about the nature of the difficulty in using simulated human technologies in clinical education, particularly with the paradoxical aim of providing person-centred care within a climate that increasingly characterized as posthuman. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    Spin defects in wide-band gap semiconductors are promising systems for the realization of quantum bits, or qubits, in solid-state environments. To date, defect qubits have only been realized in materials with strong covalent bonds. Here, we introduce a strain-driven scheme to rationally design defect spins in functional ionic crystals, which may operate as potential qubits. In particular, using a combination of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations based on hybrid density functional and many-body perturbation theory, we predicted that the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in piezoelectric aluminum nitride exhibits spin-triplet ground states under realistic uni- and bi-axial strain conditions; such states may be harnessed for the realization of qubits. The strain-driven strategy adopted here can be readily extended to a wide range of point defects in other wide-band gap semiconductors, paving the way to controlling the spin properties of defects in ionic systems for potential spintronic technologies.

  16. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Spin defects in wide-band gap semiconductors are promising systems for the realization of quantum bits, or qubits, in solid-state environments. To date, defect qubits have only been realized in materials with strong covalent bonds. Here, we introduce a strain-driven scheme to rationally design defect spins in functional ionic crystals, which may operate as potential qubits. In particular, using a combination of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations based on hybrid density functional and many-body perturbation theory, we predicted that the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in piezoelectric aluminum nitride exhibits spin-triplet ground states under realistic uni- and bi-axial strain conditions; such states may be harnessed for the realization of qubits. The strain-driven strategy adopted here can be readily extended to a wide range of point defects in other wide-band gap semiconductors, paving the way to controlling the spin properties of defects in ionic systems for potential spintronic technologies.

  17. Reactive dye house wastewater treatment. Use of hybrid technology: Membrane, sonication followed by wet oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India)

    1999-05-01

    To address problems associated with treatment of an aqueous waste stream from a reactive dye house, a model dye, turquoise blue CI25, was studied. A hybrid technology, membrane separation followed by sonication and wet oxidation, has been demonstrated to treat the wastewater for reuse and discharge. Experiments were first performed with the reactive dye solution in water. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) was found to be suitable to concentrate the dye. The concentrate was then treated with a wet oxidation process. Kinetics studies were performed with and without catalyst, in the temperature range of 170--215 C. The color destruction achieved was > 99%. After process parameters were fixed, studies were conducted with the actual dye waste stream. The actual waste stream was found to be refractory for wet oxidation under the above conditions. Sonication of the concentrate obtained after membrane filtration, in the presence of CuSO{sub 4}, made the waste stream amenable to wet oxidation. Sonication followed by wet oxidation was found to be more effective at near neutral conditions as compared to basic conditions.

  18. Final report on the Blisk- and Composite-Hybrid Technology project. Final report; Schlussbericht zum Blisk- und Composite-Hybrid-Technologie Vorhaben. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, U.; Schoth, U.

    2000-04-01

    Blade Integrated Disks (BLISK) have been developed and tested in Rolls-Royce GmbH as part of the German government funded aviation technology program 'Engine 3E' (Environment, Economy and Efficiency). Blisk technology offers up to 30% weight saving potential for compressor rotors. Using modern manufacturing strategies Blisks also offer the opportunity for cost savings of up to 10%. Part life cycle costs are not only manufacturing costs but include also maintenance and repair. Blisks can therefore only be introduced into civil engines if damage can be repaired economically. Therefore, weld repair of Blisks has been investigated during the program. Composite-Hybrid unison rings for variable stator vanes have been found to be another innovative technology for compressors of modern Aero engines. Composite-Hybrid Technology has been adopted for unison rings and demonstrated in rig tests. The weight and cost reductions have been demonstrated. Both technologies have been demonstrated successfully in a core demonstrator. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Luftfahrtforschungs- und -technologieprogramms 'Engine 3E' (Environment, Economy and Efficiency) der Bundesregierung wurde bei der Rolls Royce Deutschland GmbH auf dem Gebiet der Verdichterbauweisen die Technologie zur Auslegung und Herstellung integraler Schaufel-Scheiben (BLade Integrated DiSK - BLISK-) entwickelt und getestet. Diese Technologie bietet das Potential, das Gewicht der Scheiben um bis zu 30% zu reduzieren. Unter Einsatz moderner Fertigungsstrategien bieten integrale Schaufel-Scheiben in ausgewaehlten Einsatzbereichen zusaetzlich Potential fuer bis zu 10% Kostenreduktion. Bei der Betrachtung der Kosten muessen neben den Herstellungskosten auch die gesamten waehrend des Einsatzes des Triebwerkes entstehenden Kosten beruecksichtigt werden. Die Blisktechnologie kann deshalb nur erfolgreich in zivilen Triebwerken eingesetzt werden, wenn Schaeden oekonomisch repariert werden koennen. Als weiterer

  19. First prototypes of hybrid potassium-ion capacitor (KIC): An innovative, cost-effective energy storage technology for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comte, Annaïg; Reynier, Yvan; Vincens, Christophe; Leys, Côme; Azaïs, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid supercapacitors, combining capacitive carbon-based positive electrode with a Li-ion battery-type negative electrode have been developed in the pursuit of increasing the energy density of conventional supercapacitor without impacting the power density. However, lithium-ion capacitors yet hardly meet the specifications of automotive sector. Herein we report for the first time the development of new hybrid potassium-ion capacitor (KIC) technology. Compared to lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) all strategic materials (lithium and copper) have been replaced. Excellent electrochemical performance have been achieved at a pouch cell scale, with cyclability superior to 55 000 cycles at high charge/discharge regime. For the same cell scale, the energy density is doubled compared to conventional supercapacitor up to high power regime (>1.5 kW kg-1). Finally, the technology was successfully scaled up to 18650 format leading to very promising prospects for transportation applications.

  20. Hybrid location determination technology within urban and indoor environment based on Cell-ID and path loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; LEI Jian-jun; XIA Ying; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    The location determination technology based on simple delay evaluations or GPS is not accurate enough or even impossible in urban and indoor environments due to the multi-path propagation. To enhance the location accuracy and reduce the operation cost within these environments, this paper proposes a novel hybrid location determination technology which combines CELL-ID with the database correlation method. The proposed method generate the prediction database of path loss according to CELL-ID, and after the computation the smallest squared error of measured path loss and the prediction path loss,the location of the mobile terminal is decided by the coordinates of the best matching matrix entry.

  1. Dense, unspecific connectivity of neocortical parvalbumin-positive interneurons: a canonical microcircuit for inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Adam M; Yuste, Rafael

    2011-09-14

    GABAergic interneurons play a major role in the function of the mammalian neocortex, but their circuit connectivity is still poorly understood. We used two-photon RuBi-Glutamate uncaging to optically map how the largest population of cortical interneurons, the parvalbumin-positive cells (PV+), are connected to pyramidal cells (PCs) in mouse neocortex. We found locally dense connectivity from PV+ interneurons onto PCs across cortical areas and layers. In many experiments, all nearby PV+ cells were connected to every local PC sampled. In agreement with this, we found no evidence for connection specificity, as PV+ interneurons contacted PC pairs similarly regardless of whether they were synaptically connected or not. We conclude that the microcircuit architecture for PV+ interneurons, and probably neocortical inhibition in general, is an unspecific, densely homogenous matrix covering all nearby pyramidal cells.

  2. Acute stress enhances the glutamatergic transmission onto basoamygdala neurons embedded in distinct microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Tian, Xiao-Li; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2017-01-09

    Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively. The results showed that in the control mice, both the excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs/sIPSCs) were comparable between these two subsets of BA PNs. The influences of AIS on sEPSCs and sIPSCs were overall similar between the two neuronal populations. It markedly increased the sEPSCs amplitude but left unaltered their frequency as well as the sIPSCs amplitude and frequency. Despite this, several differences emerged between the effects of AIS on the distribution of sEPSCs/sIPSCs frequency in these two groups of BA PNs. Similar changes were also observed in the sEPSCs/sIPSCs of the two PN populations from mice experiencing forced swimming stress. Their intrinsic excitability, on the other hand, was nearly unaltered following AIS. Our results thus suggest that acute stress recruit both BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs mainly through enhancing the glutamatergic transmission they receive.

  3. Encoding and retrieval in a model of the hippocampal CA1 microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Cobb, Stuart; Graham, Bruce P

    2010-03-01

    It has been proposed that the hippocampal theta rhythm (4-7 Hz) can contribute to memory formation by separating encoding (storage) and retrieval of memories into different functional half-cycles (Hasselmo et al. (2002) Neural Comput 14:793-817). We investigate, via computer simulations, the biophysical mechanisms by which storage and recall of spatio-temporal input patterns are achieved by the CA1 microcircuitry. A model of the CA1 microcircuit is presented that uses biophysical representations of the major cell types, including pyramidal (P) cells and four types of inhibitory interneurons: basket (B) cells, axo-axonic (AA) cells, bistratified (BS) cells and oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. Inputs to the network come from the entorhinal cortex (EC), the CA3 Schaffer collaterals and medial septum. The EC input provides the sensory information, whereas all other inputs provide context and timing information. Septal input provides timing information for phasing storage and recall. Storage is accomplished via a local STDP mediated hetero-association of the EC input pattern and the incoming CA3 input pattern on the CA1 pyramidal cell target synapses. The model simulates the timing of firing of different hippocampal cell types relative to the theta rhythm in anesthetized animals and proposes experimentally confirmed functional roles for the different classes of inhibitory interneurons in the storage and recall cycles (Klausberger et al., (2003, 2004) Nature 421:844-848, Nat Neurosci 7:41-47). Measures of recall performance of new and previously stored input patterns in the presence or absence of various inhibitory interneurons are employed to quantitatively test the performance of our model. Finally, the mean recall quality of the CA1 microcircuit is tested as the number of stored patterns is increased.

  4. Functionally graded scaffolds for the engineering of interface tissues using hybrid twin screw extrusion/electrospinning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat

    Tissue engineering is the application of the principles of engineering and life sciences for the development of biological alternatives for improvement or regeneration of native tissues. Native tissues are complex structures with functions and properties changing spatially and temporally, and engineering of such structures requires functionally graded scaffolds with composition and properties changing systematically along various directions. Utilization of a new hybrid technology integrating the controlled feeding, compounding, dispersion, deaeration, and pressurization capabilities of extrusion process with electrospinning allows incorporation of liquids and solid particles/nanoparticles into polymeric fibers/nanofibers for fabrication of functionally graded non-woven meshes to be used as scaffolds in engineering of tissues. The capabilities of the hybrid technology were demonstrated with a series of scaffold fabrication and cell culturing studies along with characterization of biomechanical properties. In the first study, the hybrid technology was employed to generate concentration gradations of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles in a polycaprolactone (PCL) binder, between two surfaces of nanofibrous scaffolds. These scaffolds were seeded with pre-osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) to attempt to engineer cartilage-bone interface, and after four weeks, the tissue constructs revealed formation of continuous gradations in extracellular matrix akin to cartilage-bone interface in terms of distributions of mineral concentrations and biomechanical properties. In a second demonstration of the hybrid technology, graded differentiation of stem cells was attempted by using insulin, a known stimulator of chondrogenic differentiation, and beta-glycerol phosphate (beta-GP), for mineralization. Concentrations of insulin and beta-GP in PCL were controlled to monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, along the length of scaffolds, which were then seeded

  5. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  6. Interplay of dendritic non-linearities and network size mediate persistent activity in a PFC microcircuit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Papoutsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ways in which neurons are embedded in a network to support various computations determines the functional output of the cortex. Recently, a number of in vivo studies have shown that dendritic integration in pyramidal neurons shapes neuronal function (Smith et al., 2013; Longordo et al., 2013 and that clusters of few reciprocally connected neurons are co-activated during behavioral tasks (Ko et al., 2011, 2013; Morishima et al., 2011. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC, such microcircuits are linked to persistent activity (prolonged spiking activity that exceeds stimulus presentation, which is the cellular correlate of working memory (Papoutsi et al., 2013. However, the effect of dendritic integration on the functional output of such small microcircuits has remained unexplored. In this work, we investigate the contribution of nonlinear dendritic properties to the induction and coding of upcoming state transitions in PFC microcircuits. Towards this goal we used a heavily constrained biophysical model of a layer 5 PFC microcircuit consisting of 7 pyramidal neurons and 2 interneurons implemented in the NEURON simulation environment. All neuron models are biophysically detailed but morphologically simplified and validated regarding their intrinsic, synaptic and connectivity properties (Papoutsi et al., 2013. Our results show that the non-linear integration of synaptic inputs at the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons, mediated by the induction of NMDA spikes, is imperative for the emergence of the persistent state in the microcircuit: if synaptic drive is sufficient to induce NMDA spikes, the minimum network size required for persistent activity induction can be reduced down to 2 cells. In addition, slow synaptic mechanisms, such as the NMDA and GABAB currents, determine the ability of a given stimulus to induce persistent firing in the microcircuit model. On the other hand, the necessity for NMDA spikes disappears when persistent activity depends on

  7. Spacecraft Thermal Management using Advanced Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    HYBRID TWO-PHASE LOOPS The schematic of the Hybrid Two-Phase Loop (HTPL) used for a thermal testing is shown in Figure 3. Main components for the...hybrid two-phase loop with single evaporator. The thermal test starts first by turning on the liquid pump to circulate liquid along the loop. Once the...Vapor Out Evaporator Body (E1) Evaporator Body (E2) Total Heat Input Heat Input (E1) Heat Input (E2) Thermal Resistance (E1) FIGURE 10. Thermal test results

  8. Synthesis of a hybrid model of the VSC FACTS devices and HVDC technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Yu S.; Gusev, A. S.; Sulaymanov, A. O.; Ufa, R. A.

    2014-10-01

    The motivation of the presented research is based on the need for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of FACTS devices and HVDC systems as part of real electric power systems (EPS). The Research object: An alternative hybrid approach for synthesizing VSC-FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is proposed. The results: the VSC- FACTS and -HVDC hybrid model is designed in accordance with the presented concepts of hybrid simulation. The developed model allows us to carry out adequate simulation in real time of all the processes in HVDC, FACTS devices and EPS as a whole without any decomposition and limitation on their duration, and also use the developed tool for effective solution of a design, operational and research tasks of EPS containing such devices.

  9. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Program Automatic In-Process Microcircuit Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    illumination system consists of an illuminati on controlle r , three illumination power- supplies , and three illuminator housings . The illumination... illuminati on level. - - The main power (115 V , 60 Hz) for the power-supplies is derived from the power distribu- tion panel. There are two switches In the

  10. Design guidelines for advanced LSI microcircuit packaging using thick film multilayer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckinpaugh, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic multilayer circuitry results from the sequential build-up of two or more layers of pre-determined conductive interconnections separated by dielectric layers and fired at an elevated temperature to form a solidly fused structure. The resultant ceramic interconnect matrix is used as a base to mount active and passive devices and provide the necessary electrical interconnection to accomplish the desired electrical circuit. Many methods are known for developing multilevel conductor mechanisms such as multilayer printed circuits, welded wire matrices, flexible copper tape conductors, and thin and thick-film ceramic multilayers. Each method can be considered as a specialized field with each possessing its own particular set of benefits and problems. This design guide restricts itself to the art of design, fabrication and assembly of ceramic multilayer circuitry and the reliability of the end product.

  11. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-06-01

    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  12. A Power Smoothing Control Strategy and Optimized Allocation of Battery Capacity Based on Hybrid Storage Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power parallel operation is an effective way to realize the large scale use of wind power, but the fluctuations of power output from wind power units may have great influence on power quality, hence a new method of power smoothing and capacity optimized allocation based on hybrid energy storage technology is proposed in terms of the uncontrollable and unexpected characteristics of wind speed in wind farms. First, power smoothing based on a traditional Inertial Filter is introduced and the relationship between the time constant, its smoothing effect and capacity allocation are analyzed and combined with Proportional Integral Differential (PID control to realize power smoothing control of wind power. Then wavelet theory is adopted to realize a multi-layer decomposition of power output in some wind farms, a power smoothing model based on hybrid energy storage technology is constructed combining the characteristics of the Super Capacitor (SC and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS technologies. The hybrid energy storage system is available for power fluctuations with high frequency-low energy and low frequency-high energy to achieve good smoothing effects compared with a single energy storage system. The power fluctuations filtered by the Wavelet Transform is regarded as the target value of BESS, the charging and discharging control for battery is completed quickly by Model Algorithm Control (MAC. Because of the influence of the inertia and the response speed of the battery, its actual output is not completely equal to the target value which mainly reflects in high-frequency part, the difference part uses SC to compensate and makes the output of battery and SC closer to the target value on the whole. Compared with the traditional Inertial Filter and PID control method, the validity of the model was verified by simulation results. Finally under the premise of power grid standards, the corresponding capacity design had been given to reduce the

  13. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  14. The impact of array genomic hybridization on mental retardation research: a review of current technologies and their clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, F; Friedman, J M

    2007-10-01

    Our understanding of the causes of mental retardation is benefiting greatly from whole-genome scans to detect submicroscopic pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) that are undetectable by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The current method of choice for performing whole-genome scans for CNVs is array genomic hybridization (AGH). Several platforms are available for AGH, each with its own strengths and limitations. This review discusses considerations that are relevant to the clinical use of whole-genome AGH platforms for the diagnosis of pathogenic CNVs in children with mental retardation. Whole-genome AGH studies are a maturing technology, but their high diagnostic utility assures their increasing use in clinical genetics.

  15. Fabrication of Nonsintered Alumina-Resin Hybrid Films by Inkjet-Printing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hun Woo; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Hyo-tae; Yoon, Youngjoon; Lee, Sung-nam; Hwang, Haejin; Kim, Jonghee

    2010-07-01

    We used the inkjet printing to fabricate alumina-resin hybrid films without a high temperature sintering process. Single- and co-solvent ink systems showing different evaporation behaviors were formulated in order to understand their impacts on the inkjet-printing of the alumina dots, lines, and films. The packing densities of the inkjet-printed alumina films from both ink systems were around 60% which is higher than the value obtained by other conventional methods. Since the high temperature sintering process was avoided, the polymer-resin was infiltrated through the inkjet-printed alumina films by the same inkjet printing as a binder. The microstructures of these hybrid films were investigated in order to confirm if the microvoids in the films were filled with the resin. The dielectric properties of these hybrid films such as relative permittivity and Q-value were measured in order to assess if these hybrid materials is applicable to three-dimensional (3D) system integration as ceramic package substrates.

  16. HYBRID SNCR-SCR TECHNOLOGIES FOR NOX CONTROL: MODELING AND EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid process of homogeneous gas-phase selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) followed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated through experimentation and modeling. Measurements, using NO-doped flue gas from a gas-fired 29 kW test combu...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  18. Eco green flexible hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric solar cells with nanoimprint technology and roll-to-roll manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Choi, Sang H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores the technical and commercial feasibility of nanotechnology based, high-efficiency, photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid solar cells as an environmentally-friendly, renewable energy source for residential and commercial buildings. To convert as much as possible of the usable photovoltaic (58% of the Energy Density) and thermoelectric (42% of the Energy Density) solar spectrum into electricity, a hybrid multilayer system is presented which comprises of 1) carbon nanotube (CNT) embedded in conducting polymers such as P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene) or P3OT (poly3-octylthiophene), 2) 3D gold nanostructures exhibiting plasmonic resonances for energy conversion, 3) nanoantenna architecture to capture IR energy, 4) a composite of Bi2Te3, SiGe nanocrystals and Au nanoshells as thermoelectric energy conversion layer, 5) configuration of the above items engineered in the form of meta-material designs that by virtue of their 3D structures ensure that incident light is neither reflected nor transmitted, but is rather all absorbed, 6) a multilayer arrangement of the above layers in a fractal architecture to capture all the wavelengths from 200 to 3000 nm8 and the matching electronic interface for each layer. The roll-to-roll manufacturing method presented will enable economical large-scale production of solar panels. This potentially transformational technology has the ability to replace the Si solar cell technology by reducing costs from 0.18/KWh to 0.003/KWh while introducing a more environmentally-friendly manufacturing process.

