WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid membrane system

  1. Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment that synergistically combines a forward osmosis system with a membrane distillation technology and is powered by waste heat.

  2. Hybrid membrane contactor system for creating semi-breathing air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, D. V.

    2012-02-01

    Typically, the equipment to create an artificial climate does not involve changing the composition of the respiratory air. In particular in medical institutions assumes the existence of plant of artificial climate and disinfection in operating rooms and intensive care wards. The use of a hybrid membrane-absorption systems for the generation of artificial atmospheres are improving the respiratory system, blood is enriched or depleted of various gases, resulting in increased stamina, there is a better, faster or slower metabolism, improves concentration and memory. Application of the system contributes to easy and rapid recovery after the operation. By adding a special component, with drug activity, air ionization, and adjust its composition, you can create a special, more favorable for patients with the atmosphere. These factors allow for the treatment and rehabilitation of patients and reduce mortality of heavy patients.

  3. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, B.S.; Capão, D.P.S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration-nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized u...

  4. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Natural Organic Matter Removal and Fouling in a Low Pressure Hybrid Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Uyak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate powdered activated carbon (PAC contribution to natural organic matter (NOM removal by a submerged MF and UF hybrid systems. It was found that filtration of surface waters by a bare MF and UF membranes removed negligible TOC; by contrast, significant amounts of TOC were removed when daily added PAC particles were predeposited on the membrane surfaces. These results support the assumption that the membranes surface properties and PAC layer structure might have considerably influential factor on NOM removal. Moreover, it was concluded that the dominant removal mechanism of hybrid membrane system is adsorption of NOM within PAC layer rather than size exclusion of NOM by both of membrane pores. Transmembrane pressure (TMP increases with PAC membrane systems support the view that PAC adsorption pretreatment will not prevent the development of membrane pressure; on the contrary, PAC particles themselves caused membrane fouling by blocking the entrance of pores of MF and UF membranes. Although all three source waters have similar HPI content, it appears that the PAC interaction with the entrance of membrane pores was responsible for offsetting the NOM fractional effects on membrane fouling for these source waters.

  7. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Chad L [Albuquerque, NM; Vaughn, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM; Miller, A Keith [Albuquerque, NM; Cornelius, Christopher J [Blackburg, VA

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  8. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  9. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal

    2017-02-17

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  10. Nutrient utilization and oxygen production by Chlorella Vulgaris in a hybrid membrane bioreactor and algal membrane photobioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Yasmeen Hani Kamal; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    This work studied oxygen production and nutrient utilization by Chlorella Vulgaris at different organic/inorganic carbon (OC/IC) and ammonium/nitrate (NH4+-N/NO3--N) ratios to design a hybrid aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) and membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) system. Specific oxygen production by C. vulgaris was enough to support the MBR if high growth is accomplished. Nearly 100% removal (or utilization) of PO43--P and IC was achieved under all conditions tested. Optimal growth was achieved at mixotrophic carbon conditions (0.353 d-1) and the highest NH4+-N concentration (0.357 d-1), with preferable NH4+-N utilization rather than NO3--N. The results indicate the potential of alternative process designs to treat domestic wastewater by coupling the hybrid MBR - MPBR systems.

  11. A New Hybrid Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cells-Battery Power System with Efficiencies Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chung-Hsing; Shieh, Jenn-Jong

    Hybrid systems, based on lead-acid or lithium-ion batteries and proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), give the possibility of combining the benefit of both technologies. The merits of high energy density and power density for different applications are discussed in this paper in recognition of the practical realization of such hybrid power systems. Furthermore, experimental data for such a hybrid system is described and the results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries and PEMFCs shows advantages in cases of applications with high peak power requirements, such as electric scooters and applications where the fuel cell (FC) is used as an auxiliary power-supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of FCs operating with a partial load results in a good fuel economy for the purpose of recharging batteries within a FC system.

  12. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Choi, Young Chul [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hendren, Zachary [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kim, Gyu Dong [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-03-31

    In the U.S. manufacturing sector, current industrial water use practices are energy-intensive and utilize and discharge high volumes of waters, rendering them not sustainable especially in light of the growing scarcity of suitable water supplies. To help address this problem, the goal of this project was to develop an advanced, cost-effective, hybrid membrane-based water treatment system that can improve the energy efficiency of industrial wastewater treatment while allowing at least 50% water reuse efficiency. This hybrid process would combine emerging Forward Osmosis (FO) and Membrane Distillation (MD) technology components into an integrated FO-MD system that can beneficially utilize low-grade waste heat (i.e., T < 450 °F) in industrial facilities to produce distilled-quality product water for reuse. In this project, laboratory-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments on the hybrid FO-MD system were conducted for industrial wastewater treatment. It was demonstrated at laboratory, bench, and pilot scales that FO-MD membrane technology can concentrate brine to very high total dissolved solids (TDS) levels (>200,000 ppm) that are at least 2.5 times higher than the TDS level to which RO can achieve. In laboratory testing, currently available FO and MD membranes were tested to select for high-performing membranes with high salt rejection and high water flux. Multiple FO membrane/draw-salt solution combinations that gave high water flux with higher than 98% salt rejection were also identified. Reverse draw-salt fluxes were observed to be much lower for divalent salts than for monovalent salts. MD membranes were identified that had 99.9+% salt rejection and water flux as high as 50-90 L/(m2·h) for flat-sheet membranes and >20 L/(m2·h) for hollow fibers. In bench-scale testing, a single unit of commercially available FO and MD membrane modules were evaluated for continuous, integrated operation. Using the laboratory- and bench-scale test data

  13. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  14. Treatment of coal gasification wastewater by membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhao, Qian

    2014-12-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor hybrid powdered activated carbon (MBR–PAC) system was developed to treat coal gasification wastewater to enhance the COD, total phenols (TPh), NH4+ removals and migrate the membrane fouling. Since the MBR–PAC system operated with PAC dosage of 4 g L−1, the maximum removal efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ reached 93%, 99% and 63%, respectively with the corresponding influent concentrations of 2.27 g L−1, 497 mg L−1 and 164 mg N L−1; the PAC extraction efficiencies of COD, TPh and NH4+ were 6%, 3% and 13%, respectively; the transmembrane pressure decreased 34% with PAC after 50 d operation. The results demonstrate that PAC played a key role in the enhancement of biodegradability and mitigation of membrane fouling.

  15. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  16. Hybrid systems with lead-acid battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossen, Andreas; Garche, Juergen; Doering, Harry; Goetz, Markus; Knaupp, Werner; Joerissen, Ludwig

    Hybrid systems, based on a lead-acid battery and a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) give the possibility to combine the advantages of both technologies. The benefits for different applications are discussed and the practical realisation of such systems is shown. Furthermore a numerical model for such a hybrid system is described and results are shown and discussed. The results show that the combination of lead-acid batteries and PEMFC shows advantages in case of applications with high peak power requirements (i.e. electric scooter) and applications where the fuel cell is used as auxiliary power supply to recharge the battery. The high efficiency of fuel cells at partial load operation results in a good fuel economy for recharging of lead-acid batteries with a fuel cell system.

  17. Parametric analysis of an irreversible proton exchange membrane fuel cell/absorption refrigerator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Puqing; Zhang, Houcheng

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid system mainly consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and an absorption refrigerator is proposed, where the PEMFC directly converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen into electrical and thermal energies, and the thermal energy is transferred to drive the bottoming absorption refrigerator for cooling purpose. By considering the existing irreversible losses in the hybrid system, the operating current density region of the PEMFC permits the absorption refrigerator to exert its function is determined and the analytical expressions for the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system under different operating conditions are specified. Numerical calculations show that the equivalent maximum power density and the corresponding efficiency of the hybrid system can be respectively increased by 5.3% and 6.8% compared to that of the stand-alone PEMFC. Comprehensive parametric analyses are conducted to reveal the effects of the internal irreversibility of the absorption refrigerator, operating current density, operating temperature and operating pressure of the PEMFC, and some integrated parameters related to the thermodynamic losses on the performance of the hybrid system. The model presented in the paper is more general than previous study, and the results for some special cases can be directly derived from this paper. - Highlights: • A CHP system composed of a PEMFC and an absorption refrigerator is proposed. • Current density region enables the absorption refrigerator to work is determined. • Multiple irreversible losses in the system are analytically characterized. • Maximum power density and corresponding efficiency can be increased by 5.3% and 6.8%. • Effects of some designing and operating parameters on the performance are discussed

  18. A hybrid system of a membrane oscillator coupled to ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschulte, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    The control over micro- and nanomechanical oscillators has recently made impressive progress. First experiments demonstrated ground-state cooling and single-phonon control of high-frequency oscillators using cryogenic cooling and techniques of cavity optomechanics. Coupling engineered mechanical structures to microscopic quantum system with good coherence properties offers new possibilities for quantum control of mechanical vibrations, precision sensing and quantum-level signal transduction. Ultracold atoms are an attractive choice for such hybrid systems: Mechanical can either be coupled to the motional state of trapped atoms, which can routinely be ground-state cooled, or to the internal states, for which a toolbox of coherent manipulation and detection exists. Furthermore, atomic collective states with non-classical properties can be exploited to infer the mechanical motion with reduced quantum noise. Here we use trapped ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the fundamental vibrational mode of a Si3N4 membrane. The coupling of membrane and atomic motion is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and enhanced by an optical cavity around the membrane. The observed cooling of the membrane from room temperature to 650 +/- 230 mK shows that our hybrid mechanical-atomic system operates at a large cooperativity. Our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state. Furthermore, we will present a scheme where an optomechanical system is coupled to internal states of ultracold atoms. The mechanical motion is translated into a polarization rotation which drives Raman transitions between atomic ground states. Compared to the motional-state coupling, the new scheme enables to couple atoms to high-frequency structures such as optomechanical crystals.

  19. A hybrid system using a regenerative electrochemical cycle to harvest waste heat from the proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Rui; Li, Baode; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new hybrid system consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) subsystem and a TREC (thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle) subsystem is proposed to convert the waste heat produced by the PEMFC system into electricity. The performance of the hybrid system and its corresponding subsystems is analyzed. Results reveal that there exists optimal current densities of the PEMFC and TREC systems leading to the maximum power output of the hybrid system. With the maximum power output as the objective function, an optimization of the hybrid system based on genetic algorithm method is conducted under different operating temperatures of the PEMFC subsystem. The power output of the hybrid system is 6.85%–20.59% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem. And the total electrical efficiency is improved by 2.74%–8.27%. The corresponding electrical efficiency of the TREC is 4.56%–13.81%. The hybrid system proposed in this paper could contribute to utilizing the fuel energy more efficiently and sufficiently. - Highlights: • A hybrid power system consisting of a PEMFC and a TREC subsystems is proposed. • Parameters' impacts on performance of the hybrid system have been analyzed. • The maximum power output of the hybrid system is investigated based on genetic algorithm. • Total power output of the hybrid system is 7.63%–18.84% larger than that of the PEMFC subsystem.

  20. Sympathetic cooling of a membrane oscillator in a hybrid mechanical-atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jöckel, Andreas; Faber, Aline; Kampschulte, Tobias; Korppi, Maria; Rakher, Matthew T.; Treutlein, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms and atomic ions enables ultralow temperatures in systems where direct laser or evaporative cooling is not possible. It has so far been limited to the cooling of other microscopic particles, with masses up to 90 times larger than that of the coolant atom. Here, we use ultracold atoms to sympathetically cool the vibrations of a Si3N4 nanomembrane, the mass of which exceeds that of the atomic ensemble by a factor of 1010. The coupling of atomic and membrane vibrations is mediated by laser light over a macroscopic distance and is enhanced by placing the membrane in an optical cavity. We observe cooling of the membrane vibrations from room temperature to 650 ± 230 mK, exploiting the large atom-membrane cooperativity of our hybrid optomechanical system. With technical improvements, our scheme could provide ground-state cooling and quantum control of low-frequency oscillators such as nanomembranes or levitated nanoparticles, in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state.

  1. Bromate formation in a hybrid ozonation-ceramic membrane filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammadreza; Davies, Simon H; Masten, Susan J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of pH, ozone mass injection rate, initial bromide concentration, and membrane molecular weight cut off (MWCO) on bromate formation in a hybrid membrane filtration-ozonation reactor was studied. Decreasing the pH, significantly reduced bromate formation. Bromate formation increased with increasing gaseous ozone mass injection rate, due to increase in dissolved ozone concentrations. Greater initial bromide concentrations resulted in higher bromate concentrations. An increase in the bromate concentration was observed by reducing MWCO, which resulted in a concomitant increase in the retention time in the system. A model to estimate the rate of bromate formation was developed. Good correlation between the model simulation and the experimental data was achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of Hybrid Photocatalytic-Ceramic Membrane System for the Treatment of Secondary Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2017-03-28

    Evaluation of an advanced wastewater treatment system that combines photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the treatment of secondary effluent was undertaken. The results showed that, after photocatalysis and ceramic membrane filtration, the removal of dissolved organic carbon and UV 254 was 60% and 54%, respectively, at a concentration of 4 g/L of TiO₂. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the secondary effluent was characterised with a liquid chromatography-organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) technique. The results showed low removal of humics, building blocks, the other oxidation by-products and no removal of biopolymers after TiO₂/UV photocatalytic treatment. This suggested that the radical non-selective oxidation mechanisms of TiO₂/UV process resulted in secondary effluent in which all of the DOM fractions were present. However, the hybrid system was effective for removing biopolymers with the exception of low molecular weight (LMW) compounds acids, which accumulated from the beginning of the reaction. In addition, monitoring of the DOM fractions with LC-OCD analysis demonstrated that the reduction of the effluent aromaticity was not firmly correlated with the removal of humic substances for the combined processes.

  3. Low CO2-emissions hybrid solar combined-cycle power system with methane membrane reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Na; Cai, Ruixian

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principle of cascade utilization of multiple energy resources, a gas-steam combined cycle power system integrated with solar thermo-chemical fuel conversion and CO 2 capture has been proposed and analyzed. The collected solar heat at 550 °C drives the endothermic methane reforming and is converted to the produced syngas chemical exergy, and then released as high-temperature thermal energy via combustion for power generation, achieving its high-efficiency heat-power conversion. The reforming reaction is integrated with a hydrogen separation membrane, which continuously withdraws hydrogen from the reaction zone and enables nearly full methane conversion. The CO 2 enriched gas being concentrated in the retentate zone is collected and processed with pre-combustion decarbonization. The system is thermodynamically simulated using the ASPEN PLUS code. The results show that with 91% CO 2 captured, the specific CO 2 emission is 25 g/kWh. An exergy efficiency of 58% and thermal efficiency of 51.6% can be obtained. A fossil fuel saving ratio of 31.2% is achievable with a solar thermal share of 28.2%, and the net solar-to-electricity efficiency based on the gross solar heat incident on the collector is about 36.4% compared with the same gas-steam combined cycle system with an equal CO 2 removal ratio obtained by post-combustion decarbonization. - Highlights: ► A solar-assisted hybrid combined cycle power system has been proposed and analyzed. ► The system integrates power generation with solar-driven reforming and CO 2 capture. ► solar heat upgrading and high-efficiency heat-to-power conversion are achieved. ► membrane reforming enables high CH 4 conversion and pre-combustion CO 2 capture. ► The system thermodynamic performances have been investigated and compared

  4. Analysis of hybrid membrane and chemical absorption systems for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, Michael; Oh, Se-Young; Kwak, Dong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Amine-based absorption of CO 2 is currently the industry standard technology for capturing CO 2 emitted from power plants, refineries and other large chemical plants. However, more recently there have been a number of competing technologies under consideration, including the use of membranes for CO 2 separation and purification. We constructed and analyzed two different hybrid configurations combining and connecting chemical absorption with membrane separation. For a particular flue gas which is currently treated with amine-based chemical absorption at a pilot plant we considered and tested how membranes could be integrated to improve the performance of the CO 2 capture. In particular we looked at the CO 2 removal efficiency and the energy requirements. Sensitivity analysis was performed varying the size of the membranes and the solvent flow rate

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell/Supercapasitor Hybrid Power Management System for a Golf Cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presented the transformation of a golf cart system powered lead acid battery into an environmental friendly hybrid vehicle. The design developed by using an advantage contributes by the uprising alternative power source candidate which is Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the maintenance free energy storage device, a supercapacitor (SC). The fuel cell (FC) stack was an in house manufactured with 450 W (36 V, 12.5 A) power, while the SC was from Maxwell Technologies (48 V, 165 F). This two power sources were controlled by the mechanical relay, meanwhile the reactant (hydrogen) are control by mass flow controller (MFC) both signaled by a National Instrument (NI) devices. The power management controller are programmed in the LabVIEW environment and then downloaded to the NI devices. The experimental result of the power trend was compared before and after the transformation with the same route to validate the effectiveness of the proposed power management strategy. The power management successfully controls the power sharing between power sources and satisfies the load transient. While the reactant control managed to vary the hydrogen mass flow rate feed according to the load demand in vehicular applications. (author)

  6. Novel Water Treatment Processes Based on Hybrid Membrane-Ozonation Systems: A Novel Ceramic Membrane Contactor for Bubbleless Ozonation of Emerging Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos K. Stylianou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the presentation of novel water treatment systems based on ozonation combined with ceramic membranes for the treatment of refractory organic compounds found in natural water sources such as groundwater. This includes, firstly, a short review of possible membrane based hybrid processes for water treatment from various sources. Several practical and theoretical aspects for the application of hybrid membrane-ozonation systems are discussed, along with theoretical background regarding the transformation of target organic pollutants by ozone. Next, a novel ceramic membrane contactor, bringing into contact the gas phase (ozone and water phase without the creation of bubbles (bubbleless ozonation, is presented. Experimental data showing the membrane contactor efficiency for oxidation of atrazine, endosulfan, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE are shown and discussed. Almost complete endosulfan degradation was achieved with the use of the ceramic contactor, whereas atrazine degradation higher than 50% could not be achieved even after 60 min of reaction time. Single ozonation of water containing MTBE could not result in a significant MTBE degradation. MTBE mineralization by O3/H2O2 combination increased at higher pH values and O3/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.2 reaching a maximum of around 65%.

  7. Mathematical Modelling of Nitrate Removal from Water Using a Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid System with Four Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahatheva Kalaruban

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive concentrations of nitrate in ground water are known to cause human health hazards. A submerged membrane adsorption hybrid system that includes a microfilter membrane and four different adsorbents (Dowex 21K XLT ion exchange resin (Dowex, Fe-coated Dowex, amine-grafted (AG corn cob and AG coconut copra operated at four different fluxes was used to continuously remove nitrate. The experimental data obtained in this study was simulated mathematically with a homogeneous surface diffusion model that incorporated membrane packing density and membrane correlation coefficient, and applied the concept of continuous flow stirred tank reactor. The model fit with experimental data was good. The surface diffusion coefficient was constant for all adsorbents and for all fluxes. The mass transfer coefficient increased with flux for all adsorbents and generally increased with the adsorption capacity of the adsorbents.

  8. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  10. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  11. A natural driven membrane process for brackish and wastewater treatment: photovoltaic powered ED and FO hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-09-17

    In isolated locations, remote areas, or islands, potable water is precious because of the lack of drinking water treatment facilities and energy supply. Thus, a robust and reliable water treatment system based on natural energy is needed to reuse wastewater or to desalinate groundwater/seawater for provision of drinking water. In this work, a hybrid membrane system combining electrodialysis (ED) and forward osmosis (FO), driven by renewable energy (solar energy), denoted as EDFORD (ED-FO Renewable energy Desalination), is proposed to produce high-quality water (potable) from secondary wastewater effluent or brackish water. In this hybrid membrane system, feedwater (secondary wastewater effluent or synthetic brackish water) was drawn to the FO draw solution while the organic and inorganic substances (ions, compounds, colloids and particles) were rejected. The diluted draw solution was then pumped to the solar energy driven ED. In the ED unit, the diluted draw solution was desalted and high-quality water was produced; the concentrate was recycled to the FO unit and reused as the draw solution. Results show that the water produced from this system contains a low concentration of total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and cations derived from the feedwater; had a low conductivity; and meets potable water standards. The water production cost considering the investment for membranes and solar panel is 3.32 to 4.92 EUR m(-3) (for 300 days of production per year) for a small size potable water production system.

  12. Assessing the removal of organic micropollutants by a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2018-04-14

    A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxic–anoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100 %) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94-100 %) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89-96 %) and atrazine (16-40 %) respectively. All three OMPs exhibited higher removal with organic DS as compared to inorganic DS. Significant anoxic removal was observed for atrazine under very different redox conditions with extended anoxic cycle time. This can be linked with possible development of different microbial consortia responsible for diverse enzymes secretion. Overall, the OMBR-MF process showed effective removal of total organic carbon (98%) and nutrients (phosphate 97% and total nitrogen 85%), respectively.

  13. Assessing the removal of organic micropollutants by a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar; Li, Sheng; Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Jang, Am; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2018-01-01

    A novel approach was employed to study removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration (OMBR-MF) hybrid system under oxic–anoxic conditions. The performance of OMBR-MF system was examined employing three different draw solutes (DS), and three model OMPs. The highest forward osmosis (FO) membrane rejection was attained with atenolol (100 %) due to its higher molar mass and positive charge. With inorganic DS caffeine (94-100 %) revealed highest removal followed by atenolol (89-96 %) and atrazine (16-40 %) respectively. All three OMPs exhibited higher removal with organic DS as compared to inorganic DS. Significant anoxic removal was observed for atrazine under very different redox conditions with extended anoxic cycle time. This can be linked with possible development of different microbial consortia responsible for diverse enzymes secretion. Overall, the OMBR-MF process showed effective removal of total organic carbon (98%) and nutrients (phosphate 97% and total nitrogen 85%), respectively.

  14. Forward osmosis membrane modular configurations for osmotic dilution of seawater by forward osmosis and reverse osmosis hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Ali, Syed Muztuza; Choi, Joon Young; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates various options for full-scale modular configuration of forward osmosis (FO) process for osmotic dilution of seawater using wastewater for simultaneous desalination and water reuse through FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. Empirical relationship obtained from one FO membrane element operation was used to simulate the operational performances of different FO module configurations. The main limiting criteria for module operation is to always maintain the feed pressure higher than the draw pressure throughout the housing module for safe operation without affecting membrane integrity. Experimental studies under the conditions tested in this study show that a single membrane housing cannot accommodate more than four elements as the draw pressure exceeds the feed pressure. This then indicates that a single stage housing with eight elements is not likely to be practical for safe FO operation. Hence, six different FO modular configurations were proposed and simulated. A two-stage FO configuration with multiple housings (in parallel) in the second stage using same or larger spacer thickness reduces draw pressure build-up as the draw flow rates are reduced to half in the second stage thereby allowing more than four elements in the second stage housing. The loss of feed pressure (pressure drop) and osmotic driving force in the second stage are compensated by operating under the pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) mode, which helps enhance permeate flux and maintains positive pressure differences between the feed and draw chamber. The PAO energy penalty is compensated by enhanced permeate throughput, reduced membrane area, and plant footprint. The contribution of FO/PAO to total energy consumption was not significant compared to post RO desalination (90%) indicating that the proposed two-stage FO modular configuration is one way of making the FO full-scale operation practical for FO-RO hybrid system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment: Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the water, using high hydraulic pressure as the driving force. However, the use of high hydraulic pressure imposes a high cost on operation of these systems, in addition to the known persistent fouling p...

  16. Removal of heavy-metal ions from dilute waste streams using membrane-based hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, D.T.; Edlund, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    At Bend research, the authors have developed hybrid systems that couple a process that removes solvent (water) and a process that removes solute (metal ions) such that toxic heavy-metal ions can be efficiently and selectively removed to very low levels while simultaneously concentrating the heavy-metal ions in relatively pure form. Although this technology is broadly applicable, the authors are focusing on the development of a system to treat groundwater that is contaminated with heavy-metal ions. The process utilizes coupled transport and reverse osmosis to reduce chromium and uranium concentration down to parts-per-billion levels

  17. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment : Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the

  18. Development and testing of a hybrid system with a sub-kW open-cathode type PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen-Ming; Su, Ay; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack has been evaluated for a hybrid power system test platform. To simulate vehicle acceleration, the stack was operated under dynamic-loading, and to demonstrate the exchange of power flow between two power sources the hybrid power system was tested under three different modes. A unit cell was fabricated for high stack performance and the stack was constructed with 18 open-cathode type fuel cells. Air which acts as a coolant as well as an oxidant for electrochemical reactions is provided by a pair of fans. The capabilities of the stack for hybrid power system test platform were validated by successful dynamic-loading tests. The performance of the stack for various air fan voltage was evaluated and an optimal value was concluded. The conditions like inlet temperature of H 2 and the stack current were established for maximum power. It was also found that humidification of hydrogen at anode inlet degrades the stack performance and stability due to flooding. Evidence shows that for the higher overall performance, the fuel cell acts continuously on constant current output. The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability. - Highlights: • An open-cathode type PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) stack (rated output 300 W) was fabricated. • The open-cathode configuration simplifies the design of a stack system. • Assess the feasibility of combining a fuel cell stack in a hybrid system. • The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability

  19. Hybrid Nano composite Membranes for PEMFC Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niepceron, F.

    2008-03-01

    This work aims at validating a new concept of hybrid materials for the realization of proton exchange membranes, an essential constituent of PEM fuel cells. The originality of this nano-composite hybrid concept corresponds to a separation of the membrane's properties. We investigated the preparation of composite materials based on an inert, relatively low cost, polymer matrix (PVDF-HFP) providing the mechanical stability embedding inorganic fillers providing the necessary properties o f proton-conduction and water retention. The first step of this work consisted in the modification of fumed silica to obtain a proton-conducting filler. An ionic exchange capacity (CEI) equal to 3 meq/g was obtained by the original grafting of sodium poly(styrene-sulfonate) chains from the surface of particles. Nano-composite hybrid membranes PVDF-HFP/functionalized silica were accomplished by a film casting process. The coupling of the morphological and physicochemical analyses validated the percolation of the inorganic phase for 30 wt.% of particles. Beyond 40 % of loading, measured protonic conductivity is higher than the reference membrane Nafion 112. Finally, these membranes presented high performances, above 0.8 W/cm 2 , in single-cell fuel cell tests. A compromise is necessary according to the rate of loading between performances in fuel cell and mechanical properties of the membrane. 50 % appeared as best choice with, until 90 C, a remarkable thermal stability of the performances. (author)

  20. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150

  1. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  2. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  3. An anaerobic membrane bioreactor - membrane distillation hybrid system for energy recovery and water reuse: Removal performance of organic carbon, nutrients, and trace organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoye; Luo, Wenhai; McDonald, James; Khan, Stuart J; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2018-07-01

    In this study, a direct contact membrane distillation (MD) unit was integrated with an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to simultaneously recover energy and produce high quality water for reuse from wastewater. Results show that AnMBR could produce 0.3-0.5L/g COD added biogas with a stable methane content of approximately 65%. By integrating MD with AnMBR, bulk organic matter and phosphate were almost completely removed. The removal of the 26 selected trace organic contaminants by AnMBR was compound specific, but the MD process could complement AnMBR removal, leading to an overall efficiency from 76% to complete removal by the integrated system. The results also show that, due to complete retention, organic matter (such as humic-like and protein-like substances) and inorganic salts accumulated in the MD feed solution and therefore resulted in significant fouling of the MD unit. As a result, the water flux of the MD process decreased continuously. Nevertheless, membrane pore wetting was not observed throughout the operation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  6. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  8. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Siekierka Anna; Bryjak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity an...