  19. Hybrid-fusion SPECT/CT systems in parathyroid adenoma: Technological improvements and added clinical diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K K; Chondrogiannis, S; Bowles, H; Fuster, D; Sánchez, N; Rampin, L; Rubello, D

    Nuclear medicine traditionally employs planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques to depict the biodistribution of radiotracers for the diagnostic investigation of a range of disorders of endocrine gland function. The usefulness of combining functional information with anatomy derived from computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and high resolution ultrasound (US), has long been appreciated, either using visual side-by-side correlation, or software-based co-registration. The emergence of hybrid SPECT/CT camera technology now allows the simultaneous acquisition of combined multi-modality imaging, with seamless fusion of 3D volume datasets. Thus, it is not surprising that there is growing literature describing the many advantages that contemporary SPECT/CT technology brings to radionuclide investigation of endocrine disorders, showing potential advantages for the pre-operative locating of the parathyroid adenoma using a minimally invasive surgical approach, especially in the presence of ectopic glands and in multiglandular disease. In conclusion, hybrid SPECT/CT imaging has become an essential tool to ensure the most accurate diagnostic in the management of patients with hyperparathyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Nogo Receptor 1 Confines a Disinhibitory Microcircuit to the Critical Period in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Ikrar, Taruna; Nguyen, Collins; Xu, Xiangmin; McGee, Aaron W

    2016-10-26

    A characteristic of the developing mammalian visual system is a brief interval of plasticity, termed the "critical period," when the circuitry of primary visual cortex is most sensitive to perturbation of visual experience. Depriving one eye of vision (monocular deprivation [MD]) during the critical period alters ocular dominance (OD) by shifting the responsiveness of neurons in visual cortex to favor the nondeprived eye. A disinhibitory microcircuit involving parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons initiates this OD plasticity. The gene encoding the neuronal nogo-66-receptor 1 (ngr1/rtn4r) is required to close the critical period. Here we combined mouse genetics, electrophysiology, and circuit mapping with laser-scanning photostimulation to investigate whether disinhibition is confined to the critical period by ngr1 We demonstrate that ngr1 mutant mice retain plasticity characteristic of the critical period as adults, and that ngr1 operates within PV interneurons to restrict the loss of intracortical excitatory synaptic input following MD in adult mice, and this disinhibition induces a "lower PV network configuration" in both critical-period wild-type mice and adult ngr1(-/-) mice. We propose that ngr1 limits disinhibition to close the critical period for OD plasticity and that a decrease in PV expression levels reports the diminished recent cumulative activity of these interneurons.

  1. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  2. Automatic microcircuit formation based on gold-coated SU-8 microrods via dielectrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yu-Kun; Tao Ye; Hou Li-Kai; Jiang Hong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the application of the characteristics of metallic microparticles,alternating current electric trapping of the SU-8 microrods coated with a thin gold layer by the chemical approach is investigated.Positive dielectrophoresis is used to absorb the gold-coated SU-8 microrods at the edge of the parallel electrodes,thereby forming chains to connect the electrodes.This is a fast automatic microcircuit formation process.Moreover,a non-charged molecule is modified on the surface of the gold-coated SU-8 microrod,and the modified microrods are controlled by the alternating electric field to form a number of chains.The different chains between the parallel electrodes consist of various parallel circuits.In order to compare these chains with different electric surfaces,the impedances of the metallic and modified microrods are measured and compared,and the results show that the gold-coated microrods act as pure resistors,while the microrods functionalized by a non-charged molecule behave as good capacitors.

  3. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-08-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  4. Evaluation of a hybrid ion exchange-catalyst treatment technology for nitrate removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Allison M; Choe, Jong Kwon; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Ion exchange (IX) is the most common approach to treating nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources, but the cost of salt to make regeneration brine, as well as the cost and environmental burden of waste brine disposal, are major disadvantages. A hybrid ion exchange-catalyst treatment system, in which waste brine is catalytically treated for reuse, shows promise for reducing costs and environmental burdens of the conventional IX system. An IX model with separate treatment and regeneration cycles was developed, and ion selectivity coefficients for each cycle were separately calibrated by fitting experimental data. Of note, selectivity coefficients for the regeneration cycle required fitting the second treatment cycle after incomplete resin regeneration. The calibrated and validated model was used to simulate many cycles of treatment and regeneration using the hybrid system. Simulated waste brines and a real brine obtained from a California utility were also evaluated for catalytic nitrate treatment in a packed-bed, flow-through column with 0.5 wt%Pd-0.05 wt%In/activated carbon support (PdIn/AC). Consistent nitrate removal and no apparent catalyst deactivation were observed over 23 d (synthetic brine) and 45 d (real waste brine) of continuous-flow treatment. Ion exchange and catalyst results were used to evaluate treatment of 1 billion gallons of nitrate-contaminated source water at a 0.5 MGD water treatment plant. Switching from a conventional IX system with a two bed volume regeneration to a hybrid system with the same regeneration length and sequencing batch catalytic reactor treatment would save 76% in salt cost. The results suggest the hybrid system has the potential to address the disadvantages of a conventional IX treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Method of reliability tolerance design based on EDA technology and its application on DC hybrid contactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-juan; SHA You-tao; ZHANG Hui; ZHAI Guo-fu

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance design, including tolerance analysis and distribution, is an important part of the electronic system's reliability design. The traditional design needs to construct mathematic model of material circuit, which involves large amount of workload and lacks of practicability. This paper discusses the basic theory of electronic system's reliability tolerance design and presents a new design method based on EDA (Electronic Design Automatic) software. This method has been validated through the application research on reliability tolerance design of the DC hybrid contactor's control circuit.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid Cycle Technology for Auxiliary Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Larosiliere, Louis M.

    2005-01-01

    A notional 440 kW auxiliary power unit has been developed for 300 passenger commercial transport aircraft in 2015AD. A hybrid engine using solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and a gas turbine bottoming cycle has been considered. Steady-state performance analysis during cruise operation has been presented. Trades between performance efficiency and system mass were conducted with system specific energy as the discriminator. Fuel cell performance was examined with an area specific resistance. The ratio of fuel cell versus turbine power was explored through variable fuel utilization. Area specific resistance, fuel utilization, and mission length had interacting effects upon system specific energy. During cruise operation, the simple cycle fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid was not able to outperform current turbine-driven generators for system specific energy, despite a significant improvement in system efficiency. This was due in part to the increased mass of the hybrid engine, and the increased water flow required for on-board fuel reformation. Two planar, anode-supported cell design concepts were considered. Designs that seek to minimize the metallic interconnect layer mass were seen to have a large effect upon the system mass estimates.

  7. A hybrid MCDM framework combined with DEMATEL-based ANP to evaluate enterprise technological innovation capabilities assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jong Kuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficient evaluation of technological innovation capabilities of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This paper aims to assess and to rank technological innovation evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. A framework is proposed and uses a novel hybrid multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM model to address the dependence relationships of criteria with the aid of the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, analytical network process (ANP and VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje. The study reports that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences technological innovation capabilities; furthermore, this ranking development of technological innovation capabilities assessment is also one of key management tools for managements of other related high- tech enterprises. Managers can then judge the need to improve and determine which criteria provide the most effective direction towards improvement.

  8. Renewable rural electrification. Sustainability assessment of mini-hybrid off-grid technological systems in the African context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Alan Colin [Resource Based Sustainable Development, Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Rogers, David E. [Energy and Processes, Material Science and Manufacturing, CSIR, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-01-15

    The investigation summarised in this paper applied a sustainability assessment methodology on a renewable energy technological system in a rural village project that was commissioned by the South African Department of Minerals and Energy. The project comprised of wind, solar and lead-acid battery energy storage technologies that were implemented as a mini-hybrid off-grid electrification system for the village. The sustainability assessment methodology predicts the outcomes of such interventions by way of a learning model using discipline experts in the fields of economics, sociology, ecosystem sustainability, institutional governance, and the physics and chemistry of energy conversion processes. The comparison of the project's outcomes with a South African sustainable development framework shows that the specific village renewable off-grid electrification system is not viable. The main reason is that charges for electricity supply costs in village grids are too high for available subsidies; the economies of scale for renewable energy supply technologies favour national grids. The failure of the integrated system may also be attributable to the complexity of the social-institutional sub-system, which resulted in uncertainty for project planners and system designers, and the lack of resilience of the technological system to demands from the socio-economic and institutional sub-systems. Policy-related recommendations are made accordingly. (author)

  9. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  10. Hybrid Spaces and Hyphenated Musicians: Secondary Students' Musical Engagement in a Songwriting and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study investigates how secondary students (three individuals and three groups) engaged with music and acted as musicians in a Songwriting and Technology Class (STC), a course involving the creation, performance, recording and production of original music with instruments and music technology. The following research question guided the…

  11. Integration of photovoltaic and concentrated solar thermal technologies for H2 production by the hybrid sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Ferrara, Mariarosaria; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-06-01

    It is widely agreed that hydrogen used as energy carrier and/or storage media may significantly contribute in the reduction of emissions, especially if produced by renewable energy sources. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle is considered as one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen through the water-splitting process. The FP7 project SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) investigates innovative material and process solutions for the use of solar heat and power in the HyS process. A significant part of the SOL2HY2 project is devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar and chemical (hydrogen production) plants. In this context, this work investigates the possibility to integrate different solar technologies, namely photovoltaic, solar central receiver and solar troughs, to optimize their use in the HyS cycle for a green hydrogen production, both in the open and closed process configurations. The analysis carried out accounts for different combinations of geographical location and plant sizing criteria. The use of a sulfur burner, which can serve both as thermal backup and SO2 source for the open cycle, is also considered.

  12. U.S. Army Hybrid Propulsion System R&D Overview ATA/Technology & Maintenance Council 2011 Fall Meeting, Hybrid Powertrain Task Force Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    Mode Two Engine Drive Train Architecture – Hybrid powertrain systems – Sonex Controlled Auto Ignition (SCAI) – PHEV drivetrains , control algorithms...130 • Diesel-electric (ProPulse®) powered, Series hybrid drivetrain • 20% improvement in fuel economy (mpg) • Exports 1 OOI<w of military grade NC

  13. Estimation of the Probability of Radiation Failures and Single Particle Upsets of Integrated Microcircuits onboard the Fobos-Grunt Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2005-05-01

    When designing the radio-electronic equipment for long-term operation in a space environment, one of the most important problems is a correct estimation of radiation stability of its electric and radio components (ERC) against radiation-stimulated doze failures and one-particle effects (upsets). These problems are solved in this paper for the integrated microcircuits (IMC) of various types that are to be installed onboard the Fobos-Grunt spacecraft designed at the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Lavochkin Research and Production Association.” The launching of this spacecraft is planned for 2009.

  14. The Potential of a Clinch-Lock Polymer Metal Hybrid Technology for Use in Load-Bearing Automotive Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Sellappan, V.; Arakere, G.; Seyr, Norbert; Obieglo, Andreas; Erdmann, Marc; Holzleitner, Jochen

    2009-10-01

    In order to help meet the needs of automotive original equipment manufacturers and their suppliers for a cost-effective, robust, reliable polymer-metal-hybrid (PMH) technology which can be used for the manufacturing of load-bearing body-in-white (BIW) components and which is compatible with the current BIW manufacturing process chain, a new approach, the so-called direct-adhesion PMH technology, was recently proposed (Grujicic et al., J. Mater. Process. Technol., 2008, 195, p 282-298). Within this approach, the necessary level of polymer-to-metal mechanical interconnectivity is attained through direct adhesion and mechanical interlocking. In the present work, a new concept for mechanical interlocking between the metal and plastics is proposed and analyzed computationally. The approach utilizes some of the ideas used in the spot-clinching joining process and is appropriately named clinch-lock PMH technology. To assess the potential of the clinch-lock approach for providing the required level of metal/polymer mechanical interlocking, a set of finite-element based sheet-metal forming, injection molding and structural mechanics analyses was carried out. The results obtained show that stiffness and buckling resistance levels can be attained which are comparable with those observed in the competing injection overmolding PMH process but with an ~3% lower weight (of the polymer subcomponent) and without the need for holes and for overmolding of the free edges of the metal stamping.

  15. Using Hybrid Model to Evaluate Performance of Innovation and Technology Professionals in Marine Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of marine logistics industry to grow, the government and corporate more and more attach importance to the performance evaluation of innovation and technology professionals. Combine the characteristics of marine logistics industry and innovative technology professionals to design a performance evaluation index of marine logistics industry in innovation and technology professionals, with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the weights of the various performance indicatorsf and through the establishment of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to make the problems of complex performance evaluation quantification and then come to their performance evaluation results, and provide reference methods and recommendations for innovation and technology professionals in performance evaluation theory and practice of marine logistics industry.

  16. Overview of ERA Integrated Technology Demonstration (ITD) 51A Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) Integration for Hybrid Wing Body (HWB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; James, Kevin D.; Bonet, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft Project (ERA) was a ve year project broken into two phases. In phase II, high N+2 Technical Readiness Level demonstrations were grouped into Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITD). This paper describes the work done on ITD-51A: the Vehicle Systems Integration, Engine Airframe Integration Demonstration. Refinement of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft from the possible candidates developed in ERA Phase I was continued. Scaled powered, and unpowered wind- tunnel testing, with and without acoustics, in the NASA LARC 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel, the NASA ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the 40- by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) in conjunction with very closely coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to demonstrate the fuel burn and acoustic milestone targets of the ERA Project.

  17. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to

  18. Dopaminergic modulation of the striatal microcircuit: receptor-specific configuration of cell assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Hernández-López, Salvador; Tapia, Dagoberto; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2011-10-19

    Selection and inhibition of motor behaviors are related to the coordinated activity and compositional capabilities of striatal cell assemblies. Striatal network activity represents a main step in basal ganglia processing. The dopaminergic system differentially regulates distinct populations of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) through the activation of D(1)- or D(2)-type receptors. Although postsynaptic and presynaptic actions of these receptors are clearly different in MSNs during cell-focused studies, their activation during network activity has shown inconsistent responses. Therefore, using electrophysiological techniques, functional multicell calcium imaging, and neuronal population analysis in rat corticostriatal slices, we describe the effect of selective dopaminergic receptor activation in the striatal network by observing cell assembly configurations. At the microcircuit level, during striatal network activity, the selective activation of either D(1)- or D(2)-type receptors is reflected as overall increases in neuronal synchronization. However, graph theory techniques applied to the transitions between network states revealed receptor-specific configurations of striatal cell assemblies: D(1) receptor activation generated closed trajectories with high recurrence and few alternate routes favoring the selection of specific sequences, whereas D(2) receptor activation created trajectories with low recurrence and more alternate pathways while promoting diverse transitions among neuronal pools. At the single-cell level, the activation of dopaminergic receptors enhanced the negative-slope conductance region (NSCR) in D(1)-type-responsive cells, whereas in neurons expressing D(2)-type receptors, the NSCR was decreased. Consequently, receptor-specific network dynamics most probably result from the interplay of postsynaptic and presynaptic dopaminergic actions.

  19. Cortical microcircuit dynamics mediating Binocular Rivalry: The role of adaptation in inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota eTheodoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual bistability arises when two conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous stimulus or images in binocular rivalry (BR compete for perceptual dominance. From a computational point of view competition models based on cross-inhibition and adaptation have shown that noise is a crucial force for rivalry and operates in balance with adaptation in order to explain the observed alternations in perception. In particular, noise-driven transitions and adaptation-driven oscillations define two dynamical regimes and the system operates near its boundary. In order to gain insights into the microcircuit dynamics mediating spontaneous perceptual alternations we used a reduced recurrent attractor-based biophysically realistic spiking network well known for working memory, attention and decision-making, where a spike-frequency adaptation mechanism is implemented to account for perceptual bistability. We, thus, derived a consistently reduced four-variable population rate model using mean-field techniques and tested it on BR data collected from human subjects. Our model accounts for experimental data parameters such as time dominance, coefficient of variation and gamma distribution. In addition, we show that our model also operates on the boundary between noise and adaptation and agrees with Levelt’s second revised and fourth propositions. These results show for the first time that a consistent reduction of a biophysically realistic spiking network of integrate and fire neurons with spike frequency adaptation could account for BR. Moreover, we demonstrate that BR can be explained only through the dynamics of the competing neuronal pools, without taking into account the adaptation of inhibitory interneurons..However, adaptation of interneurons affects the optimal parametric space of the system, by decreasing the overall adaptation necessary for the bifurcation to occur.

  20. Hybrid Technology, the best of both worlds. The Toyota case; La Tecnologia hibrida, lo mejor de los mundos. El caso de Toyota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijck, K. van

    2010-07-01

    Facing Global Warming, manufacturers are increasingly obliged to offer vehicles ever more efficient and respectful towards the environment in terms of consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Toyota in its search towards the ultimate eco-car opts today to develop the Hybrid Technology, by enhancing the performance in electric mode in the Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle. Indeed, the new battery technology ion-litio allows for an adequate autonomy in electric mode that responds to relevant part of the possible mobility needs, whilst offering a real alternative to the conventional vehicles, without requiring the user to compromise on any of his mobility expectations he is accustomed to. The Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle combines the best of both worlds. (Author)

  1. Pigs and profits: hybrids of animals, technology and humans in Danish industrialised farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Vaarst, Mette; Bubandt, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Farm animals live and die as part of a food production system rich in paradoxes. One central paradox of modern farming revolves around the classic anthropological opposition between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’. Inspired by Bruno Latour's diagnosis of the processes of purification and mediation...... that attend the separation between ‘nature’ and ‘culture’ in the modern constitution, we trace how this paradox plays itself out on Danish pig farms. The paper argues that, although they have to be consistently ignored, hybrids of various kinds are essential to the co-production of meat and profit...... on industrial, debt-ridden and highly effective farms in the Western world....

  2. Software Development Technologies for Reactive, Real-Time, and Hybrid Systems: Summary of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Zohar

    1998-01-01

    This research is directed towards the implementation of a comprehensive deductive-algorithmic environment (toolkit) for the development and verification of high assurance reactive systems, especially concurrent, real-time, and hybrid systems. For this, we have designed and implemented the STCP (Stanford Temporal Prover) verification system. Reactive systems have an ongoing interaction with their environment, and their computations are infinite sequences of states. A large number of systems can be seen as reactive systems, including hardware, concurrent programs, network protocols, and embedded systems. Temporal logic provides a convenient language for expressing properties of reactive systems. A temporal verification methodology provides procedures for proving that a given system satisfies a given temporal property. The research covered necessary theoretical foundations as well as implementation and application issues.

  3. Integrated optical frequency shifter in silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauermann, M; Weimann, C; Knopf, A; Heni, W; Palmer, R; Koeber, S; Elder, D L; Bogaerts, W; Leuthold, J; Dalton, L R; Rembe, C; Freude, W; Koos, C

    2016-05-30

    We demonstrate for the first time a waveguide-based frequency shifter on the silicon photonic platform using single-sideband modulation. The device is based on silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) electro-optic modulators, which combine conventional silicon-on-insulator waveguides with highly efficient electro-optic cladding materials. Using small-signal modulation, we demonstrate frequency shifts of up to 10 GHz. We further show large-signal modulation with optimized waveforms, enabling a conversion efficiency of -5.8 dB while suppressing spurious side-modes by more than 23 dB. In contrast to conventional acousto-optic frequency shifters, our devices lend themselves to large-scale integration on silicon substrates, while enabling frequency shifts that are several orders of magnitude larger than those demonstrated with all-silicon serrodyne devices.