  9. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  10. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  11. Hybrid polymer composite membrane for an electromagnetic (EM) valveless micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Muzalifah Mohd; Yunas, Jumril; Bais, Badariah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a hybrid membrane used as an actuator in an electromagnetically driven valveless micropump developed using MEMS processes. The membrane structure consists of the combination of a magnetic polymer composite membrane and an attached bulk permanent magnet which is expected to have a compact structure and a strong magnetic force with maintained membrane flexibility. A soft polymeric material made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is initially mixed with neodymium magnetic particles (NdFeB) to form a magnetic polymer composite membrane. The membrane is then bonded with the PDMS based microfluidic part, developed using soft lithography process. The developed micropump was tested in terms of the actuator membrane deflection capability and the fluidic flow of the injected fluid sample through the microfluidic channel. The experimental results show that the magnetic composite actuator membrane with an attached bulk permanent magnet is capable of producing a maximum membrane deflection of up to 106 µm. The functionality test of the electromagnetic (EM) actuator for fluid pumping purposes was done by supplying an AC voltage with various amplitudes, signal waves and frequencies. A wide range of sample injection rates from a few µl min-1 to tens of nl min-1 was achieved with a maximum flow rate of 6.6 µl min-1. The injection flow rate of the EM micropump can be controlled by adjusting the voltage amplitude and frequency supplied to the EM coil, to control the membrane deflection in the pump chamber. The designed valveless EM micropump has a very high potential to enhance the drug delivery system capability in biomedical applications.

  12. Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes via interfacial polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-cross-linked, hybrid membranes consist of covalent networks of alternating organic and inorganic, or biological groups. This thesis reports on the preparation of such hybrid networks via interfacial polymerization. The structure-property relationships of the hybrid networks depend strongly on

  13. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  14. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  15. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further

  16. Effect of powdered activated carbon dosage on sludge properties and membrane bioreactor performance in a hybrid MBR-PAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi; Zuo, Xingtao; Xiong, Juan; Ma, Cong; Hu, Bo

    2017-12-22

    An improved insight into the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on membrane fouling is crucial to the MBR performance. Sludge key property, soluble microbial products (SMP) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) were monitored. The membrane fouling rate in the MBRs was also analyzed based on TMP profile and resistance-in-series model. PAC reduced the membrane filtration resistance and significantly decreased the fouling rate. The sludge filterability was improved by extending the filtration time by almost twofold. PAC affected the SMP release and protein/polysaccharide (carbohydrate) was in a lower ratio. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that PAC decreased the impact of organic carbon, and reduced the proteins' and polysaccharides' absorption and deposition on the membrane surface and in the pores. The degree of reversible and irreversible fouling was related to the PAC content added into the MBRs. At the optimum dosage of 2 g/L, the results signified the PAC potential as a mitigation strategy of membrane fouling.

  17. Hydrothermal stability of silica, hybrid silica and Zr-doped hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid silica membranes have demonstrated to possess a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes allowing them to be used in industrial applications. In several publications the hydrothermal stability of pure silica or that of hybrid silica membranes are

  18. Technical evaluation of hybrid membrane/DEA modeling. Topical report, January 1990-August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changela, M.K.; McKee, R.L.; Reading, G.J.

    1991-08-01

    The report examines the potential for cost and/or performance advantages of a hybrid system, the integration of membranes and amines, over a single-stage membrane or amine system for producing pipeline quality gas on a small scale from high carbon dioxide subquality natural gas. The hybrid configuration evaluated is a membrane system in series with a conventional diethanolamine (DEA) system. Comparison of the established costs shows that each system has a region of operability. Membranes offer higher cost savings at low feed flow rates and high carbon dioxide feed contents. The hybrid system offers cost savings over moderate to high feed flow rates and for moderate to high carbon dioxide feed contents. The DEA system offers cost savings for moderate to high feed flow rates at low to moderate carbon dioxide feed contents. Membranes do not exhibit economies of scale which works to their advantage for removing carbon dioxide on a small scale. Processing costs for amine systems are more sensitive to economies of scale, and thus decrease more rapidly than for membranes at higher feed flow rates. The hybrid system offers cost savings in regions that have been perceived as exclusively amine treating applications, thus increasing the area of operability for membranes

  19. Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Ostwal, Mayur

    2017-12-24

    Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes were prepared using vacuum filtration technique. The thickness and the MoS2 content in the membranes were varied and their H2 permeance and H2/CO2 selectivity are reported. A 60nm hybrid membrane containing ~75% by weight of MoS2 exhibited the highest H2 permeance of 804×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa with corresponding H2/CO2 selectivity of 26.7; while a 150nm hybrid membrane with ~29% MoS2 showed the highest H2/CO2 selectivity of 44.2 with corresponding H2 permeance of 287×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa. The hybrid membranes exhibited much higher H2 permeance compared to graphene oxide membranes and higher selectivity compared to MoS2 membranes, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effect of both nanomaterials. The membranes also displayed excellent operational long-term stability.

  20. Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes for hydrogen separation

    KAUST Repository

    Ostwal, Mayur; Shinde, Digambar B.; Wang, Xinbo; Gadwal, Ikhlas; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide – molybdenum disulfide hybrid membranes were prepared using vacuum filtration technique. The thickness and the MoS2 content in the membranes were varied and their H2 permeance and H2/CO2 selectivity are reported. A 60nm hybrid membrane containing ~75% by weight of MoS2 exhibited the highest H2 permeance of 804×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa with corresponding H2/CO2 selectivity of 26.7; while a 150nm hybrid membrane with ~29% MoS2 showed the highest H2/CO2 selectivity of 44.2 with corresponding H2 permeance of 287×10−9mol/m2·s·Pa. The hybrid membranes exhibited much higher H2 permeance compared to graphene oxide membranes and higher selectivity compared to MoS2 membranes, which fully demonstrated the synergistic effect of both nanomaterials. The membranes also displayed excellent operational long-term stability.

  1. Hybrid membranes of polyamide applied in treatment of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: keilamachadodemedeiros@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Diego de Farias; Lima, Carlos Antonio Pereira de [Universidade Estadual da Paraiba (UEPB), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental

    2017-03-15

    In this work, it was prepared hybrid membranes of polyamide6 (PA6) with montmorillonite (MMT) and porogenic agent (CaCl{sub 2} ). The hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry by mercury intrusion (PMI), flux measurements and rejection. By means of X-ray diffraction, it was revealed that the hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} have an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. For FTIR and DSC of hybrid membranes with CaCl{sub 2} , it was found that the spectra and the crystalline melting temperature remained virtually unchanged compared to PA6 membrane. From the SEM images, it was observed that the addition of the MMT and the CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane of PA6 caused an increase in the amount of pores the surface and cross section of these membranes. By PMI, it was observed that the presence of MMT and CaCl{sub 2} in the membrane caused an increase in the average diameters of pores. The water-oil separation tests, indicated a significant reduction of oil in the permeate, allowing treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. (author)

  2. Hybrid membranes of polyamide applied in treatment of waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Keila Machado de; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Lira, Helio de Lucena; Lima, Diego de Farias; Lima, Carlos Antonio Pereira de

    2017-01-01

    In this work, it was prepared hybrid membranes of polyamide6 (PA6) with montmorillonite (MMT) and porogenic agent (CaCl 2 ). The hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosimetry by mercury intrusion (PMI), flux measurements and rejection. By means of X-ray diffraction, it was revealed that the hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 have an exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structure. For FTIR and DSC of hybrid membranes with CaCl 2 , it was found that the spectra and the crystalline melting temperature remained virtually unchanged compared to PA6 membrane. From the SEM images, it was observed that the addition of the MMT and the CaCl 2 in the membrane of PA6 caused an increase in the amount of pores the surface and cross section of these membranes. By PMI, it was observed that the presence of MMT and CaCl 2 in the membrane caused an increase in the average diameters of pores. The water-oil separation tests, indicated a significant reduction of oil in the permeate, allowing treatment of wastewater contaminated with oil. (author)

  3. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  4. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  5. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  6. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  7. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulfate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulfate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  9. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian; Katuri, Krishna; Logan, Bruce E.; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. A hybrid microbial fuel cell membrane bioreactor with a conductive ultrafiltration membrane biocathode for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-15

    A new hybrid, air-biocathode microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and ultrafiltration to produce water for direct reclamation. The combined advantages of this system were achieved by using an electrically conductive ultrafiltration membrane as both the cathode and the membrane for wastewater filtration. The MFC-MBR used an air-biocathode, and it was shown to have good performance relative to an otherwise identical cathode containing a platinum catalyst. With 0.1 mm prefiltered domestic wastewater as the feed, the maximum power density was 0.38 W/m2 (6.8 W/m3) with the biocathode, compared to 0.82 W/m2 (14.5 W/m3) using the platinum cathode. The permeate quality from the biocathode reactor was comparable to that of a conventional MBR, with removals of 97% of the soluble chemical oxygen demand, 97% NH3-N, and 91% of total bacteria (based on flow cytometry). The permeate turbidity was <0.1 nephelometric turbidity units. These results show that a biocathode MFC-MBR system can achieve high levels of wastewater treatment with a low energy input due to the lack of a need for wastewater aeration. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Mesoporous silica nanotubes hybrid membranes for functional nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Shahat, Ahmed; Mekawy, Moataz; Nguyen, Hoa; Warkocki, Wojciech; Ohnuma, Masato

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanofiltration systems would greatly assist in the production of well-defined particles and biomolecules with unique properties. We report a direct, simple synthesis of hexagonal silica nanotubes (NTs), which vertically aligned inside anodic alumina membranes (AAM) by means of a direct templating method of microemulsion phases with cationic surfactants. The direct approach was used as soft templates for predicting ordered assemblies of surfactant/silica composites through strong interactions within AAM pockets. Thus, densely packed NTs were successfully formed in the entirety of the AAM channels. These silica NTs were coated with layers of organic moieties to create a powerful technique for the ultrafine filtration. The resulting modified-silica NTs were chemically robust and showed affinity toward the transport of small molecular particles. The rigid silica NTs inside AAM channels had a pore diameter of ≤ 4 nm and were used as ultrafine filtration systems for noble metal nanoparticles (NM NPs) and semiconductor nanocrystals (SC NCs) fabricated with a wide range of sizes (1.0-50 nm) and spherical/pyramidal morphologies. Moreover, the silica NTs hybrid membranes were also found to be suitable for separation of biomolecules such as cytochrome c (CytC). Importantly, this nanofilter design retains high nanofiltration efficiency of NM NPs, SC NCs and biomolecules after a number of reuse cycles. Such retention is crucial in industrial applications.

  12. Identification of DNA viruses by membrane filter hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Stålhandske, P; Pettersson, U

    1982-01-01

    The use of membrane filter hybridization for the identification of DNA viruses is described. We designed and used a procedure for identification of herpes simplex virus. This method can discriminate between herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a simple way.

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyimide-CNTs hybrid membrane to enhance high performance CO2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the CO2 separation performance of a hybrid membranes flat sheet based on polyimide incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs particles. CNTs was selected and its loading were a 1 wt% in total solid. The hybrid composite membranes were fabricated in order to increase their separation performance for the gaseous mixture of CO2 and CH4. Hybrid Composite  membrane incorporated carbon nanotubes were mannufactured  by the dry-wet phase inversion technique using flat sheet membrane casting machine system,  in which the CNTs were embedded into the polyimide membrane and the resulting membranes were characterized. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Sieve-in-a-cage’ morphology observed shows the poor adhesion between polymer and unmodified CNT. The results revealed that the good multi-wall carbon nanotubes dispersion leads to enhanced gas permeation properties. It is also concluded that addition of carbon nanotubes particles into the matrix of Polyimide polymer has significant effect on the membrane structure and properties.

  14. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierka Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  15. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka, Anna; Bryjak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  16. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  17. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  18. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    specific properties and detailing. CNC knitting with high tenacity yarn enables this practice and offers an alternative to current woven membranes. The design and fabrication of an 8m high fabric tower through an interdisciplinary team of architects, structural and textile engineers, allowed to investigate...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

  19. DNA hybridization on membrane-modified carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Alena; Babkina, S. S.; Cahová, Kateřina; Havran, Luděk; Jelen, František; Paleček, Emil; Fojta, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2005), s. 2493-2507 ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 1H-PK/42; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4004402; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : DNA hybridization * electrochemical DNA sensor * nitrocellulose membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.036, year: 2005

  20. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  1. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  2. Development and characterisation of hybrid polysaccharide membranes for dehydration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Inês T; Huertas, Rosa M; Torres, Cristiana A V; Coelhoso, Isabel M; Crespo, João G

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this work is the development and characterisation of new hybrid polysaccharide (FucoPol) membranes. These membranes were prepared by incorporation of a SiO 2 network homogeneously dispersed by using a sol-gel method with GPTMS as a crosslinker silica precursor. They were further crosslinked with CaCl 2 for reinforcement of mechanical properties and improvement of their permeation performance. They were characterised in terms of their structural, mechanical and thermal properties. They presented a dense and homogeneous structure, resistant to deformation, with a Tg of 43 °C and a thermal decomposition between 240 and 251 °C. The hybrid FucoPol membranes were tested for ethanol dehydration by pervaporation and also for nitrogen dehydration. They exhibited high water selectivity values, similar to PERVAP ® 4101, however they lost their stability when exposed to solutions of 10.0 wt.% water in ethanol. In contrast, these membranes were stable when applied in N 2 dehydration, leading to reproducible performance and very high water selectivities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  4. Performance of a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system under continuous operation for simultaneous nutrient removal and mitigation of brine discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar

    2017-03-14

    The present study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor system for wastewater treatment employing baffles in the reactor. Thus, this reactor design enables both aerobic and anoxic processes in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using synthetic reverse osmosis (RO) brine as draw solution (DS). The incorporation of MF membrane was effective in maintaining a reasonable salinity level (612-1434 mg/L) in the reactor which resulted in a much lower flux decline (i.e. 11.48 to 6.98 LMH) as compared to previous studies. The stable operation of the osmotic membrane bioreactor–forward osmosis (OMBR-FO) process resulted in an effective removal of both organic matter (97.84%) and nutrient (phosphate 87.36% and total nitrogen 94.28%), respectively.

  5. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  6. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  7. The Tower: Modelling, Analysis and Construction of Bending Active Tensile Membrane Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Schmeck, Michel; Charles Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined her...

  8. Covalent Immobilization of Peroxidase onto Hybrid Membranes for the Construction of Optical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to covalently immobilize horse radish peroxidase (HRP onto new hybrid membranes synthesized by the sol-gel method based on silica precursors, dendrimers and cellulose derivatives. This new system will be used for designing biosensor. For investigation of the properties of membranes, HRP was used as a modeling enzyme. Kinetic parameters, pH and temperature optimum were determined, and the structure of the membranes surface was examined. Results showed higher relative and residual activity of HRP immobilized onto membranes with cellulose acetate butyrate with high molecular weight CAB/H. This novel biosensor could offer a simple, cheap and rapid tool with enhanced sensing performance as well as having potentials to find application in medicine, pharmacy, food and process control and environmental monitoring.

  9. CAPHIGAS Project: Design of a Novel WGS-Adsorbent-Membrane Hybrid System for the Simultaneous Capture of CO2 and Production of H2 (Ref.: Ene2009-08002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, M.; Barreiro, M. M.; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the general objective, tasks and main results and conclusions drawn within CAPHIGAS Project, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and carried out by the Valorization of Fuels and Wastes Group of Ciemat. The general objective of the project was the design and development of a novel hybrid system for the simultaneous removal of CO 2 and production of H 2 using a WGS catalyst-adsorbent membrane configuration. The novel system proposed has provided new insight into the adsorption and reaction processes and has allowed an optimization of the operating conditions to take advantage of the synergies between both processes. In this report main future activities are also reported. (Author)

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  11. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  12. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...

  13. Hybrid inorganic-organic membranes: Tuning pore properties by sequential grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sripathi, V.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the synthesis of inorganic - polymeric hybrid membranes by sequential grafting is discussed, for application in gas separation. At high pressures and temperatures, organic (olymer) membranes may suffer from swelling and plasticization. Generally, this causes a reduced molecular

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Memcomputing with membrane memcapacitive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, Y V; Traversa, F L; Ventra, M Di

    2015-01-01

    We show theoretically that networks of membrane memcapacitive systems—capacitors with memory made out of membrane materials—can be used to perform a complete set of logic gates in a massively parallel way by simply changing the external input amplitudes, but not the topology of the network. This polymorphism is an important characteristic of memcomputing (computing with memories) that closely reproduces one of the main features of the brain. A practical realization of these membrane memcapacitive systems, using, e.g., graphene or other 2D materials, would be a step forward towards a solid-state realization of memcomputing with passive devices. (paper)

  16. Studies on soy protein isolate/polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofiber membranes as multi-functional eco-friendly filtration materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qun; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Siruo; Sui, Gang, E-mail: suigang@mail.buct.edu.cn; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Biodegradable filtration membranes were prepared. • Polar groups in the membrane surface helped capture fine particles. • Loading filtration efficiency can reach 99.99% in the case of small pressure drop. • Filtration membrane showed antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli. - Abstract: A biodegradable and multifunctional air filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning of soy protein isolate (SPI)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) system in this paper. The optimized SPI/PVA proportion in the spinning solution was determined according to the analyses of microstructure, surface chemical characteristic and mechanical property of the hybrid nanofiber membranes. Under the preferred preparation condition, two kinds of polymer materials displayed a good compatibility in the hybrid nanofibers, and a large number of polar groups existed in the membrane surface. The loading filtration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane with optimal material ratio and areal density can reach 99.99% after test of 30 min for fine particles smaller than 2.5 μm in the case of small pressure drop. Besides, this kind of filtration membrane showed an antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli in the study. The SPI/PVA hybrid nanofiber membrane with proper material composition and microstructure can be used as a new type of high performance eco-friendly filtration materials.

  17. Studies on soy protein isolate/polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofiber membranes as multi-functional eco-friendly filtration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Qun; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Siruo; Sui, Gang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodegradable filtration membranes were prepared. • Polar groups in the membrane surface helped capture fine particles. • Loading filtration efficiency can reach 99.99% in the case of small pressure drop. • Filtration membrane showed antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli. - Abstract: A biodegradable and multifunctional air filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning of soy protein isolate (SPI)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) system in this paper. The optimized SPI/PVA proportion in the spinning solution was determined according to the analyses of microstructure, surface chemical characteristic and mechanical property of the hybrid nanofiber membranes. Under the preferred preparation condition, two kinds of polymer materials displayed a good compatibility in the hybrid nanofibers, and a large number of polar groups existed in the membrane surface. The loading filtration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane with optimal material ratio and areal density can reach 99.99% after test of 30 min for fine particles smaller than 2.5 μm in the case of small pressure drop. Besides, this kind of filtration membrane showed an antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli in the study. The SPI/PVA hybrid nanofiber membrane with proper material composition and microstructure can be used as a new type of high performance eco-friendly filtration materials.

  18. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  19. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  20. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  2. Removal of trace organic chemicals and performance of a novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ryan W; Regnery, Julia; Nghiem, Long D; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2014-09-16

    A hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactor (UFO-MBR) was investigated for over 35 days for nutrient and trace organic chemical (TOrC) removal from municipal wastewater. The UFO-MBR system uses both ultrafiltration (UF) and forward osmosis (FO) membranes in parallel to simultaneously extract clean water from an activated sludge reactor for nonpotable (or environmental discharge) and potable reuse, respectively. In the FO stream, water is drawn by osmosis from activated sludge through an FO membrane into a draw solution (DS), which becomes diluted during the process. A reverse osmosis (RO) system is then used to reconcentrate the diluted DS and produce clean water suitable for direct potable reuse. The UF membrane extracts water, dissolved salts, and some nutrients from the system to prevent their accumulation in the activated sludge of the osmotic MBR. The UF permeate can be used for nonpotable reuse purposes (e.g., irrigation and toilet flushing). Results from UFO-MBR investigation illustrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus removals were greater than 99%, 82%, and 99%, respectively. Twenty TOrCs were detected in the municipal wastewater that was used as feed to the UFO-MBR system. Among these 20 TOrCs, 15 were removed by the hybrid UFO-MBR system to below the detection limit. High FO membrane rejection was observed for all ionic and nonionic hydrophilic TOrCs and lower rejection was observed for nonionic hydrophobic TOrCs. With the exceptions of bisphenol A and DEET, all TOrCs that were detected in the DS were well rejected by the RO membrane. Overall, the UFO-MBR can operate sustainably and has the potential to be utilized for direct potable reuse applications.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  4. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  5. PDMS/PVDF hybrid electrospun membrane with superhydrophobic property and drop impact dynamics for dyeing wastewater treatment using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-10-21

    Fouling in membrane distillation (MD) results in an increase in operation costs and deterioration in a water quality. In this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) electrospun (E-PH) membrane was fabricated by hybridizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric microspheres with superhydrophobicity onto the E-PH membrane via electrospinning. The resulting hybrid PDMS with E-PH (E-PDMS) membrane showed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity (contact angle, CA = 155.4°) and roughness (Ra = 1,285mm). The zeta potential of E-PDMS membrane surface showed a higher negative value than that of a commercial PVDF (C-PVDF) membrane. These properties of E-PDMS membrane provided an antifouling in treating of differently-charged dyes and generated a flake-like dye–dye (loosely bound foulant) structure on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also led to a high productivity of E-PDMS membrane (34 Lm-2h-1, 50% higher than that of C-PVDF membrane) without fouling or wetting. In addition, complete color removal and pure water production were achieved during a long-term operation. An application of intermittent water flushing (WF) in direct contact MD (DCMD) operation led to a 99% CA recovery of E-PDMS membrane indicating its sustainability. Therefore, the E-PDMS membrane is a promising candidate for MD application in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  6. Increasing the operation temperature of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells: From nanocomposites to hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Among the possible systems investigated for energy production with low environmental impact, polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are very promising as electrochemical power sources for application in portable technology and electric vehicles. For practical applications, operating FCs at temperatures above 100 °C is desired, both for hydrogen and methanol fuelled cells. When hydrogen is used as fuel, an increase of the cell temperature produces enhanced CO tolerance, faster reaction kinetics, easier water management and reduced heat exchanger requirement. The use of methanol instead of hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles has several practical benefits such as easy transport and storage, but the slow oxidation kinetics of methanol needs operating direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) at intermediate temperatures. For this reason, new membranes are required. Our strategy to achieve the goal of operating at temperatures above 120 °C is to develop organic/inorganic hybrid membranes. The first approach was the use of nanocomposite class I hybrids where nanocrystalline ceramic oxides were added to Nafion. Nanocomposite membranes showed enhanced characteristics, hence allowing their operation up to 130 °C when the cell was fuelled with hydrogen and up to 145 °C in DMFCs, reaching power densities of 350 mW cm -2. The second approach was to prepare Class II hybrids via the formation of covalent bonds between totally aromatic polymers and inorganic clusters. The properties of such covalent hybrids can be modulated by modifying the ratio between organic and inorganic groups and the nature of the chemical components allowing to reach high and stable conductivity values up to 6.4 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 120 °C.

  7. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...