  4. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  5. 30.1 8b thin-film microprocessor using a hybrid oxide-organic complementary technology with inkjet-printed P2ROM memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Smout, S.; Rockelé, M.; Bhoolokam, A.; Ke, T.H.; Steudel, S.; Obata, K.; Marinkovic, M.; Pham, D.V.; Hoppe, A.; Gulati, A.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Cobb, B.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an 8b general-purpose microprocessor realized in a hybrid oxide-organic complementary thin-film technology. The n-type transistors are based on a solution-processed n-type metal-oxide semiconductor, and the p-type transistors use an organic semiconductor. As compared to previous work util

  6. 30.1 8b thin-film microprocessor using a hybrid oxide-organic complementary technology with inkjet-printed P2ROM memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Smout, S.; Rockelé, M.; Bhoolokam, A.; Ke, T.H.; Steudel, S.; Obata, K.; Marinkovic, M.; Pham, D.V.; Hoppe, A.; Gulati, A.; Rodriguez, F.G.; Cobb, B.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an 8b general-purpose microprocessor realized in a hybrid oxide-organic complementary thin-film technology. The n-type transistors are based on a solution-processed n-type metal-oxide semiconductor, and the p-type transistors use an organic semiconductor. As compared to previous work

  7. Hybrid tooling technologies and standardization for the manufacturing of inserts for micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Fillon, Bertrand; Azcarate, Sabino

    2007-01-01

    . A metrological approach was applied to standardize the employed tooling processes (micro milling, µEDM, laser micromachining, electrochemical µ-milling). The micro tools were then tested with different polymers (PP, PP + nano fillers, PC, COC). The paper provides a comparison of these technologies concerning...

  8. Hybrid tooling technologies and standardization for the manufacturing of inserts for micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Fillon, Bertrand; Azcarate, Sabino;

    2007-01-01

    . A metrological approach was applied to standardize the employed tooling processes (micro milling, µEDM, laser micromachining, electrochemical µ-milling). The micro tools were then tested with different polymers (PP, PP + nano fillers, PC, COC). The paper provides a comparison of these technologies concerning...

  9. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World—Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Patterson, William R.; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W.; Borton, David A.; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature’s amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic “brain-interfaces” within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper. PMID:21654935

  10. Visible Photodetectors Based on Organic-Inorganic Hybrids Using Electrostatic Spraying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an organic-inorganic hybrid white photodetector with the structure of ITO /AZO/ZnO NWs:P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT: PSS/Al produced with an electrostatic spraying method. The method of production was as follows: First, different spraying methods (continuous spraying, discontinuous spraying and different spraying times were tested before the final electrostatic spraying. Then, different annealing times (10 min and 20 min were tested to anneal the coated film. Lastly, we investigated the photoelectric properties, including transparency analysis of the film surface topography through XRD, OM, FE-SEM, AFM and UV-VIS. The results showed that the detector with discontinuous spraying and 20 mins annealing had a photocurrent of approx. 22.1×10-4A, dark current (drain current of approx. 1.94×10-7A, and a ratio of photocurrent to dark current of approximately 1.14×104, which produced optimal photoelectric characteristics.

  11. NASA's Involvement in Technology Development and Transfer: The Ohio Hybrid Bus Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government and industry cooperative is using advanced power technology in a city transit bus that will offer double the fuel economy, and reduce emissions to one tenth of government standards. The heart of the vehicle's power system is a natural gas fueled generator unit. Power from both the generator and an advanced energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. A unique aspect of the vehicle's design is its use of "super" capacitors for recovery of energy during braking. This is the largest vehicle ever built using this advanced energy recovery technology. This paper describes the project goals and approach, results of its system performance modeling, and the status of the development team's effort.

  12. A Hybrid Method of Analyzing Patents for Sustainable Technology Management in Humanoid Robot Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A humanoid, which refers to a robot that resembles a human body, imitates a human’s intelligence, behavior, sense, and interaction in order to provide various types of services to human beings. Humanoids have been studied and developed constantly in order to improve their performance. Humanoids were previously developed for simple repetitive or hard work that required significant human power. However, intelligent service robots have been developed actively these days to provide necessary information and enjoyment; these include robots manufactured for home, entertainment, and personal use. It has become generally known that artificial intelligence humanoid technology will significantly benefit civilization. On the other hand, Successful Research and Development (R & D on humanoids is possible only if they are developed in a proper direction in accordance with changes in markets and society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze changes in technology markets and society for developing sustainable Management of Technology (MOT strategies. In this study, patent data related to humanoids are analyzed by various data mining techniques, including topic modeling, cross-impact analysis, association rule mining, and social network analysis, to suggest sustainable strategies and methodologies for MOT.

  13. Banana Bark as A Part of Acoustic Design Unit by Hybrid Technology Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Dian Permanasari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Banana bark is one of tropical indigenous natural resources that can be used as main material for many products. Being a fast-growing renewable material, it is durable and has natural patterns that people find visually attractive. Naturally, its textures and patterns are its main values; therefore it has the potential to be developed further. This research is needed to optimize the growth of small craft industries of banana bark, including the community where production activities take place, and also to provide information or reference of banana bark utilizations. Previous experiments conclude that banana bark has porous structure, high flexibility, relatively water-resistant due to its natural wax coating that resists water droplets, unless being washed down immensely. Also, due to its softwood- and paper-like properties, ithas many possibilities to be formed and processed into various functional products, mostly as craft products. In the subsequent study, the research about the utilization of banana bark in small industries starting from the harvesting system, handling problems in raw material supply, applying proper technology in improving the material’s quality, improving the human-resource working culture by appropriate technologies, and also innovating the product’s designs. The recommended designs can be implemented to improve the performance and qualities of banana bark products.Keywords: applied technology; banana bark; renewable materials; design; sustainability.

  14. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  15. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  16. 传统轿车搭载混合动力系统整车技术%Entire Car Technology of Traditional Car with Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤

    2012-01-01

    结合混合动力车工作原理,从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面,详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.

  17. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  18. Phasing Variants in Poplar Trees using a Hybrid of Short & Long Read Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Lipzen, Anna; Pennacchio, Len; Tuskan, Gerald

    2013-03-26

    Poplar grow throughout the West coast & are adapted to extremely variable conditions. To examine what allows for this wide range of growth conditions, Jerry Tuskan's team has collected 1000 different individuals from British Columbia to California. In 2009, three Common Gardens were established where each individual was cloned in triplicate. Nearly all of these trees have been sequenced using short read technology, revealing a huge degree of variation in genotype. Correlating this genomic variation to phenotype would be greatly be strengthened if the variants could be phased into long haplotype blocks.

  19. 混合动力电动汽车混合制动技术分析%Hybrid Braking Technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞剑波; 何仁

    2013-01-01

    以提高混合动力电动汽车的制动安全性、稳定性和制动能量回收充分性为目标,介绍了混合制动系统的结构与工作原理,分析了混合制动系统的关键技术;指出目前混合制动系统的研究重点任务;探讨了混合制动技术的发展趋势.%In order to improve the safety of brake,stability and energy recovery of braking for hybrid electric vehicle,the structure and work principles of hybrid braking system are introduced.And the key techniques of hybrid braking system are also analyzed.Then the present key tasks of hybrid electric vehicle are pointed out.Finally,the future trend of hybrid braking system is discussed.

  20. Plug-in Hybrid Power Platform for Technology Development%插电式混合动力轿车动力平台技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩友国; 王若飞

    2015-01-01

    本文以某款PHEV轿车为研究对象,对混合动力平台进行开发研究,研究前桥混合动力驱动系统的集成及优化,对后桥电子驱动系统的设计及布置合理性进行分析讨论,并对整车安全性能进行研究分析,最终得出确定此混合动力平台技术可行。%Based on chery G3 PHEV cars as the research object, research on hybrid platform for development, research front axle hybrid drive system integration and optimization, the rear axle of electronic drive system design and arrangement of rationality analysis discussion, and through analyzing the performance of the vehicle safety, ultimately determine the hybrid platform technology is feasible.

  1. Design and application of a technologically explicit hybrid energy-economy policy model with micro and macro economic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Christopher G. F.

    2005-11-01

    Are further energy efficiency gains, or more recently greenhouse gas reductions, expensive or cheap? Analysts provide conflicting advice to policy makers based on divergent modelling perspectives, a 'top-down/bottom-up debate' in which economists use equation based models that equilibrate markets by maximizing consumer welfare, and technologists use technology simulation models that minimize the financial cost of providing energy services. This thesis summarizes a long term research project to find a middle ground between these two positions that is more useful to policy makers. Starting with the individual components of a behaviourally realistic and technologically explicit simulation model (ISTUM---Inter Sectoral Technology Use Model), or "hybrid", the individual sectors of the economy are linked using a framework of micro and macro economic feedbacks. These feedbacks are taken from the economic theory that informs the computable general equilibrium (CGE) family of models. Speaking in the languages of both economists and engineers, the resulting "physical" equilibrium model of Canada (CIMS---Canadian Integrated Modeling System), equilibrates energy and end-product markets, including imports and exports, for seven regions and 15 economic sectors, including primary industry, manufacturing, transportation, commerce, residences, governmental infrastructure and the energy supply sectors. Several different policy experiments demonstrate the value-added of the model and how its results compare to top-down and bottom-up practice. In general, the results show that technical adjustments make up about half the response to simulated energy policy, and macroeconomic demand adjustments the other half. Induced technical adjustments predominate with minor policies, while the importance of macroeconomic demand adjustment increases with the strength of the policy. Results are also shown for an experiment to derive estimates of future elasticity of substitution (ESUB) and

  2. HYBRID TEACHER TRAINING: THE CONSTRUCTION OF PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE AS ARTICULATOR AXIS FOR THE USE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present data related to the preparation, implementation, monitoring, development and evaluation of Articulator Axis: Inclusion and Special Education of hybrid Pedagogy UNIVESP/UNESP course. It is explained the theoretical, methodological and practical contributions that supported the organization of the discipline, designed with the premise to train teachers in order to provide analysis tools on the policies and practices of school inclusion of students of Special Education. As well as offering elements to teachers who attend the course for an analysis of practices and resources that can be used in the context of an inclusive school, through the promotion of school activities that develop the skills of all. The discipline was developed in five (5 blocks of 24 (twenty four hours per week, which were proposed activities and studies on the activities related to elementary and high school, aggregated to Specialized Educational Service and the use of Digital Information and Communication Technologies, according to the specific educational needs of students of Special Education and considering its importance within the policies of inclusion and its application in school contexts linked to the disciplines of didactic contents of the course.

  3. The hybrid doctor-patient relationship in the age of technology - Telepsychiatry consultations and the use of virtual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowlees, Peter; Richard Chan, Steven; Burke Parish, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is evolving and changing through the impact of many technological, social and environmental factors. These factors will be examined, especially the impact of changing attitudes among younger generations of physicians and patients who live in an information-driven networked world. Telepsychiatry is already over 50 years old and has a strong evidence base which suggests that it is a better form of practice compared with the traditional in-person consultation for certain patient groups. In particular, telepsychiatry encourages intimacy in relationships through the use of the 'virtual space' in the consultation, better collaboration between psychiatrists and primary care physicians, and improved patient satisfaction. The practice of psychiatry will change through the use of mobile devices, asynchronous consultations, and the opportunities that automated interpretation and translation bring to work across cultures. The future will likely bring many psychiatrists working increasingly in a hybrid model, both in-person, and online, using the strengths of both approaches to improve patient care.

  4. Determination of Efficiency of Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collectors Using Artificial Neural Network Approach for Different PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to determine efficiency of semi transparent hybrid photovoltaic thermal double pass air collector for different PV technology and compare it with single pass air collector using artificial neural network (ANN technique for New Delhi weather station of India. The MATLAB 7.1 neural networks toolbox has been used for defining and training of ANN for determination of thermal, electrical, overall thermal and overall exergy efficiency of the system. The ANN model uses ambient air temperature, number of sunshine hours, number of clear days, temperature coefficient, cell efficiency, global and diffuse radiation as input parameters. The transfer function, neural network configuration and learning parameters have been selected based on highest convergence during training and testing of network. About 2000 sets of data from four weather stations (Bangalore, Mumbai, Srinagar and Jodhpur have been given as input for training and data of the fifth weather station (New Delhi has been used for testing purpose. It has been observed that the best transfer function for a given configuration is logsig. The feed forward back-propagation algorithm has been used in this analysis. Further the results of ANN model have been compared with analytical values on the basis of root mean square error.

  5. WE-D-BRD-00: New Developments in Hybrid MR-Treatment: Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The advantages that make MR highly desirable for in-room treatment guidance, i.e. soft-tissue visualization and physiological assessment of healthy/tumor tissues, are largely recognized in the research community. However, the MR absorption in practical clinical workflows is still hindered by lack of sufficient technological infrastructure. Recent advances have been made towards filling that gap such as the development of integrated therapy systems relying on an MR scanner and a radiation source (linac, Co-60) and/or brachytherapy. The session is intended to present new efforts and methods aimed at facilitating the adoption of MR guidance for treatment delivery. Specifically, the discussion will focus on a) linac designs for reduced footprint and seamless integration with MR/linac systems, b) tracking coils for brachytherapy applications, and c) procedures for the commissioning and monitoring of MR and MR/linac performance. Learning Objectives: Understand limitations and proposed solutions for linac designs and associated integration with MR/linac systems; Understand current issues with MR-guided brachytherapy procedures Understand the issues and needs for new MR commissioning and QC. License agreement with Modus Medical Devices to develop a phantom for the quantification of MR image distortions.

  6. Impact of Used Communication Technology on the Navigation System for Hybrid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Machaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with navigation of mobile device in outdoor and indoor environment by only navigation system or application. In the paper, the navigation system is proposed in the light of seamless navigation service. Main parts of the system from positioning point of view are based on GPS and WifiLOC system. WifiLOC is an indoor positioning system based on Wi-Fi technology. The proposal of the system will be described in detail. The system is implemented at the University of Zilina as a pilot, noncommercial project; therefore it is called University Mobile Navigation System (UMNS. The navigation system can be characterized as real-time system, that is, the system operations cannot be significantly delayed. Since delay of the system depends significantly on communication platform used for map information downloading or communication with the localization server. We decided to investigate an impact of the used communication platform on the time needs for some of the functions implemented in navigation system. Measurements were performed in the real-world application. Next experiment is focused on testing of the accuracy of used indoor positioning system. Outdoor positioning accuracy is not tested because GPS is utilized in outdoor, and this system was already exhaustively investigated.

  7. 80-Channel Multiplexer-Demultiplexer Module for DWDM Communications using Hybrid AWG -- Interleaver Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Bredthauer, Lance

    2007-10-01

    Aside from the more traditional data, voice and e-mail communications, new bandwidth intensive applications in the larger consumer markets, such as music, digital pictures and movies, have led to an explosive increase in the demand for transmission capacity for optical communications networks. This has resulted in a widespread deployment of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) as a means of increasing the communications capacity by multiplexing and transmitting signals of different wavelengths (establishing multiple communication channels) through a single strand of fiber. We report on the design, assembly and characterization of a 50-GHz, 80-channel Mux-Demux module for DWDM systems. The module has been assembled from two commercially available 100 GHz, 40-channel Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) modules and a 50-GHz to 100-GHz interleaver. Relevant performance parameters such as insertion loss, channel uniformity, next-channel isolation (crosstalk) and integrated cross-talk are presented and discussed in contrast with the performance of other competing technologies such as Thin-Film-Filter-based Mux-Demux devices.

  8. Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-06-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics.

  9. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  10. Hybrid integration of synthesized dielectric image waveguides in substrate integrated circuit technology and its millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrovsky, Andreas

    This thesis deals with a novel type of integrated dielectric waveguide which is synthesized on a planar grounded substrate by perforation of the zones adjacent to a guiding channel in the center. The resulting Substrate Integrated Image Guide (SIIG) not only allows for low-loss guidance of electromagnetic waves in a similar way as the standard image guide, but also meets the requirements of low cost and ease of integration. A first objective was the detailed analysis of the propagation properties of fundamental and higher order modes in this waveguide structure, regarding attenuation, dispersion behavior, bandwidth, leakage effects, and the impact of fabrication tolerances. For this purpose, specifically adapted techniques of analysis are presented, since established methods for the conventional image guide can not be applied to the more complex periodic SIIG. Commercial electromagnetic full-wave software is used along with a dual-line approach involving a subsequent extraction of the propagation constant from simulated S-parameters. Alternatively, the solution of the eigenmode problem of a single SIIG unit cell also performs the task. Both techniques are in good agreement and provide accurate results, which is supported by measurements on laser-fabricated prototypes. It is shown that the achievable attenuation is much lower than in the standard integrated technologies and that losses mainly depend on the chosen dielectric material. As a consequence, the SIIG also is an attractive technology for applications beyond the mmW band, i. e. in the terahertz range. Design recommendations for the geometric parameters of the SIIG are discussed and a simplified equivalent model with homogeneous dielectric regions is introduced to speed up the design of passive components. Low-loss transitions between dissimilar waveguide structures are indispensable key components for a hybrid integrated platform. In order to enable the connection of standard measurement equipment in the W

  11. Feasibility study on the demonstrative test on the hybrid mini hydroelectric power generation technology. 2; Hybrid gata mini suiryoku hatsuden gijutsu ni kakawaru jissho shiken kanosei chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A study was made for the purpose of electrification of unelectrified zones of the mountainous areas in developing countries using extremely small hydroelectric power facilities. The target for this project is a development of a micro hydroelectric power system with a size of about 5kW, which is estimated regarding that 1 village has 80 houses and each house needs electricity of 60W. In the study, the low-head system using a weir of irrigation channels in Subang pref. of West Java state was selected by the evaluation of access, stability of flow rate, natural conditions, etc. The hydroelectric power plant is of a flow-in method in which water is taken from the left bank and is injected/discharged to the downstream of the left bank. As the hybrid complementary power source, hybrid battery with a two-hour charging time at peak and a capacity of 3.5kWh was considered. When estimating the construction cost of the hybrid micro hydroelectric power system and equalizing by durable years, the operational cost per kW is 15 times higher than the benefits which local people receive. It was judged to be difficult to say that the micro hydroelectric power system is economically feasible. It was predicted that the financial profit during the demonstrative test is good, according to a trial calculation of income from power rates and the operational cost. 18 refs., 90 figs., 53 tabs.

  12. 固液混合火箭发动机技术综述与展望%Development and Application of Hybrid Rocket Motor Technology: Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国飙

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics, development history and current situation of hybrid rocket motor were presented. The po- tential application of hybrid rocket motor was analyzed based on the astronautic development in China. The hybrid rocket motor can be used in sounding rockets, low cost target drones and missiles, suborbital vehicles, large launch boosters, advanced up- per stages and orbital transfer systems. Thus, the application prospect of hybrid rocket motor is extensive. The design method for hybrid sounding rocket in Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics was summarized. The key technologies which affect the developments and applications of hybrid rocket motors were analyzed.%介绍了固液混合火箭发动机的特点、发展历史和现状,结合我国航天发展情况,分析了固液混合火箭发动机在航天领域中的应用前景,指出了固液混合火箭发动机适合应用于探空火箭、小型运载火箭、靶标与导弹、亚轨道飞行器及载人飞船、助推器及上面级与姿轨控系统中,应用前景广泛。总结和介绍了北航固液探空火箭的设计方法和研制情况,分析了影响固液混合火箭发动机性能提高和应用的主要关键技术。

  13. The Research on Key Technology of Electric-hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles%电液复合动力汽车关键技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车威; 朱清山

    2011-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the working principle of electric-hydraulic hybrid dynamical system. The key technologies of electric-hydraulic hybrid dynamical system are studied, so as to make the engine reduce the consumption of fuel and diminish the emissions pollution, prolong service life of engine and braking system, and its future finally is foreseen.%通过介绍电液复合动力系统的工作原理,对电液复合动力系统相关的关键技术进行探讨,以期使发动机进一步达到降低油耗、减少排放污染、延长发动机和刹车系统寿命,并对电液复合动力汽车的应用前景进行展望.

  14. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  15. Towards Ideal NOx and CO2 Emission Control Technology for Bio-Oils Combustion Energy System Using a Plasma-Chemical Hybrid Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, M.; Fujishima, H.; Yamato, Y.; Kuroki, T.; Tanaka, A.; Otsuka, K.

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale low-emission boiler system consisting of a bio-fuel boiler and plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system is investigated. This system can achieve carbon neutrality because the bio-fuel boiler uses waste vegetable oil as one of the fuels. The plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal system has two processes: NO oxidation by ozone produced from plasma ozonizers and NO2 removal using a Na2SO3 chemical scrubber. Test demonstrations of the system are carried out for mixed oils (mixture of A-heavy oil and waste vegetable oil). Stable combustion is achieved for the mixed oil (20 - 50% waste vegetable oil). Properties of flue gas—e.g., O2, CO2 and NOx—when firing mixed oils are nearly the same as those when firing heavy oil for an average flue gas flow rate of 1000 Nm3/h. NOx concentrations at the boiler outlet are 90 - 95 ppm. Furthermore, during a 300-min continuous operation when firing 20% mixed oil, NOx removal efficiency of more than 90% (less than 10 ppm NOx emission) is confirmed. In addition, the CO2 reduction when heavy oil is replaced with waste vegetable oil is estimated. The system comparison is described between the plasma-chemical hybrid NOx removal and the conventional technology.

  16. Modeling oscillatory dynamics in brain microcircuits as a way to help uncover neurological disease mechanisms: A proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, F. K. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada); Ferguson, K. A. [Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, Krembil Discovery Tower, Toronto Western Hospital, 60 Leonard Street, 7th floor, 7KD411, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Sciences Building, 3rd Floor, 1 King' s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    There is an undisputed need and requirement for theoretical and computational studies in Neuroscience today. Furthermore, it is clear that oscillatory dynamical output from brain networks is representative of various behavioural states, and it is becoming clear that one could consider these outputs as measures of normal and pathological brain states. Although mathematical modeling of oscillatory dynamics in the context of neurological disease exists, it is a highly challenging endeavour because of the many levels of organization in the nervous system. This challenge is coupled with the increasing knowledge of cellular specificity and network dysfunction that is associated with disease. Recently, whole hippocampus in vitro preparations from control animals have been shown to spontaneously express oscillatory activities. In addition, when using preparations derived from animal models of disease, these activities show particular alterations. These preparations present an opportunity to address challenges involved with using models to gain insight because of easier access to simultaneous cellular and network measurements, and pharmacological modulations. We propose that by developing and using models with direct links to experiment at multiple levels, which at least include cellular and microcircuit, a cycling can be set up and used to help us determine critical mechanisms underlying neurological disease. We illustrate our proposal using our previously developed inhibitory network models in the context of these whole hippocampus preparations and show the importance of having direct links at multiple levels.

  17. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  18. Design, Development and Implementation of a Technology Enhanced Hybrid Course on Molecular Symmetry: Students' Outcomes and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonoglou, L. D.; Charistos, N. D.; Sigalas, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid course of Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory which combines traditional face-to-face instruction with an online web enhanced learning environment within a Course Management System was designed, developed, and implemented with a purpose to establish an active and student-centred educational setting. Multi-representational educational…

  19. Modelling of pressurised hybrid systems based on integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell (IP-SOFC) technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magistri, L.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genova (Italy); Cerutti, F.; Costamagna, P. [TPG-DICHEP, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genova (Italy); Bozzolo, M. [Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems Ltd, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    This work describes different models, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group at the University of Genoa (Italy), for the simulation of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrid systems. The paper focuses on both ''cores'' of the system: the fuel cell stack on the one hand and the turbomachinery and the auxiliaries on the other hand. Therefore, in the first part of the paper the models developed for the analysis of the Rolls-Royce Integrated Planar SOFC cells are presented; the results are compared to experimental data, and carefully analysed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, design and off design models of IP-SOFC pressurised hybrid systems in the range 250 kW-20 MW are presented; the hybrid performance results are presented and discussed, also taking ambient condition effects and a possible control strategy into account. Finally, using an in-house general purpose transient system analysis code (TRANSEO code), where chemical composition, heat transfer, and fluid dynamic influences vs. time are considered in detail, a preliminary time dependent investigation of a pressurised hybrid system behaviour is presented. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, William S.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV systems. The term metropolitan area network (MAN) can be used to describe this overall network. This paper discusses the technical components needed to provision these services as well as provides some perspectives on integration issues. Architecture at the headend and in the backbone is discussed, as well as specific service definitions and the technology issues associated with each. The TCP/IP protocol is suggested as a primary protocol to be used throughout the MAN.

  1. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  2. Are Green Vehicles Worth the Extra Cost? The Case of Diesel-Electric Hybrid Technology for Urban Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutilla, Kerry; Graham, John D.

    2012-01-01

    A central question for environmental policy is whether the long-term benefits of energy-saving technologies are sufficient to justify their short-term costs, and if so, whether financial incentives are needed to stimulate adoption. The fiscal effects of incentivizing new technologies, and the revenue effects of using the technology, are also…

  3. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  4. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  5. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  6. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    This report discusses the development of advanced batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. We discuss the basic design concepts of PHEVs, compare three sets of influential technical goals, and explain the inherent trade-offs in PHEV battery design. We then discuss the current state of several battery chemistries, including nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion), comparing their abilities to meet PHEV goals, and potential trajectories for further improve...

  7. Charge and bilateral discharge of battery in hybrid vehicles with ability of reactive power compensation with technology V2G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Davtalab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Posing V2G theory for hybrid vehicles can create opportunities on the operation of the grid, and can even put it in row of renewable energy sources. One of the needs in the operation of power systems on which is special attention is voltage control and reactive power of grid. Hybrid cars with V2G capability can be utilized for this work and is the subject of this article.An appropriate control method for reactive power control of grid by using V2G is suggested in this article. Reactive powers, dc-link voltage and reactive power in the suggested control method are independent and can be controlled separately. Section of battery and transducer of hybrid vehicle with V2G capability have been simulated and the suggested controller has been applied to it in order to evaluate the suggested control method. The results achieved from the simulation show that reactive power injected into the grid or received from it can be controlled independent of its reactive power with appropriate transient state.

  8. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  9. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the superconducting material and device (technical development of the Josephson device hybrid system); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Chodendo zairyo chodendo soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu (Josephson soshi hybrid system no gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to establish basic technology for hybrid systems of superconducting and semiconducting devices, study was made on ultrahigh speed and low energy consumption properties of Josephson devices. As Josephson IC technology, a logical circuit, ring network, memory circuit, and oxide superconductor logical circuit were studied. As superconducting hybrid system technology, a Josephson device- semiconductor device interface, formation technology of signal transmission lines, and Josephson-MOS IC technology were developed. In fiscal 1997, as Josephson IC technology, switch motion of 4GHz in clock frequency was achieved by new high-density wiring process. Integration of some semiconducting processor elements, junction of surface- stabilized superconducting thin films, and motion of combination structure of some SQUIDs were also confirmed. On the hybrid system, voltage conversion operation of all interfaces was confirmed. Proper logical operation of the Josephson device hybrid circuit was also confirmed. 95 refs., 90 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Action potential modulation in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons facilitates OLM interneuron activation in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits of rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyun Kim

    Full Text Available Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron-O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron-interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

  11. Action potential modulation in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons facilitates OLM interneuron activation in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyun

    2014-01-01

    Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron-O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron-interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

  12. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor controls functional differentiation and microcircuit formation of selectively isolated fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Marton B; Sousa, Kyle M; Schulte, Gunnar; Mager, Peter P; Härtig, Wolfgang; Görcs, Tamás J; Zilberter, Yuri; Ernfors, Patrik; Harkany, Tibor

    2004-09-01

    GABAergic interneurons with high-frequency firing, fast-spiking (FS) cells, form synapses on perisomatic regions of principal cells in the neocortex and hippocampus to control the excitability of cortical networks. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for the differentiation of multiple interneuron subtypes and the formation of their synaptic contacts. Here, we examined whether BDNF, alone or in conjunction with sustained KCl-induced depolarization, drives functional FS cell differentiation and the formation of inhibitory microcircuits. Homogeneous FS cell cultures were established by target-specific isolation using the voltage-gated potassium channel 3.1b subunit as the selection marker. Isolated FS cells expressed parvalbumin, were surrounded by perineuronal nets, formed immature inhibitory connections and generated slow action potentials at 12 days in vitro. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted FS cell differentiation by increasing the somatic diameter, dendritic branching and the frequency of action potential firing. In addition, BDNF treatment led to a significant up-regulation of synaptophysin and vesicular GABA transporter expression, components of the synaptic machinery critical for GABA release, which was paralleled by an increase in synaptic strength. Long-term membrane depolarization alone was detrimental to dendritic branching. However, we observed that BDNF and KCl exerted additive effects, as reflected by the significantly accelerated maturation of synaptic contacts and high discharge frequencies, and was required for the formation of reciprocal connections between FS cells. Our results show that BDNF, along with membrane depolarization, is critical for FS cells to establish inhibitory circuitries during corticogenesis.

  13. Modulation of neuronal microcircuit activities within the medial prefrontal cortex by mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Marie; Bartolome, Jose Manuel; Conn, P Jeffrey; Steckler, Thomas; Shaban, Hamdy

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing anxiety and fear memory relies on bidirectional projections between the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Positive allosteric modulators of mGluR5 improve cognition in animal models of schizophrenia and retrieval of newly formed associations such as extinction of fear-conditioned behaviour. The increase in neuronal network activities of the medial prefrontal cortex is influenced by both mGluR1 and mGluR5; however, it is not well understood how they modulate network activities and downstream information processing. To map mGluR5-mediated network activity in relation to its emergence as a viable cognitive enhancer, we tested group I mGluR compounds on medial prefrontal cortex network activity via multi-electrode array neuronal spiking and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. Results indicate that mGluR5 activation promotes feed-forward inhibition that depends on recruitment of neuronal activity by carbachol-evoked up states. The rate of neuronal spiking activity under the influence of carbachol was reduced by the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator, N-(1,3-Diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo-5-yl)-4-nitrobenzamide (VU-29), and enhanced by the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator, 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MTEP). Spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents were increased upon application of carbachol and in combination with VU-29. These results emphasize a bias towards tonic mGluR5-mediated inhibition that might serve as a signal-to-noise enhancer of sensory inputs projected from associated limbic areas onto the medial prefrontal cortex neuronal microcircuit.

  14. Identifying factors affecting acceptance of new technology in the industry using hybrid model of UTAUT and FUZZY DEMATEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Javidnia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Today and in highly competitive and fast-paced arena of the world, industrial companies focus on achieving technological superiority through the effective use of world modern-day technologies in the production and operation process associated with all their available resources. With using this procedure, these industrial companies try to achieve long-term and sustainable competitive advantages. On the other hand, applying world modern technologies does not solely guarantee success of these companies, rather, preparing preliminary grounds associated with the acceptance of technology will be decisive in this field. This article deals with clarifying factors affecting the adoption of new technologies and showing relationship of these factors together. For this purpose, Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT Model has been used to study factors affecting the adoption of new technologies. In the same direction, relationship between constituent components of this model has been studied with regard to the acceptance of new technology of Electro-Slag Remelting (ESR in Esfarayen Steel Industry Complex using FUZZY DEMATEL Technique.

  15. New Transportation Technology : Norm Activation Processes and the Intention to Switch to an Electric/Hybrid Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, A.; Jansson, J.; Westin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Since humans' activities contribute to climate change it is important to change behavior. Switching to a hybrid/plugin/electric vehicle (HEV/PHEV/EV) for personal transport can be one way. In this study the intention to switch to a HEV/PHEV/EV is studied from the theoretical framework of the moral norm-activation theory of altruism (Schwartz, 1977) and the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) Theory of environmentalism (Stern et al., 1999). Data was collected using a survey to three groups, alternative fu...

  16. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  17. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  19. Rapid identification of Candida spp. frequently involved in invasive mycoses by using flow-through hybridization and Gene Chip (FHGC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis. This new system represents a reliable method that is of potential use in clinical laboratories for the simultaneous detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  1. Caracterização tecnológica de híbridos de sisal Technological characterization of sisal hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo procedeu-se à caracterização tecnológica de alguns híbridos de sisal em comparação com a espécie comum (Agave sisalana Perr., colhidos no Centro Experimental de Campinas em 1987. A densidade básica (0,172 a 0,249g/cm³ e o teor de matéria seca (16,91 a 24,82% cresceram da base para a extremidade das folhas de sisal, contrastando com os teores de fibra têxtil (37,71 a 23,43% e celulósica (21,75 a 14,56%, que decresceram a partir da base das folhas. As fibras celulósicas na base das folhas foram mais curtas; com maior lúmen e menor parede celular. O comprimento das fibras celulósicas do sisal comum (2,63mm foi maior que os híbridos (1,39 a 2,09mm: estes não apresentaram superioridade tecnológica em relação ao sisal comum.Some sisal hybrids were studied in comparison to the common sisal (Agave sisalana Perr. regarding some technological characteristics. The basic density (0.172 to 0.249 g/cm³ and the dry matter (16.91 to 24.82% increased from the base to top region of sisal leaf. On the other hand, the content of textile fibers decreased from the base to the top of the leaves (37.71 to 23.43. The same trend was observed for cellulosic fibers (21.75 to 14.56%. The cellulosic fibers in the leaf base were shorter, with more lumen and less cell wall. The length of cellulosic fiber on common sisal (2.63mm was longer than for hybrids (1.39 to 2.09mm. The sisal hybrids didn't show technological superiority over the common sisal.

  2. Advances in recombinant DNA technology : corifollitropin alfa, a hybrid molecule with sustained follicle-stimulating activity and reduced injection frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Mannaerts, B. M. J. L.; Devroey, P.; Leader, A.; Boime, I.; Baird, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have been used to develop longer-acting therapeutic proteins. One approach is to introduce sequences containing additional glycosylation sites. Using this technique, a new chimeric gene has been developed containing the coding sequences of the FSH beta-subunit and the C-

  3. Advances in recombinant DNA technology : corifollitropin alfa, a hybrid molecule with sustained follicle-stimulating activity and reduced injection frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Mannaerts, B. M. J. L.; Devroey, P.; Leader, A.; Boime, I.; Baird, D. T.

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technologies have been used to develop longer-acting therapeutic proteins. One approach is to introduce sequences containing additional glycosylation sites. Using this technique, a new chimeric gene has been developed containing the coding sequences of the FSH beta-subunit and the C-

  4. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Valeria; Mazzotta, Francesco; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Simone, Andrea; Lantieri, Claudio; Dondi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures. PMID:28773965

  5. Role of natural attenuation, phytoremediation and hybrid technologies in the remediation of a refinery soil with old/recent petroleum hydrocarbons contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Maria Nazaré P F S; Pinto, Dorabela; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, Teresa S D

    2012-09-01

    Within a search for a biological remediation technology to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from a contaminated soil from a refinery, the potential of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) was compared with the use of transplants of Cortaderia selloana both in the absence and in the presence of soil amendments. After 31 months of experiments, MNA was effective in removing most of the recent PHC contamination (50% of the initial total contamination) at 5-20 cm depth. The presence of weathered contamination explains the existence of an established community of PHC degraders, as can be inferred by the most probable number technique. C. selloana, in its turn, showed capacity to mobilize the most recalcitrant fraction of PHC to its roots, nevertheless masking its remediation capacity. The use of a hybrid technology (C. selloana together with treatments with a surfactant and a bioaugmentation product) improved the removal of PHC at 15-20 cm depth, the presence of C. selloana facilitating the migration of additives into the deeper layers of soil, which can be considered a secondary but positive role of the plant. In the surface soil layer, which was exposed to both microorganisms and the atmosphere, a further 20% of weathered PHC contamination disappeared (70% total removal) as a result of photo- and chemical degradation. Periodic revolving of the soil, like tillage, to expose all the contaminated soil to the atmosphere will therefore be a reliable option for reducing the contamination of the refinery soil if conditions (space and equipment) permit this operation.

  6. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vignali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  7. Ship-in-a-bottle integration by hybrid femtosecond laser technology for fabrication of true 3D biochips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Felix; Wu, Dong; Xu, Jian; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Sugioka, Koji

    2015-03-01

    We propose herein the "ship-in-a-bottle" integration of three-dimensional (3D) polymeric sinusoidal ridges inside photosensitive glass microfluidic channel by a hybrid subtractive - additive femtosecond laser processing method. It consists of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Wet Etching (FLAE) of a photosensitive Foturan glass followed by Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) of a SU-8 negative epoxy-resin. Both subtractive and additive processes are carried out using the same set-up with the change of laser focusing objective only. A 522 nm wavelength of the second harmonic generation from an amplified femtosecond Yb-fiber laser (FCPA µJewel D-400, IMRA America, 1045 nm; pulse width 360 fs, repetition rate 200 kHz) was employed for irradiation. The new method allows lowering the size limit of 3D objects created inside channels to smaller details down to the dimensions of a cell, and improve the structure stability. Sinusoidal periodic patterns and ridges are of great use as base scaffolds for building up new structures on their top or for modulating cell migration, guidance and orientation while created interspaces can be exploited for microfluidic applications. The glass microchannel offers robustness and appropriate dynamic flow conditions for cellular studies while the integrated patterns are reducing the size of structure to the level of cells responsiveness. Taking advantage of the ability to directly fabricate 3D complex shapes, both glass channels and polymeric integrated patterns enable us to 3D spatially design biochips for specific applications.

  8. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  9. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  10. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  11. Research of Hybridization Pollination Technology in Chinese fir%杉木杂交授粉技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林源华

    2015-01-01

    该文从组织实施、雌雄花的特征、亲本选择、套袋隔离、花粉采集与处理、授粉等方面详细介绍了杉木人工控制授粉杂交制种技术.%In this paper,we particularly described the artificial pollination technology of Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook). It contained the aspects of organization and implementation,the characteristics of female and male flowers,parental choice,bagging isolation,pollen collection and pollination,and so on.

  12. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  13. Preclinical models of atherosclerosis. The future of Hybrid PET/MR technology for the early detection of vulnerable plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Irene; Saura, Marta; Castejón, Borja; Martin, Ana María; Herruzo, Irene; Balatsos, Nikolaos; Zamorano, Jose Luis; Zaragoza, Carlos

    2016-04-08

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The aetiology is currently multifactorial, thus making them very difficult to prevent. Preclinical models of atherothrombotic diseases, including vulnerable plaque-associated complications, are now providing significant insights into pathologies like atherosclerosis, and in combination with the most recent advances in new non-invasive imaging technologies, they have become essential tools to evaluate new therapeutic strategies, with which can forecast and prevent plaque rupture. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography imaging is currently used for plaque visualisation in clinical and pre-clinical cardiovascular research, albeit with significant limitations. However, the combination of PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies is still the best option available today, as combined PET/MRI scans provide simultaneous data acquisition together with high quality anatomical information, sensitivity and lower radiation exposure for the patient. The coming years may represent a new era for the implementation of PET/MRI in clinical practice, but first, clinically efficient attenuation correction algorithms and research towards multimodal reagents and safety issues should be validated at the preclinical level.