  8. An investigation of desalination by nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and integrated (hybrid NF/RO) membranes employed in brackish water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaeipour, M; Nouri, J; Hassani, A H; Mahvi, A H

    2017-01-01

    As an appropriate tool, membrane process is used for desalination of brackish water, in the production of drinking water. The present study aims to investigate desalination processes of brackish water of Qom Province in Iran. This study was carried out at the central laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company of the studied area. To this aim, membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), separately and also their hybrid process were applied. Moreover, water physical and chemical parameters, including salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Na +1 and Cl -1 were also measured. Afterward, the rejection percent of each parameter was investigated and compared using nanofiltration and reverse osmosis separately and also by their hybrid process. The treatment process was performed by Luna domestic desalination device, which its membrane was replaced by two NF90 and TW30 membranes for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis processes, respectively. All collected brackish water samples were fed through membranes NF90-2540, TW30-1821-100(RO) and Hybrid (NF/RO) which were installed on desalination household scale pilot (Luna water 100GPD). Then, to study the effects of pressure on permeable quality of membranes, the simulation software model ROSA was applied. Results showed that percent of the salinity rejection was recorded as 50.21%; 72.82 and 78.56% in NF, RO and hybrid processes, respectively. During the study, in order to simulate the performance of nanofiltartion, reverse osmosis and hybrid by pressure drive, reverse osmosis system analysis (ROSA) model was applied. The experiments were conducted at performance three methods of desalination to remove physic-chemical parameters as percentage of rejections in the pilot plant are: in the NF system the salinity 50.21, TDS 43.41, EC 43.62, Cl 21.1, Na 36.15, and in the RO membrane the salinity 72.02, TDS 60.26, EC 60.33, Cl 43.08, Na 54.41. Also in case of the rejection in

  9. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  11. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC, and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  12. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst.

  13. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  14. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  15. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow......, flow lines, fixed points and Lyapunov functions. Finally it will be shown how this theory extends to switched dynamical systems and an algorithmic overview of how to do supervisory control will be shown towards the end....

  16. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    gramians. Generalized gramians are the solutions to the observability and controllability Lyapunov inequalities. In the first framework the projection matrices are found based on the common generalized gramians. This framework preserves the stability of the original switched system for all switching...... is guaranteed to be preserved for arbitrary switching signal. To compute the common generalized gramians linear matrix inequalities (LMI’s) need to be solved. These LMI’s are not always feasible. In order to solve the problem of conservatism, the second framework is presented. In this method the projection......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  17. Experimental study of a hybrid electro-acoustic nonlinear membrane absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, P. Y.; Bellizzi, S.; Côte, R.

    2018-06-01

    A hybrid electro-acoustic nonlinear membrane absorber working as a nonlinear energy sink (here after named EA-NES) is described. The device is composed of a thin circular visco-elastic membrane working as an essentially cubic oscillator. One face of the membrane is coupled to the acoustic field to be reduced and the other face is enclosed. The enclosure includes a loudspeaker for the control of the acoustic pressure felt by the rear face of the membrane through proportional feedback control. An experimental set-up has been developed where the EA-NES is weakly coupled to a linear acoustic system. The linear acoustic system is an open-ended tube, coupled on one side to the EA-NES by a box, and on the other side to a source loudspeaker by another box. Only sinusoidal forcing is considered. It is shown that the EA-NES is able to perform resonance capture with the acoustic field, resulting in noise reduction by targeted energy transfer, and to operate in a large frequency band, tuning itself passively to any linear system. We demonstrate the ability of the feedback gain defining the active loop to modify the resonance frequency of the EA-NES, which is a key factor to tune the triggering threshold of energy pumping. The novelty of this work is to use active control combined to passive nonlinear transfer energy to improve it. In this paper, only experimental results are analyzed.

  18. On the enhancement of pervaporation properties of plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-06-24

    The separation performance of a polymeric-supported hybrid silica membrane in the dehydration process of a butanol-water mixture at 95C has been enhanced by applying a bias to the substrate during the plasma deposition.

  19. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take into acco......Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take...... into account the performance of each constituent element and the optimisation of the design must take into consideration their interdependency. In this paper use of a membrane, to assist in the synthesis of propyl-propionate is investigated through the use of a hybrid process design framework, which consists...... and separation functionalities and to design/analyse the hybrid scheme. The generated hybrid scheme has been validated through experiments involving an esterification reaction....

  20. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  1. Polymer-inorganic hybrid proton conductive membranes: Effect of the interfacial transfer pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pingping; Hao, Lie; Wu, Wenjia; Li, Yifan; Wang, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of hybrid membranes are prepared using fillers with different structures. • The fillers (0-D, 1-D, and 2-D) are sulfonated to ensure close surface component. • The effect of filler’s structure on microstructure of hydrid membrane is explored. • For single-kind filler series, 2-D filler has the strongest conduction promotion. • The synergy effect of different kinds of fillers is systematacially investigated. - Abstract: For hybrid membrane, the polymer-inorganic interface along filler surface can be facilely created to be distinctive and controllable pathway for mass transfer. Herein, three kinds of fillers are used as inorganic additives including zero-dimensional silica (0-D, SiO_2), one-dimensional halloysite nanotube (1-D, HNT), and two-dimensional graphene oxide (2-D, GO), which are functionalized by sulfonated polymer layer to ensure close surface component. Then the fillers are incorporated into two types of polymer matrixes (phase-separated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and non-phase-separated chitosan) to prepare three series of hybrid membranes with single-kind filler, double-kinds fillers, or triple-kinds fillers, respectively. The microstructures, physicochemical properties, and proton conduction properties (under hydrated and anhydrous conditions) of the membranes are extensively investigated. It is found that (i) for the single-kind filler-filled membranes, 2-D filler has the strongest promotion ability for proton conductivity of membrane due to the constructed wide and long-range pathways for proton transfer; (ii) while for the hybrid membranes with double-kinds fillers, instead of synergistic promotion effect, the fillers cause more tortuous transfer pathways within membranes and then decrease proton conductivity; (iii) the hybrid membranes with triple-kinds fillers exhibit similar behavior but a little higher conductivity than the membranes with double-kinds fillers.

  2. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  3. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun

    2017-05-08

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) as a pre-treatment process. The results showed that the FDFO-NF hybrid system using thin film composite forward osmosis (TFC) FO membrane has less environmental impact than conventional RO hybrid systems due to lower consumption of energy and cleaning chemicals. The energy requirement for the treatment of mine impaired water by the FDFO-NF hybrid system was 1.08 kWh/m, which is 13.6% less energy than an MF-RO and 21% less than UF-RO under similar initial feed solution. In a closed-loop system, the FDFO-NF hybrid system using a TFC FO membrane with an optimum NF recovery rate of 84% had the lowest unit operating expenditure of AUD $0.41/m. Besides, given the current relatively high price and low flux performance of the cellulose triacetate and TFC FO membranes, the FDFO-NF hybrid system still holds opportunities to reduce operating expenditure further. Optimizing NF recovery rates and improving the water flux of the membrane would decrease the unit OPEX costs, although the TFC FO membrane would be less sensitive to this effect.

  4. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Chekli, Laura; Hong, Seungkwan; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Choi, Joon Yong; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) as a pre-treatment process. The results showed that the FDFO-NF hybrid system using thin film composite forward osmosis (TFC) FO membrane has less environmental impact than conventional RO hybrid systems due to lower consumption of energy and cleaning chemicals. The energy requirement for the treatment of mine impaired water by the FDFO-NF hybrid system was 1.08 kWh/m, which is 13.6% less energy than an MF-RO and 21% less than UF-RO under similar initial feed solution. In a closed-loop system, the FDFO-NF hybrid system using a TFC FO membrane with an optimum NF recovery rate of 84% had the lowest unit operating expenditure of AUD $0.41/m. Besides, given the current relatively high price and low flux performance of the cellulose triacetate and TFC FO membranes, the FDFO-NF hybrid system still holds opportunities to reduce operating expenditure further. Optimizing NF recovery rates and improving the water flux of the membrane would decrease the unit OPEX costs, although the TFC FO membrane would be less sensitive to this effect.

  5. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  6. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  7. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  8. Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems High quality drinking water can be produced with membrane filtration processes like reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). Because the global demand for fresh clean water is increasing, these membrane technologies will increase in importance in the

  9. Composite materials with ionic conductivity: from inorganic composites to hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslavtsev, Andrei B [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    Information on composite materials with ionic conductivity including inorganic composites and hybrid polymeric ion exchange membranes containing inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles is generalized. The nature of the effect of increase in the ionic conductivity in this type of materials and the key approaches used for theoretical estimation of the conductivity are considered. Data on the ionic conductivity and some other important properties of composites and membrane materials are presented. Prospects for utilization of composite materials and hybrid membranes in hydrogen power engineering are briefly outlined.

  10. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  11. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  12. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  13. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  14. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Deformable Membrane Mirror for Lightweight, Large Aperture and Cryogenic Space Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes innovative hybrid electrostatic/flextensional membrane deformable mirror capable of large amplitude aberration correction for large...

  15. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Abstraction of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Hermanns, H.

    2006-01-01

    The verification problem for stochastic hybrid systems is quite difficult. One method to verify these systems is stochastic reachability analysis. Concepts of abstractions for stochastic hybrid systems are needed to ease the stochastic reachability analysis. In this paper, we set up different ways

  17. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  18. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  19. Nanoporous polymer--clay hybrid membranes for gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defontaine, Guillaume; Barichard, Anne; Letaief, Sadok; Feng, Chaoyang; Matsuura, Takeshi; Detellier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    Nanohybrid organo-inorgano clay mineral-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes were prepared by the reaction of pure and/or modified natural clay minerals (Sepiolite and montmorillonite) with PDMS in hexane, followed by evaporation of the solvent at 70 degrees C. The membranes were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, ATD-TG and solid state (29)Si magic angle spinning (MAS) and cross-polarization (CP) CP/MAS NMR. The morphology of the membranes depends on the content loading of clay mineral. For low content, the membrane composition is homogeneous, with well dispersed nanoparticles of clay into the polymer matrix, whereas for higher clay content, the membranes are constituted also of a mixture of well dispersed nanoparticles into the polymer, but in the presence of agglomerations of small clay particles. Quantitative (29)Si MAS NMR demonstrated a strong correlation between the clay content of the membrane and the average length of the PDMS chain, indicating that the nanohybrid material is made of clay particles covalently linked to the PDMS structure. This is particularly the case for Sepiolite with has a high density of Q(2) silanol sites. The separation performances of the prepared membranes were tested for CO(2)/CH(4) and O(2)/N(2) mixtures. The observed separation factors showed an increase of the selectivity in the case of CO(2)/CH(4) in comparison with membranes made from PDMS alone under the same conditions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PEMFC performance of MEAS based on Nafion{sup R} and sPSEBS hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Univ, Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Dept. Termodinamica Aplicada; Suarez, K.; Solorza, O. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica; Riande, E. [Inst. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Important scientific, technical and economic problems must be solved before widespread commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The main issues facing the development of commercial low temperature fuel cells are the synthesis of efficient solid electrolytes separating the anode from the cathode as well as the development of cheaper catalysts for fuel oxidation. This study involved the preparation of hybrid membranes based on Nafion 117 and sulfonated Calprene H6120 containing partially sulfonated inorganic fillers such as silica, SBA-15 and sepiolite. The feasibility of using the membranes as polyelectrolytes for low temperature fuel cells was then evaluated. The water uptake of Nafion hybrid membranes is 1/3 to 1/4 of that in composite membranes based on sulfonated Calprene H6120. The proton conductivity of Nafion 117 hybrid membranes-electrode assemblies is nearly 1/5 of the pristine Nafion membrane assembly. Sulfonated Calprene H6120 hybrid membranes typically have better proton conductivity than the Nafion 117 composites. The performance of fuel cells containing different MEAs was examined by measuring their polarization curves in different operating conditions. The kinetic parameters governing the voltage dependence on current density were also estimated. It was concluded that the superior performance of the fuel cells with MEAs of NAF-SEP, sPSEBS-SIL and sPSEBS-SBA is not due to the membranes themselves, but to the kinetic processes that occur at the electrodes, which in this study were less efficient for fuel cells with the Nafion MEA. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Hybrid ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells and separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Carretero, F.J.; Compan, V. [Departamento de Termodinamica Aplicada, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46020 Valencia (Spain); Riande, E. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (CSIC), 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-11-08

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid membranes cast from dispersions of inorganic fillers in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene solutions. Silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them functionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, were used as fillers. For comparative purposes, the performance of composite membranes cast from dispersions of functionalized inorganic fillers in Nafion {sup registered} solutions was investigated. Inspection of the texture of the membranes by using SEM techniques shows that the fillers are better dispersed in sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene than in Nafion {sup registered}. The value of the water uptake for the membranes prepared from the former polyelectrolyte is in most cases at least three times that measured for hybrid Nafion {sup registered} membranes. The conductivity of the membranes was measured at 80 C by impedance spectroscopy obtaining values of 3.44, 6.90 and 3.54 S m{sup -1} for the hybrid membranes based on the triblock copolymer containing functionalized silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite fillers, respectively. These results compare very favourably with those obtained at 80 C for Nafion {sup registered} hybrid membranes containing silica gel, SBA-15 and sepiolite, all of them fuctionalized with phenylsulfonic acid groups, whose conductivities are, 2.84, 6.75 and 3.31 S m{sup -1}, respectively. Resistance measurements carried out under controlled humidity conditions show that the conductivity of sulfonated triblock copolymer membranes containing functionalized SBA-15 filler undergoes a rather sharp increase when they are conditioned under an atmosphere of 75%, or larger, relative humidity. (author)

  2. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  3. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2016-01-01

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  4. Organic Removal Efficiency of the Nanofiltration and Adsorption Hybrid System in High Strength Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hessam Hassani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface and groundwater resources are increasingly jeopardized by discharges from pharmaceutical, chemical, and detergent plants. The high pollutant load of the effluents from these industries requires specific treatments. The objective of this research was to study and compare the nanofiltration and adsorption hybrid system with the plain nanofiltration system in wastewater treatment.For this purpose, a pilot nanofiltration system with a capacity of 7.6 m3/d using 1 and 5 micron filters and a FILMTEC NF90-4040 membrane was used in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, granular activated carbon cartridges were used. Inluent and effluent discharges as well as the COD removal were measured in both systems under variable times and organic load conditions. The results showed that COD removal efficiency was higher in the hybrid system than in the plain naonofiltration one. In the hybrid system, the Maximum in the hybrid system, the COD removal efficiencies achieved for organic loads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/L were 99%, 95.86%, and 92.93%, respectively. The same values for the plain nanofiltration system were 87.34%, 50%, and 29.41%, respectively. It was found that polarization and membrane fouling decreased both the effluent flow and the COD removal efficiency with time. Fouling of the membrane was, however, lower in the hybrid system compared to the plain nanofiltration; thus, the hybrid system was associated with higher values of COD removal and delayed membrane fouling.

  5. Magnetic properties of the magnetic hybrid membranes based on various polymer matrices and inorganic fillers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybak, Aleksandra; Kaszuwara, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic hybrid membranes based on ethylcellulose (EC), poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and various magnetic praseodymium and neodymium powder microparticles as fillers were obtained. Permeability, diffusion and sorption coefficients of O 2 , N 2 and synthetic air components were estimated for homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes using the Time Lag method based on constant pressure permeation technique. The microstructure studies and the phase analysis of magnetic membranes were also performed using SEM and XRD. The influence of magnetic parameters, like coercivity, remanence and saturation magnetization of created membranes on the gas transport properties was studied. The results showed that their coercivity depended on composition and microstructure of the magnetic powder. On the other hand, remanence and saturation magnetization increased with the increase of the powder addition in the membrane. It was found that the magnetic membrane's gas transport properties were improved with the increase of membrane's remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The decrease in powder particle size and associated increase of the membrane's coercivity also positively influenced the gas transport and separation properties of investigated membranes. It was observed that the magnetic ethylcellulose and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) membranes had higher gas permeability, while their permselectivity and solubility coefficient values were rather maintained or slightly increased. The results also showed that the magnetic powder content enhanced significantly gas diffusivity in EC and PPO membranes. It was also analyzed the dependence of the drift coefficient w on the magnetic parameters of investigated membranes. The correlation between the membrane selectivity, permeability and magnetic properties with their XRD characteristics was stated. - Highlights: • Membrane's production consisting of EC or PPO polymers and

  6. Magnetic properties of the magnetic hybrid membranes based on various polymer matrices and inorganic fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybak, Aleksandra, E-mail: Aleksandra.Rybak@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kaszuwara, Waldemar [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-05

    Magnetic hybrid membranes based on ethylcellulose (EC), poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and various magnetic praseodymium and neodymium powder microparticles as fillers were obtained. Permeability, diffusion and sorption coefficients of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and synthetic air components were estimated for homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes using the Time Lag method based on constant pressure permeation technique. The microstructure studies and the phase analysis of magnetic membranes were also performed using SEM and XRD. The influence of magnetic parameters, like coercivity, remanence and saturation magnetization of created membranes on the gas transport properties was studied. The results showed that their coercivity depended on composition and microstructure of the magnetic powder. On the other hand, remanence and saturation magnetization increased with the increase of the powder addition in the membrane. It was found that the magnetic membrane's gas transport properties were improved with the increase of membrane's remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The decrease in powder particle size and associated increase of the membrane's coercivity also positively influenced the gas transport and separation properties of investigated membranes. It was observed that the magnetic ethylcellulose and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) membranes had higher gas permeability, while their permselectivity and solubility coefficient values were rather maintained or slightly increased. The results also showed that the magnetic powder content enhanced significantly gas diffusivity in EC and PPO membranes. It was also analyzed the dependence of the drift coefficient w on the magnetic parameters of investigated membranes. The correlation between the membrane selectivity, permeability and magnetic properties with their XRD characteristics was stated. - Highlights: • Membrane's production consisting of EC or PPO

  7. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Davey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s, Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s, Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  8. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Christopher John; Leak, David; Patterson, Darrell Alec

    2016-02-29

    Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s), Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s), Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  9. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  10. Dynamics and control of hybrid mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, G.A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Fradkov, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The papers in this edited volume aim to provide a better understanding of the dynamics and control of a large class of hybrid dynamical systems that are described by different models in different state space domains. They not only cover important aspects and tools for hybrid systems analysis and

  11. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  12. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions

  13. Chemically Stable Covalent Organic Framework (COF)-Polybenzimidazole Hybrid Membranes: Enhanced Gas Separation through Pore Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Bishnu P; Chaudhari, Harshal D; Banerjee, Rahul; Kharul, Ulhas K

    2016-03-24

    Highly flexible, TpPa-1@PBI-BuI and TpBD@PBI-BuI hybrid membranes based on chemically stable covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could be obtained with the polymer. The loading obtained was substantially higher (50 %) than generally observed with MOFs. These hybrid membranes show an exciting enhancement in permeability (about sevenfold) with appreciable separation factors for CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4. Further, we found that with COF pore modulation, the gas permeability can be systematically enhanced. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Solving Problem of Graph Isomorphism by Membrane-Quantum Hybrid Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiom Alhazov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the application of new parallelization methods based on membrane-quantum hybrid computing to graph isomorphism problem solving. Applied membrane-quantum hybrid computational model was developed by authors. Massive parallelism of unconventional computing is used to implement classic brute force algorithm efficiently. This approach does not suppose any restrictions of considered graphs types. The estimated performance of the model is less then quadratic that makes a very good result for the problem of \\textbf{NP} complexity.

  15. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang

    2015-05-20

    A novel pressure retarded osmosis−membrane distillation (PRO−MD) hybrid process has been experimentally conceived for sustainable production of renewable osmotic power and clean water from various waters. The proposed PRO−MD system may possess unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic energy from freshwater but also from wastewater. When employing a 2 M NaCl MD concentrate as the draw solution, ultrahigh power densities of 31.0 W/m2 and 9.3 W/m2 have been demonstrated by the PRO subsystem using deionized water and real wastewater brine as the feeds, respectively. Simultaneously, high purity potable water with a flux of 32.5−63.1 L/(m2.h) can be produced by the MD subsystem at 40−60 °C without any detrimental effects of fouling. The energy consumption in the MD subsystem might be further reduced by applying a heat exchanger in the hybrid system and using low-grade heat or solar energy to heat up the feed solution. The newly developed PRO−MD hybrid process would provide insightful guidelines for the exploration of alternative green technologies for renewable osmotic energy and clean water production.

  16. A conceptual design of catalytic gasification fuel cell hybrid power plant with oxygen transfer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangying; Han, Minfang

    2017-09-01

    A hybrid power generation system integrating catalytic gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen transfer membrane (OTM) and gas turbine (GT) is established and system energy analysis is performed. In this work, the catalytic gasifier uses steam, recycled anode off-gas and pure oxygen from OTM system to gasify coal, and heated by hot cathode off-gas at the same time. A zero-dimension SOFC model is applied and verified by fitting experimental data. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to investigate the integrated system performance, and system sensitivities on anode off-gas back flow ratio, SOFC fuel utilization, temperature and pressure are discussed. Main conclusions are as follows: (1) System overall electricity efficiency reaches 60.7%(HHV) while the gasifier operates at 700 °C and SOFC at 850 °C with system pressure at 3.04 bar; (2) oxygen enriched combustion simplify the carbon-dioxide capture process, which derives CO2 of 99.2% purity, but results in a penalty of 6.7% on system electricity efficiency; (3) with SOFC fuel utilization or temperature increasing, the power output of SOFC increases while GT power output decreases, and increasing system pressure can improve both the performance of SOFC and GT.

  17. Proton Conductive Channel Optimization in Methanol Resistive Hybrid Hyperbranched Polyamide Proton Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a previously developed polyamide proton conductive macromolecule, the nano-scale structure of the self-assembled proton conductive channels (PCCs is adjusted via enlarging the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules. Hyperbranched polyamide macromolecules with different size are synthesized from different monomers to tune the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules, and a series of hybrid membranes are prepared from these two micromoles to optimize the PCC structure in the proton exchange membrane. The optimized membrane exhibits methanol permeability low to 2.2 × 10−7 cm2/s, while the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane can reach 0.25 S/cm at 80 °C, which was much higher than the value of the Nafion 117 membrane (0.192 S/cm. By considering the mechanical, dimensional, and the thermal properties, the hybrid hyperbranched polyamide proton exchange membrane (PEM exhibits promising application potential in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC.

  18. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  19. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  20. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  1. In Pipe Robot with Hybrid Locomotion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miclauş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper covers aspects concerning in pipe robots and their components, such as hybrid locomotion systems and the adapting mechanisms used. The second part describes the inspection robot that was developed, which combines tracked and wheeled locomotion (hybrid locomotion. The end of the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed robot.

  2. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope by novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on quaternized chitosan and tetraethoxysilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Katayama, Takuya; Miyata, Takashi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Higuchi, Akon

    2004-01-01

    To control swelling of quaternized chitosan (q-Chito) membranes, mixtures of q-Chito as an organic component and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as an inorganic component were prepared using the sol-gel reaction, and novel q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes were formed. In the separation of an ethanol/water azeotrope by pervaporation, the effect of TEOS content on the water/ethanol selectivity of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes was investigated. Hybrid membranes containing up to 45 mol % TEOS exhibited higher water/ethanol selectivity than the q-Chito membrane. This resulted from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, introduction of excess TEOS led to greater swelling of the hybrid membranes. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of the hybrid membranes containing more than 45 mol % TEOS was lower than that of the q-Chito membrane. The relationship between the structure of q-Chito/TEOS hybrid membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotrope is discussed in detail.

  3. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  4. Synthesis and Gas Transport Properties of Hyperbranched Polyimide–Silica Hybrid/Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Miki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbranched polyimide–silica hybrids (HBPI–silica HBDs and hyperbranched polyimide–silica composites (HBPI–silica CPTs were prepared, and their general and gas transport properties were investigated to clarify the effect of silica sources and preparation methods. HBPI–silica HBDs and HBPI–silica CPTs were synthesized by two-step polymerization of A2 + B3 monomer system via polyamic acid as precursor, followed by hybridizing or blending silica sources. Silica components were incorporated by the sol-gel reaction with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS or the addition of colloidal silica. In HBPI-silica HBDs, the aggregation of silica components is controlled because of the high affinity of HBPI and silica caused by the formation of covalent bonds between HBPI and silica. Consequently, HBPI-silica HBDs had good film formability, transparency, and mechanical properties compared with HBPI-silica CPTs. HBPI-silica HBD and CPT membranes prepared via the sol-gel reaction with TMOS showed specific gas permeabilities and permselectivities for CO2/CH4 separation, that is, both CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 selectivity increased with increasing silica content. This result suggests that gas transport can occur through a molecular sieving effect of the porous silica network derived from the sol-gel reaction and/or through the narrow interfacial region between the silica networks and the organic matrix.

  5. Membrane tethering complexes in the endosomal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSpang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the CORVET complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the HOPS complex. Recycling through the TGN and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the GARP and EARP complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, complexes that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic.

  6. Hybrid gas separation membranes containing star-shaped polystyrene with the fullerene (C60) core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulyalina, A. Y.; Rostovtseva, V. A.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Vinogradova, L. V.; Polotskaya, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2018), s. 296-303 ISSN 0965-5441 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gas separation * hybrid membranes * star-shaped macromolecules Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2016

  7. Hybridization of plant virus ssRNAs Transferred to Hybond N membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, O.; Kudelova, K.; Plaschke-Jakubik, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a protocol for the non-denaturating agarose gel electrophoresis of plant virus ssRNAs, their blotting onto Hybond N membrane, and hybridization with [alpha 32 P]dNTP-labelled cDNA probe. The protocol is not pretentious on technical equipment, omits denaturation and neutralization steps and some chemical required in other modifications. (authors)

  8. Breaking down barriers: construction of a hybrid heterochiral membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siliakus, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Because of a chemical disparity between Archaeal and Bacterial membrane-lipids, these organisms thrive under distinct environmental conditions. Archaea are generally more resistant to extreme habitats like low pH, high temperature or presence of solvents. It has therefore long been hypothesized

  9. Plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes with a controlled retention of organic bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Wienk, I.M.; Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-03-05

    Hybrid organically bridged silica membranes are suitable for energy-efficient molecular separations under harsh industrial conditions. Such membranes can be useful in organic solvent nanofiltration if they can be deposited on flexible, porous and large area supports. Here, we report the proof of concept for applying an expanding thermal plasma to the synthesis of perm-selective hybrid silica films from an organically bridged monomer, 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane. This membrane is the first in its class to be produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By tuning the plasma and process parameters, the organic bridging groups could be retained in the separating layer. This way, a defect free film could be made with pervaporation performances of an n-butanol-water mixture comparable with those of conventional ceramic supported membranes made by sol-gel technology (i.e. a water flux of [similar]1.8 kg m'-{sup 2} h{sup -1}, a water concentration in the permeate higher than 98% and a separation factor of >1100). The obtained results show the suitability of expanding thermal plasma as a technology for the deposition of hybrid silica membranes for molecular separations.

  10. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-08

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  11. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  12. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  13. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  14. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes

  15. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  16. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). PMID:26729176

  17. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  18. Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.

  19. Gas diffusion electrode based on electrospun Pani/CNF nanofibers hybrid for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezarjaribi, M.; Jahanshahi, M., E-mail: mjahan@nit.ac.ir; Rahimpour, A.; Yaldagard, M.

    2014-03-01

    A novel hybrid system has been investigated based on polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (Pani/CNF) electrospun nanofibers for modification of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Pani/CNF hybrid nanofibers were synthesized directly on carbon paper by electrospinning method. For preparation of catalyst ink, 20 wt.% Pt/C electrocatalyst with a platinum loading of 0.4 mg cm{sup −2} was prepared by polyol technique. SEM studies applied for morphological study of the modified GDE with hybrid nanofibers. This technique indicated that the electrospun nanofibers had a diameter of roughly 100 nm. XRD patterns also showed that the average size of Pt nanoparticles was about 2 nm. Subsequently, comparison of the hybrid electrode electrochemical behavior and 20 wt.% Pt/C commercial one was studied by cyclic voltammetry experiment. The electrochemical data indicated that the hybrid electrode exhibited higher current density (about 15 mA cm{sup −2}) and ESA (160 m{sup 2} gr{sup −1}) than commercial Pt/C with amount of about 10 mA cm{sup −2} and 114 m{sup 2} gr{sup −1}, respectively. The results herein demonstrate that Pani/CNF nanofibers can be used as a good alternative electrode material for PEMFCs.

  20. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...... of control strategies. This paper combines topology and section mapping theories together to show a new way of analyzing hybrid systems...

  1. Effect of ozone on the performance of a hybrid ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianning; Hu, Jiangyong; Tao, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xihui

    2014-04-01

    Two hybrid processes including ozonation-ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon (BAC) (Process A) and ceramic membrane-BAC (Process B) were compared to treat polluted raw water. The performance of hybrid processes was evaluated with the removal efficiencies of turbidity, ammonia and organic matter. The results indicated that more than 99% of particle count was removed by both hybrid processes and ozonation had no significant effect on its removal. BAC filtration greatly improved the removal of ammonia. Increasing the dissolved oxygen to 30.0 mg/L could lead to a removal of ammonia with concentrations as high as 7.80 mg/L and 8.69 mg/L for Processes A and B, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of total organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254, a parameter indicating organic matter with aromatic structure) were 49% and 52% for Process A, 51% and 48% for Process B, respectively. Some organic matter was oxidized by ozone and this resulted in reduced membrane fouling and increased membrane flux by 25%-30%. However, pre-ozonation altered the components of the raw water and affected the microorganisms in the BAC, which may impact the removals of organic matter and nitrite negatively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hierarchically structured transparent hybrid membranes by in situ growth of mesostructured organosilica in host polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallé, Karine; Belleville, Philippe; Pereira, Franck; Sanchez, Clément

    2006-02-01

    The elaborate performances characterizing natural materials result from functional hierarchical constructions at scales ranging from nanometres to millimetres, each construction allowing the material to fit the physical or chemical demands occurring at these different levels. Hierarchically structured materials start to demonstrate a high input in numerous promising applied domains such as sensors, catalysis, optics, fuel cells, smart biologic and cosmetic vectors. In particular, hierarchical hybrid materials permit the accommodation of a maximum of elementary functions in a small volume, thereby optimizing complementary possibilities and properties between inorganic and organic components. The reported strategies combine sol-gel chemistry, self-assembly routes using templates that tune the material's architecture and texture with the use of larger inorganic, organic or biological templates such as latex, organogelator-derived fibres, nanolithographic techniques or controlled phase separation. We propose an approach to forming transparent hierarchical hybrid functionalized membranes using in situ generation of mesostructured hybrid phases inside a non-porogenic hydrophobic polymeric host matrix. We demonstrate that the control of the multiple affinities existing between organic and inorganic components allows us to design the length-scale partitioning of hybrid nanomaterials with tuned functionalities and desirable size organization from ångström to centimetre. After functionalization of the mesoporous hybrid silica component, the resulting membranes have good ionic conductivity offering interesting perspectives for the design of solid electrolytes, fuel cells and other ion-transport microdevices.

  3. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  4. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  5. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  6. Two orders of magnitude reduction in silicon membrane thermal conductivity by resonance hybridizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Hossein; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2018-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of a freestanding single-crystal silicon membrane may be reduced significantly by attaching nanoscale pillars on one or both surfaces. Atomic resonances of the nanopillars form vibrons that intrinsically couple with the base membrane phonons causing mode hybridization and flattening at each coupling location in the phonon band structure. This in turn causes group velocity reductions of existing phonons, in addition to introducing new modes that get excited but are localized and do not transport energy. The nanopillars also reduce the phonon lifetimes at and around the hybridization zones. These three effects, which in principle may be tuned to take place across silicon's full spectrum, lead to a lowering of the in-plane thermal conductivity in the base membrane. Using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, and utilizing the concept of vibrons compensation, we report a staggering two orders of magnitude reduction in the thermal conductivity at room temperature by this mechanism. Specifically, a reduction of a factor of 130 is demonstrated for a roughly 10-nm-thick pillared membrane compared to a corresponding unpillared membrane. This amounts to a record reduction of a factor of 481 compared to bulk crystalline silicon and nearly a factor of 2 compared to bulk amorphous silicon. These results are obtained while providing a path for preserving performance with upscaling.

  7. Synthesis and properties of imidazole-grafted hybrid inorganic-organic polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Siwen; Zhou Zhen; Liu Meilin; Li Wen; Ukai, Junzo; Hase, Kohei; Nakanishi, Masatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Imidazole rings were grafted on alkoxysilane with a simple nucleophilic substitute reaction to form hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with imidazole rings. Proton exchange membranes (PEM) based on these hybrid inorganic-organic polymers and H 3 PO 4 exhibit high proton conductivity and high thermal stability in an atmosphere of low relative humidity. The grafted imidazole rings improved the proton conductivity of the membranes in the high temperature range. It is found that the proton conductivities increase with H 3 PO 4 content and temperature, reaching 3.2 x 10 -3 S/cm at 110 deg. C in a dry atmosphere for a membrane with 1 mole of imidazole ring and 7 moles of H 3 PO 4 . The proton conductivity increases with relative humidity (RH) as well, reaching 4.3 x 10 -2 S/cm at 110 deg. C when the RH is increased to about 20%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that these membranes are thermally stable up to 250 deg. C in dry air, implying that they have a good potential to be used as the membranes for high-temperature PEM fuel cells

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF MIEX® RESIN FOR WATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCYIN A HYBRID MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Rajca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies related to the effectiveness of removal of natural organic matter (NOM from water using hybrid membrane reactor in which ion exchange and ultrafiltration processes were performed. MIEX® resin by Orica Watercare and immersed ultrafiltration polyvinylidene fluoride capillary module ZeeWeed 1 (ZW 1 by GE Power&Water operated at negative pressure were used. The application of multifunctional reactor had a positive effect on the removal of contaminants and enabled the production of high quality water. Additionally, in refer to single stage ultrafiltration it minimalized the occurrence of membrane fouling.

  9. Engineering a self-driven PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes based on membrane micro-reactor effect to achieve super-hydrophilicity, excellent antifouling properties and hemocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Ni, Xing-Xing; Zhang, De-Bin; Zheng, Hui; Wang, Jia-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2018-06-01

    A facile and versatile approach for the preparation of super-hydrophilic, excellent antifouling and hemocompatibility membranes had been developed through the generation in situ of bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) microspheres on PVDF membranes. SEM images showed that the PDA microspheres were uniformly dispersed on the upper surface and the lower surface of the modified membranes. And there were a great number of PDA microspheres immobilized on the cross-section, but the interconnected pores structure was not destroyed. These facts indicated the existence of membrane micro-reactor effect for the whole membrane structure. Considering the remarkable improvement of hydrophilicity, antifouling properties, and permeation fluxes, we also proposed the cluster phenolic hydroxyl effect for the PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes. And the cluster phenolic hydroxyl effect can be ascribed to the all directions distributed phenolic hydroxyl groups on the whole membrane structure. Besides, the self-driven filtration experiments showed the great wetting ability and permeability of the PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes in filtration process without any external pressure. This implied the existence of accelerating self-driven force after the water flow flowed into the internal of membranes, which contributed to the increase of water flow velocity. All the three aspects were in favor of the enhancement of hydrophilicity, antifouling properties and permeability of the modified membranes. Moreover, the conventional filtration tests, oil/water emulsion filtration tests and protein adsorption tests were also carried out to discuss the practical applications of PVDF/PDA hybrid membranes. And the hemocompatibility of the modified membranes was also proved to enhance greatly through the hemolysis tests and platelet adhesion tests, indicating that the membranes were greatly promising in biomedical applications. The strategy of material modification reported here is substrate-independent and can be extended

  10. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  11. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  12. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  13. Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Abdul Sathar Eqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles is essential to achieve key objectives. These objectives are to increase efficiency while reducing the amount of carbon-based emissions. Hybrid electric propulsion (HEP is an ideal means to maintain the energy density of hydrocarbon-based fuels and utilize energy-efficient electric machines. A system that integrates different propulsion systems into a single system, with one being electric, is termed an HEP system. HEP systems have been studied previously and introduced into Land, Water, and Aerial Vehicles. This work presents research into the use of HEP systems in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS. The systems discussed in this paper are Internal Combustion Engine (ICE–Electric Hybrid systems, ICE–Photovoltaic (PV Hybrid systems, and Fuel-Cell Hybrid systems. The improved performance characteristics in terms of fuel consumption and endurance are discussed.

  14. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  15. Sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roofing membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graveline, S. P. [Sika Sanarfil, Canton, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB-RILEM) has developed a framework for sustainable roofing based on a series of tenets divided into three key areas: preservation of the environment, conservation of energy, and extended roof life. This paper investigated the sustainability of thermoplastic vinyl roof membranes using these guidelines and the relevant tenets for roof system selection. Several tenets provided alternatives for minimizing the burden on the environment using non-renewable raw materials, conserving energy with thermal insulation, and extending the lifespan of all roof components by using long lasting membranes. A life cycle assessment was carried out to provide a quantitative framework for assessing the sustainability of roofing materials. It was found that the PVC membrane systems had a lesser impact on the environment than other competing systems.

  16. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis−Membrane Distillation (PRO−MD) Process for Osmotic Power and Clean Water Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Gang; Zuo, Jian; Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    unique advantages of high water recovery rate, huge osmotic power generation, well controlled membrane fouling, and minimal environmental impacts. Experimental results show that the PRO−MD hybrid process is promising that not only can harvest osmotic

  17. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  18. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  19. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  20. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  1. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification o...... on a number of case studies, tackled using a prototypical implementation....

  2. Stochastic hybrid systems with renewal transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) for which the lengths of times that the system stays in each mode are independent random variables with given distributions. We propose an analysis framework based on a set of Volterra renewal-type equations, which allows us to compute any statistical

  3. Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, Martin; Tailor, Manesh; Marquez, David; Fenton, Norman; Hearty, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid Bayesian network (BN) is one that incorporates both discrete and continuous nodes. In our extensive applications of BNs for system dependability assessment, the models are invariably hybrid and the need for efficient and accurate computation is paramount. We apply a new iterative algorithm that efficiently combines dynamic discretisation with robust propagation algorithms on junction tree structures to perform inference in hybrid BNs. We illustrate its use in the field of dependability with two example of reliability estimation. Firstly we estimate the reliability of a simple single system and next we implement a hierarchical Bayesian model. In the hierarchical model we compute the reliability of two unknown subsystems from data collected on historically similar subsystems and then input the result into a reliability block model to compute system level reliability. We conclude that dynamic discretisation can be used as an alternative to analytical or Monte Carlo methods with high precision and can be applied to a wide range of dependability problems

  4. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  5. Nafion-TiO{sub 2} hybrid membranes for medium temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacca, A.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Via Salita S. Lucia Sopra Contesse, 98126 Messina (Italy); D' Epifanio, A.; Licoccia, S.; Traversa, E. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Sala, E.; Traini, F.; Ornelas, R. [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Via Bistolfi 35, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    A nanocomposite re-cast Nafion hybrid membrane containing titanium oxide calcined at T=400{sup o}C as an inorganic filler was developed in order to work at medium temperature in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) maintaining a suitable membrane hydration under fuel cell operative critical conditions. Nanometre TiO{sub 2} powder was synthesized via a sol-gel procedure by a rapid hydrolysis of Ti(OiPr){sub 4}. The membrane was prepared by mixing a Nafion-dimethylacetammide (DMAc) dispersion with a 3wt% of TiO{sub 2} powder and casting the mixture by Doctor Blade technique. The resulting film was characterised in terms of water uptake and ion exchange capacity (IEC). The membrane was tested in a single cell from 80 to 130{sup o}C in humidified H{sub 2}/air. The obtained results were compared with the commercial Nafion115 and a home-made recast Nafion membrane. Power density values of 0.514 and 0.256Wcm{sup -2} at 0.56V were obtained at 110 and 130{sup o}C, respectively, for the composite Nafion-Titania membrane. Preliminary tests carried out using steam reforming (SR) synthetic fuel at about 110{sup o}C have highlighted the benefit of the inorganic filler introduction when PEFC operates at medium temperature and with processed hydrogen. (author)

  6. Fabrication of Well-Ordered, Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane Using Hybrid Anodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungyoon; Ganorkar, Shraddha; Choi, Jinnil; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Seong-II

    2017-01-01

    Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) is one of the most favorable candidates for fabrication of nano-meshed membrane for various applications due to its controllable pore size and self-ordered structure. The mechanism of AAO membrane is a simple and has been studied by many research groups, however the actual fabrication of membrane has several difficulties owing to its sensitivity of ordering, long anodizing time and unclearness of the pore. In this work, we have demonstrated enhanced process of fabrication symmetric AAO membrane by using “hybrid anodizing” (Hyb-A) method which include mild anodization (MA) followed by hard anodization (HA). This Hyb-A process can give highly ordered membrane with more vivid pore than two-step anodizing process. HA was implemented on the Al plate which has been already textured by MA for more ordered structure and HA plays a key role for formation of more obvious pore in Hyb-A. Our experimental results indicate that Hyb-A with proper process sequence would be one of the fast and useful fabrication methods for the AAO membrane.

  7. Hybrid MF and membrane bioreactor process applied towards water and indigo reuse from denim textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Carolina Fonseca; Marques, Larissa Silva; Balmant, Janine; de Oliveira Maia, Andreza Penido; Moravia, Wagner Guadagnin; Santos Amaral, Miriam Cristina

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the application of a microfiltration (MF)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid process for textile dyeing process wastewater reclamation. The indigo blue dye was efficiently retained by the MF membrane (100%), which allows its recovery from the concentrate stream. MF promotes 100% of colour removal, and reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity by about 65% and 25%, respectively, and improves the wastewater biodegradability. MF flux decline was mostly attributed to concentration polarization and the chemical cleaning was efficient enough to recover initial hydraulic resistance. The MBR provides to be a stable process maintaining its COD and ammonia removal efficiency (73% and 100%, respectively) mostly constant throughout and producing a permeate that meets the reuse criteria for some industry activities, such as washing-off and equipment washdown. The use of an MF or ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the MBR does not impact the MBR performance in terms of COD removal. Although the membrane of MBR-UF shows permeability lower than MBR-MF membrane, the UF membrane contributes to a more stable operation in terms of permeability.

  8. High-performance hybrid pervaporation membranes with superior hydrothermal and acid stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Efficiency and Infrastructure, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid membrane has been prepared with exceptional performance in dewatering applications. The only precursor used in the sol-gel synthesis of the selective layer was organically linked 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE). The microporous structure of this layer enables selective molecular sieving of small molecules from larger ones. In the dehydration of n-butanol with 5% of water, the membrane shows a high separation factor of over 4000 and ultra-fast water transport at a rate of more than 20 kg m{sup -2} h{sup -1} at 150C. This can be related to the high adsorption capacity of the material and the sub-micron thickness of the selective layer. The selectivity has now remained constant over almost one and a half years under continuous process testing conditions. Apart from the hydrothermal stability, the membrane exhibits a high tolerance for acid contamination. A slow performance decline in flux and separation factor is only observed at a pH lower than 2. The high stability and effective separation indicate a broad industrial application potential of the hybrid membrane material.

  9. Network and neuronal membrane properties in hybrid networks reciprocally regulate selectivity to rapid thalamocortical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Michael J; Pinto, David J

    2012-11-01

    Rapidly changing environments require rapid processing from sensory inputs. Varying deflection velocities of a rodent's primary facial vibrissa cause varying temporal neuronal activity profiles within the ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus. Local neuron populations in a single somatosensory layer 4 barrel transform sparsely coded input into a spike count based on the input's temporal profile. We investigate this transformation by creating a barrel-like hybrid network with whole cell recordings of in vitro neurons from a cortical slice preparation, embedding the biological neuron in the simulated network by presenting virtual synaptic conductances via a conductance clamp. Utilizing the hybrid network, we examine the reciprocal network properties (local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic convergence) and neuronal membrane properties (input resistance) by altering the barrel population response to diverse thalamic input. In the presence of local network input, neurons are more selective to thalamic input timing; this arises from strong feedforward inhibition. Strongly inhibitory (damping) network regimes are more selective to timing and less selective to the magnitude of input but require stronger initial input. Input selectivity relies heavily on the different membrane properties of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. When inhibitory and excitatory neurons had identical membrane properties, the sensitivity of in vitro neurons to temporal vs. magnitude features of input was substantially reduced. Increasing the mean leak conductance of the inhibitory cells decreased the network's temporal sensitivity, whereas increasing excitatory leak conductance enhanced magnitude sensitivity. Local network synapses are essential in shaping thalamic input, and differing membrane properties of functional classes reciprocally modulate this effect.

  10. Hybrid membrane-microfluidic components using a novel ceramic MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent J.; Polyakov, Oleg; Rinaldo, Chris

    2012-03-01

    A novel hybrid nano/microfabrication technology has been employed to produce unique MEMS and microfluidic components that integrate nanoporous membranes. The components are made by micromachining a self-organized nanostructured ceramic material that is biocompatible and amenable to surface chemistry modification. Microfluidic structures, such as channels and wells, can be made with a precision of membranes can be integrated into the bottom of these structures, featuring a wide range of possible thicknesses, from 100 micron to membranes may be non-porous or porous (with controllable pore sizes from 200 nm to technology is highly scaleable, and thus can yield low-cost, reliable, disposable microcomponents and devices. Specific applications that can benefit from this technology includes cell culturing and assays, imaging by cryo-electron tomography, environmental sample processing, as well as many others.

  11. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the concept of generalised computability of operators and functionals defined on the set of continuous functions, firstly introduced in [9]. By working in the reals, with equality and without equality, we study properties of generalised computable operators and functionals. Also we...... propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...... grant for young researchers, 2000)...

  12. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  13. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  14. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. CAPHIGAS Project: Design of a Novel WGS-Adsorbent-Membrane Hybrid System for the Simultaneous Capture of CO{sub 2} and Production of H2 (Ref.: Ene2009-08002); Proyecto CAPHIGAS: Diseno de un Sistema Hibrido WGS-Adsorbente-Membrana para la Captura de CO{sub 2} con Produccion de H{sub 2} (Ref: Ene2009-08002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, M.; Barreiro, M. M.; Sanchez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    This report describes the general objective, tasks and main results and conclusions drawn within CAPHIGAS Project, Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2008-2011, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and carried out by the Valorization of Fuels and Wastes Group of Ciemat. The general objective of the project was the design and development of a novel hybrid system for the simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and production of H{sub 2} using a WGS catalyst-adsorbent membrane configuration. The novel system proposed has provided new insight into the adsorption and reaction processes and has allowed an optimization of the operating conditions to take advantage of the synergies between both processes. In this report main future activities are also reported. (Author)

  16. Specification and Verification of Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Belawati H.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid systems are reactive systems which intermix between two components, discrete components and continuous components. The continuous components are usually called plants, subject to disturbances which cause the state variables of the systems changing continuously by physical laws and/or by the control laws. The discrete components can be digital computers, sensor and actuators controlled by programs. These programs are designed to select, control and supervise the behavior of the continuous components. Specification and verification of hybrid systems has recently become an active area of research in both computer science and control engineering, many papers concerning hybrid system have been published. This paper gives a design methodology for hybrid systems as an example to the specification and verification of hybrid systems. The design methodology is based on the cooperation between two disciplines, control engineering and computer science. The methodology brings into the design of control loops and decision loops. The external behavior of control loops are specified in a notation which is understandable by the two disciplines. The design of control loops which employed theory of differential equation is done by control engineers, and its correctness is also guaranteed analytically or experimentally by control engineers. The decision loops are designed in computing science based on the specifications of control loops. The verification of systems requirements can be done by computing scientists using a formal reasoning mechanism. For illustrating the proposed design, a problem of balancing an inverted pendulum which is a popular experiment device in control theory is considered, and the Mean Value Calculus is chosen as a formal notation for specifying the control loops and designing the decision loops

  17. Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes containing ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 for Cd(II) transport from HCl media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Tamez, Lucía; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Briones-Guerash, Ulrich; Munguía-Acevedo, Nadia M.; Gyves, Josefina de, E-mail: degyves@unam.mx

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes are used for quantitative cadmium(II) recovery. • Optimization of membrane and solutions compositions is performed. • Membranes present increased stability respect to polymer inclusion membranes. • Models for cadmium (II) extraction and transport are proposed. • Excellent selectivity for Cd(II) over Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) was achieved. - Abstract: Cd(II) transport from 1 mol dm{sup −3} HCl media was investigated across semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes (SIHMs) that were prepared by mixing an organic matrix composed of ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 as an extracting agent, cellulose triacetate as a polymeric support and nitrophenyloctyl ether as a plasticizer with an organic/inorganic network (silane phase, SP) composed of polydimethylsiloxane and a crosslinking agent. The stripping phase used was a 10{sup −2} mol dm{sup −3} ethanesulfonic acid solution. The effects of tetraorthoethoxysilane, phenyltrimethoxysilane and N′,N′-bis[3-tri(methoxysilyl)propyl]ethylendiamine as crosslinking agents on the transport were studied. H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used as an acid catalyst during the SP synthesis and optimized for transport performance. Solid–liquid extraction experiments were performed to determine the model that describe the transport of Cd(II) via ADOGEN{sup ®} 364. The transport was found to be chained-carrier controlled with a percolation threshold of 0.094 mmol g{sup −1}. The selective recovery of Cd(II) was studied with respect to Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) at a 1:1 molar ratio, and the optimized membrane system was applied for the recovery of Cd(II) from a real sample consisting of a Ni/Cd battery with satisfactory results. Finally, stability experiments were performed using the same membrane for 14 cycles. The results obtained showed that SIHMs had excellent stability and selectivity, with permeabilities comparable to those of PIMs.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  19. Enhanced Performance of Polyurethane Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation by Incorporating Graphene Oxide: The Relationship between Membrane Performance and Morphology of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhao, Li; Shen, Jiang-nan; Wu, Li-guang; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2015-07-07

    Polyurethane hybrid membranes containing graphene oxide (GO) with different morphologies were prepared by in situ polymerization. The separation of CO2/N2 gas mixtures was studied using these novel membranes. The results from the morphology characterization of GO samples indicated that the oxidation process in the improved Hummers method introduced oxygenated functional groups into graphite, making graphite powder exfoliate into GO nanosheets. The surface defects on the GO sheets increased when oxidation increased due to the introduction of more oxygenated functional groups. Both the increase in oxygenated functional groups on the GO surface and the decrease in the number of GO layers leads to a better distribution of GO in the polymer matrix, increasing thermal stability and gas separation performance of membranes. The addition of excess oxidant destroyed the structure of GO sheets and forms structural defects, which depressed the separation performance of membranes. The hybrid membranes containing well-distributed GO showed higher permeability and permeability selectivity for the CO2. The formation of GO aggregates in the hybrid membranes depressed the membrane performance at a high content of GO.

  20. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  1. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  2. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  3. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  4. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  5. Process algebras for hybrid systems : comparison and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadim, U.

    2008-01-01

    Our research is about formal speci¯cation and analysis of hybrid systems. The formalism used is process algebra. Hybrid systems are systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behaviour. An example of a hybrid system is a digital controller controlling a physical device such as present in

  6. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... filter system consisting of distributed passive filters and an active filter....... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...