  14. A Hybrid IC Lead Circumcolumnar Welding Technology%一种混合厚膜电路引线绕焊技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峻霖; 夏俊生; 侯育增; 肖勇兵

    2012-01-01

    混合厚膜电路工艺加工中,微电子引线焊接既是制造中的关键工艺技术,又是研究最为薄弱之处。混合厚膜功率电路工作温度较高,组件安装温度可达300℃左右,如使用含铅普通低温焊料,整件组装时会导致焊料熔融、引线移位、电路失效,影响焊接可靠性。文章详细介绍了一种引线绕焊技术,通过工艺实验说明了研究过程,结合高低温焊料使用获得较实用的绕焊工艺实施方法和要求,保证了镀银铜线的高温焊接强度,提高了功率及航天电路外引线焊接可靠性。%Microelectronic lead welding is both key processing technology and the weakest point of Hybrid IC research. Hybrid Power circuits maintains high working temperature, the module assembly temperature could reach 300~C; while applied with common solder paste in Lead welding, the high temperature raised during device assembly would cause the internal solder paste to melt, then the leads would move off from their original locations, leading to circuits failure & lowering-down of comprehensive welding reliability. This paper introduced an Lead Circumcolumnar Welding technology, and also described the research course and experiments. Moreover, through many examples and test data, it verified a practical processing method and criterion of Lead Circumcolumnar Welding using varied solder pastes, obtained the welding Specification. Through research, the silver-plated copper wire welding strength has been assured, and the oower & soace aoolication circuits lead weldin~ reliability bein~ ~reatlv imoroved.

  15. A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Model for Technological Innovation Capability Assessment: Research on Thai Automotive Parts Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumrit Detcharat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient appraisal of technological innovation capabilities (TICs of enterprises is an important factor to enhance competitiveness. This study aims to evaluate and rank TICs evaluation criteria in order to provide a practical insight of systematic analysis by gathering the qualified experts’ opinions combined with three methods of multi-criteria decision making approach. Firstly, Fuzzy Delphi method is used to screen TICs evaluation criteria from the recent published researches. Secondly, the Analytic Hierarchy Process is utilized to compute the relative important weights. Lastly, the VIKOR method is used to rank the enterprises based on TICs evaluation criteria. An empirical study is applied for Thai automotive parts firms to illustrate the proposed methods. This study found that the interaction between criteria is essential and influences TICs; furthermore, this ranking development of TICs assessment is also one of key management tools to simply facilitate and offer a new mindset for managements of other related industries.

  16. Disinfection of biologically treated wastewater and prevention of biofouling by UV/electrolysis hybrid technology: influence factors and limits for domestic wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaken, Daniela; Dittmar, Thomas; Schmalz, Viktor; Worch, Eckhard

    2014-04-01

    Reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. However, due to the presence of a multitude of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms, protozoa) in secondary effluents, disinfection procedures are indispensable. In decentralized wastewater treatment, UV irradiation represents one of the most common disinfection methods in addition to membrane processes and to a certain extent electrochemical procedures. However, the usage of UV disinfected secondary effluents for domestic (sanitary) or irrigation purposes bears a potential health risk due to the possible photo and dark repair of reversibly damaged bacteria. Against this background, the application of the UV/electrolysis hybrid technology for disinfection and prevention of bacterial reactivation in biologically treated wastewater was investigated in view of relevant influence factors and operating limits. Furthermore, the influence of electrochemically generated total oxidants on the formation of biofilms on quartz glass surfaces was examined, since its preventive avoidance contributes to an enhanced operational safety of the hybrid reactor. It was found that reactivation of bacteria in UV irradiated, biologically treated wastewater can be prevented by electrochemically produced total oxidants. In this regard, the influence of the initial concentration of the microbiological indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) (9.3*10(2)-2.2*10(5) per 100 mL) and the influence of total suspended solids (TSS) in the range of 11-75 mg L(-1) was examined. The concentration of total oxidants necessary for prevention of bacterial regrowth increases linearly with the initial E. coli and TSS concentration. At an initial concentration of 933 E. coli per 100 mL, a total oxidants concentration of 0.4 mg L(-1) is necessary to avoid photo reactivation (at 4200 Lux), whereas 0.67 mg L(-1) is required if the E. coli concentration is enhanced by 2.4 log levels (cTSS = constant = 13 mg

  17. Single Base Station Hybrid TOA/AOA Positioning Technology%单基站TOA/AOA混合定位技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽君

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the defects of traditional mobile location technology, through the AOA location and TOA positioning method combined with the AOA of a single base station/on TOA hybrid positioning scheme, TOA error program in NLOS conditions Wylie and CarlMan filter two to e- liminate and inhibit error program, and two errors to eliminate the program simulation, simulation re- suits show that the Kalman filter, the results can be better approximation of the true trajectory of mo- bile station.%为了克服传统的移动定位技术存在的缺陷,通过AOA定位以及TOA定位方式的结合,提出一种单基站AOA/TOA混合定位的方案,对方案中在NLOS条件下存在的TOA误差提出了Wylie和卡尔曼滤波2种消除和抑制误差方案,并对2种误差消除方案进行了仿真,仿真结果表明卡尔曼滤波后的结果能更好的逼近移动台的真实运动轨迹。

  18. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  19. Microcircuit Cost Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    13333 ,0 .......... 10 0 .0 .781112 . . 5247 0 110.0 0 41130 0 .. 75000 . .0.0 0 0 0 10016 ...... 22246 1 0 0 1 0 .0 .59 .11 .. 30 0... 0508.0 0 0 .0 0 7...1A ...... 9933 0 1 1 0 .0 0 61 .1 65. 0 10833 0 o00 05 3ss4.850110.30 0 61 3 ... 5000 0 .0 .0 0 0 0 9614. 4 ’ . .0551 0 0 0𔄀 11 ඘ . . 0 13333 *0...9I B-6 ~~ ~~~ -------- >1 - _ _ -, - u + - I I U . .. .. -. .. . I ISO I 17 * . ........ - -... K .LI. 2.0 * • I h I +I I YGA - IMA

  20. Hybrid LCA of a design for disassembly technology: active disassembling fasteners of hydrogen storage alloys for home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yamasue, Eiji

    2010-06-15

    In the current recycling system of end-of-life (EoL) appliances, which is based on shredding, alloying elements tend to end up in the scrap of base metals. The uncontrolled mixing of alloying elements contaminates secondary metals and calls for dilution with primary metals. Active disassembling fastener (ADF) is a design for disassembly (DfD) technology that is expected to solve this problem by significantly reducing the extent of mixing. This paper deals with a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on the waste input-output (WIO) model of an ADF developed using hydrogen storage alloys. Special attention is paid to the issue of dilution of mixed iron scrap using pig iron in an electric arc furnace (EAF). The results for Japanese electrical and electronic appliances indicate superiority of the recycling system based on the ADF over the current system in terms of reduced emissions of CO(2). The superiority of ADF was found to increase with an increase in the requirement for dilution of scrap.

  1. A novel hybrid MCDM model for performance evaluation of research and technology organizations based on BSC approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmazyar, Mohsen; Dehghanbaghi, Maryam; Afkhami, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is a strategic evaluation tool using both financial and non-financial indicators to determine the business performance of organizations or companies. In this paper, a new integrated approach based on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods are proposed to evaluate the performance of research centers of research and technology organization (RTO) in Iran. Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) are employed to reflect the interdependencies among BSC perspectives. Then, Analytic Network Process (ANP) is utilized to weight the indices influencing the considered problem. In the next step, we apply four MCDM methods including Additive Ratio Assessment (ARAS), Complex Proportional Assessment (COPRAS), Multi-Objective Optimization by Ratio Analysis (MOORA), and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) for ranking of alternatives. Finally, the utility interval technique is applied to combine the ranking results of MCDM methods. Weighted utility intervals are computed by constructing a correlation matrix between the ranking methods. A real case is presented to show the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  2. Research on Application of Hybrid Energy Storage Technology in Photoelectric Micro-Power Supply%混合能量存储技术在光电微能源中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永泰; 肖丽仙; 李雷; 刘晋豪

    2016-01-01

    为简化集成无线传感器节点光电微能源系统的设计和提高能量转换、存储效率,提出混合能量存储技术在光电微能源系统设计中的应用.混合能量存储器由电容器和锂离子电池组成.其能量存储原理负载特性被分析.另外,开展实验研究,结果表明,与直接能量存储方式相比,利用混合能量存储技术能量存储量提高27%.并且,微能源的负载特性也得到改善,实验结果与理论结果一致.%In the design of the photoelectric micro-power supply integrated with wireless sensor nodes,the hybrid energy storage technology was adopted to simplify the system design and to improve the performance of the energy conversion and storage for photoelectric micro-power supply which consists of the lithium ion battery and the super capacitor. This paper introduced the principle of solar energy conversion and storage in the hybrid energy storage technology,and analyzed the load characteristics of hybrid energy storage technology. In addition,the characteris-tics of the hybrid energy storage were studied by experiment,which showed that the storage energy of photovoltaic cell output power was increased by roughly 27%by using hybrid energy storage method instead of useing the direct energy storage method,and the load characteristics of the photovoltaic micro-power supply was also improved. The experimental results were consistent with the theory analysis conclusion.

  3. Key Technology Development for Gas Chromatography Analysis Based on Hybrid Programming Ideas%基于混合编程思想的色谱分析软件关键技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学英; 王忠民; 杨翠兰; 高世伟

    2013-01-01

    An oil quality data handling system which based on the chromatographic simulated distillation technology was introduced to have Matlab' s numerical calculation and Visual C#.NET's system design and development combined based on the hybrid programming ideas.In Matlab and Visual C#.NET hybrid programming,four key technologies were discussed,i.e.the technology to realize chemometrics methods based on the Matlab platform,the NET module encapsulation technology for the chemometrics arithmetic under the Matlab platform and the call technology for generative module,as well as the technology for procedure arrangement and release under the.Net platform.%介绍一种基于色谱模拟蒸馏技术的油品质量数据处理系统,该系统利用混合编程思想将Matlab的数值计算功能和Visual C#.NET系统设计开发功能相结合.重点阐述Matlab和Visual C#.NET混合编程中,基于Matlab平台的化学计量学方法的实现技术;Matlab平台下化学计量学算法的.NET组件封装技术;.NET平台下对生成组件的调用技术和程序部署与发布技术.

  4. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper deals with the growth in sales of vehicles with hybrid propulsion, the directions of their technological development, new solutions for transmission systems, the capacity and location...

  5. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  6. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  7. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  8. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  9. 昆虫微机电混合系统发展现状及其关键技术%Development Status and Key Technologies of the Hybrid Insect MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯清娟; 胡开博; 朱智源

    2012-01-01

    首先介绍了昆虫微机电混合系统领域的研究背景与研究动态,概述了昆虫微机电混合系统的原理及主要优势,分析了昆虫微机电混合系统的关键技术.由于昆虫微机电混合系统是生物领域与MEMS领域的交叉融合,所以其最终实现是一个复杂的过程,涉及接口可靠性、运动控制、无线收发、能源供给等一系列难题,详细从以上4个方面讨论了其工作原理与实现过程.最后,就其前景进行了分析,昆虫微机电混合系统对很多应用领域带来重大影响.%The research background and status of the hybrid insect micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) are introduced firstly, the principle and main advantages of the hybrid insect MEMS are outlined, and the key technologies of the hybrid insect MEMS are analyzed. Since the hybrid insect MEMS is based on the fusion of the biotechnology and MEMS, its implementation is a complicated process involving the interface reliability, locomotion control, wireless transmission and power generation, and its work principle and realization process are discussed in detail from the above four aspects. Finally, the prospect of the hybrid insect MEMS is analyzed, the hybrid insect MEMS will impact on many application fields significantly.

  10. Java芯片系统中的混合地址转换技术研究%HYBRID ADDRESS TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY IN JAVA CHIP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎; 戴葵; 杨晓东; 胡守仁

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of memory management of JVM(Java VirtualMachine), the concepts of object address, segmented address and physical address are defined. Their relationship in Java Chip system is also presented here. After the discussion of current address translation schemes, a novel address translation technology, which hybridizes the segment scheme and segment-page scheme, is presented. A perfect tradeoff will be gained among the object accessing performance, the memory utilization and the Java chip system simplicity. The hardware architecture to implement address translation and the algorithm to allocate physical memory are presented too. At the end of paper, the performance evaluation of these algorithms is given.%本文首先定义了Java芯片系统中的地址结构:对象地址、段式地址和物理地址.针对现有地址转换方法的不足,提出了一种结合段式和段页式的混合转换方法.该方法使访问对象的速度、存储空间利用率和设备复杂度等方面得到合理的折衷.文中还给出了该方法在Java芯片系统中的硬件实现方法和相关的物理存储空间分配算法,并对其进行了性能评价.

  11. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  12. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  13. Production Technology of Photo-thermo Sensitive Two-line Foxtail Millet Hybrid Seeds%光温敏两系谷子杂交种制种生产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明; 宋国亮; 王峰; 刘晓婕

    2012-01-01

    光温敏两系谷子杂交种表现节水、抗逆,适应性、增产性和抗旱性显著高于常规品种,已大面积推广种植。详细介绍了谷子杂交制种中各个环节的技术要求,包括制种田选择、科学播种、田间管理、病虫鸟害防治、收获、脱粒和储存。可为生产优质的谷子杂交种提供技术指导。%Photo-thermo sensitive two-line foxtail millet hybrids has the characteristics of water saving, stress resistance, adaptability, performance of increasing yield and drought resistance, which was significantly higher thon the regular varieties. Therefore, they have been planted in a large area. The hybrid seed production technology of foxtail millet is introduced including the selection of seed field, scientific sowing, field management, diseases and insects control, harvesting, threshing, and storage, which can provide the technological guide for producing high quality hybrid millet seeds.

  14. Environmentally compatible solder materials for thick film hybrid assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.; Hernandez, C.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials and Process Sciences Center

    1997-02-01

    New soldering materials and processes have been developed over the last several years to address a variety of environmental issues. One of the primary efforts by the electronics industry has involved the development of alternative solders to replace the traditional lead-containing alloys. Sandia National Laboratories is developing such alternative solder materials for printed circuit board and hybrid microcircuit (HMC) applications. This paper describes the work associated with low residue, lead-free soldering of thick film HMC`s. The response of the different materials to wetting, aging, and mechanical test conditions was investigated. Hybrid test vehicles were designed and fabricated with a variety of chip capacitors and leadless ceramic chip carriers to conduct thermal, electrical continuity, and mechanical evaluations of prototype joints. Microstructural development along the solder and thick film interface, after isothermal solid state aging over a range of elevated temperatures and times, was quantified using microanalytical techniques. Flux residues on soldered samples were stressed (temperature-humidity aged) to identify potential corrosion problems. Mechanical tests also supported the development of a solder joint lifetime prediction model. Progress of this effort is summarized.

  15. A technique for estimating the probability of radiation-stimulated failures of integrated microcircuits in low-intensity radiation fields: Application to the Spektr-R spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2006-10-01

    In developing radio-electronic devices (RED) of spacecraft operating in the fields of ionizing radiation in space, one of the most important problems is the correct estimation of their radiation tolerance. The “weakest link” in the element base of onboard microelectronic devices under radiation effect is the integrated microcircuits (IMC), especially of large scale (LSI) and very large scale (VLSI) degree of integration. The main characteristic of IMC, which is taken into account when making decisions on using some particular type of IMC in the onboard RED, is the probability of non-failure operation (NFO) at the end of the spacecraft’s lifetime. It should be noted that, until now, the NFO has been calculated only from the reliability characteristics, disregarding the radiation effect. This paper presents the so-called “reliability” approach to determination of radiation tolerance of IMC, which allows one to estimate the probability of non-failure operation of various types of IMC with due account of radiation-stimulated dose failures. The described technique is applied to RED onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft to be launched in 2007.

  16. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  17. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  18. Critical Resources for Emerging Battery Technologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. Proceedings of the International Conference “ISWA World Solid Waste Congress”, 17th - 19th September 2012, Florence, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Nyander, Nils Christian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    such as photovoltaics, wind turbines, electric and hybrid cars are, however, in turn dependent on other non- renewable resources such as metals which may become scarce in the future. The concept of ‘critical resources’ is in this context is an expression of how limited or constrained the supply of a resource......-manganese spinel Titanate (LMO – T)) for electric cars in a proposed scenario of 2050, in which a scale of 100 % global conversion of passenger cars to battery cars is modeled. Potential resource supply constraints for these emerging battery technologies in electric cars have been analyzed and assessed...

  19. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  20. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  1. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  2. Vapor Compressor Driven Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will demonstrate a vapor compressor driven hybrid two-phase loop technology. The hybrid two-phase loop...

  3. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  4. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  5. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  6. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  7. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  8. Hybrid Intelligent Diagnosis Technology Based on Granular Computing%应用粒计算的混合智能故障诊断技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张周锁; 侯照文; 孙闯; 何正嘉

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at lacking hybrid modes and common algorithms in existing hybrid intelligent diagnosis, a new model of hybrid intelligent fault diagnosis based on granular computing is proposed. In the model, the core features sets (CFS) are extracted in different granular levels by the reduction algorithm based on neighborhood rough set, then, CFS are chosen to train artificial neural network and support vector machines as sub-classifiers in corresponding levels. And the results of sub-classifiers in different granular levels are combined by criterion matrix algorithm as output of hybrid intelligent diagnosis. The model is applied to fault diagnosis of roller bearings in high-speed locomotive. The application results demonstrate that the classification accuracy is raised with the increasing granular levels, and the accuracy of hybrid results is higher than the one of any sub-classifier. The proposed model exhibits the effect of granulation and the advantages complementation among different intelligent methods to provide a new way for hybrid intelligent diagnosis.%针对现有的混合智能故障诊断模型缺乏通用方法和混合框架,未能实现不同智能诊断方法的实质性融合和优势互补的问题,提出并构建了一种基于粒计算的混合智能故障诊断模型.该模型的核心是在邻域粗糙集中求取不同的邻域值,对故障特征集进行分层粒化,在不同粒度下获得核属性集.利用核属性集在相应粒度下构建人工神经网络和支持向量机子分类器,通过评估矩阵算法对所有粒度下全部子分类器的诊断结果进行融合集成.模型应用结果表明,分类精度随着粒度层的增加而不断提高,集成后的分类精度高于不同粒度下的所有子分类器,从而体现了粒化分层的优势和不同智能诊断方法的优势互补,为混合智能诊断提供了一种新途径.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  10. The coordination of research and innovation activities relative to an emergent technology: the case of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles; La coordination des activites de recherche et d'innovation dans les phases d'emergence: le cas des batteries pour vehicules electriques et hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrue, Ph.

    2000-05-23

    In this thesis, we try to provide elements of a non-deterministic view of the coordination of research activities in the phase of emergence. Firstly, we try to identify the variables that determinate the strength and the characteristics of the imperative of coordination in this very preliminary period of an innovation process. Secondly, we try to evaluate the institutional arrangements that can effectively sustain the coordination of the activities of the various interdependent actors more or less involved in the innovation process. The basic idea of the thesis is that technological innovations do not originate as isolated according to a hypothetical underlying 'nature of the technology', especially when they are controversial and subject to great uncertainties as is the case with regard to batteries for Electric and hybrid Vehicles (EVs). Innovations appear to be generated by means of the interactions of a number of organizations belonging to different 'spheres' (different industries, scientific disciplines, public institutions, etc.). In order to validate a new area of opportunity which is still very uncertain at this preliminary stage, the competences and interests of these different organizations must be coordinated. Because of the complex mix of economic and technological barriers faced by the actors taking part in this innovation process, the area of batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is the 'perfect laboratory' to investigate the institutional arrangements that can sustain the coordination of research and innovation activities relating to an emerging technology. The empirical and theoretical investigations are mainly focused on pre-competitive research consortia such as the United-States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This case study is conducted through in-depth interviews with key-actors of the area of batteries and electric vehicles. We also use the results of an on-line experts opinions survey we performed

  11. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun

    2013-01-01

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities. PMID:26229610

  12. Novel utilization of 3D technology and the hybrid operating theatre: Peri-operative assessment of posterior sterno-clavicular dislocation using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, James A; Campbell, Douglas; Whitby, Mark; Pathmanathan, Pavthrun [The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside, Queensland (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A patient with a medial and posterior dislocation of the right sterno-clavicular (SC) joint and displacement of the trachea and brachiocephalic artery by the medial head of the clavicle underwent general anaesthetic in the operating theatre for an open reduction procedure. The surgeon initially attempted a closed reduction, but this required imaging to check SC alignment. The patient was transferred to an adjacent hybrid operating theatre for imaging. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was performed, which successfully demonstrated a significant reduction in the dislocation of the SC joint. The trachea and brachiocephalic artery were no longer compressed or displaced. This case study demonstrates an alternative to the patient being transferred to the medical imaging department for multi-slice CT. It also describes a novel use of the hybrid operating theatre and its CBCT capabilities.