  7. Effect of membrane properties on the performance of a hybrid GAC and ultrafiltration process for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tiejun; Wu, Guangxue; Zhang, Xihui; Au, Doris W T; Zhang, Jinsong

    2012-06-01

    The performance of a hybrid granular activated carbon (GAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) process for water treatment was investigated using five types of UF membranes. The removal percentages for chemical oxygen demand (COD(Mn)), particles (> or = 2 microm) and total bacteria by the hybrid process were 30-40%, 98-99% and 76-92%, respectively. No invertebrates were detected in the hybrid process effluent. Transmembrane pressure and specific permeate flux (SPF) of the five types of membranes varied. With decreasing membrane pore sizes, removal of COD(Mn) and particles increased, whereas SPF firstly decreased and then increased. Hydrophilic membranes had a relatively high COD(Mn) removal potential, but did not obviously affect particle removal or SPF.

  8. Hybrid flotation--membrane filtration process for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C; Dorda, J; Mavrov, V; Chmiel, H; Lazaridis, N K; Matis, K A

    2003-09-01

    A promising process for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions involves bonding the metals firstly to a special bonding agent and then separating the loaded bonding agents from the wastewater stream by separation processes. For the separation stage, a new hybrid process of flotation and membrane separation has been developed in this work by integrating specially designed submerged microfiltration modules directly into a flotation reactor. This made it possible to combine the advantages of both flotation and membrane separation while overcoming the limitations. The feasibility of this hybrid process was proven using powdered synthetic zeolites as bonding agents. Stable fluxes of up to 80l m(-2)h(-1) were achieved with the ceramic flat-sheet multi-channel membranes applied at low transmembrane pressure (copper, nickel and zinc, were reduced from initial concentrations of 474, 3.3 and 167mg x l(-1), respectively, to below 0.05 mg x l(-1), consistently meeting the discharge limits.

  9. Nature-inspired multifunctional membrane fabricated by adaptive hybridization of PNIPAm and PPy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-11-01

    Specialized plant organs, such as guard cells of stomata, consist of soft materials with deformability and electrochemical properties in response to various environmental stimuli. Stimulus-responsive hydrogels with electrochemical properties are good candidates for imitating such functionalities having great potential in a wide range of applications. However, conductive hydrogels are usually mechanically rigid and the fabrication technology of structured hydrogels has low reproducibility. Here, inspired by stimulus-responsive functionalities of plants, a thermo-responsive multifunctional hybrid membrane (HM) is synthesized through the in situ hybridization of conductive poly(pyrrole)(PPy) on a photopolymerized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAm) membrane. The various properties of the HM are investigated to characterize its multiple functions. In terms of morphology, the HM can be easily fabricated into various structures, and exhibits thermo-responsive deformability. In terms of functionality, it exhibits various electrical and charge responses to thermal stimuli. This simple and efficient fabrication method can be used as a promising platform for fabricating a variety of functional devices, such as actuators, biosensors, and filtration membranes. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (No. 2017R1A2B3005415).

  10. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  11. A hybridized membrane-botanical biofilter for improving air quality in occupied spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, David; Darlington, Alan; van Ras, Niels; Kraakman, Bart; Dixon, Mike

    Botanical biofilters have been shown to be effective in improving indoor air quality through the removal of complex mixtures of gaseous contaminants typically found in human-occupied environments. Traditional, botanical biofilters have been comprised of plants rooted into a thin and highly porous synthetic medium that is hung on vertical surfaces. Water flows from the top of the biofilter and air is drawn horizontally through the rooting medium. These botanical biofilters have been successfully marketed in office and institutional settings. They operate efficiently, with adequate contaminant removal and little maintenance for many years. Depending on climate and outdoor air quality, botanical biofiltration can substantially reduce costs associated with ventilation of stale indoor air. However, there are several limitations that continue to inhibit widespread acceptance: 1. Current designs are architecturally limiting and inefficient at capturing ambient light 2. These biofilters can add significant amounts of humidity to an indoor space. This water loss also leads to a rapid accumulation of dissolved salts; reducing biofilter health and performance 3. There is the perception of potentially actively introducing harmful bioaerosols into the air stream 4. Design and practical limitations inhibit the entrance of this technology into the lucrative residential marketplace This paper describes the hybridization of membrane and botanical biofiltration technologies by incorporating a membrane array into the rootzone of a conventional interior planting. This technology has the potential for addressing all of the above limitations, expanding the range of indoor settings where botanical biofiltration can be applied. This technology was developed as the CSA-funded Canadian component an ESA-MAP project entitled: "Biological airfilter for air quality control of life support systems in manned space craft and other closed environments", A0-99-LSS-019. While the project addressed a

  12. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  13. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  14. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  15. Energy management for a PEMFC–PV hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Nabil; Moubayed, Nazih; Outbib, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed hybrid structure is a grid-connected system composed of a PV panel, a FC, a battery, and a SC. • The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. • All these components share one DC bus. • Loads can be the used battery, the grid, a DC load and/or an AC load. • The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using a low cost system controller. - Abstract: Most renewable energy sources depend on climatic circumstances and lack consistency even during a single day. The Hybrid System (HS) solves this drawback by relying on many types of renewable sources and managing them to get a satisfactory continuous power. In this paper, a grid connected HS composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), a Photovoltaic panel (PV), a battery and a Supercapacitor (SC) is proposed. Sources are pushed to deliver their maximum power thanks to a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT). The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. Consequently, HS components share the power on a single DC bus. The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using an affordable system controller. In order to illustrate our approach, a prototype is modeled, simulated and implemented on an emulator of a real system

  16. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  17. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; She, Z.; Ratschan, Stefan; Hermanns, H.; Hahn, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2012), s. 572-587 ISSN 0947-3580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : model checking * hybrid system s * formal verification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2012

  18. Modeling and control of a small solar fuel cell hybrid energy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; ZHU Xin-jian; CAO Guang-yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a solar photovoltaic fuel cell (PVEC) hybrid generation system consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) generator, a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), an electrolyser, a supercapacitor, a storage gas tank and power conditioning unit (PCU). The load is supplied from the PV generator with a fuel cell working in parallel. Excess PV energy when available is converted to hydrogen using an electrolyser for later use in the fuel cell. The individual mathematical model for each component is presented. Control strategy for the system is described. MATLAB/Simulink is used for the simulation of this highly nonlinear hybrid energy system. The simulation results are shown in the paper.

  19. Metal membrane-type 25-kW methanol fuel processor for fuel-cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Lee, Seok-Min; Chang, Hyuksang

    A 25-kW on-board methanol fuel processor has been developed. It consists of a methanol steam reformer, which converts methanol to hydrogen-rich gas mixture, and two metal membrane modules, which clean-up the gas mixture to high-purity hydrogen. It produces hydrogen at rates up to 25 N m 3/h and the purity of the product hydrogen is over 99.9995% with a CO content of less than 1 ppm. In this fuel processor, the operating condition of the reformer and the metal membrane modules is nearly the same, so that operation is simple and the overall system construction is compact by eliminating the extensive temperature control of the intermediate gas streams. The recovery of hydrogen in the metal membrane units is maintained at 70-75% by the control of the pressure in the system, and the remaining 25-30% hydrogen is recycled to a catalytic combustion zone to supply heat for the methanol steam-reforming reaction. The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor is about 75% and the inlet air pressure is as low as 4 psi. The fuel processor is currently being integrated with 25-kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack developed by the Hyundai Motor Company. The stack exhibits the same performance as those with pure hydrogen, which proves that the maximum power output as well as the minimum stack degradation is possible with this fuel processor. This fuel-cell 'engine' is to be installed in a hybrid passenger vehicle for road testing.

  20. A Hybrid System for Subjectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rustamov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggested different structured hybrid systems for the sentence-level subjectivity analysis based on three supervised machine learning algorithms, namely, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Control System, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The suggested feature extraction algorithm in our experiment computes a feature vector using statistical textual terms frequencies in a training dataset not having the use of any lexical knowledge except tokenization. Taking into consideration this fact, the above-mentioned methods may be employed in other languages as these methods do not utilize the morphological, syntactical, and lexical analysis in the classification problems.

  1. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient preparation and analysis of membrane and membrane protein systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanainen, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2468-2482 ISSN 0005-2736 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : tools and software * membrane building * protein insertion * molecular dynamics * lipid bilayer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  3. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  4. System design of a large fuel cell hybrid locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. R.; Hess, K. S.; Barnes, D. L.; Erickson, T. L.

    Fuel cell power for locomotives combines the environmental benefits of a catenary-electric locomotive with the higher overall energy efficiency and lower infrastructure costs of a diesel-electric. A North American consortium, a public-private partnership, is developing a prototype hydrogen-fueled fuel cell-battery hybrid switcher locomotive for urban and military-base rail applications. Switcher locomotives are used in rail yards for assembling and disassembling trains and moving trains from one point to another. At 127 tonnes (280,000 lb), continuous power of 250 kW from its (proton exchange membrane) PEM fuel cell prime mover, and transient power well in excess of 1 MW, the hybrid locomotive will be the heaviest and most powerful fuel cell land vehicle yet. This fast-paced project calls for completion of the vehicle itself near the end of 2007. Several technical challenges not found in the development of smaller vehicles arise when designing and developing such a large fuel cell vehicle. Weight, center of gravity, packaging, and safety were design factors leading to, among other features, the roof location of the lightweight 350 bar compressed hydrogen storage system. Harsh operating conditions, especially shock loads during coupling to railcars, require component mounting systems capable of absorbing high energy. Vehicle scale-up by increasing mass, density, or power presents new challenges primarily related to issues of system layout, hydrogen storage, heat transfer, and shock loads.

  5. Design and simulation of the surface shape control system for membrane mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengsheng; Tang, Minxue

    2009-11-01

    The surface shape control is one of the key technologies for the manufacture of membrane mirror. This paper presents a design of membrane mirror's surface shape control system on the basis of fuzzy logic control. The system contains such function modules as surface shape design, surface shape control, surface shape analysis, and etc. The system functions are realized by using hybrid programming technology of Visual C# and MATLAB. The finite element method is adopted to simulate the surface shape control of membrane mirror. The finite element analysis model is established through ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). ANSYS software kernel is called by the system in background running mode when doing the simulation. The controller is designed by means of controlling the sag of the mirror's central crosssection. The surface shape of the membrane mirror and its optical aberration are obtained by applying Zernike polynomial fitting. The analysis of surface shape control and the simulation of disturbance response are performed for a membrane mirror with 300mm aperture and F/2.7. The result of the simulation shows that by using the designed control system, the RMS wavefront error of the mirror can reach to 142λ (λ=632.8nm), which is consistent to the surface accuracy of the membrane mirror obtained by the large deformation theory of membrane under the same condition.

  6. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  7. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  8. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  9. Hybrid configurations via percutaneous access for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscotti, Mauer; Lee, Alison; Basner, Robert C; Agerstrand, Cara; Abrams, Darryl; Brodie, Daniel; Bacchetta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adults has surged in recent years. Typical configurations are venovenous (VV), which provides respiratory support, or venoarterial (VA), which provides both respiratory and circulatory support. In patients supported with VV ECMO who develop hemodynamic compromise, an arterial limb can be added (venovenous-arterial ECMO) to provide additional circulatory support. For patients on VA ECMO who develop concomitant respiratory failure in the setting of some residual cardiac function, an oxygenated reinfusion limb can be added to the internal jugular vein (venoarterial-venous ECMO) to improve oxygen delivery to the cerebral and coronary circulation. Such hybrid configurations can provide differential support for various forms of cardiopulmonary failure. We describe 21 patients who ultimately received a hybrid configuration at our institution between 2012 and 2013. Eight patients (38.1%) died during ECMO support, four patients (19.0%) died after decannulation but before hospital discharge, and nine patients (42.9%) survived to hospital discharge. Our modest survival rate is likely related to the complexity and severity of illness of these patients, and this relative success suggests that hybrid configurations can be effective. It serves patients well to maintain a flexible and adaptable approach to ECMO configurations for their variable cardiopulmonary needs.

  10. Hybrid membranes PVA/silicon for use in fuel cells; Membranas hibridas de PVA/silica para aplicacao em celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Liz C.V. de; Almeida, Raquel D. de; Gomes, Ailton de S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lizcontino@ima.ufrj.br; Ramos Filho, Florencio G. de [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrids organic-inorganic membranes PVA-silica have been prepared using sol-gel process in situ with the objective of study the influence of inorganic particles incorporation on the water uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity of PVA membranes. The silica was constituted of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with or without the mixture with the tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS). The hybrids membranes were oxidated to convert the -SH groups in -SO{sub 3}H groups, becoming them proton conducting. The hybrids membranes not oxidated showed lesser water uptake and pervaporated material, probably, due to the formation of crosslink that restricted the swell of the PVA membrane. The protonic conductivity of the hybrid membranes after the oxidation was up to 26 times bigger than of the membrane not oxidated. (author)

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  13. Enhanced the performance of graphene oxide/polyimide hybrid membrane for CO2 separation by surface modification of graphene oxide using polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-guang; Yang, Cai-hong; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xue-yang

    2018-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different molecular weights was first used to modify graphene oxide (GO) samples. Subsequently, polyimide (PI) hybrid membranes containing modified-GO were fabricated via in situ polymerization. The separation performance of these hybrid membranes was evaluated using permeation experiments for CO2 and N2 gases. The morphology characterization showed that PEG with suitable molecular weight could be successfully grafted on the GO surface. PEG modification altered the surface properties of GO and introduced defective structures onto GO surface. This caused strong surface polarity and high free volume of membranes containing PEG-modified GO, thereby improving the separation performance of membranes. The addition of PEG-GO with low molecular weight effectively increased gas diffusion through hybrid membranes. The hybrid membranes containing PEG-GO with large molecular weight had high solubility performance for CO2 gas due to the introduction of numerous polar groups into polymeric membranes. With the loading content of modified GO, the CO2 gas permeability of hybrid membranes initially increased but eventually decreased. The optimal content of modified GO in membranes reached 3.0 wt%. When too much PEG added (exceeding 30 g), some impurities formed on GO surface and some aggregates appeared in the resulting hybrid membrane, which depressed the membrane performance.

  14. Rapid One-Pot Microwave Synthesis of Mixed-Linker Hybrid Zeolitic-Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Tunable Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Febrian; Brito, Jordan; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2018-02-14

    The relatively slow and complex fabrication processes of polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes often times restrict their way to commercialization, despite their potential for molecular separation applications. Herein, we report a rapid one-pot microwave synthesis of mixed-linker hybrid zeolitic-imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes consisting of 2-methylimidazolate (ZIF-8 linker) and benzimidazolate (ZIF-7 linker) linkers, termed ZIF-7-8 membranes. The fast-volumetric microwave heating in conjunction with a unique counter diffusion of metal and linker solutions enabled unprecedented rapid synthesis of well-intergrown ZIF-7-8 membranes in ∼90 s, the fastest MOF membrane preparation up to date. Furthermore, we were able to tune the molecular sieving properties of the ZIF-7-8 membranes by varying the benzimidazole-to-2-methylimidazole (bIm-to-mIm) linker ratio in the hybrid frameworks. The tuning of their molecular sieving properties led to the systematic change in the permeance and selectivity of various small gases. The unprecedented rapid synthesis of well-intergrown ZIF-7-8 membranes with tunable molecular sieving properties is an important step forward for the commercial gas separation applications of ZIF membranes.

  15. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  16. Comments On Clock Models In Hybrid Automata And Hybrid Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ecaterina OLTEAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems have received a lot of attention in the past decade and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish mathematical framework that is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. This contribution is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid control systems with continuous-discrete interface and the importance of clock models is emphasized. Simple and relevant examples, some taken from the literature, accompany the presentation.

  17. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A; Bindner, H; Lundsager, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  18. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    ’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  19. Asymmetric Hybrid Polymer-Lipid Giant Vesicles as Cell Membrane Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyret, Ariane; Ibarboure, Emmanuel; Le Meins, Jean-François; Lecommandoux, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    Lipid membrane asymmetry plays an important role in cell function and activity, being for instance a relevant signal of its integrity. The development of artificial asymmetric membranes thus represents a key challenge. In this context, an emulsion-centrifugation method is developed to prepare giant vesicles with an asymmetric membrane composed of an inner monolayer of poly(butadiene)- b -poly(ethylene oxide) (PBut- b -PEO) and outer monolayer of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The formation of a complete membrane asymmetry is demonstrated and its stability with time is followed by measuring lipid transverse diffusion. From fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the lipid half-life is estimated to be 7.5 h. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique, the diffusion coefficient of 1,2-dioleoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -(lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl) (DOPE-rhod, inserted into the POPC leaflet) is determined to be about D = 1.8 ± 0.50 μm 2 s -1 at 25 °C and D = 2.3 ± 0.7 μm 2 s -1 at 37 °C, between the characteristic values of pure POPC and pure polymer giant vesicles and in good agreement with the diffusion of lipids in a variety of biological membranes. These results demonstrate the ability to prepare a cell-like model system that displays an asymmetric membrane with transverse and translational diffusion properties similar to that of biological cells.

  20. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  1. Optimized permeation and antifouling of PVDF hybrid ultrafiltration membranes: synergistic effect of dispersion and migration for fluorinated graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Qian, Xiaoming; Jiao, Xiaoning

    2017-03-01

    Nanoparticles may have suffered from low modification efficiency in hybrid membranes due to embedding and aggregating in polymer matrix. In order to analyze the modification mechanisms of nanoparticle migration and dispersion on the properties of hybrid membranes, we designed different F/ O ratios ( R F/ O ) of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO, diameter = 1.5 17.5 μm) by carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) plasma treatment GO for 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and successfully prepared novel PVDF hybrid membranes containing FGO via the phase inversion method. After a prolonged plasma treatment, the R F/ O of FGO was enhanced sharply, indicating an increasing compatibility of FGO with the matrix, especially FGO-20 (GO treated for 20 min). FGO contents in the top layer, sublayer, and the whole of membranes were probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and indirect computation, respectively. In the top layer of membranes, FGO contents declined from 13.14 wt% (PVDF/GO) to 4.00 wt% (PVDF/FGO-10) and 1.96 wt% (PVDF/FGO-20) due to the reduced migration ability of FGO. It is worth mentioning that PVDF/FGO-10 membranes exhibited an excellent water flux and flux recovery rate (up to 406.90 L m-2 h-1 and 88.9%), which were improved by 67.3% and 14.6% and 52.5% and 24.0% compared with those of PVDF/GO and PVDF/FGO-20 membranes, respectively, although the dispersion and migration ability of FGO-10 was maintained at a moderate level. It indicated that the migration and dispersion of FGO in membranes could result in dynamic equilibrium, which played a key role in making the best use of nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance.

  2. Co3O4 nanoneedle@electroactive nickel boride membrane core/shell arrays: A novel hybrid for enhanced capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingting; Zhu, Congxu; Yang, Xiaogang; Gao, Yuanhao; He, Weiwei; Yue, Hongwei; Zhao, Hongxiao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays hybrid is synthesized via rapid interface reaction. The optimized core/shell nanostructure demonstrates greatly enhanced electrochemical properties. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Active nickel boride membrane anchored Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays core-shell hybrid architectures was fabricated via rapid interface reaction. •Specific capacity was improved by synergy between highly active components and optimized electron transfer microstructure. •The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor device exhibited excellent electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: Exploring novel hybrid materials with efficient microstructure using facile approaches is highly urgent in designing supercapacitor electrodes. Here, the Ni-B membrane was used for coating the porous Co 3 O 4 nanoneedle arrays which supported on the nickel foam (NF) frameworks through a rapid chemical reduction process (denoted as NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB). The Ni-B membrane both provided sufficient active sites for redox reactions and inhibited the aggregation of formed hybrid architectures. Benefiting from the unique structural design and strongly coupled effects between porous Co 3 O 4 arrays and Ni-B membrane, the resulted NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB electrode exhibited high areal capacitance of 3.47 F cm −2 (0.48 mAh cm −2 ) at a current density of 2.5 mA cm −2 , an excellent rate capability while maintaining 95.5% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The asymmetric supercapacitor constructed with the NF/Co 3 O 4 @NiB as positive electrode and hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) as negative electrode also showed ideal capacitive behavior, and simultaneously delivered high energy and power densities. The easily decoration of Ni-B membrane on various active nanoarrays may arouse more novel design about hybrid architectures for large-scale applications.

  3. Olefins-selective asymmetric carbon molecular sieve hollow fiber membranes for hybrid membrane-distillation processes for olefin/paraffin separations

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Liren

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the development of asymmetric carbon molecular sieve (CMS) hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for olefin/paraffin separations based on the CMS membranes are reported. Membrane-based olefin/paraffin separations have been pursued extensively over the past decades. CMS membranes are promising to exceed the performance upper bound of polymer materials and have demonstrated excellent stability for gas separations. Previously, a substructure collapse phenomenon was found in Matrimid ® precursor derived CMS fiber. To overcome the permeance loss due to the increased separation layer thickness, 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM precursors were selected as potential new precursors for carbon membrane formation. Defect-free asymmetric 6FDA-DAM and 6FDA/BPDA-DAM hollow fibers were successfully fabricated from a dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. Polymer rigidity, glass-rubber transition and asymmetric morphology were correlated. CMS hollow fiber membranes produced from 6FDA-polymer precursors showed significant improvement in permeance for ethylene/ethane and propylene/propane separations. Further studies revealed that the CMS membranes are olefins-selective, which means the membranes are able to effectively separate olefins (ethylene and propylene) from paraffins (ethane and propane). This unique feature of CMS materials enables advanced hybrid membrane-distillation process designs. By using the olefins-selective membranes, these new processes may provide advantages over previously proposed retrofitting concepts. Further applications of the membranes are explored for hydrocarbons processes. Significant energy savings and even reduced footprint may be achieved in olefins production units. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  5. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  6. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anup M. Gakare; Subhash Kamdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of...

  7. Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Cordero, Francisco Jose

    Use of diesel generators in remote communities is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Consequently, researchers have focussed on designing hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for distributed electricity generation in remote communities. However, the cost-effectiveness of interconnecting multiple remote communities (microgrids) has not been explored. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology for optimal design of HRES and microgrids for remote communities. A set of case studies was developed to test this methodology and it was determined that a combination of stand-alone decentralized HRES and microgrids is the most cost-effective power generation scheme when studying a group of remote communities.

  8. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  9. An Energy Management System of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All-electric ships are now a standard offering for energy/propulsion systems in boats. In this context, integrating fuel cells (FCs as power sources in hybrid energy systems can be an interesting solution because of their high efficiency and low emission. The energy management strategy for different power sources has a great influence on the fuel consumption, dynamic performance and service life of these power sources. This paper presents a hybrid FC/battery power system for a low power boat. The hybrid system consists of the association of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and battery bank. The mathematical models for the components of the hybrid system are presented. These models are implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations allow analyzing the dynamic performance and power allocation according to a typical driving cycle. In this system, an efficient energy management system (EMS based on operation states is proposed. This EMS strategy determines the operating point of each component of the system in order to maximize the system efficiency. Simulation results validate the adequacy of the hybrid power system and the proposed EMS for real ship driving cycles.

  10. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  11. Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

    2014-03-01

    A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  12. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  13. Hybrid method for determining the parameters of condenser microphones from measured membrane velocities and numerical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Rasmussen, Knud; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    to this problem is to measure the velocity distribution of the membrane by means of a non-contact method, such as laser vibrometry. The measured velocity distribution can be used together with a numerical formulation such as the boundary element method for estimating the microphone response and other parameters......, e.g., the acoustic center. In this work, such a hybrid method is presented and examined. The velocity distributions of a number of condenser microphones have been determined using a laser vibrometer, and these measured velocity distributions have been used for estimating microphone responses......Typically, numerical calculations of the pressure, free-field, and random-incidence response of a condenser microphone are carried out on the basis of an assumed displacement distribution of the diaphragm of the microphone; the conventional assumption is that the displacement follows a Bessel...

  14. Integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed-membrane hybrid process for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban Kenari, Seyedeh Laleh; Barbeau, Benoit

    2017-04-15

    Newly developed ceramic membrane technologies offer numerous advantages over the conventional polymeric membranes. This work proposes a new configuration, an integrated pyrolucite fluidized bed (PFB)-ceramic MF/UF hybrid process, for improved iron and manganese control in drinking water. A pilot-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of this process with respect to iron and manganese control as well as membrane fouling. In addition, the fouling of commercially available ceramic membranes in conventional preoxidation-MF/UF process was compared with the hybrid process configuration. In this regard, a series of experiments were conducted under different influent water quality and operating conditions. Fouling mechanisms and reversibility were analyzed using blocking law and resistance-in-series models. The results evidenced that the flux rate and the concentration of calcium and humic acids in the feed water have a substantial impact on the filtration behavior of both membranes. The model for constant flux compressible cake formation well described the rise in transmembrane pressure. The compressibility of the filter cake substantially increased in the presence of 2 mg/L humic acids. The presence of calcium ions caused significant aggregation of manganese dioxide and humic acid which severely impacted the extent of membrane fouling. The PFB pretreatment properly alleviated membrane fouling by removing more than 75% and 95% of iron and manganese, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flexible Hybrid Membranes with Ni(OH)2 Nanoplatelets Vertically Grown on Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longsheng; Ding, Qianwei; Huang, Yunpeng; Gu, Huahao; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-10-14

    The practical applications of transition metal oxides and hydroxides for supercapacitors are restricted by their intrinsic poor conductivity, large volumetric expansion, and rapid capacitance fading upon cycling, which can be solved by optimizing these materials to nanostructures and confining them within conductive carbonaceous frameworks. In this work, flexible hybrid membranes with ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets vertically and uniformly anchored on the electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNF) have been facilely prepared as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membranes with three-dimensional macroporous architectures as well as hierarchical nanostructures can provide open and continuous channels for rapid diffusion of electrolyte to access the electrochemically active Ni(OH)2 nanoplatelets. Moreover, the carbon nanofiber can act both as a conductive core to provide efficient transport of electrons for fast Faradaic redox reactions of the Ni(OH)2 sheath, and as a buffering matrix to mitigate the local volumetric expansion/contraction upon long-term cycling. As a consequence, the optimized Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membrane exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2523 F g(-1) (based on the mass of Ni(OH)2, that is 701 F g(-1) based on the total mass) at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). The Ni(OH)2/CNF hybrid membranes with high mechanical flexibility, superior electrical conductivity, and remarkably improved electrochemical capacitance are condsidered as promising flexible electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors.