  13. An investigation on capability of hybrid Nd:YAG laser-TIG welding technology for AA2198 Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Amir Hosein; Moradi, Mahmoud; Goodarzi, Massoud; Colucci, Pietro; Maletta, Carmine

    2017-09-01

    This paper surveys the capability of the hybrid laser-arc welding in comparison with lone laser welding for AA2198 aluminum alloy experimentally. In the present research, a continuous Nd:YAG laser with a maximum power of 2000 W and a 350 A electric arc were used as two combined welding heat sources. In addition to the lone laser welding experiments, two strategies were examined for hybrid welding; the first one was low laser power (100 W) accompanied by high arc energy, and the second one was high laser power (2000 W) with low arc energy. Welding speed and arc current varied in the experiments. The influence of heat input on weld pool geometry was surveyed. The macrosection, microhardness profile and microstructure of the welded joints were studied and compared. The results indicated that in lone laser welding, conduction mode occurred and keyhole was not formed even in low welding speeds and thus the penetration depth was so low. It was also found that the second approach (high laser power accompanied with low arc energy) is superior to the first one (low laser power accompanied with high arc energy) in hybrid laser-arc welding of Al2198, since lower heat input was needed for full penetration weld and as a result a smaller HAZ was created.

  14. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  15. A comprehensive overview of hybrid construction machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing attention of energy saving and emission reduction technology, the recent application of hybrid powertrain technology affects the development of construction machinery industry. This article reviews these publications and provides comprehensive references. This article reviews the state-of-art for the hybrid wheel loader and excavator, which focuses on powertrain configuration, energy storage devices, and energy management strategies. The basis of classification and characteristic of each powertrain configuration are described. Advantages and disadvantages of batteries, supercapacitors, hydraulic accumulators, and flywheel used in hybrid construction machinery are summarized. The existing energy management strategies for hybrid construction machinery are also elaborated. The technological challenges and developing trends in the near future for hybrid construction machinery are discussed.

  16. Listening to Brain Microcircuits for Interfacing With External World-Progress in Wireless Implantable Microelectronic Neuroengineering Devices: Experimental systems are described for electrical recording in the brain using multiple microelectrodes and short range implantable or wearable broadcasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmikko, Arto V; Donoghue, John P; Hochberg, Leigh R; Patterson, William R; Song, Yoon-Kyu; Bull, Christopher W; Borton, David A; Laiwalla, Farah; Park, Sunmee; Ming, Yin; Aceros, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Acquiring neural signals at high spatial and temporal resolution directly from brain microcircuits and decoding their activity to interpret commands and/or prior planning activity, such as motion of an arm or a leg, is a prime goal of modern neurotechnology. Its practical aims include assistive devices for subjects whose normal neural information pathways are not functioning due to physical damage or disease. On the fundamental side, researchers are striving to decipher the code of multiple neural microcircuits which collectively make up nature's amazing computing machine, the brain. By implanting biocompatible neural sensor probes directly into the brain, in the form of microelectrode arrays, it is now possible to extract information from interacting populations of neural cells with spatial and temporal resolution at the single cell level. With parallel advances in application of statistical and mathematical techniques tools for deciphering the neural code, extracted populations or correlated neurons, significant understanding has been achieved of those brain commands that control, e.g., the motion of an arm in a primate (monkey or a human subject). These developments are accelerating the work on neural prosthetics where brain derived signals may be employed to bypass, e.g., an injured spinal cord. One key element in achieving the goals for practical and versatile neural prostheses is the development of fully implantable wireless microelectronic "brain-interfaces" within the body, a point of special emphasis of this paper.

  17. Training Faculty to Teach in Hybrid Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kathryn E.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the author's experiences developing and implementing a multi-week hybrid course design institute, this chapter outlines the components of training--both andragogical and technological--most helpful for faculty who are planning to teach a hybrid course.

  18. Retrofitting an electrostatic precipitator into a hybrid electrostatic precipitator by installing a pulse-jet fabric filter : Review of available technologies for retrofitting Electrostatic precipitator with fabric filter

    OpenAIRE

    Eskelinen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    The tightening of regulations related to particle emissions has made retrofitting the ESP into a hybrid of the ESP and a baghouse filter a possible solution to some old plants in Finland. The objective of this thesis was to assess when this is a viable option and to study the advantage and limitations of the system by comparing it to other options available to companies when they need to have more efficient filters. For this purpose, is was necessary to compile the pricing of a new ESP and...

  19. Modulation technology of hybrid multi-level inverter%混合多电平逆变器调制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴武; 高淳; 姜建国

    2011-01-01

    Based on traditional hybrid modulation strategy,the selection of DC supply voltage is analyzed for all modulation ratios of hybrid multi-level inverter when no energy flows between cells. Based on the analysis of output voltage fundamental for each unit,a modulation method is proposed;the two lowest-voltage cells are modulated by carrier phase-shift strategy to make their working frequency high,which improves the DC supply voltage ratio of hybrid multi-level inverter when no energy flows between cells and no over-modulation occurs. The modulation signals generated by DSP are sent to FPGA in parallel and the hybrid control algorithm is implemented by FPGA. Experimental results show that,the maximum DC voltage ratios are raised from 1:1:2: 4:8: … To 1:1:3:5:10:… When no energy flows between cells.%基于传统混合调制策略,在混合多电平逆变器所有调制比范围内,对各单元之间不发生能量流动时的直流电源电压取值问题进行分析,并通过对传统混合调制策略下混合多电平逆变器各单元输出电压的基波分析提出一种新方法:即将2个最低压单元用载波相移调制,使其均工作在高频状态.该方法的突出优点是在各单元不发生能量流动且不出现过调制的情况下,可以提高混合多电平逆变器的直流电源电压比值.最后给出了实验验证:由DSP产生调制信号,通过并行通信传送至FPGA,混合控制算法由FPGA实现.实验结果验证了该方法可在各单元之间不发生能量流动时,混合多电平逆变器的最高直流电压比由1∶1∶2∶4∶8∶…提高到1∶1∶3∶5∶10∶….

  20. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  1. Porsche GT3 R Hybrid. Prototype and race lab; Porsche GT3 R Hybrid. Technologietraeger und rollendes Labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, Daniel [Porsche Motorsport, Weissach (Germany); Hennings, Stephan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugsystemtechnik

    2011-05-15

    Hybrid technology is one of the key technologies for coping with changing future requirements in the area of individual mobility. This technology is already being used in small, mid-size and upper class vehicles and is perceived by the public as environmentally friendly. To date, however, no hybrid drive concepts suitable for mass production have been available for sports cars, such as the Porsche 911. In order to answer questions about the optimum design of hybrid drive systems for high-performance vehicles and about the use of future technologies in motor racing, Porsche Motorsport therefore developed the GT3 R Hybrid. (orig.)

  2. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  3. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  4. 2015 White Paper on recent issues in bioanalysis: focus on new technologies and biomarkers (Part 2 - hybrid LBA/LCMS and input from regulatory agencies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Brad; Neubert, Hendrik; Hughes, Nicola; Garofolo, Fabio; Abberley, Lee; Alley, Stephen C; Brown-Augsburger, Patricia; Bustard, Mark; Chen, Lin-Zhi; Heinrich, Julia; Katori, Noriko; Kaur, Surinder; Kirkovsky, Leo; Laterza, Omar F; Le Blaye, Olivier; Lévesque, Ann; Santos, Gustavo Mendes Lima; Olah, Timothy; Savoie, Natasha; Skelly, Michael; Spitz, Susan; Szapacs, Matthew; Tampal, Nilufer; Wang, Jian; Welink, Jan; Wieling, Jaap; Haidar, Sam; Vinter, Stephen; Whale, Emma; Witte, Bärbel

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 9th Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (9th WRIB) took place in Miami, Florida with participation of over 600 professionals from pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, contract research organizations and regulatory agencies worldwide. It is once again a 5-day week long event - a full immersion bioanalytical week - specifically designed to facilitate sharing, reviewing, discussing and agreeing on approaches to address the most current issues of interest in bioanalysis. The topics covered included both small and large molecules, and involved LCMS, hybrid LBA/LCMS, LBA approaches including the focus on biomarkers and immunogenicity. This 2015 White Paper encompasses recommendations that emerged from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed at providing the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to advance scientific excellence, improve quality and deliver better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2015 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts. Part 2 covers the recommendations for hybrid LBA/LCMS and regulatory agencies' inputs. Part 1 (small molecule bioanalysis using LCMS) and Part 3 (large molecule bioanalysis using LBA, biomarkers and immunogenicity) will be published in volume 7 of Bioanalysis, issues 22 and 24, respectively.

  5. A comparison between molten carbonate fuel cells based hybrid systems using air and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles with state of the art technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, D.; Muñoz de Escalona, J. M.; Chacartegui, R.; Muñoz, A.; Sánchez, T.

    A proposal for high efficiency hybrid systems based on molten carbonate fuel cells is presented in this paper. This proposal is based on adopting a closed cycle bottoming gas turbine using supercritical carbon dioxide as working fluid as opposed to open cycle hot air turbines typically used in this type of power generators. First, both bottoming cycles are compared for the same operating conditions, showing that their performances do not differ as much as initially expected, even if the initial objective of reducing compression work is accomplished satisfactorily. In view of these results, a profound review of research and industrial literature is carried out in order to determine realistic specifications for the principal components of the bottoming systems. From this analysis, it is concluded that an appropriate set of specifications must be developed for each bottoming cycle as the performances of compressor, turbine and recuperator differ significantly from one working fluid to another. Thus, when the operating conditions are updated, the performances of the resulting systems show a remarkable advantage of carbon dioxide based systems over conventional air units. Actually, the proposed hybrid system shows its capability to achieve 60% net efficiency, what represents a 10% increase with respect to the reference system.

  6. Cultivation Technology and Extension Experiences of Hybrid Millet in Ethiopia%杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的栽培技术及推广经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 赵治海

    2012-01-01

    总结了杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的栽培技术,介绍了杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚的推广经验,指出了推广过程中存在的问题,并提出了相应的解决方法,可为杂交谷子在埃塞俄比亚及其他非洲国家的大面积推广种植提供借鉴。%The cult introduced, the pro extension in a large ivation technology of hybrid millet in Ethiopia is summarized, blems and the solution in the extension are pointed out, which area in Ethiopia and other Africa countries. the extension experiences are could provide references for the

  7. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  8. Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retrofitted Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    The scope of this annex is to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex will focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on development...

  9. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  11. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    OpenAIRE

    Philmon George; Krishnan, S; Lalitha Ramachandran; P. M. Varkey; Raveendran, M.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlor...

  12. Braided Composite Technologies for Rotorcraft Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase 2 effort will be used to advance the material and design technologies that were explored in the Phase 1 study of hybrid gears. In this hybrid approach, the...

  13. 时域反相对称与扩频技术的混合技术研究%Hybrid Technology of Time Domain Phase Inversion Symmetric Modulation and Spread Spectrum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青娜; 校江超

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the phase-inversion symmetric and spread spectrum communication, according to the relativity of noise in time domain and the anti-noise theory of time domain phase-inversions hybrid structure of time domain phase-inversion symmetric and spread spectrum is proposed. The simulation and experimental results show that time domain phase-inversion symmetric and spread spectrum system can get higher output SNR and under the same transmission conditions, the phase-inversion symmetric spread spectrum technology is superior to the general spread spectrum technology. This method can find a wide use in mobile communications.%为了实现反相对称扩频通讯技术,根据噪声在时域上的相关性以及反相对称法的抗噪原理,将反相对称法与扩频通信相结合实现了一种新的扩频通信方法.仿真结果表明:时域反相对称扩频技术系统能获得较高的输出信噪比,且在相同的传输条件下,反相对称扩频技术的性能优于一般的扩频技术,该通信方法可以在移动通讯中推广应用.

  14. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  15. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  16. [Cold induced cDNA library construction of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) using suppression subtractive hybridization technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Jia, Jing Fen

    2008-12-01

    Cold-induced genes of highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hk. f.) were studied using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. The cDNA from the materials treated with 4 degrees C was used as "tester", and that from the materials growing in green house (20+/-2 degrees C) as "driver". A subtractive library of highland barley including 640 cDNA clones was constructed in this study. Enzyme digestion of 32 clones chosen randomly from the library indicated that 87.5% of them contained inserts. The cDNA inserts of 16 clones were sequenced. Blast search analyses showed that these cDNAs were homologies to genes encoding the following proteins: metallothionein, protein kinase, ethylene signal transcription factor, bZIP transcription factor, zing finger transcription factor, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, ribosomal protein, sodium: hydrogen antiporter, catalase, NADPH-cytochrome reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, DNA binding protein, and sugar transporter-like protein. These results indicated that the cDNA clones in the library were related to cold-induced genes, and suggested that the cold-tolerant mechanism of highland barley might be a complicated, interactive system involving multiple approaches and genes. Construction of subtractive cDNA library provided an advantage for further studies to isolate and clone cold-induced genes in highland barley.

  17. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  18. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  19. Air Vehicle Integrated and Technology Research (AVIATR). Task Order 0027: Lighter Than Air (LTA) and Hybrid Aircraft Concept Assessment Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report accompanies a new airship advanced design tool called “Advanced Airship Analysis and Design.” This report describes the tool’s...features, explores sizing and performance results for several airship configurations for several missions and outlines the influence of advanced...technologies on these results. The tool may be used to evaluate existing or proposed airship designs. It may also be used to create new designs. The tool

  20. The Application of Artificial Insemination Technology in Distant Hybridization Between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica%人工授精技术在柞蚕与栗蚕远缘杂交中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宿桂梅; 刘凤云; 戚俐; 徐亮; 孟宪民; 焦阳

    2011-01-01

    研究柞蚕(Antheraea pernyi)与栗蚕(Dictyoploca japonica)的人工授精技术,并应用于柞蚕与栗蚕的种间杂交试验,为利用远缘杂交改良柞蚕的经济性状提供试验技术.从种内交配40~60min的柞蚕雌蛾交配囊中采集精子细胞用于对柞蚕处女蛾的人工授精,其受精蛾率为61.5%,受精卵率为70.5%,孵化卵率为60.8%.栗蚕精子可在种内交配40~75 min的雌蛾交配囊中采集.利用单蛾精液授精和单蛾与多蛾精液互补授精的方法,分别获得了栗蚕♀×柞蚕♂的越冬卵和蚁蚕及柞蚕♀×栗蚕♂的活胚胎.试验结果表明,采用初步建立的人工授精技术,可以进行柞蚕与栗蚕的远缘杂交.%In present study, the artificial insemination technique for tussah silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) and camphor silkworm (Dictyoploca japonica) was studied and applied in interspecific hybridization between tussah silkworm and camphor silkworm to improve economic traits of tussah silkworm through distant hybridization. Sperm cells of tussah silkworm were collected from copulatory pouches of female tussah silkworm moths after 40 to 60 min of intraspecific mating and were used to artificially inseminate the unmated tussah silkworm moths, which could lead to 61.5% of moths fertilized, 70.5% of eggs fertilized, and 60.8% of eggs hatched. Sperm cells of camphor silkworm could be collected from copulatory pouches of female camphor silkworm moths after 40 to 75 min of intraspecific mating. By means of insemination with single moth's sperm and complementary insemination with single and multiple moths' sperm, hibernating eggs of camphor silkworm ♀ xtussah silkworm ♂ and live embryos of tussah silkworm ♀ xcamphor silkworm ♂ were obtained respectively. This result indicated that a distant hybridization between Antheraea pernyi and Dictyoploca japonica can be conducted based on the newly established artificial insemination technology.

  1. 阿月浑子杂种幼胚培养技术的研究%Study on hybrid immature embryo culture technology of Pistacia vera L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞曼; 王洁; 董倩; 李旭新; 白志英; 路丙社

    2012-01-01

    以阿月浑子杂种果实和人工授粉后120 d的杂种幼胚为试材,对杂种果实生长发育规律及幼胚培养进行了研究,探讨了冷藏处理时间、不同光照条件和培养时间对幼胚萌发和成苗的影响.结果表明:阿月浑子人工授粉80 d后,单果鲜重和PF值仅为1.27 g和0.24;授粉后100 d,单果鲜重和PF值为1.57g和0.43;授粉后120 d,单果鲜重和PF值为2.81 g和0.80;3种冷藏处理中,以冷藏处理90 d时幼胚萌发及生长效果最好,幼胚萌率为91.67%,平均真叶数为6.09个,平均苗高为4.14 cm;在培养方式上,以黑暗处理后培养20 d效果最好,幼胚萌发率为86.67%,平均真叶数为5.38,平均苗高为4.23 cm.%In this experiment, hybrid fruits and immature embryos of Pistacia vera L.growing for 120 d after artificial pollination, were used as materials,The growth rule and immature embryo culture of pistachio's hybrid fruit were studied. The effects of cold treatment time, different light conditions and culture time on immature embryo development and normal seedling rate were also investigated, indicating that the single-fruit fresh weight and PF value were only 1. 27 g and 0. 24 when growing for 80 d after artificial pollination, reaching 1.57 g and 0. 43 in 100 d after, with the average fruit fresh weight and PF value being 2.81 g and 0. 80 respectively, in 120 d after. The suitable cold treatment time for immature embryo germination and growth is 90 d.the rate of embryo germination is 91. 67%, the average leaf number is 6. 09 and the average seedling height is 4. 14 cm. It was suggested that the best culture way is the dark treatment for 20 d, the rate of embryo germination is 86. 67%, the average leaf number is 5. 38 and the average seedling height is 4. 23 cm.

  2. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  3. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  4. Thermomechanical Testing Techniques for Microcircuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Novolac. (B) Type 2 epoxy is an Anhydride Cured, Bisphenol-A, epoxy TABLE 1-1 Package Classification By Vendor 1-5 analysis on the dual-in-line...C to 125°C), Vendor 2. This nomenclature , derived from Table 1-2, is carried throughout: this and subsequent sections. 4.6.2 Plastic Results

  5. AMYGDALA MICROCIRCUITS CONTROLLING LEARNED FEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvarci, Sevil; Pare, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We review recent work on the role of intrinsic amygdala networks in the regulation of classically conditioned defensive behaviors, commonly known as conditioned fear. These new developments highlight how conditioned fear depends on far more complex networks than initially envisioned. Indeed, multiple parallel inhibitory and excitatory circuits are differentially recruited during the expression versus extinction of conditioned fear. Moreover, shifts between expression and extinction circuits involve coordinated interactions with different regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. However, key areas of uncertainty remain, particularly with respect to the connectivity of the different cell types. Filling these gaps in our knowledge is important because much evidence indicates that human anxiety disorders results from an abnormal regulation of the networks supporting fear learning. PMID:24908482

  6. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  7. Research on supply chain collaboration technology based on hybrid topology%一种混合拓扑结构的供应链协同技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱侃

    2015-01-01

    为克服传统供应链协同技术的不足,研究一种适合供应链参与企业使用的供应链协同技术,即采用混合拓扑结构即星型结构加总线型结构构建供应链协同并进行应用案例分析,其中,采用软件即服务( SaaS)模式实现星型结构,采用企业服务总线( ESB)实现总线型结构。混合拓扑结构的供应链协同技术使供应链参与企业信息系统之间的协同路径最优、信息传输格式标准统一、协同的业务数据代码统一,不但提高了供应链参与企业的协同效率,而且使它们接入供应链的成本降低,应用效果显著。%In order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional supply chain collaboration technol-ogy,a supply chain collaboration technology suitable for enterprises involved in the supply chain is researched. That is to say,the hybrid topology structure,which is a star plus bus structure,is used to build supply chain collaboration and analyze the case. The Software as a Service ( SaaS) mode is used to achieve the star structure,and the Enterprise Service Bus ( ESB) is used to achieve the bus structure. The supply chain collaboration technology based on hybrid topology guarantees the optimal supply chain collaborative path among information systems of enterprises involved in supply chain,the standard and unified information transmission format, and the unified collaborative business code, which not only improves the collaboration efficiency of enterprises involved in the supply chain,but also makes them reduce the cost of access to the supply chain,the application effect is significant.

  8. A hybrid model for the computationally-efficient simulation of the cerebellar granular layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCattani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to efficiently describe the membrane potential dynamics of neural populations formed by species having a high density difference in specific brain areas. We propose a hybrid model whose main ingredients are a conductance-based model (ODE system and its continuous counterpart (PDE system obtained through a limit process in which the number of neurons confined in a bounded region of the brain tissue is sent to infinity. Specifically, in the discrete model, each cell is described by a set of time-dependent variables, whereas in the continuum model, cells are grouped into populations that are described by a set of continuous variables.Communications between populations, which translate into interactions among the discrete and the continuous models, are the essence of the hybrid model we present here. The cerebellum and cerebellum-like structures show in their granular layer a large difference in the relative density of neuronal species making them a natural testing ground for our hybrid model. By reconstructing the ensemble activity of the cerebellar granular layer network and by comparing our results to a more realistic computational network, we demonstrate that our description of the network activity, even though it is not biophysically detailed, is still capable of reproducing salient features of neural network dynamics. Our modeling approach yields a significant computational cost reduction by increasing the simulation speed at least $270$ times. The hybrid model reproduces interesting dynamics such as local microcircuit synchronization, traveling waves, center-surround and time-windowing.

  9. Banana technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Willem D.; Schellekens, E. P. A.; Walravens, C.; Wijlaars, A. P. F.

    1999-09-01

    With 'Banana Technology' an unconventional hybrid fabrication technology is indicated for the production of very large parabolic and hyperbolic cylindrical mirror systems. The banana technology uses elastic bending of very large and thin glass substrates and fixation onto NC milled metal moulds. This technology has matured during the last twenty years for the manufacturing of large telecentric flat-bed scanners. Two construction types, called 'internal banana' and 'external banana; are presented. Optical figure quality requirements in terms of slope and curvature deviations are discussed. Measurements of these optical specifications by means of a 'finishing rod' type of scanning deflectometer or slope tester are presented. Design constraints for bending glass and the advantages of a new process will be discussed.

  10. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  11. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  12. Isolation of genes involved in the preventive effect of electroacupuncture at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) on hypercholesterolemia mice by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjie; Zhang, Yizheng; Yan, Wenqi; Kang, Jinmei; Kang, Yaoxia; Lie, Min

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at Fenglong acupoint (ST40) has the cholesterol-lowering effect in hypercholesterolemia mice. The present study was designed to study preventive effect of EA at ST40 on hypercholesterolemia. C57BL/6j mice were randomly divided into normal group (NG), hypercholesterolemia group (HG) and EA prevention group (EPG). NG were fed chow, HG a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), and EPG the same HD and received EA treatment simultaneously. Lipid profile of both the plasma and liver indicated that EA at ST40 had preventive effect on hypercholesterolemia. Compared with corresponding values in the HG mice, the levels of the hepatic total cholesterol and total triglyceride in the EPG mice lowered 45% and 23% respectively, and the levels of plasma total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol in the EPG mice lowered 39%, 37% and 39% respectively. Eleven genes whose expressions were up-regulated in EPG mice compared with HG were isolated using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with negative subtraction chain (NSC) technology, and then confirmed by dot-blot assay. Except two genes whose functions were still unknown, the others were mainly involved in cholesterol metabolism, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and immune response. The potential molecular mechanism of preventive effect was discussed.

  13. Review and Prospect on Japonica Hybrid Rice Research in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-quan; WANG Shou-hai; WANG De-zheng; LUO Yan-chang; ZHANG Pei-jiang; WU Shuang; DU Shi-yun; XU Chuan-wan

    2005-01-01

    The breeding history and commercial exploitation of japonica hybrid rice in Anhui Province, China over the last threedecades were reviewed. Besides, the bottleneck problems restricting the development of japonica hybrid rice in China weresummarized, and corresponding technological countermeasures were proposed.

  14. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  15. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  16. Algorithms for minimization of charge sharing effects in a hybrid pixel detector taking into account hardware limitations in deep submicron technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Baumbaugh, A.; Deptuch, G.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.

    2012-12-01

    Charge sharing is the main limitation of pixel detectors used in spectroscopic applications, noting that this applies to both time and amplitude/energy spectroscopy. Even though, charge sharing was the subject of many studies, there is still no ultimate solution which could be implemented in the hardware to suppress the negative effects of charge sharing. This is mainly because of strong demand on low power dissipation and small silicon area of a single pixel. The first solution of this problem was proposed by CERN and consequently it was implemented in the Medipix III chip. However, due to pixel-to-pixel threshold dispersions and some imperfections of the simplified algorithm, the hit allocation was not functioning properly. We are presenting novel algorithms which allow proper hit allocation even at the presence of charge sharing. They can be implemented in an integrated circuit using a deep submicron technology. In performed simulations, we assumed not only diffusive charge spread occurring in the course of charge drifting towards the electrodes but also limitations in the readout electronics, i.e. signal fluctuations due to noise and mismatch (gain and offsets). The simulations show that using, for example, a silicon pixel detector in the low X-ray energy range, we have been able to perform proper hit position identification and use the information from summing inter-pixel nodes for spectroscopy measurements.

  17. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  18. A hybrid piezoelectric structure for wearable nanogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minbaek; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Chen, Chih-Yen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China); Cha, Seung Nam; Park, Yong Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chou, Li-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China)

    2012-04-03

    A hybrid-fiber nanogenerator comprising a ZnO nanowire array, PVDF polymer and two electrodes is presented. Depending on the bending or spreading action of the human arm, at an angle of {proportional_to}90 , the hybrid fiber reaches electrical outputs of {proportional_to}0.1 V and {proportional_to}10 nA cm{sup -2}. The unique structure of the hybrid fiber may inspire future research in wearable energy-harvesting technology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  20. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  1. Various challenging aspects of hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, O.; Theil, D.; Saramago, J.; Amand, P. G.; Dauch, F.; Gautier, P.

    2011-10-01

    The hybrid technology appears as an innovative, high performance, and promising propulsion technique in a number of space missions. By combining functions and advantages taken from both solid and liquid propulsion, this technology is expected to provide mainly high performance with throttleability and stop-restart capabilities. The safety conditions of engine operation and design reliability almost similar to solid propulsion increase the interest to this technology. However, the standard fuels (mainly based on a carbon polymer) exhibit low regression rates that require complex grain shapes and low loading ratio. Thanks to a dedicated study supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), SNPE in collaboration with Avio and University of Naples (DIAS department) performed an exhaustive state-of-the-art and a market survey of accomplishments in hybrid propulsion. Based on the resulting tradeoff study on potential future launchers and spacecraft applications, the most promising applications are selected to conduct preliminary designs. These applications can also be seen as the vector of hybrid propulsion development. This study concentrates on hybrid propulsion systems with advanced hybrid fuels for Lander platform and Upper Stage. High throttleability and high propulsive performance associated with stop and restart capability are needed to meet mission requirements for Lander and Upper Stage, respectively. Preliminary design shows the advantages provided by hybrid propulsion: a significant payload mass increase for the upper stage case and a soft landing for the Lander case.

  2. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  3. Next-generation hybridization and introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, A D; Ennos, R A

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has a major role in evolution—from the introgression of important phenotypic traits between species, to the creation of new species through hybrid speciation. Molecular studies of hybridization aim to understand the class of hybrids and the frequency of introgression, detect the signature of ancient hybridization, and understand the behaviour of introgressed loci in their new genomic background. This often involves a large investment in the design and application of molecular markers, leading to a compromise between the depth and breadth of genomic data. New techniques designed to assay a large sub-section of the genome, in association with next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, will allow genome-wide hybridization and introgression studies in organisms with no prior sequence data. These detailed genotypic data will unite the breadth of sampling of loci characteristic of population genetics with the depth of sequence information associated with molecular phylogenetics. In this review, we assess the theoretical and methodological constraints that limit our understanding of natural hybridization, and promote the use of NGS for detecting hybridization and introgression between non-model organisms. We also make recommendations for the ways in which emerging techniques, such as pooled barcoded amplicon sequencing and restriction site-associated DNA tags, should be used to overcome current limitations, and enhance our understanding of this evolutionary significant process. PMID:21897439

  4. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  5. Hybrid heat pump technoloy for industrial waste heat; Concept hybride warmtepomp. Meer Industriele restwarmte herbruikbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; Van den Heuvel, K. [Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Infante Ferreira, C. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    ECN has recently started research on a hybrid adsorption-compression heat transformer concept. Using this technology low-temperature waste heat can be reused, yielding considerable primary energy savings. A study in cooperation with the Delft University of Technology shows the hybrid technology can already be used with waste heat temperatures of 70C, e.g. in the drying process in a paper factory. The technology is also economically feasible. [Dutch] ECN is onlangs begonnen met onderzoek naar hybride adsorptiecompressie warmtetransformatoren. Deze technologie kan worden gebruikt om restwarmte op te waarderen naar nuttige warmte. Hiermee kunnen grote besparingen worden behaald op primair energiegebruik. Een studie uitgevoerd in samenwerking met de TU Delft toont aan dat deze technologie bruikbaar is met restwarmte vanaf 70C, bijvoorbeeld van een papierfabfiek. Naast technologisch is de technologie ook economisch haalbaar gebleken.

  6. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0154 Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites Gregory Odegard MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final Report...SUBTITLE Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0030 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Final Report Multiscale Modeling of Graphite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites Grant FA9550-13-1-0030 PI

  8. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  9. 杂交鳢风味鱼皮ClO2冷杀菌及加工工艺的研究%Study on ClO2 Cold Sterilization and Processing Technology of Hybrid Snakehead Flavor Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜慧燕; 邹礼根; 赵芸; 刘军波

    2013-01-01

    以杂交鳢鱼皮为原料,在分析其营养价值的基础上,研究鱼皮ClO2冷杀菌技术及风味鱼皮的加工工艺.结果表明:鱼皮原料经50mg/kg ClO2溶液浸泡10~15 min,可有效降低原始菌落的数量;采用复合天然香辛料配制成的去腥剂,可有效去除鱼皮中的土腥味;鱼皮预处理后,再经沸水烫漂15~25 s,冰水浸泡3 min,并在添加有泡椒的盐水和糟卤(按1∶1(V∶V)比例混合)腌渍液中腌渍4h后,即得爽滑脆嫩、酸辣鲜香的风味鱼皮产品.%Taking the hybrid snakehead skin as raw material, the ClO2 cold sterilization technology of fish skin and processing technology of flavor fish skin were studied on the basis of analysis of its nutritional value. The results showed that, the bacteria number of fish skin decreased significantly after the fish skin was treated by 50 mg/kg C1O2 for 10~15 min. The fishy smell could be removed effectively by using composite natural spices. The process conditions for flavor fish skin were as follows: the pretreatment fish skin blanched in boiled water for 15~25 s, immersed in ice-water for 3 min, pickled in brine and zaolu mixture (V:V=1:1) which adding pickled pepper for 4 h. The flavor fish skin tasted smoothly and crisply, and had sour and hot flavor.

  10. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  11. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  12. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  14. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  15. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  16. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  17. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that

  18. Online and Hybrid Water Industry Courses for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    The Water Quality Management Technology department at Red Rocks Community College in Denver, CO received a National Science Foundation grant and converted 24 courses from a face-to-face format to online and hybrid formats. The courses were converted to meet a growing employment need within the water industry. The online and hybrid options gave…

  19. Real-world environmental performance of hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Foster, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    With the further development and market introduction of hybrid vehicle technologies in recent years we are now at a stage where we can test whether the proclaimed advantages of hybrid propulsion in terms of fuel efficiency and emission reduction are actually realised. An important issue is that sign

  20. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  1. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Deformable Membrane Mirror for Lightweight, Large Aperture and Cryogenic Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes innovative hybrid electrostatic/flextensional membrane deformable mirror capable of large amplitude aberration correction for large...

  2. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  3. Modeling hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Alessandro; Filippetti, Alessio; Caddeo, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    The topical review describes the recent progress in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics simulations. Hybrid perovskites and in particular methylammonium lead halide (MAPI) have a tremendous technological relevance representing the fastest-advancing solar material to date. They also represent the paradigm of an organic-inorganic crystalline material with some conceptual peculiarities: an inorganic semiconductor for what concerns the electronic and absorption properties with a hybrid and solution processable organic-inorganic body. After briefly explaining the basic concepts of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics, the model potential recently developed for hybrid perovskites is described together with its physical motivation as a simple ionic model able to reproduce the main dynamical properties of the material. Advantages and limits of the two strategies (either ab initio or classical) are discussed in comparison with the time and length scales (from pico to microsecond scale) necessary to comprehensively study the relevant properties of hybrid perovskites from molecular reorientations to electrocaloric effects. The state-of-the-art of the molecular dynamics modeling of hybrid perovskites is reviewed by focusing on a selection of showcase applications of methylammonium lead halide: molecular cations disorder; temperature evolution of vibrations; thermally activated defects diffusion; thermal transport. We finally discuss the perspectives in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

  4. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  5. Modeling hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Alessandro; Filippetti, Alessio; Caddeo, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    The topical review describes the recent progress in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics simulations. Hybrid perovskites and in particular methylammonium lead halide (MAPI) have a tremendous technological relevance representing the fastest-advancing solar material to date. They also represent the paradigm of an organic-inorganic crystalline material with some conceptual peculiarities: an inorganic semiconductor for what concerns the electronic and absorption properties with a hybrid and solution processable organic-inorganic body. After briefly explaining the basic concepts of ab initio and classical molecular dynamics, the model potential recently developed for hybrid perovskites is described together with its physical motivation as a simple ionic model able to reproduce the main dynamical properties of the material. Advantages and limits of the two strategies (either ab initio or classical) are discussed in comparison with the time and length scales (from pico to microsecond scale) necessary to comprehensively study the relevant properties of hybrid perovskites from molecular reorientations to electrocaloric effects. The state-of-the-art of the molecular dynamics modeling of hybrid perovskites is reviewed by focusing on a selection of showcase applications of methylammonium lead halide: molecular cations disorder; temperature evolution of vibrations; thermally activated defects diffusion; thermal transport. We finally discuss the perspectives in the modeling of hybrid perovskites by molecular dynamics.

  6. Using a Hybrid Approach for a Leadership Cohort Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Maxine A.

    2013-01-01

    Because information technology continues to change rapidly, Extension is challenged with learning and using technology appropriately. We assert Extension cannot shy away from the challenges but must embrace technology because audiences and external forces demand it. A hybrid, or blended, format of a leadership cohort program was offered to public…

  7. Clinical Role of Hybrid Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Edward M; Ali, Bilal; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2010-10-01

    Recent technological advances have fueled the growth in hybrid radionuclide and CT imaging of the heart. Noninvasive imaging studies are reliable means to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), stratify risk, and guide clinical management. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a robust, widely available noninvasive modality for the evaluation of ischemia from known or suspected CAD. Cardiac CT (coronary artery calcium score and coronary CT angiography) has emerged as a clinically robust noninvasive anatomic imaging test, capable of rapidly diagnosing or excluding obstructive CAD. Both anatomic and functional modalities have strengths and weaknesses, and can complement each other by offering integrated structural and physiologic information. As we discuss below, in selected patients, hybrid imaging may facilitate more accurate diagnosis, risk stratification, and management in a "one-stop shop" setting.

  8. Segmented Hybrid Gasostatic Bearing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research-development of methods of numerical optimization rotatable support pads gasostatic hybrid bearing. In the world‘s aerospace engineering the gas-dynamic bearings are currently most common. They are characterized by the supporting layer of different designs, which ensures the workability of the rotors during starts and stops. The main problem of this bearing type, apart from the construction complexity is the wear of this supporting layer. Gas-static bearing has no such defect, since there is no physical contact between solid surfaces. This study presents the results of the hybrid bearing’s calculation, combining both technologies. The slotted nozzle of non-conventional shape that mirrors the solution of Reynolds equation’s isoline is studied. The dependences of the main parameters on the speed of the shaft’s rotation are discussed. The aerodynamic resistance of pads for different regimes of operation is investigated.

  9. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  10. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  11. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  12. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  13. Hybrid process technologies in the financial sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Marquard, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    Danish mortgage credit institutes deal with highly variable and knowledgeintensive processes. At the same time these processes are required to be strictly conformant to current regulations and laws. In addition different divisions of the business are interested in different views on the same proc...

  14. Hybrid process technologies in the financial sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Marquard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Danish mortgage credit institutes deal with highly variable and knowledgeintensive processes. At the same time these processes are required to be strictly conformant to current regulations and laws. In addition different divisions of the business are interested in different views on the same...

  15. Extreme Environment Hybrid Gearbox Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocketstar Robotics proposes the development of a gearbox that uses all ball rolling contact for the highest loaded output gear reduction stage(s), is dry film...

  16. Introduction to microarray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufva, Martin

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays can be used for large number of application where high-throughput is needed. The ability to probe a sample for hundred to million different molecules at once has made DNA microarray one of the fastest growing techniques since its introduction about 15 years ago. Microarray technology can be used for large scale genotyping, gene expression profiling, comparative genomic hybridization and resequencing among other applications. Microarray technology is a complex mixture of numerous technology and research fields such as mechanics, microfabrication, chemistry, DNA behaviour, microfluidics, enzymology, optics and bioinformatics. This chapter will give an introduction to each five basic steps in microarray technology that includes fabrication, target preparation, hybridization, detection and data analysis. Basic concepts and nomenclature used in the field of microarray technology and their relationships will also be explained.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CODOMINANT MARKERS FOR IDENTIFYING SPECIES HYBRIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein we describe a simple method for developing species-diagnostic markers that would permit the rapid identification of hybrid individuals. Our method relies on amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technologies, both of which...