  16. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  17. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  18. Preparation and properties of hybrid direct methanol fuel cell membranes by embedding organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres into a chitosan polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hou, Weiqiang; Wang, Jingtao; Xiao, Lulu; Jiang, Zhongyi [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-07-01

    Organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres (OPTi) are prepared and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate hybrid membranes with enhanced methanol resistance and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The pristine monodispersed titania submicrospheres (TiO{sub 2}) of controllable particle size are synthesized through a modified sol-gel method and then phosphorylated by amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) via chemical adsorption, which is confirmed by XPS, FTIR and TGA. The morphology and thermal property of the hybrid membranes are explored by SEM and TGA. The ionic cross-linking between the -PO{sub 3}H{sub 2} groups on OPTi and the -NH{sub 2} groups on CS lead to better compatibility between the inorganic fillers and the polymer matrix, as well as a decreased fractional free volume (FFV), which is verified by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The effects of particle size and content on the methanol permeability, proton conductivity, swelling and FFV of the membranes are investigated. Compared to pure CS membrane, the hybrid membranes exhibit an increased proton conductivity to an acceptable level of 0.01 S cm{sup -1} for DMFC application and a reduced methanol permeability of 5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at a 2 M methanol feed. (author)

  19. Preparation and properties of hybrid direct methanol fuel cell membranes by embedding organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres into a chitosan polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Hou, Weiqiang; Wang, Jingtao; Xiao, Lulu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    Organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres (OPTi) are prepared and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate hybrid membranes with enhanced methanol resistance and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The pristine monodispersed titania submicrospheres (TiO 2) of controllable particle size are synthesized through a modified sol-gel method and then phosphorylated by amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) via chemical adsorption, which is confirmed by XPS, FTIR and TGA. The morphology and thermal property of the hybrid membranes are explored by SEM and TGA. The ionic cross-linking between the -PO 3H 2 groups on OPTi and the -NH 2 groups on CS lead to better compatibility between the inorganic fillers and the polymer matrix, as well as a decreased fractional free volume (FFV), which is verified by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The effects of particle size and content on the methanol permeability, proton conductivity, swelling and FFV of the membranes are investigated. Compared to pure CS membrane, the hybrid membranes exhibit an increased proton conductivity to an acceptable level of 0.01 S cm -1 for DMFC application and a reduced methanol permeability of 5 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 at a 2 M methanol feed.

  20. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  1. Characterization of Selected Parameters of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Various Polymers and Nd-Fe-B Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetic organic-inorganic hybrid membranes based on EC, PPO polymer matrices and various magnetic powder microparticles were synthesized and studied. Constant pressure permeation technique and the Time Lag method were used to obtain the gas transport coefficients. The mechanical, rheological and magnetic parameters of magnetic hybrid membranes were examined. It was found that their separation and gas transport properties (D, P, S and α were improved with the decrease in powder particle size and the increase of membrane’s remanence, saturation magnetization and magnetic particle filling. The increase of the magnetic powder addition and a decrease of its granulation improved also mechanical and rheological parameters of the tested membranes. This improvement also had a positive effect on their gas separation properties and their potential usage in the future.

  2. Superhydrophobic hybrid membranes by grafting arc-like macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhao-Hua; Luo, Zheng; Huang, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Ping; Wu, Yi-Xian

    2018-05-01

    Grafting single end-tethered polymer chains on the surface of graphene is a conventional way to modify the surface properties of graphene oxide. However, grafting arc-like macromolecular bridges on graphene surfaces has been barely reported. Herein, a novel arc-like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) macromolecular bridges grafted graphene sheets (GO-g-Arc PDMS) was successfully synthesized via a confined interface reaction at 90 °C. Both the hydrophilic α- and ω-amino groups of linear hydrophobic NH2-PDMS-NH2 macromolecular chains rapidly reacted with epoxy and carboxyl groups on the surfaces of graphene oxide in water suspension to form arc-like PDMS macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets. The grafting density of arc-like PDMS bridges on graphene sheets can reach up to 0.80 mmol g-1 or 1.32 arc-like bridges per nm2 by this confined interface reaction. The water contact angle (WCA) of the hybrid membrane could be increased with increasing both the grafting density and content of covalent arc-like bridges architecture. The superhydrophobic hybrid membrane with a WCA of 153.4° was prepared by grinding of the above arc-like PDMS bridges grafted graphene hybrid, dispersing in ethanol and filtrating by organic filter membrane. This superhydrophobic hybrid membrane shows good self-cleaning and complete oil-water separation properties, which provides potential applications in anticontamination coating and oil-water separation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of functional hybrid membranes by grafting arc-like PDMS macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets via a confined interface reaction.

  3. PDMS/PVDF hybrid electrospun membrane with superhydrophobic property and drop impact dynamics for dyeing wastewater treatment using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Jeong, Sanghyun; Zhao, Yanhua; Wang, Zuankai; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-01-01

    .4°) and roughness (Ra = 1,285mm). The zeta potential of E-PDMS membrane surface showed a higher negative value than that of a commercial PVDF (C-PVDF) membrane. These properties of E-PDMS membrane provided an antifouling in treating of differently-charged dyes

  4. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  5. Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Bi, Fanghua; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Jia, Hui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost hybrid system integrating a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied for fouling mitigation. The appended electric field in the MBR was supplied by the MFC with continuous flow. Supernatant from an anaerobic reactor with low dissolved oxygen was used as feed to the MFC in order to enhance its performance compared with that fed with synthetic wastewater. The voltage output of MFC maintained at 0.52±0.02V with 1000Ω resister. The electric field intensity could reach to 0.114Vcm(-1). Compared with the conventional MBR (CMBR), the contents rather than the components of foulants on the cake layer of fouled MFC-MBR system was significantly reduced. Although only 0.5% of the feed COD was translated into electricity and applied to MBR, the hybrid system showed great feasibility without additional consumption but extracting energy from waste water and significantly enhancing the membrane filterability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Membrane Lipid Oscillation: An Emerging System of Molecular Dynamics in the Plant Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki

    2018-03-01

    Biological rhythm represents a major biological process of living organisms. However, rhythmic oscillation of membrane lipid content is poorly described in plants. The development of lipidomic technology has led to the illustration of precise molecular profiles of membrane lipids under various growth conditions. Compared with conventional lipid signaling, which produces unpredictable lipid changes in response to ever-changing environmental conditions, lipid oscillation generates a fairly predictable lipid profile, adding a new layer of biological function to the membrane system and possible cross-talk with the other chronobiological processes. This mini review covers recent studies elucidating membrane lipid oscillation in plants.

  7. Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian- Photovoltaic - Diesel) With Provision of Electric Energy Completely Independent. ... reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied).

  8. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  9. Model predictive control of hybrid systems : stability and robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis considers the stabilization and the robust stabilization of certain classes of hybrid systems using model predictive control. Hybrid systems represent a broad class of dynamical systems in which discrete behavior (usually described by a finite state machine) and continuous behavior

  10. The potential of hybrid forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) processes in achieving high throughput treatment of municipal wastewater with enhanced phosphorus recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Zhang, Sui; Srinivasa Raghavan, Divya Shankari; Das, Subhabrata; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-11-15

    Extensive research in recent years has explored numerous new features in the forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (FOMBR) process. However, there is an aspect, which is revolutionary but not yet been investigated. In FOMBR, FO membrane shows high rejection for a wide range of soluble contaminants. As a result, hydraulic retention time (HRT) does not correctly reflect the nominal retention of these dissolved contaminants in the bioreactor. This decoupling of contaminants retention time (CRT, i.e. the nominal retention of the dissolved contaminants) from HRT endows FOMBR a potential in significantly reducing the HRT for wastewater treatment. In this work, we report our results in this unexplored treatment potential. Using real municipal wastewater as feed, both a hybrid microfiltration-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (MF-FOMBR) and a newly developed hybrid biofilm-forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (BF-FOMBR) achieved high removal of organic matter and nitrogen under HRT of down to 2.0 h, with significantly enhanced phosphorus recovery capacities. In the BF-FOMBR, the used of fixed bed biofilm not only obviated the need of additional solid/liquid separation (e.g. MF) to extract the side-stream for salt accumulation control and phosphorus recovery, but effectively quarantined the biomass from the FO membrane. The absence of MF in the side-stream further allowed suspended growth to be continuously removed from the system, which produced a selection pressure for the predominance of attached growth. As a result, a significant reduction in FO membrane fouling (by 24.7-54.5%) was achieved in the BF-FOMBR due to substantially reduced bacteria deposition and colonization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  12. Soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation (MD). In one example, a system includes a MD module comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer

  13. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    OpenAIRE

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is...

  14. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  15. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  16. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  17. Energy Management Strategy for a Fuel Cell/ Ultracapasitor/ Battery Hybrid System for Portable Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Afiqah Abd Hamid; Ros Emilia Rosli; Edy Herianto Majlan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Ramizi Mohamed; Ramli Sitanggang

    2016-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCs) with ultracapacitor (UC) and battery (BT) hybrid system has fast transient response compare to stand alone FCs. This hybrid system is promising candidates for environmentally friendly alternative energy sources. An energy management system design and control strategy was introduced in this study. The energy management strategy FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system model has been developed and the control strategy was programmed in the LabVIEWTM environment and implemented using National Instrument (NI) devices. The energy management strategy is able to manage the energy flow between the main power source (FCs) and auxiliary sources (UC and BT). To control the hybrid system and achieved proper performance, a controller circuit was developed with the three energy sources aligned in parallel to deliver the requested power. The developed model demonstrates the proportion power from the FC, UC and BT under various load demand. Experimental results demonstrate that FC/ UC/ BT hybrid system operated automatically with the varying load condition. The experimental results are presented; showing that the proposed strategy utilized the characteristic of both energy storage devices thus satisfies the load requirement. (author)

  18. Processing radioactive wastes using membrane (UF/HF/RO) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years many technologies have been utilized to process low level radioactive waste streams generated by the nuclear industry, including: demineralization, evaporation, reverse osmosis and filtration. In the early 1980's interest was generated in membrane technologies and their application to radioactive wastes. This interest was generated based on the capabilities shown by membrane systems in non-radioactive environments and the promise that reverse osmosis systems showed in early testing with radioactive wastes. Membrane technologies have developed from the early development of reverse osmosis system to also include specifically designed membranes for ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration applications

  19. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  20. Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica/Alumina Hybrid Membrane Film Nanocomposites using Template Sol-Gel Synthesis of Amphiphilic Triphenylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintang, H. O.; Jalani, M. A.; Yuliati, L.; Salleh, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we reported that by introducing a one-dimensional (1D) substrate with a porous structure such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by using amphiphilic triphenylene (TPC10TEG) as a template in sol-gel synthesis (TPC10TEG/silicahex). For the optical study of the nanocomposites, TPC10TEG/silicahex showed absorption peak at 264 nm due to the ordered and long-range π-π stacking of the disc-like aromatic triphenylene core. Moreover, the hexagonal arrangement of TPC10TEG/silicahex was proven based on their diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 at 2θ = 2.52° and 5.04° and images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. For fabrication of mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid membrane, TPC10TEG/silicahex was drop-casted onto AAO membrane for penetration into the porous structure via gravity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the resulted hybrid nanocomposites showed that the diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 of TPC10TEG/silicahex were still preserved, indicating that the hexagonal arrangements of mesoporous silica were maintained even on AAO substrate. The morphology study on the hybrid nanocomposites using TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed the successful filling of most AAO channels with the TPC10TEG/silicahex nanocomposites.

  1. New Electrorelease Systems Based on Microporous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-02

    correspondence (6) we demonstrated the validity of the concept by showing that insulin and vitamin B-12 can be electroreleased from a composite membrane...applied to the membrane. The dye reservoir contained an aqueous solution of either methylene blue dye (Aldrich), K3 Fe(CN)6 (Baker), or bovine insulin

  2. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97

  3. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  4. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  5. Development of divertor pumping system with superpermeable membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ohyabu, N.; Suzuki, H.; Nakahara, Y.; Livshits, A.; Notkin, M.; Alimov, V.; Busnyuk, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new divertor pumping system with superpermeable membranes of group Va-metals (Nb, V) is now under research and development. Properties of membrane pumping were investigated with the use of a plasma device simulating divertor plasma conditions. The deposition of metal (Fe) and non-metal (C) impurities on the membrane upstream surface results in a degradation of plasma driven superpermeation at the membrane temperature T m m ≥800 deg. C. The same temperature effect on superpermeation is observed at sputtering of membrane surface by energetic plasma ions. In addition, the first application of the membrane pumping to fusion devices has been carried out and a deuterium pumping through the membrane was demonstrated under the conditions of divertor plasma in the JFT-2M tokamak

  6. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  7. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  8. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  9. Techno-economical evaluation of membrane based biogas upgrading system: A comparison between polymeric membrane and carbon membrane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A shift to renewable energy sources will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and secure future energy supplies. In this context, utilization of biogas will play a prominent role. Focus of this work is upgrading of biogas to fuel quality by membrane separation using a carbon hollow fibre (CHF membrane and compare with a commercially available polymeric membrane (polyimide through economical assessment. CHF membrane modules were prepared for pilot plant testing and performance measured using CO2, O2, N2. The CHF membrane was modified through oxidation, chemical vapour deposition (CVD and reduction process thus tailoring pores for separation and increased performance. The post oxidized and reduced carbon hollow fibres (PORCHFs significantly exceeded CHF performance showing higher CO2 permeance (0.021 m3(STP/m2 h bar and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 246 (5 bar feed vs 50 mbar permeate pressure. The highest performance recorded through experiments (CHF and PORCHF was used as simulation basis. A membrane simulation model was used and interfaced to 8.6 V Aspen HYSYS. A 300 Nm3/h mixture of CO2/CH4 containing 30–50% CO2 at feed pressures 6, 8 and 10 bar, was simulated and process designed to recover 99.5% CH4 with 97.5% purity. Net present value (NPV was calculated for base case and optimal pressure (50 bar for CHF and PORCHF. The results indicated that recycle ratio (recycle/feed ranged from 0.2 to 10, specific energy from 0.15 to 0.8 (kW/Nm3feed and specific membrane area from 45 to 4700 (m2/Nm3feed. The high recycle ratio can create problems during start-up, as it would take long to adjust volumetric flow ratio towards 10. The best membrane separation system employs a three-stage system with polyimide at 10 bar, and a two-stage membrane system with PORCHF membranes at 50 bar with recycle. Considering biomethane price of 0.78 $/Nm3 and a lifetime of 15 years, the techno-economic analysis showed that payback time for

  10. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  11. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jianan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  12. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  13. Multi-objective energy management optimization and parameter sizing for proton exchange membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zunyan; Li, Jianqiu; Xu, Liangfei; Song, Ziyou; Fang, Chuan; Ouyang, Minggao; Dou, Guowei; Kou, Gaihong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel economy, lithium battery size and powertrain system durability are incorporated in optimization. • A multi-objective power allocation strategy by taking battery size into consideration is proposed. • Influences of battery capacity and auxiliary power on strategy design are explored. • Battery capacity and fuel cell service life for the system life cycle cost are optimized. - Abstract: The powertrain system of a typical proton electrolyte membrane hybrid fuel cell vehicle contains a lithium battery package and a fuel cell stack. A multi-objective optimization for this powertrain system of a passenger car, taking account of fuel economy and system durability, is discussed in this paper. Based on an analysis of the optimum results obtained by dynamic programming, a soft-run strategy was proposed for real-time and multi-objective control algorithm design. The soft-run strategy was optimized by taking lithium battery size into consideration, and implemented using two real-time algorithms. When compared with the optimized dynamic programming results, the power demand-based control method proved more suitable for powertrain systems equipped with larger capacity batteries, while the state of charge based control method proved superior in other cases. On this basis, the life cycle cost was optimized by considering both lithium battery size and equivalent hydrogen consumption. The battery capacity selection proved more flexible, when powertrain systems are equipped with larger capacity batteries. Finally, the algorithm has been validated in a fuel cell city bus. It gets a good balance of fuel economy and system durability in a three months demonstration operation.

  14. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis – low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis – advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m3 d−1 of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m3 produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  15. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  16. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  17. Flame Retardancy Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelet/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Membranes on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxian Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube/graphene nanoplatelet (MWCNT/GNP hybrid membranes with lower liquid permeability and better barrier effect compared to MWCNT membranes were successfully synthesized by vacuum filtering. Their morphologies, water permeability, and pore structures were characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, MWCNT/GNP membranes were used to improve the flame retardancy of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites, and the influence of weight percentage of GNPs on the permeability and flame retardancy of MWCNT/GNP membranes was systematically investigated. Results show that incorporation of MWCNT/GNP membranes on CFRP composite plates can remarkably improve the flame retardancy of CFRP composites. Specifically, the incorporation of hierarchical MWCNT/GNP membrane with 7.5 wt% of GNP displays a 35% reduction in the peak heat release rate (PHRR for a CFRP composite plate with the epoxy as matrix and a 11% reduction in PHRR compared with the incorporation of MWCNT membrane only. A synergistic flame retarding mechanism is suggested to be attributed to these results, which includes controlling the pore size and penetrative network structure.

  18. Robust membrane systems for actinide separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Bluhm, Elizabeth A.; Abney, Kent D.; Ehler, Deborah S.; Bauer, Eve; Le, Quyen T.; Young, Jennifer S.; Ford, Doris K.; Pesiri, David R.; Dye, Robert C.; Robison, Thomas W.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Redondo, Antonio; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective in this project is to develop very stable thin membrane structures containing ionic recognition sites that facilitate the selective transport of target metal ions, especially the actinides

  19. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  20. Assay of hybrid ribonuclease using a membrane filter-immobilized synthetic hybrid: application to the human leukemic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaphilis, A.D.; Kamper, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method for assaying hybrid ribonuclease has been devised which utilizes as substrate the synthetic hybrid [ 3 H]polyriboadenylic acid [poly(rA)]:polydeoxythymidylic acid [poly(dT)] immobilized on the solid matrix of nitrocellulose filters. The hybridization on filter of [ 3 H]poly(rA) to poly(dT) has been explored in terms of efficacy of the process and the response of the product to RNase H. A pulse of uv irradiation of poly(dT) while in dry state on the filter increased its firm binding to the filter in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in a concomitant increase of the yield of hybrid formation. The filter-immobilized hybrid was 95% resistant to RNase A but sensitive to RNase H. When stored in toluene in the cold the hybrid maintained its stability for over 6 months, as judged by its resistance to RNase A. The method offers a number of advantages over assays that use solution hybrids as substrates and was readily applicable in the screening of leukemic patients, in the leukocytes of which it has demonstrated increased RNase H levels

  1. High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim; Nordé n, Bengt; Beke-Somfai, Tamá s

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, multi-lipid bicellar systems have emerged as promising membrane models. The fast orientational diffusion and magnetic alignability made these systems very attractive for NMR investigations. However, their alignment was so far

  2. Membrane-Organized Chemical Photoredox Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, James K.

    2014-09-18

    This project has three interrelated goals relevant to solar water photolysis, which are to develop: (1) vesicle-organized assemblies for H2 photoproduction that utilize pyrylium and structurally related compounds as combined photosensitizers and cyclic electroneutral transmembrane electron carriers; (2) transmembrane redox systems whose reaction rates can be modulated by light; and (3) homogeneous catalysts for water oxidation. . In area (1), initial efforts to photogenerate H2 from vectorially-organized vesicles containing occluded colloidal Pt and commonly available pyrylium ions as transmembrane redox mediators were unsuccessful. New pyrylium compounds with significantly lower reduction potentials have been synthesized to address this problem, their apparent redox potentials in functioning systems have been now evaluated by using a series of occluded viologens, and H2 photoproduction has been demonstrated in continuous illumination experiments. In area (2), spirooxazine-quinone dyads have been synthesized and their capacity to function as redox mediators across bilayer membranes has been evaluated through continuous photolysis and transient spectrophotometric measurements. Photoisomerization of the spiro moiety to the ring-open mero form caused net quantum yields to decrease significantly, providing a basis for photoregulation of transmembrane redox. Research on water oxidation (area 3) has been directed at understanding mechanisms of catalysis by cis,cis-[(bpy)2Ru(OH2)]2O4+ and related polyimine complexes. Using a variety of physical techniques, we have: (i) identified the redox state of the complex ion that is catalytically active; (ii) shown using 18O isotopic labeling that there are two reaction pathways, both of which involve participation of solvent H2O; and (iii) detected and characterized by EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopies new species which may be key intermediates in the catalytic cycle.

  3. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hybrid synchronization; complex network; information source; chaotic system. ... encryption and decryption through synchronization. However, the ... Certainly, if the two systems are different, the security would be improved. How.

  4. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design) and normal ... year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the ... Keywords: Hybrid system- Wind- Photovoltaic-Diesel- storage ...

  5. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  6. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  7. Effect of UV on De-NOx performance and microbial community of a hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhouyang; Huang, Zhensha; He, Yiming; Xiao, Xiaoliang; Wei, Zaishan

    2018-02-01

    The hybrid membrane catalytic biofilm reactor provides a new way of flue gas denitration. However, the effects of UV on denitrification performance, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism are still unknown. In this study, the effects of UV on deNO x performance, nitrification and denitrification, microbial community and microbial nitrogen metabolism of a bench scale N-TiO2/PSF hybrid catalytic membrane biofilm reactor (HCMBR) were evaluated. The change from nature light to UV in the HCMBR leads to the fall of NO removal efficiency of HCMBR from 92.8% to 81.8%. UV affected the microbial community structure, but did not change microbial nitrogen metabolism, as shown by metagenomics sequencing method. Some dominant phyla, such as Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria, increased in abundance, whereas others, such as Proteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, decreased. There were nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen fixation, and organic nitrogen metabolism in the HCMBR.

  8. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  9. Membrane/distillation hybrid process research and development. Final report, phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazanec, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report covers work conducted under the grant awarded to BP by DOE in late 1991 entitled {open_quotes}Membrane/Distillation Hybrid Process Research and Development.{close_quotes} The program was directed towards development and commercialization of the BP process for separation of vapor phase olefins from non-olefins via facilitated transport using an aqueous facilitator. The program has come to a very successful conclusion, with formation of a partnership between BP and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) to market and commercialize the technology. The focus of this report is the final portion of the program, during which engineering re-design, facilitator optimization, economic analysis, and marketing have been the primary activities. At the end of Phase II BP was looking to partner with an engineering firm to advance the selective olefin recovery (SOR) technology from the lab/demo stage to full commercialization. In August 1995 BP and SWEC reached an agreement to advance the technology by completing additional Phase III work with DOE and beginning marketing activities.

  10. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of planar phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kett, Peter J N; Casford, Michael T L; Davies, Paul B

    2010-06-15

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy has been used to study the structure of phosphatidylethanolamine hybrid bilayer membranes (HBMs) under water at ambient temperatures. The HBMs were formed using a modified Langmuir-Schaefer technique and consisted of a layer of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) physisorbed onto an octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) at a series of surface pressures from 1 to 40 mN m(-1). The DPPE and ODT were selectively deuterated so that the contributions to the SFG spectra from the two layers could be determined separately. SFG spectra in both the C-H and C-D stretching regions confirmed that a monolayer of DPPE had been adsorbed to the ODT SAM and that there were gauche defects within the alkyl chains of the phospholipid. On adsorption of a layer of DPPE, methylene modes from the ODT SAM were detected, indicating that the phospholipid had partially disordered the alkanethiol monolayer. SFG spectra recorded in air indicated that removal of water from the surface of the HBM resulted in disruption of the DPPE layer and the formation of phospholipid bilayers.

  11. Optimized permeation and antifouling of PVDF hybrid ultrafiltration membranes: synergistic effect of dispersion and migration for fluorinated graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Qian, Xiaoming, E-mail: qianxiaoming@tjpu.edu.cn; Jiao, Xiaoning [Tianjin Polytechnic University, State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Textiles (China)

    2017-03-15

    Nanoparticles may have suffered from low modification efficiency in hybrid membranes due to embedding and aggregating in polymer matrix. In order to analyze the modification mechanisms of nanoparticle migration and dispersion on the properties of hybrid membranes, we designed different F/O ratios (R{sub F/O}) of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO, diameter = 1.5 ~ 17.5 μm) by carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) plasma treatment GO for 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and successfully prepared novel PVDF hybrid membranes containing FGO via the phase inversion method. After a prolonged plasma treatment, the R{sub F/O} of FGO was enhanced sharply, indicating an increasing compatibility of FGO with the matrix, especially FGO-20 (GO treated for 20 min). FGO contents in the top layer, sublayer, and the whole of membranes were probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and indirect computation, respectively. In the top layer of membranes, FGO contents declined from 13.14 wt% (PVDF/GO) to 4.00 wt% (PVDF/FGO-10) and 1.96 wt% (PVDF/FGO-20) due to the reduced migration ability of FGO. It is worth mentioning that PVDF/FGO-10 membranes exhibited an excellent water flux and flux recovery rate (up to 406.90 L m{sup −2} h{sup −1} and 88.9%), which were improved by 67.3% and 14.6% and 52.5% and 24.0% compared with those of PVDF/GO and PVDF/FGO-20 membranes, respectively, although the dispersion and migration ability of FGO-10 was maintained at a moderate level. It indicated that the migration and dispersion of FGO in membranes could result in dynamic equilibrium, which played a key role in making the best use of nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance.

  12. Pervaporation and sorption behavior of zeolite-filled polyethylene glycol hybrid membranes for the removal of thiophene species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Li, Hong

    2010-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-CuY zeolite hybrid membranes were prepared for sulfur removal from gasoline feed. The sorption and diffusion behavior of typical gasoline components through the hybrid membranes has been investigated by systematic studies of dynamic sorption curves. Influencing factors including feed temperature, permeate pressure, and zeolite content in the membranes on membrane performance have been evaluated. Immersion experiments results showed the preferential sorption of thiophene, which is key in fulfilling the separation of thiophene/hydrocarbon mixtures. The sorption, diffusion, and permeation coefficients of gasoline components in filled membranes are higher than those in unfilled membranes. Pervaporation (PV) and gas chromatography (GC) experiments results corresponded to the discussions on dynamic sorption curves. PV experiments showed that lower permeate pressure meant higher separation performance. The optimum temperature occurred at 383K, and an Arrhenius relationship existed between permeation flux and operating temperature. The CuY zeolite filling led to a significant increase of flux since the porous zeolite provides for more diffusion for small molecules in mixed matrix membranes. The sulfur enrichment factor increased first and then decreased with the increasing zeolite content, which was attributed to the combined influence of complexation force between CuY and thiophenes as well as the trade-off phenomenon between flux and selectivity. At 9 wt% CuY content, a higher permeation flux (3.19 kg/(m(2) h)) and sulfur enrichment factor (2.95) were obtained with 1190 microg/g sulfur content level in gasoline feed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  14. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  15. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  16. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  17. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  18. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Duan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2 separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies.

  19. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shuhong; Kai, Teruhiko; Saito, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kota; Ikeda, Kenichi

    2014-04-08

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies.

  20. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  1. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  2. The estimation of energy efficiency for hybrid refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Kozioł, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the experimental setup and the model of the hybrid cooling system. ► We examine impact of the operating parameters of the hybrid cooling system on the energy efficiency indicators. ► A comparison of the final and the primary energy use for a combination of the cooling systems is carried out. ► We explain the relationship between the COP and PER values for the analysed cooling systems. -- Abstract: The concept of the air blast-cryogenic freezing method (ABCF) is based on an innovative hybrid refrigeration system with one common cooling space. The hybrid cooling system consists of a vapor compression refrigeration system and a cryogenic refrigeration system. The prototype experimental setup for this method on the laboratory scale is discussed. The application of the results of experimental investigations and the theoretical–empirical model makes it possible to calculate the cooling capacity as well as the final and primary energy use in the hybrid system. The energetic analysis has been carried out for the operating modes of the refrigerating systems for the required temperatures inside the cooling chamber of −5 °C, −10 °C and −15 °C. For the estimation of the energy efficiency the coefficient of performance COP and the primary energy ratio PER for the hybrid refrigeration system are proposed. A comparison of these coefficients for the vapor compression refrigeration and the cryogenic refrigeration system has also been presented.

  3. Biomimetic Hybridization of Kevlar into Silk Fibroin: Nanofibrous Strategy for Improved Mechanic Properties of Flexible Composites and Filtration Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lili; Han, Xiangsheng; Zong, Lu; Li, Mingjie; You, Jun; Wu, Xiaochen; Li, Chaoxu

    2017-08-22

    Silk, one of the strongest natural biopolymers, was hybridized with Kevlar, one of the strongest synthetic polymers, through a biomimetic nanofibrous strategy. Regenerated silk materials have outstanding properties in transparency, biocompatibility, biodegradability and sustainability, and promising applications as diverse as in pharmaceutics, electronics, photonic devices and membranes. To compete with super mechanic properties of their natural counterpart, regenerated silk materials have been hybridized with inorganic fillers such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, but frequently lose essential mechanic flexibility. Inspired by the nanofibrous strategy of natural biomaterials (e.g., silk fibers, hemp and byssal threads of mussels) for fantastic mechanic properties, Kevlar was integrated in regenerated silk materials by combining nanometric fibrillation with proper hydrothermal treatments. The resultant hybrid films showed an ultimate stress and Young's modulus two times as high as those of pure regenerated SF films. This is not only because of the reinforcing effect of Kevlar nanofibrils, but also because of the increasing content of silk β-sheets. When introducing Kevlar nanofibrils into the membranes of silk nanofibrils assembled by regenerated silk fibroin, the improved mechanic properties further enabled potential applications as pressure-driven nanofiltration membranes and flexible substrates of electronic devices.

  4. Turing Incompleteness of Asynchronous P Systems with Active Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Leporati, Alberto; Manzoni, Luca; Porreca, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    We prove that asynchronous P systems with active membranes without divi- sion rules can be simulated by place/transition Petri nets, and hence are computationally weaker than Turing machines. This result holds even if the synchronisation mechanisms provided by electrical charges and membrane dissolution are exploited.

  5. Biogenesis of the demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckly, A.; Heijnen, H.F.G.; Pertuy, F.; Geerts, W.J.C.; Proamer, F.; Rinckel, J.Y.; Leon, C.; Lanza, F; Gachet, C.

    2014-01-01

    The demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes forms the plasma membrane (PM) of future platelets. Using confocal microscopy, electron tomography, and large volume focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined the sequential steps of DMS formation. We identified a

  6. System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S.J.; Lange, de H.C.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be

  7. Degradation of lindane by a novel embedded bio-nano hybrid system in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Jaseetha Abdul; Das, Nilanjana

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an embedded bio-nano hybrid system using nanoscale zinc oxide (n-ZnO) and lindane-degrading yeast Candida VITJzN04 for lindane degradation. Nano-embedding of the yeast was done with chemically synthesized n-ZnO particles (50 mg/mL) and was visualized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanoparticles were embedded substantially on the surfaces of the yeast cells and translocated into the cell cytoplasm without causing any lethal effect to the cell until 50 mg/mL. Lindane (600 mg/L) degradation was studied both in the individual and hybrid system. Rapid reductive-dechlorination of lindane was attained with n-ZnO under illuminated conditions, with the generation of chlorobenzene and benzene as dechlorination products. The bio-nano hybrid was found to be more effective compared to the native yeasts for lindane degradation and resulted in complete removal within 3 days. The kinetic data analysis implied that the half-life of lindane was 9 h for bio-nano hybrid and 28 h for Candida VITJzN04. The enhanced lindane degradation by bio-nano hybrid might be due to increased porosity and permeability of the yeast cell membrane, facilitating the easy entry of lindane into cell cytoplasm and n-ZnO-mediated dechlorination. To the best of our knowledge, this report, for the first time, suggests the use of n-ZnO-mediated dechlorination of lindane and the novel bio-nano hybrid system that reduces the half-life to one third of the time taken by the yeast alone. The embedded bio-nano hybrid system may be exploited as an effective remediation tool for the treatment of lindane-contaminated wastewaters.

  8. A hybrid system for solar irradiance specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Space environment research and space weather operations require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats. We describe the development of solar irradiance characterization using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations. The four models/systems include SOLAR2000 (S2K), SOLARFLARE (SFLR), APEX, and IDAR, which are used by Space Environment Technologies (SET) to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum. SFLR uses the GOES 0.1 0.8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0.1 30.0 nm irradiances at 0.1 nm spectral resolution, at 1 minute time resolution, and in a 6-hour XUV EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence. These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances into the S2K model. The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed in conjunction with the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center (SSC) to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution. SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community. We describe how the SOHO SEM data, and especially the new S10.7 index, is being integrated directly into the S2K model for space weather operations. The IDAR system has been developed by SET to extract coronal hole boundaries, streamers, coronal loops, active regions, plage, network, and background (internetwork) features from solar images for comparison with solar magnetic features. S2K, SFLR, APEX, and IDAR outputs are integrated through the S2K solar irradiance platform that has become a hybrid system, i.e., a system that is able to produce irradiances using different processes, including empirical and physics-based models combined with real-time data integration.

  9. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  10. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  11. A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M S H

    2005-05-20

    A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a "full separation" approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). In the second stage, polyvalent cations (mainly TRU elements and their fission products except cesium along with aluminum and other toxic metals) are separated from the bulk of monovalent anions and cations (dominantly sodium nitrate) by a front-end LPP. In the third stage, MD is used first to concentrate sodium nitrate to near saturation followed by a rear-end LPP to precipitate and separate sodium nitrate along with the remaining minor species from the bulk of the aqueous phase. The LPP-MD hybrid system uses a small amount of an additive and energy to carry out the treatment, addresses multiple critical species, extracts an economic value from some of waste species, generates minimal waste with suitable disposal paths, and offers rapid deployment. As such, the LPP-MD could be a valuable tool for multiple needs across the DOE complex where no effective or economic alternatives are available.

  12. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  13. Facile fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membrane for highly flexible supercapacitors via in-situ phase separation of polyethersulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Ran, Fen; Shen, Kuiwen; Yang, Yunlong; Wu, Jiayu; Niu, Xiaoqin; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a facile method based on in-situ phase-separation was developed for the fabrication of ultrathin hybrid membranes for highly flexible supercapacitors. The structures and morphologies of the prepared electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements; and the electrochemical behaviors were examined in 2 M KOH solution. SEM and FTIR characterizations reveal that activated carbon was imbedded into the polymer membrane of polyethersulfone to form a uniform and flexible hybrid membrane. When the thin polymer-carbon membrane (PCM) was used as an electrode material for supercapacitor, a high specific capacitance of 169.4 Fg-1 was obtained at a current density of 0.5 Ag-1 along with good long-term cycle life of 94.6% capacity retention after 2000 charging-discharging cycles. Benefiting from these merits, the as-fabricated PCM//PCM cell shows an excellent electrochemical property. These results suggest a promising route towards the fabrication of highly flexible electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

  14. Modular component kit for hybrid drive systems; Modularer Komponentenbaukasten fuer Hybride Antriebssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Peter; Schalk, Johannes; Schmalzing, Claus-Oliver [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany). Bereich Forschung Technologieentwicklung

    2013-10-15

    By hybrid drives, fuel consumption in off-road applications can be significantly reduced. However, the additional power train components and degrees of freedom required in the design of hybridised systems involve an increase in system variants. To keep the number of variants as low as possible whilst simultaneously ensuring that hybrid drives can serve as wide a spectrum of applications as possible, MTU has developed a modular system of components. This makes it possible to use customer requirements as a basis for creating innovative drive systems for the widest range of applications. (orig.)

  15. Empirical membrane lifetime model for heavy duty fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Natalia; Watson, Mark; Lauritzen, Michael; Knights, Shanna; Wang, G. Gary; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Heavy duty fuel cells used in transportation system applications such as transit buses expose the fuel cell membranes to conditions that can lead to lifetime-limiting membrane failure via combined chemical and mechanical degradation. Highly durable membranes and reliable predictive models are therefore needed in order to achieve the ultimate heavy duty fuel cell lifetime target of 25,000 h. In the present work, an empirical membrane lifetime model was developed based on laboratory data from a suite of accelerated membrane durability tests. The model considers the effects of cell voltage, temperature, oxygen concentration, humidity cycling, humidity level, and platinum in the membrane using inverse power law and exponential relationships within the framework of a general log-linear Weibull life-stress statistical distribution. The obtained model is capable of extrapolating the membrane lifetime from accelerated test conditions to use level conditions during field operation. Based on typical conditions for the Whistler, British Columbia fuel cell transit bus fleet, the model predicts a stack lifetime of 17,500 h and a membrane leak initiation time of 9200 h. Validation performed with the aid of a field operated stack confirmed the initial goal of the model to predict membrane lifetime within 20% of the actual operating time.

  16. Development of compact tritium confinement system using gas separation membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    In order to develop more compact and cost-effective tritium confinement system for fusion reactor, a new system using gas separation membranes has been studied at the Tritium Process Laboratory in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The preliminary result showed that the gas separation membrane system could reduce processing volume of tritium contaminated gas to more than one order of magnitude compared with the conventional system, and that most of tritiated water vapor (humidity) could be directly recovered by water condenser before passing through dryer such as molecular sieves. More detail investigations of gas separation characteristics of membrane were started to design ITER Atmospheric Detritiation System (ADS). Furthermore, a scaled polyimide membrane module (hollow-filament type) loop was just installed to investigate the actual tritium confinement performance under various ITER-ADS conditions. (author)

  17. Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kita M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mihori Kita, Yuki Mori, Sachiyo Hama Department of Ophthalmology, National Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To introduce a hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy, which we have reported, using a 3D visualization system developed recently. Subjects and methods: We report a single center, retrospective, consecutive surgical case series of 113 eyes that underwent 25 G vitrectomy (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment or proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 49 eyes; epiretinal membrane, 18 eyes; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 17 eyes; vitreous opacity or vitreous hemorrhage, 11 eyes; macular hole, 11 eyes; vitreomacular traction syndrome, 4 eyes; and luxation of intraocular lens, 3 eyes. Results: This system was successfully used to perform hybrid vitrectomy in the difficult cases, such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: Hybrid wide-angle viewing-endoscopic vitrectomy using a 3D visualization system appears to be a valuable and promising method for managing various types of vitreoretinal disease. Keywords: 25 G vitrectomy, endoscope, wide-angle viewing system, 3D visualization system, hybrid

  18. Heuristics for the Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem Using a Hybrid P-System and CUDA Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    AlEnezi, Qadha'a; AboElFotoh, Hosam; AlBdaiwi, Bader; AlMulla, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem has a wide range of application areas including packing, scheduling, and manufacturing. Given a list of items and variable sized bin types, the objective is to minimize the total size of the used bins. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this article, we present two new heuristics for solving the problem using a new variation of P systems with active membranes, which we call a hybrid P system, implemented in CUDA. Our hybrid P-system model allows usi...

  19. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  20. Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    An osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) hybrid system integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction was evaluated for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from raw sewage. In this hybrid system, the forward osmosis membrane effectively retained inorganic salts and phosphate in the bioreactor, while the MF membrane periodically bled them out for phosphorus recovery with pH adjustment. The RO process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Results show that phosphorus recuperation from the MF permeate was most effective when the solution pH was adjusted to 10, whereby the recovered precipitate contained 15-20% (wt/wt) of phosphorus. Periodic MF extraction also limited salinity build-up in the bioreactor, resulting in a stable biological performance and an increase in water flux during OMBR operation. Despite the build-up of organic matter and ammonia in the draw solution, OMBR-RO allowed for the recovery of high quality reused water. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  2. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  4. Hybrid SBR–FO system for wastewater treatment and reuse: Operation, fouling and cleaning

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2016-04-05

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane separation process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. A hybrid sequential batch reactor (SBR)–FO process was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating synthetic domestic wastewater. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal efficiency of the system was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4%, with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4%, respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. The 15-hour cycle average water flux of a virgin membrane with air scouring was 2.95 L/m2·h− 1. Air scouring can help to remove loose foulants from the membrane active layer, thus helping to recover up to 89.5% of the original flux. Chemical cleaning of the fouled active layer of the FO membrane was not as effective as air scouring. Natural organic matter (NOM) characterization methods (liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC–OCD) and 3-D fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM)) show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and other biopolymers might be associated with fouling of the membrane on the support layer. A 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) cleaning solution was proved to be effective for removing the foulants from the support layer and recovering the original flux.

  5. Applications of membrane computing in systems and synthetic biology

    CERN Document Server

    Gheorghe, Marian; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Membrane Computing was introduced as a computational paradigm in Natural Computing. The models introduced, called Membrane (or P) Systems, provide a coherent platform to describe and study living cells as computational systems. Membrane Systems have been investigated for their computational aspects and employed to model problems in other fields, like: Computer Science, Linguistics, Biology, Economy, Computer Graphics, Robotics, etc. Their inherent parallelism, heterogeneity and intrinsic versatility allow them to model a broad range of processes and phenomena, being also an efficient means to solve and analyze problems in a novel way. Membrane Computing has been used to model biological systems, becoming with time a thorough modeling paradigm comparable, in its modeling and predicting capabilities, to more established models in this area. This book is the result of the need to collect, in an organic way, different facets of this paradigm. The chapters of this book, together with the web pages accompanying th...

  6. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  7. Optimal design of energy storage systems for hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Hoekstra, D.; Druten, van R.M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Current hybrid powertrain simulation packages arebased on discrete (existing) system components and predefinedsystem structures. Optimization of the performance of the hybridpowertrain is then based on finding the most efficient controlstrategy of the primary and secondary power source and

  8. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  9. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... more than five times over that achieved by using the gas (air) phase alone. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  11. Energy Harvesting in Heterogeneous Networks with Hybrid Powered Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad; Celik, Abdulkadir; Kamal, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an energy efficient and energy harvesting (EH) system model in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where all base stations (BSS) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources. We consider a hybrid power

  12. The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Made In Space is developing the The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System (VULCAN) to address NASA's requirement to produce high-strength, high-precision...

  13. Transport Asymmetry of Novel Bi-Layer Hybrid Perfluorinated Membranes on the Base of MF-4SC Modified by Halloysite Nanotubes with Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Filippov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bi-layer hybrid nanocomposites on the base of perfluorinated cation-exchange membrane MF-4SC (Russian analogue of Nafion®-117 were synthesized and characterized. It was found that two membranes possess the noticeable asymmetry of the current–voltage curve (CVC under changing their orientation towards the applied electric field, despite the absence of asymmetry of diffusion permeability. These phenomena were explained in the frame of the “fine-porous model” expanded for bi-layer membranes. A special procedure to calculate the real values of the diffusion layers thickness and the limiting current density was proposed. Due to asymmetry effects of the current voltage curves of bi-layer hybrid membranes on the base of MF-4SC, halloysite nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles, it is prospective to assemble membrane switches (membrane relays or diodes with predictable transport properties, founded upon the theory developed here.

  14. Estimation of membrane hydration status for standby proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Rugholt, Mark; Nielsen, Morten Busk

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of inactivity, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. However, the membrane of which PEMFCs are made tends to dry out when...

  15. Novel acid-base hybrid membrane based on amine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide and sulfonated polyimide for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Li; Sun, Qingqing; Gao, Yahui; Liu, Luntao; Shi, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel acid-base hybrid membranes (SPI/PEI-rGO) based on sulfonated polyimide (SPI) with polyethyleneimine-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEI-rGO) are prepared by a solution-casting method for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). FT-IR and XPS results prove the successful fabrication of PEI-rGO and SPI/PEI-rGO hybrid membranes, which show a dense and homogeneous structure observed by SEM. The physicochemical properties such as water uptake, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability are well controlled by the incorporated PEI-rGO fillers. The interfacial-formed acid-base pairs between PEI-rGO and SPI matrix effectively reduce the swelling ratio and vanadium ion permeability, increasing the stability performance of the hybrid membranes. SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane exhibits a higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 95%) and energy efficiency (EE, 75.6%) at 40 mA cm −2 , as compared with Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 91% and EE, 66.8%). The self-discharge time of the VRB with SPI/PEI-rGO-2 hybrid membrane (80 h) is longer than that of Nafion 117 membrane (26 h), demonstrating the excellent blocking ability for vanadium ion. After 100 charge-discharge cycles, SPI/PEI-rGO-2 membrane exhibits the good stability under strong oxidizing and acid condition, proving that SPI/PEI-rGO acid-base hybrid membranes could be used as the promising candidates for VRB applications

  16. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  17. Methodology for the hybrid solution of systems of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga, E.F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows a general methodology of solution to systems of differential equations in hybrid computers. Taking into account this methodology, a mathematical model was elaborated. It offers wide possibilities of recording and handling the results on the basis of using the hybrid system IBM-VIDAC 1224 which the ISCTN has. It also presents the results gained when simulating a simple model of a nuclear reactor, which was used in the validation of the results of the computational model

  18. Digital Control of a power conditioner for fuel cell/super-capacitor hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Juan C Trujillo; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a digital control scheme to operate a proton exchange membrane fuel cell module of 1.2 kW and a super-capacitor through a DC/DC hybrid converter. A fuel cell has been proposed as a primary source of energy, and a super-capacitor has been proposed as an auxiliary source...... of energy. Experimental validation of the system implemented in the laboratory is provided. Several tests have been performed to verify that the system achieves excellent output voltage (V0) regulation and super-capacitor voltage (V SC) control under disturbances from fuel cell power (PFC) and output power...

  19. Microfluidic systems with ion-selective membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2014-01-01

    When integrated into microfluidic chips, ion-selective nanoporous polymer and solid-state membranes can be used for on-chip pumping, pH actuation, analyte concentration, molecular separation, reactive mixing, and molecular sensing. They offer numerous functionalities and are hence superior to paper-based devices for point-of-care biochips, with only slightly more investment in fabrication and material costs required. In this review, we first discuss the fundamentals of several nonequilibrium ion current phenomena associated with ion-selective membranes, many of them revealed by studies with fabricated single nanochannels/nanopores. We then focus on how the plethora of phenomena has been applied for transport, separation, concentration, and detection of biomolecules on biochips.

  20. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  1. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  2. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-04-01

    Industrial separation processes consume a significant portion of the energy used in the United States. A 1986 survey by the Office of Industrial Programs estimated that about 4.2 quads of energy are expended annually on distillation, drying and evaporation operations. This survey also concluded that over 0.8 quads of energy could be saved in the chemical, petroleum and food industries alone if these industries adopted membrane separation systems more widely. Membrane separation systems offer significant advantages over existing separation processes. In addition to consuming less energy than conventional processes, membrane systems are compact and modular, enabling easy retrofit to existing industrial processes. The present study was commissioned by the Department of Energy, Office of Program Analysis, to identify and prioritize membrane research needs in light of DOE's mission. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  3. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  4. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  5. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  6. Concept design for hybrid vehicle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source (e.g. electric motor and battery) (S) to a Primary power source (P) in order to improve the driving functions (e.g. fuel economy, driveability (performance)) of the vehicle. The fuel economy isstrongly determined by the energy management

  7. Reactor systems modeling for ICF hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-01

    The computational models of ICF reactor subsystems developed by LLNL and TRW are described and a computer program was incorporated for use in the EPRI-sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids. Representative parametric variations have been examined. Many of the ICF subsystem models are very preliminary and more quantitative models need to be developed and included in the code

  8. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...

  9. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  10. Detection of Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria Based on Ligation Detection Reaction Coupled to Flow-Through Hybridization on Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Böhme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional culturing methods are still commonly applied for bacterial identification in the food control sector, despite being time and labor intensive. Microarray technologies represent an interesting alternative. However, they require higher costs and technical expertise, making them still inappropriate for microbial routine analysis. The present study describes the development of an efficient method for bacterial identification based on flow-through reverse dot-blot (FT-RDB hybridization on membranes, coupled to the high specific ligation detection reaction (LDR. First, the methodology was optimized by testing different types of ligase enzymes, labeling, and membranes. Furthermore, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the bioinformatic tool Oligonucleotide Retrieving for Molecular Applications (ORMA. Four probes were selected and synthesized, being specific for Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp., and Morganella morganii, respectively. For the validation of the probes, 16 reference strains from type culture collections were tested by LDR and FT-RDB hybridization using universal arrays spotted onto membranes. In conclusion, the described methodology could be applied for the rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of bacterial species, exhibiting special relevance in food safety and quality.

  11. Membrane flux dynamics in the submerged ultrafiltration hybrid treatment process during particle and natural organic matter removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xiaojian Zhang; Yonghong Li; Jun Wang; Chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water,which greatly influence the membrane filtration process.The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles,NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF.Particles,NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water.Exponential relationship,(JP/JP0 =axexp{-k[t-(n- 1)T]}),was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well.In this equation,coefficient a was determined by the value of Jp/Jp0 at the beginning of a filtration cycle,reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing,that is,the irreversible fouling.The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics.Integrated total permeability (ΣJp) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios.According to the results,there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process.This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant,which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing.The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing.