  18. Shifting Process Control of AMT Based on Virtual Clutch Technology for Hybrid Electric Vehicle%基于“虚拟离合器”的混合动力车辆AMT换挡过程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文臣; 胡宇辉; 于会龙; 席军强; 陈慧岩

    2014-01-01

    Automatic mechanical transmission(AMT) is the core plant of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric system, whose acceleration, economy, lifetime and reliability largely depend on the rapid, accurate control of AMT’s shifting process. The shifting process control of AMT based on virtual clutch technology is proposed and above all, the five sequential process of the mentioned method are expounded in detail, in which the primary control problems of every stage are put forward. According to the system’s structure, the dynamic model considering the driving shaft’s torsional vibration in the drivetrain is built up and the approximate mathematical model of the transmitted torque in AMT that can be used in shifting process control is deduced. This model is validated in trial that it can control the torque transmitted in AMT and weaken the oscillation of the output shaft’s rotate speed after shifting into neutral gear. Vehicle trial shows that virtual clutch technology aimed at zero torque transmitted in transmission is able to apply on the shifting process control of AMT. The application of this technology can realize the gear shift of AMT without clutch manipulation, effectively decrease the time of power interrupt during shifting process, reduce the oscillation of vehicle speed and improve the shifting quality of AMT system.%自动机械变速器(Automaticmechanicaltransmission,AMT)是单轴并联混合动力系统中的核心部件,对其换挡过程的快速、精确控制直接决定着混合动力系统的加速性、经济性、使用寿命以及可靠性。一种基于“虚拟离合器”技术的混合动力系统AMT换挡过程控制方法可以充分保证其性能。该方法的五个时序进行详细论述,并分别提出各个阶段的核心控制问题。基于该单轴并联混合动力系统的结构特点,建立以考虑传动系统中驱动轴扭转振动特性的动力学模型,在此基础上,推导出可用于换挡过程控制

  19. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  20. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  1. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  2. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  3. HD Diesel Hybrid Truck Powertrain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    These are typically connected through a power take-off on the transmission or in the drivetrain . - Other trucks such as over-the-road tractors need...technologies for MD and HD trucks and buses that may be provided as options for customers. • Hydraulic Hybrid drivetrains - uses a pressurized

  4. Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.

  5. Research of IDSS Architecture Based on Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biao; YANG Bao-an

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the necessity of building IDSS on hybrid systems, and adopts XML technology to manage isomeric knowledge in hybrid systems. The paper proposes a new architecture of hybrid systems based IDSS whose core system is isomeric knowledge system. The architecture is composed of knowledge component, problems processing system, data component and intelligent user interface. This new architecture aims to enhance the capability of integrating hybrid systems, to improve the supporting effectiveness of decision-making and the intelligent level of IDSS, and tries a new way to elevate the system's ability of handling and learning knowledge.

  6. Regression Rate Study in HTPB/GOX Hybrid Rocket Motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philmon George

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimenIal studies on hybrid rocket motor combustion research are briefly reviewed and the need for a clear understanding of hybrid rocket fuel regression rate mechanism is brought out. A test facility established at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, for hybrid rocket motor research study is described.The results of an experimental study on hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene and gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor are presented. Fuel grains with ammonium perchlorate "additive" have shownenhanced oxidizermass flux dependence. Smallergrains have higher regression rates than those of the larger ones.

  7. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  8. In The Presence of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    In a hybrid synchronous classroom that includes both on line and on campus students, technology plays a big part in the teaching. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss how the transparency of technology affects opportunities for the students to interact and for the teacher to be present...... is concerned with the influence of technology in the classroom on-campus seen in the teacher’s perspective when the technology is visible as a camera placed in front of him and the teaching is recorded and distributed to the e-students at home. This setting makes him very aware of his teaching performance...... in different hybrid settings. In order to do so, the paper focuses on three concepts of the human-technology relation. The first is embodiment of technology i.e. when technology almost transparently extends and/or enhances the human perception. The second concept, technological transformation of teaching...

  9. In the Presence of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In a hybrid synchronous classroom that includes both on line and on campus students, technology plays a big part in the teaching. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss how the transparency of technology affects opportunities for the students to interact and for the teacher....... The last concept is concerned with the influence of technology in the classroom on-campus seen in the teacher’s perspective when the technology is visible as a camera placed in front of him and the teaching is recorded and distributed to the e-students at home. This setting makes him very aware of his...... to be present in different hybrid settings. In order to do so, the paper focuses on three concepts of the human-technology relation. The first is embodiment of technology i.e. when technology almost transparently extends and/or enhances the human perception. The second concept, technological transformation...

  10. In The Presence of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2013-01-01

    In a hybrid synchronous classroom that includes both on line and on campus students, technology plays a big part in the teaching. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss how the transparency of technology affects opportunities for the students to interact and for the teacher to be present...... is concerned with the influence of technology in the classroom on-campus seen in the teacher’s perspective when the technology is visible as a camera placed in front of him and the teaching is recorded and distributed to the e-students at home. This setting makes him very aware of his teaching performance...... in different hybrid settings. In order to do so, the paper focuses on three concepts of the human-technology relation. The first is embodiment of technology i.e. when technology almost transparently extends and/or enhances the human perception. The second concept, technological transformation of teaching...

  11. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  12. Fourth of The Reports for Satelite Navigation Patent Analysis——Satelite navigation hybrid location technology(Ⅰ)%卫星导航专利分析报告之四──卫星导航混合定位技术(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石蕊; 刘清泉; 丁文佳

    2015-01-01

    集成全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)和地面网络的卫星导航混合定位技术是定位技术发展的重要分支.本文以大量精确的数据统计为基础,全面呈现了全球及国内卫星导航混合定位专利申请的态势、申请人特点及技术分支分布,并以专利信息为切入点,对其产业现状和技术发展路线进行梳理.%Satellite navigation hybrid location technology which integrating Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) and ground network is a important branch of location technology. Based on masses of precise data statistics, this paper comprehensively presents patent application situation for Satellite navigation hybrid location technology, applicant characteristics, as well as technical branch distribution in China and all over the world. Furthermore, it reviews its current status in industry and technical development route with patent information as an entry point.

  13. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  14. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  15. Potentials of Hybrid Maize Varieties for Small-holder Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobias

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... economy and adoption of hybrid technology by small-scale farmers would have the potential to ... technologies are still rarely used by Kenya's small-scale farmers, particularly by those ...... Kenya. Michigan State University.

  16. Technology Matters - When new technology reshape innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    not to be managed in the sense that aims, instruments and resources are unclear. It is observed that new technology is adopted with a limited scope and fo-cus – often to solve a particular technical problem e.g. the quality of specifica-tion are too low. For a single reason a new technology is introduced within...... the firm, which over time becomes a source of innovation. However, through adoption of this new technology firms engage in a mu-tual learning and forming process where the firm learn by using the new technol-ogy. When learning, the firm and the new technology is mutually formed as the firm tries to adopt...... learning. As the possibilities of the new hybrid tech-nology are recognised a new strategy based on the new hybrid technology is formed trying to exploit its advantages. The paper uses a number of case studies in firms implementing product configuration systems to substantiate these claims. It has been...

  17. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  18. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  19. Polymer optical motherboard technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, N.; Yao, H.; Zawadzki, C.; Grote, N.; Schell, M.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, different hybridly integrated optical devices including optical multiplexer/ demultiplexer and optical transceivers are described. The devices were made using polymer planar light wave circuit (P2LC) technology. Laser diodes, photodiodes, and thin-film filters have been integrated. Key issues involved in this technology, in particular the coupling between laser diodes and polymer waveguides, and between waveguides and photodiodes and also fibers are discussed.

  20. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  1. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  2. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  3. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  6. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  7. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  8. Electromechanical Energy Transduction for Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Vanja, Sridhar; Kelly, Michael W.; Caruso, A. N.

    2010-03-01

    Hybrid vehicle technology seeks to reduce the total energy consumption used for vehicle locomotion by recovering and reutilizing kinetic energy that is otherwise unrecovered or dissipated in conventional vehicle deceleration. The goal of the work is to determine the transduction mechanisms that work towards a Carnot efficiency without considering constraints or limitations placed by cost or materials. Specifically, this talk will present ideal thermodynamic models of energy exchange between mechanical, electrostatic, electromechanical and electrochemical devices with a goal of projecting an ideal hybrid vehicle.

  9. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  11. Critical Resources for Emerging Battery Technologies for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. Proceedings of the International Conference “ISWA World Solid Waste Congress”, 17th - 19th September 2012, Florence, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Nyander, Nils Christian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    such as photovoltaics, wind turbines, electric and hybrid cars are, however, in turn dependent on other non- renewable resources such as metals which may become scarce in the future. The concept of ‘critical resources’ is in this context is an expression of how limited or constrained the supply of a resource...

  12. Hybrid yarn for thermoplastic fibre composites. Summary of technical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lystrup, Aa.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of the technical results obtained within the framework program: `Hybrid Yarn for Thermoplastic Fibre Composites`. The program which started at the 15th of June 1994 and expired at the 31st of December 1997, was a framework program under the Danish Materials Technology Program, MUP2. A new type of hybrid yarn for production of fibre composites with thermoplastic matrix material is developed and tested. A hybrid yarn is a commingled textured yarn consisting of structural fibres and thermoplastic fibres. In a subsequent heating and consolidation process the plastic fibres melt and become the matrix material in the formed fibre composite material. Two types of processing technology are developed and studied: Vacuum consolidation and press consolidation. Vacuum consolidation of hybrid yarn fabrics is suitable for fabrication of larger parts such as wind turbine blades, and press consolidation is a fast process suitable for smaller parts such as automobile body parts. To demonstrate the potential for industrial use of the developed hybrid yarn and process technologies a section of a wind turbine blade, an inspection cover and a car door-post have been produced. An environmental evaluation of the manufacture of hybrid yarn and composites shows that the use of the hybrid yarn is a gain for both the working environment and the external environment, compared to the use of thermosetting polymer composites. (au)

  13. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  14. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  15. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  16. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  17. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  18. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  19. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Heather; Park, Haram; Paolini, Maion

    2012-04-23

    Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this "hybrid premium" is the cost of the vehicles' batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  20. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil. PMID:22540987

  1. Preliminary Study on Mechanized Cultivation Technologies of Male Parent in Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice Seed Production%籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆惠斌; 马寅超

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduced the trials and demonstration of male parent machine transplanting and machine harvesting in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed production in Ningbo City about four years. The costs and seed yield of male parent with different cultivation method were analyzed, and put forward the mechanized cultivation techniques of male parent in indica-japonica hybrid rice seed pro-duction.%介绍了宁波市4年来籼粳杂交水稻制种父本机插机收的试验示范情况,分析比较了父本机插机收与人工插种收割的成本和制种产量,提出了杂交水稻父本机插机收的配套栽培技术。

  2. Hybrid discourse practice and science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberelis, George; Wehunt, Mary D.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call hybrid discourse practices) were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students (and the teacher) to construct emergent but increasingly legitimate and dynamic disciplinary knowledges and identities. Our findings are important for the ways in which they demonstrate (a) how students use hybrid discourse practices to self-scaffold their work within complex curricular tasks and when they are not completely sure about how to enact these tasks (b) how hybrid discourse practices can promote inquiry orientations to science, (c) how hybrid discourse practices index new and powerful forms of science pedagogy, and (d) how hybrid discourse practices are relevant to more global issues such as the crucial roles of language fluency and creativity, which are known prerequisites for advanced science learning and which aid students in developing skills that are necessary for entry into science and technology careers.

  3. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  4. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  5. Hybrid energy harvesting using active thermal backplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the concept of a new hybrid energy harvesting system by combing solar cells with magneto-thermoelectric generator (MTG, i.e., thermal energy harvesting). The silicon solar cell can easily reach high temperature under normal operating conditions. Thus the heated solar cell becomes rapidly less efficient as the temperature of solar cell rises. To increase the efficiency of the solar cell, air or water-based cooling system is used. To surpass conventional cooling devices requiring additional power as well as large working space for air/water collectors, we develop a new technology of pairing an active thermal backplane (ATB) to solar cell. The ATB design is based on MTG technology utilizing the physics of the 2nd order phase transition of active ferromagnetic materials. The MTG is cost-effective conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and is fundamentally different from Seebeck TEG devices. The ATB (MTG) is in addition to being an energy conversion system, a very good conveyor of heat through both conduction and convection. Therefore, the ATB can provide dual-mode for the proposed hybrid energy harvesting. One is active convective and conductive cooling for heated solar cell. Another is active thermal energy harvesting from heat of solar cell. These novel hybrid energy harvesting device have potentially simultaneous energy conversion capability of solar and thermal energy into electricity. The results presented can be used for better understanding of hybrid energy harvesting system that can be integrated into commercial applications.

  6. The International Energy Agency's implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed implementing agreements and programs developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for hybrid and electric vehicles. The agreement was designed to provide an international platform for the coordination of ideas, themes, and technologies related to hybrid and electric vehicles. Industries, governments, and users must also communicate to ensure the successful deployment of new technologies, laws and incentives. International collaboration programs will lower the cost for implementing new technologies in addition to enhancing information exchange. The IEA's Hybrid Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) program was designed to promote pre-competitive research projects and provide information on hybrid vehicles and their impacts on energy efficiency and the environment. Annex groups related to the program include: (1) an information exchange on HEV technologies and programs; (2) an annex on hybrid electric vehicles; (3) clean city vehicles; (4) electrochemical systems; (5) electric cycles; (6) heavy-duty hybrid vehicles; (7) fuel cells for vehicles; and (8) deployment of HEVs. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Annex Group was established in 1994 to exchange information and prepare a series of reports on subjects related to components for hybrid vehicles, as well as on topics related to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A new annex group has been proposed to study advanced battery technologies, policy issues, charging, marketability, and group administration. It was concluded that the group will report on progress and make all its research and findings available. Details of the IEA structure and governing board were provided. 6 figs.

  7. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk

  8. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  9. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  10. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  11. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  12. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  13. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  14. Design of a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanBiao; JIN ZhenLin; JI ShiMing

    2009-01-01

    Parameter optimization for a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was presented by using a statistics method called the statistics parameters optimization method based on index atlases.Several kinematics and mechanics performance evaluation indices were proposed and discussed,according to the kinematics and mechanics analyses of the mechanical arm.Considering the assembly technique,a prototype of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was developed,which provided a basis for applications of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm.The novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm can be applied to the modern industrial fields requiring high stiffness,lower inertia and good technological efficiency.A novel 6-DOF hybrid humanoid mechanical arm was built,in which the present mechanical arm was connected with a spherical 3-DOF parallel manipulator.

  15. Yeast Two-Hybrid: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Criekinge Wim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome projects are approaching completion and are saturating sequence databases. This paper discusses the role of the two-hybrid system as a generator of hypotheses. Apart from this rather exhaustive, financially and labour intensive procedure, more refined functional studies can be undertaken. Indeed, by making hybrids of two-hybrid systems, customised approaches can be developed in order to attack specific function-related problems. For example, one could set-up a "differential" screen by combining a forward and a reverse approach in a three-hybrid set-up. Another very interesting project is the use of peptide libraries in two-hybrid approaches. This could enable the identification of peptides with very high specificity comparable to "real" antibodies. With the technology available, the only limitation is imagination.

  16. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid vehicle systems available in market and under development. Hybrid vehicle technology is a new area and developed rapidly in the field of automotive and mechanical engineering. Students need not only the fundamentals and concepts from college, but also the ability to keep up with the latest technology after their graduation. Therefore, a blended course type is employed to help students have a better understanding of the fundamentals of hybrid vehicle and developing their self-studying ability. Topics in the course have three steps of learning. Firstly, on-ground lecture is given in class, where the instructor explains basic knowledge, such as principles, equations, and design rules.  In this way, the students will have enough background knowledge and be able to conduct further self-reading and research work. Secondly, students are required to go to university’s desire to learn (D2L online system and finish the online part of the topic. In the D2L system, students will find a quiz and its supporting materials. Thirdly, students come back to the on-ground lecture and discuss the quiz in groups with instructor. After the discussion, the instructor gives students a conclusion of the topic and moves forward to the next topic. A computer simulation class is also given to help student better understand the operation strategies of the hybrid vehicle systems and have a trial of design of hybrid vehicle.

  17. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  18. The electronics hybrid of the ATLAS-SCT endcap detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterer, C

    2004-01-01

    An electronics hybrid has been developed for the ATLAS silicon microstrip tracker endcaps. The high-density interconnect board carries 12 readout ASICs, as well as ASICs for the optical data transmission. Special requirements are that this hybrid has to be double sided, radiation hard, and low mass. A six-layer flexible circuit in copper-polyimide technology has been chosen for this purpose. It is folded around a highly heat conducting carbon-carbon composite substrate to form the rigid double-sided hybrid. Adequate thermal, mechanical, and electrical performance of the hybrid has been demonstrated. The production of the hybrids started in May 2003. (12 refs).

  19. Identifying Advanced Technologies for Education's Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gwendolyn B.; Yin, Robert K.

    A study to determine how three advanced technologies might be applied to the needs of special education students helped inspire the development of a new method for identifying such applications. This new method, named the "Hybrid Approach," combines features of the two traditional methods: technology-push and demand-pull. Technology-push involves…

  20. Recent Developments in Abrasive Hybrid Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszaj Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent dynamic development of abrasive hybrid manufacturing processes results from application of a new difficult for machining materials and improvement of technological indicators of manufacturing processes already applied in practice. This tendency also occurs in abrasive machining processes which are often supported by ultrasonic vibrations, electrochemical dissolution or by electrical discharges. In the paper we present the review of new results of investigations and new practical applications of Abrasive Electrodischarge (AEDM and Electrochemical (AECM Machining.

  1. Wind-solar Hybrid Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the development and utilization of new energy sources, the solar energy and wind energy are paid more attention by various countries, and have become a new field of energy development and utilization of the highest level, the most mature technology, the most widely used and commercial development conditions for new energy. But both the traditional wind power system and solar power system have the characteristic of energy instability. Therefore, wind-solar hybrid power system was proposed i...

  2. Military Hybrid Vehicle Optimization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    and energy security, as well as reduce overall energy u ’C the concept of a microgrid has been introduced [7 ]. A microgricl is defined as an...vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has been show to have the ability to upport the microgrid ru a source, but also a storage device for excess energy [9...understood. The scope of this proposal includes introducing the concept of regarding a military hybrid vehicle as a microgrid and utilizing battery state

  3. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  4. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  5. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  6. MCM-C Multichip Module Manufacturing Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, R.J.; Kautz, D.R.; Galichia, J.V.

    2000-11-20

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) provides complete microcircuit capabilities from design layout through manufacturing and final electrical testing. Manufacturing and testing capabilities include design layout, electrical and mechanical computer simulation and modeling, circuit analysis, component analysis, network fabrication, microelectronic assembly, electrical tester design, electrical testing, materials analysis, and environmental evaluation. This document provides manufacturing guidelines for multichip module-ceramic (MCM-C) microcircuits. Figure 1 illustrates an example MCM-C configuration with the parts and processes that are available. The MCM-C technology is used to manufacture microcircuits for electronic systems that require increased performance, reduced volume, and higher density that cannot be achieved by the standard hybrid microcircuit or printed wiring board technologies. The guidelines focus on the manufacturability issues that must be considered for low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) network fabrication and MCM assembly and the impact that process capabilities have on the overall MCM design layout and product yield. Prerequisites that are necessary to initiate the MCM design layout include electrical, mechanical, and environmental requirements. Customer design data can be accepted in many standard electronic file formats. Other requirements include schedule, quantity, cost, classification, and quality level. Design considerations include electrical, network, packaging, and producibility; and deliverables include finished product, drawings, documentation, and electronic files.

  7. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  10. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  11. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  12. Design automation for complex CMOS/SOS LSI hybrid substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramondetta, P. W.; Smiley, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A design automated approach used to develop thick-film hybrid packages is described. The hybrid packages produced combine thick-film and silicon on sapphire (SOS) laser surface interaction technologies to bring the on-chip performance level of SOS to the subsystem level. Packing densities are improved by a factor of eight over ceramic dual in-line packing; interchip wiring capacitance is low. Due to significant time savings, the design automated approach presented can be expected to yield a 3:1 reduction in cost over the use of manual methods for the initial design of a hybrid.

  13. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  14. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  15. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  16. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  17. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  18. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  19. Contextualization and technologies in the Biology and Chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozana Gomes de Abreu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Biology and Chemistry school textbooks to understand how conceptions of contextualization and technologies are overtaken and hybridized. We consider that textbooks produce meanings (senses and signifieds in curricular policies. These are cultural productions that were hybridized and recontextualized according to Basil Bernstein and Stephen Ball. We argue that the focus on contextualization and technologies expressed in those textbooks are hybridized from several influences and they do not represent a consensus about those conceptions.

  20. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.