  12. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  13. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  14. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Study of cross-linking reactions induced by gamma rays in hybrid membranes of Bisphenol-A-Polysulfone and precipitated silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado Filho, Acacio Antonio M.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Lopes, Lea; Benzi, Marcia R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the bisphenol-A-polysulfone (PSF) was sulfonated using trimethyl silyl chlorosulfonate [(CH 3 ) 3 SiSO 3 Cl] as a mild sulfonating agent in a homogeneous solution of dichloroethane. The sulfonation reaction was confirmed by acid-base titration and FTIR-spectroscopy analysis. The hybrid membranes were obtained by casting the sulfonated bisphenol-A-polysulfone (SPSF) and precipitated silica Tixosil R 333 solutions in N-N-dimethylacetamide. Cross-linking in the hybrid membranes was obtained by irradiation, with doses ranging from 5 to 30 kGy using gamma ray from a 60 Co source. The water uptake and the swelling of the membranes were estimated by measuring the change in weight between dry and wet conditions. The conductivity of the membranes in acid form was measured with the ac impedance technique using a PGSTAT30 frequency response analyzer. The hybrid cross-linked membranes have conductivity close to 10-1 S.cm -1 at 100% RH and 80 deg C. Electrochemical performances, thermo-mechanical stability and low cost make this cross-linked SPSF hybrid membrane an attractive material for fuel cells using a proton exchange membrane. (author)

  16. Enhanced Proton Conductivity of Sulfonated Hybrid Poly(arylene ether ketone) Membranes by Incorporating an Amino-Sulfo Bifunctionalized Metal-Organic Framework for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Chunyu; Li, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chengji; Duan, Yuting; Zhuang, Zhuang; Bu, Fanzhe; Na, Hui

    2018-03-07

    Novel side-chain-type sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SNF-PAEK) containing naphthalene and fluorine moieties on the main chain was prepared in this work, and a new amino-sulfo-bifunctionalized metal-organic framework (MNS, short for MIL-101-NH 2 -SO 3 H) was synthesized via a hydrothermal technology and postmodification. Then, MNS was incorporated into a SNF-PAEK matrix as an inorganic nanofiller to prepare a series of organic-inorganic hybrid membranes (MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX). The mechanical property, methanol resistance, electrochemistry, and other properties of MNS@SNF-PAEK-XX hybrid membranes were characterized in detail. We found that the mechanical strength and methanol resistances of these hybrid membranes were improved by the formation of an ionic cross-linking structure between -NH 2 of MNS and -SO 3 H on the side chain of SNF-PAEK. Particularly, the proton conductivity of these hybrid membranes increased obviously after the addition of MNS. MNS@SNF-PAEK-3% exhibited the proton conductivity of 0.192 S·cm -1 , which was much higher than those of the pristine membrane (0.145 S·cm -1 ) and recast Nafion (0.134 S·cm -1 ) at 80 °C. This result indicated that bifunctionalized MNS rearranged the microstructure of hybrid membranes, which could accelerate the transfer of protons. The hybrid membrane (MNS@SNF-PAEK-3%) showed a better direct methanol fuel cell performance with a higher peak power density of 125.7 mW/cm 2 at 80 °C and a higher open-circuit voltage (0.839 V) than the pristine membrane.

  17. Analysis on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.X.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid desiccant-assisted preconditioner and split cooling coil system, which combines the merits of moisture removal by desiccant and cooling coil for sensible heat removal, is a potential alternative to conventional vapor compression cooling systems. In this paper, experiments on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system, which is actually an integration of a rotary solid desiccant dehumidification and a vapor compression air-conditioning unit, had been carried out. It is found that, compared with the conventional VC (vapor compression) system, the hybrid desiccant cooling system economizes 37.5% electricity powers when the process air temperature and relative humidity are maintained at 30 o C, and 55% respectively. The reason why the hybrid desiccant cooling system features better performance relative to the VC system lies in the improvement brought about in the performance of the evaporator in VC unit due to desiccant dehumidification. A thermodynamic model of the hybrid desiccant system with R-22 as the refrigerant has been developed and the impact of operating parameters on the sensible heat ratio of the evaporator and the electric power saving rate has been analyzed. It is found that a majority of evaporators can operate in the dry condition even if the regeneration temperature is lower (i.e. 80 o C)

  18. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  19. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  20. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  1. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  2. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While, the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  3. Biosolar energy generation and harvesting from biomolecule-copolymer hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bong-Chieh Benjamin

    Alternative energy sources have become an increasingly important topic as energy needs outpace supply. Furthermore, as the world moves into the digital age of portable electronics, highly efficient and lightweight energy sources will need to be developed. Current technology, such as lithium ion batteries, provide enough power to run portable electronics for hours or days, but can still allow for improvement in their power density (W/kg). Utilizing energy-transducing membrane proteins, which are by nature highly efficient, it is possible to engineer biological-based energy sources with energy densities far greater than any solid-state systems. Furthermore, solar powered membrane proteins have the added benefit of a virtually unlimited supply of energy. This work has developed protein-polymer hybrid films and nanoscale vesicles for a variety of applications from fuel-cell technology to biological-based photovoltaics. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-activated proton pump, and Cytochrome C Oxidase (COX), a protein involved in the electron transport chain in mitochondria, were reconstituted into biomimetic triblock copolymer membranes. Block copolymer membranes mimic the amphiphilic nature of a natural lipid bilayer but exhibit greater mechanical stability due to UV-polymerizable endgroups. In BR/COX functionalized nanovesicles, proton gradients generated by the light-activated proton pumping of BR are used to drive COX in reverse to generate electrons, providing a hybrid biologically-active polymer to convert solar energy to chemical energy, and finally to electrical energy. This work has found protein activity in planar membranes through the photoelectric current generation by BR and the proton pumping activity of BR-functionalized polymer membranes deposited onto proton exchange membranes, as well as the coupled functionality of BR and COX through current generation in cyclic voltammetry and direct current measurements. Current switching between light and dark

  4. Vibration control of bridges and buildings hybrid system. Kyoryoter dot tatemono no shindo seigyo hybrid hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanida, K. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-15

    Multistory buildings, suspension bridges, and cable stayed bridges tend to become huge, and technology of controlling their vibration caused by strong winds and earthquakes is becoming an important subject for study. A description is made on a hybrid system which is a combination of the conventional passive system and active system, having merits of both of the systems. Verification test made using a model and an example of application to an actual bridge are introduced. This hybrid control system has been applied to the main tower of the cable stayed bridge on Route 12 of the Tokyo expressway. It is installed and in operation on the top of the tower to improve the workability, and can decrease the vibration of the tower caused by vortical excitation produced during the construction of the main tower. With the hybrid system, the actuator capacity can be reduced to about 1/5 for the similar damping performance to that of the active system with the same mass ratio. In addition, the weight of the equipment can be nearly halved in comparison with the passive system. Moreover, it has such a high safety characteristic as being used as a passive system when power supply is cut off because the controlling force of the system is smaller as compared with the active system. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Analysis of a Hybrid Mechanical Regenerative Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Xiang Wen Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking systems for conventional vehicles are gaining attention as fossil fuels continue to be depleted. The major forms of regenerative braking systems include electrical and mechanical systems, with the former being more widely adopted at present. However mechanical systems are still feasible, including the possible hybrid systems of two mechanical energy recovery systems. A literature study was made to compare the various mechanical energy recovery systems. These systems were compared based on their advantages and disadvantages with regards to energy storage, usage, and maintenance. Based on the comparison, the most promising concept appeared to be one that combined the flywheel and the pneumatic energy recovery systems. A CAD model of this hybrid system was produced to better visualise the design. This was followed by analytical modelling of the energy recovery systems. The analysis indicated that the angular velocity had an extremely significant impact on the power loss and energy efficiency. The results showed that the hybrid system can provide better efficiency but only when operating within certain parameters. Future work is required to further improve the efficiency of this hybrid system.

  6. Performance estimation of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating the efficiency of concentrating PV–TE (photovoltaic–thermoelectric) hybrid system is developed in this paper. Hybrid systems with different photovoltaic cells are studied, including crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell, polymer photovoltaic cell and copper indium gallium selenide photovoltaic cell. The influence of temperature on the efficiency of photovoltaic cell has been taken into account based on the semiconductor equations, which reveals different efficiency temperature characteristic of polymer photovoltaic cells. It is demonstrated that the polycrystalline silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell is suitable for concentrating PV–TE hybrid system through optimization of the convection heat transfer coefficient and concentrating ratio. The polymer photovoltaic cell is proved to be suitable for non-concentrating PV–TE hybrid system. - Highlights: • Performances of four types of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems are studied. • Temperature is one of dominant factors of affecting the conversion efficiency of PV–TE systems. • One can select a proper PV–TE assembly system according to given operating conditions

  7. Development of hybrid system for mass productive passenger car; Joyoshayo ryosangata hybrid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, S; Sasaki, S; Matsui, H; Kubo, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Toyota Hybrid System has two power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. An improved efficiency gasoline engine provides the main power to drive the wheels, as in conventional automobiles. Drive power can also be supplied by an electric motor, which derives its electricity from a battery and a Generator. Fuel efficiency is further boosted by other measures, such as automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle is at a stop and regenerating the energy accumulate during deceleration. Compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine running in 10 {center_dot} 15 mode, the CO2 emissions are reduced by half. Moreover, with the use of a motor to reduce engine load during acceleration, HC, CO, and NOx emissions are cut significantly low levels. 13 figs.

  8. Biogenesis of the demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckly, Anita; Heijnen, Harry; Pertuy, Fabien; Geerts, Willie; Proamer, Fabienne; Rinckel, Jean-Yves; Léon, Catherine; Lanza, François; Gachet, Christian

    2014-02-06

    The demarcation membrane system (DMS) in megakaryocytes forms the plasma membrane (PM) of future platelets. Using confocal microscopy, electron tomography, and large volume focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined the sequential steps of DMS formation. We identified a pre-DMS that initiated at the cell periphery and was precisely located between the nuclear lobes. At all developmental stages, the DMS remained continuous with the cell surface. The number of these connections correlated well with the nuclear lobulation, suggesting a relationship with cleavage furrow formation and abortive cytokinesis. On DMS expansion, Golgi complexes assembled around the pre-DMS, and fusion profiles between trans-golgi network-derived vesicles and the DMS were observed. Brefeldin-A reduced DMS expansion, indicating that the exocytic pathway is essential for DMS biogenesis. Close contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the DMS were detected, suggesting physical interaction between the 2 membrane systems. FIB/SEM revealed that the DMS forms an intertwined tubular membrane network resembling the platelet open canalicular system. We thus propose the following steps in DMS biogenesis: (1) focal membrane assembly at the cell periphery; (2) PM invagination and formation of a perinuclear pre-DMS; (3) expansion through membrane delivery from Golgi complexes; and (4) ER-mediated lipid transfer.

  9. Ozonation and/or Coagulation - Ceramic Membrane Hybrid for Filtration of Impaired-Quality Source Waters

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Changwon

    2013-09-01

    When microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are applied for drinking water treatment/wastewater reuse, membrane fouling is an evitable problem, causing the loss of productivity over time. Polymeric membranes have been often reported to experience rapid and/or problematical fouling, restraining sustainable operation. Ceramic membranes can be effectively employed to treat impaired-quality source waters due to their inherent robustness in terms of physical and chemical stability. This research aimed to identify the effects of coagulation and/or ozonation on ceramic membrane filtration for seawater and wastewater (WW) effluent. Two different types of MF and UF ceramic membranes obtained by sintering (i.e., TAMI made of TiO2+ZrO2) and anodic oxidation process (i.e., AAO made of Al2O3) were employed for bench-scale tests. Precoagulation was shown to play an important role in both enhancing membrane filterability and natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficacy for treating a highorganic surface water. The most critical factors were found to be pH and coagulant dosage with the highest efficiency resulting under low pH and high coagulant dose. Due to the ozone-resistance nature of the ceramic membranes, preozonation allowed the ceramic membranes to be operated at higher flux, especially leading to significant flux improvement when treating seawater in the presence of calcium and magnesium. 4 Dissolved ozone in contact with the TAMI ceramic membrane surface accelerated the formation of hydroxyl (˙OH) radicals in WW effluent treatment. Flux restoration of both ceramic membranes, fouled with seawater and WW effluent, was efficiently achieved by high backwash (BW) pressure and ozone in chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB). Ceramic membranes exhibited a pH-dependent permeate flux while filtering WW effluent, showing reduced fouling with increased pH. On the other hand, for filtering seawater, differences in permeate flux between the two membranes was

  10. Enhancement of Hybrid SPEEK Based Polymer–Cyclodextrin-Silica Inorganic Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2017-06-01

      Keywords: Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, Poly(ether ether ketone, cyclodextrin-silica, sulfonation, ionic conductivity. Article History: Received January 18th 2017; Received in revised form April 21st 2017; Accepted June 22nd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Kusworo, T.D., Hakim, M.F. and Hadiyanto, H. (2017 Enhancement of Hybrid SPEEK Based Polymer–Cyclodextrin-Silica Inorganic Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Application. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(2, 165-170. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.165-170

  11. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Recommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas. Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identi...

  12. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  13. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  14. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of hybrid energy systems for application in southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The option of using hybrid energy for electricity in remote areas of Ghana is examined. • The cost of electricity produced by the hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. • The levelized cost of electricity increase by 9% when the PV price is increased from $3000/kW to $7500/kW. - Abstract: Due to advances in renewable energy technologies and increase in oil price, hybrid renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly attractive for power generation applications in remote areas. This paper presents an economic analysis of the feasibility of utilizing a hybrid energy system consisting of solar, wind and diesel generators for application in remote areas of southern Ghana using levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and net present cost of the system. The annual daily average solar global radiation at the selected site is 5.4 kW h/m 2 /day and the annual mean wind speed is 5.11 m/s. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was employed to carry out the present study. Both wind data and the actual load data have been used in the simulation model. It was found that a PV array of 80 kW, a 100 kW wind turbine, two generators with combined capacity of 100 kW, a 60 kW converter/inverter and a 60 Surrette 4KS25P battery produced a mix of 791.1 MW h of electricity annually. The cost of electricity for this hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of changes in wind speed, solar global radiation and diesel price on the optimal energy was investigated and the impact of solar PV price on the LCOE for a selected hybrid energy system was also presented

  16. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  17. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  18. Regenerative Braking System for Series Hybrid Electric City Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junzhi; Lu, Xin; Xue, Junliang; Li, Bos

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist hybrid electric buses achieve better fuel economy while lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of three regenerative braking systems, one of which is a series regenerative braking system and two of which are parallel regenerative braking systems. The existing friction based Adjustable Braking System (ABS) on the bus is integrated with each of the new braking systems in order to ensure bus...

  19. Dynamic nanoplatforms in biosensor and membrane constitutional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Eugene; Aastrup, Teodor; Barboiu, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Molecular recognition in biological systems occurs mainly at interfacial environments such as membrane surfaces, enzyme active sites, or the interior of the DNA double helix. At the cell membrane surface, carbohydrate-protein recognition principles apply to a range of specific non-covalent interactions including immune response, cell proliferation, adhesion and death, cell-cell interaction and communication. Protein-protein recognition meanwhile accounts for signalling processes and ion channel structure. In this chapter we aim to describe such constitutional dynamic interfaces for biosensing and membrane transport applications. Constitutionally adaptive interfaces may mimic the recognition capabilities intrinsic to natural recognition processes. We present some recent examples of 2D and 3D constructed sensors and membranes of this type and describe their sensing and transport capabilities.

  20. Development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers: Contrasting nano-composite membranes and conventional inlet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Luis Diego

    This dissertation presents the development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers. These nano-composite membranes incorporate anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as templates that can be used by themselves or modified by a variety of chemical deposition processes. Two types of nano-composite membranes are presented. The first nano-composite membrane has carbon deposited within the pores of an AAO membrane. The second nano-composite membrane is made by coating an AAO membrane with a thin polymer film. The following chapters describe the transmission properties these nano-composite membranes and compare them to conventional mass spectrometry introduction systems. The nano- composite membranes were finally coupled to the inlet system of an underwater mass spectrometer revealing their utility in field deployments.

  1. Thermo-osmosis in Membrane Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, V. María; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2017-06-01

    We give a first review of experimental results for a phenomenon little explored in the literature, namely thermal osmosis or thermo-osmosis. Such systems are now getting increased attention because of their ability to use waste heat for separation purposes. We show that this volume transport of a solution or a pure liquid caused by a temperature difference across a membrane can be understood as a property of the membrane system, i. e. the membrane with its adjacent solutions. We present experimental values found in the literature of thermo-osmotic coefficients of neutral and hydrophobic as well as charged and hydrophilic membranes, with water and other permeant fluids as well as electrolyte solutions. We propose that the coefficient can be qualitatively explained by a formula that contains the entropy of adsorption of permeant into the membrane, the hydraulic permeability, and a factor that depends on the interface resistance to heat transfer. A variation in the entropy of adsorption with hydrophobic/hydrophilic membranes and structure breaking/structure making cations could then explain the sign of the permeant flux. Systematic experiments in the field are lacking and we propose an experimental program to mend this situation.

  2. Hydrogen atom as a quantum-classical hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Fei; Wu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen atom is studied as a quantum-classical hybrid system, where the proton is treated as a classical object while the electron is regarded as a quantum object. We use a well known mean-field approach to describe this hybrid hydrogen atom; the resulting dynamics for the electron and the proton is compared to their full quantum dynamics. The electron dynamics in the hybrid description is found to be only marginally different from its full quantum counterpart. The situation is very different for the proton: in the hybrid description, the proton behaves like a free particle; in the fully quantum description, the wave packet center of the proton orbits around the center of mass. Furthermore, we find that the failure to describe the proton dynamics properly can be regarded as a manifestation of the fact that there is no conservation of momentum in the mean-field hybrid approach. We expect that such a failure is a common feature for all existing approaches for quantum-classical hybrid systems of Born-Oppenheimer type.

  3. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  5. Entanglement detection in hybrid optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro; Palma, G. Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We study a device formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) coupled to the field of a cavity with a moving end mirror and find a working point such that the mirror-light entanglement is reproduced by the BEC-light quantum correlations. This provides an experimentally viable tool for inferring mirror-light entanglement with only a limited set of assumptions. We prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in the hybrid device, persisting up to temperatures of a few milli-Kelvin, and discuss a scheme to detect it.

  6. 15th International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sang; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Liu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the hybridization of intelligent systems which is a promising research field of modern computational intelligence concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Fifteenth International conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2015) held in Seoul, South Korea during November 16-18, 2015. The 26 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 paper submissions. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  7. Soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-03-23

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation (MD). In one example, a system includes a MD module comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to estimate feed solution temperatures and permeate solution temperatures of the MD module using monitored outlet temperatures of the feed side and the permeate side. In another example, a method includes monitoring outlet temperatures of a feed side and a permeate side of a MD module to determine a current feed outlet temperature and a current permeate outlet temperature; and determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating the feed side and the permeate side of the MD module using the current feed outlet temperature and the current permeate outlet temperature.

  8. Voith hybrid systems - parallel hybrid for rail vehicles; Voith Hybridsysteme - Parallelhybrid fuer Schienenfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groezinger, Thomas; Berger, Juergen; Discher, Andreas; Bartosch, Stephan [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The article presents a variety of ways help to save fuel, reduce noise and minimize harmful emissions for rail vehicles. These ECO components can be used separately or in combination with drive systems for various types of hybrid concepts. For example, via a hydrostatic or electric hybrid system can recuperate and store braking energy and utilize it for powering the vehicle or driving auxiliary systems. Another system converts lost heat from the drive motor into mechanical or electrical energy. With EcoConsult, Voith Turbo also offers a ''toolbox'' comprising software, hardware and consultancy which allows identifying the exact operating conditions and a reliable calculation of the life cycle cost (LCC) for a variety of vehicle categories and operating profiles. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  10. Performance assessment of a novel hybrid district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid system for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is proposed. This hybrid system consists of biogas based electricity production and a water-to-water geothermal heat pump unit (GHPU), which uses the waste heat for both heating and domestic hot water purposes. Electricity generated by the biogas plant (BP) is utilized to drive the GDHS's pumps, BP systems and the heat pump units. Both the biogas reactor heating unit and the heat pump unit utilize the waste heat from the GDHS and use the system as a heat source. The feasibility of utilizing a hybrid system in order to increase the overall system (GDHS + BP + GHPU) efficiency is then investigated for possible efficiency improvements. The Edremit GDHS in Turkey, which is selected for investigation in this case study, reinjects 16.8 MW of thermal power into the river at a low temperature; namely at 40 °C. Such a temperature is ideal for mesophilic bacterial growth in the digestion process during biogas production. 1.45 MW of biogas based electricity production potential is obtainable from the waste heat output of the Edremit GDHS. The average overall system efficiencies through the utilization of this kind of hybridized system approach are increased by 7.5% energetically and 13% for exergetically. - Highlights: ► A new hybrid system is proposed for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs). ► The average overall system efficiencies are increased by 7.5% for energy and 13% for exergy, respectively. ► Various energetic and exergetic parameters are studied.

  11. Hybrid algorithm for rotor angle security assessment in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prasad Wadduwage

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient rotor angle stability assessment and oscillatory rotor angle stability assessment subsequent to a contingency are integral components of dynamic security assessment (DSA in power systems. This study proposes a hybrid algorithm to determine whether the post-fault power system is secure due to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability subsequent to a set of known contingencies. The hybrid algorithm first uses a new security measure developed based on the concept of Lyapunov exponents (LEs to determine the transient security of the post-fault power system. Later, the transient secure power swing curves are analysed using an improved Prony algorithm which extracts the dominant oscillatory modes and estimates their damping ratios. The damping ratio is a security measure about the oscillatory security of the post-fault power system subsequent to the contingency. The suitability of the proposed hybrid algorithm for DSA in power systems is illustrated using different contingencies of a 16-generator 68-bus test system and a 50-generator 470-bus test system. The accuracy of the stability conclusions and the acceptable computational burden indicate that the proposed hybrid algorithm is suitable for real-time security assessment with respect to both transient rotor angle stability and oscillatory rotor angle stability under multiple contingencies of the power system.

  12. Growth of hydroxyapatite on the cellular membrane of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for the preparation of hybrid biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Eric Reyes, E-mail: onomaeric@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Torres, Maykel González, E-mail: mikegcu@fata.unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Muñoz, Susana Vargas, E-mail: vmsu@unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Rosas, Efraín Rubio, E-mail: efrainrubio@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to grow hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals on the cellular wall of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis using a bio-mimetic method. Several strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) gene markers to differentiate the strains and confirm the identity of the isolated species to guarantee that the selected species was not harmful to human health or the environment. Three of the analyzed strains were selected because they exhibited the best nucleation and growth of HAp on the bacterial surface. This innovative method to grow HAp crystals on a cellular membrane helps to elucidate the mechanisms by which osseous tissue is formed in nature. The optimum concentration for the simulated physiological fluid (SPF) was 1.5 ×. The hybrid materials were characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • HAp crystals are grown on the cellular wall of a GP bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. • The growing was carried out by using a bio-mimetic method. • Hybrid materials were characterized with morphological and spectroscopic techniques. • The reported method allows understanding the mechanisms to produce osseous tissue. • The membrane of Bacillus thuringiensis can grow more HAp than Bacillus halodurans.

  13. Assume-Guarantee Abstraction Refinement Meets Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Frehse, Goran; Greitschus, Marius; Grosu, Radu; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Podelski, Andreas; Strump, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Compositional verification techniques in the assume- guarantee style have been successfully applied to transition systems to efficiently reduce the search space by leveraging the compositional nature of the systems under consideration. We adapt these techniques to the domain of hybrid systems with affine dynamics. To build assumptions we introduce an abstraction based on location merging. We integrate the assume-guarantee style analysis with automatic abstraction refinement. We have implemented our approach in the symbolic hybrid model checker SpaceEx. The evaluation shows its practical potential. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work combining assume-guarantee reasoning with automatic abstraction-refinement in the context of hybrid automata.

  14. Sodium Hydroxide and Calcium Hydroxide Hybrid Oxygen Bleaching with System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelle, K.; Bajrami, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the replacement of sodium hydroxide in the oxygen bleaching stage using a hybrid system consisting of sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide. Commercial Kraft pulping was studied using yellow pine Kraft pulp obtained from a company in the US. The impact of sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide hybrid system in regard to concentration, reaction time and temperature for Kraft pulp was evaluated. The sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide dosage was varied between 0% and 15% based on oven dry fiber content. The bleaching reaction time was varied between 0 and 180 minutes whereas the bleaching temperature ranged between 70 °C and 110 °C. The ability to bleach pulp was measured by determining the Kappa number. Optimum bleaching results for the hybrid system were achieved with 4% sodium hydroxide and 2% calcium hydroxide content. Beyond this, the ability to bleach pulp decreased.

  15. Using hybrid expert system approaches for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. H.; Boarnet, M. G.; Culbert, C. J.; Savely, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the use of hybrid expert system shells and hybrid (i.e., algorithmic and heuristic) approaches for solving engineering problems is reported. Aspects of various engineering problem domains are reviewed for a number of examples with specific applications made to recently developed prototype expert systems. Based on this prototyping experience, critical evaluations of and comparisons between commercially available tools, and some research tools, in the United States and Australia, and their underlying problem-solving paradigms are made. Characteristics of the implementation tool and the engineering domain are compared and practical software engineering issues are discussed with respect to hybrid tools and approaches. Finally, guidelines are offered with the hope that expert system development will be less time consuming, more effective, and more cost-effective than it has been in the past.

  16. Electric energy storage systems for future hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, Hans; Huelshorst, Thomas [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Elektrochemische Energiewandlung und Speichersystemtechnik, ISEA, RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Electric energy storage systems play a key role in today's and even more in future hybrid and electric vehicles. They enable new additional functionalities like Start/Stop, regenerative braking or electric boost and pure electric drive. This article discusses properties and requirements of battery systems like power provision, energy capacity, life time as a function of the hybrid concepts and the real operating conditions of the today's and future hybrid drivetrains. Battery cell technology, component sizing, system design, operating strategy safety measures and diagnosis, modularity and vehicle integration are important battery development topics. A final assessment will draw the conclusion that future drivetrain concepts with higher degree of electrician will be significantly dependent on the progress of battery technology. (orig.)

  17. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  18. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiwang Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  19. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Luis M.; Garcia, Pablo; Garcia, Carlos Andres; Jurado, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. → Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. → New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. → Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  20. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  1. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  2. New insight of hybrid membrane to degrade Congo red and Reactive yellow under sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, A; Jackcina Stobel Christy, E; Pius, Anitha

    2018-02-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the degradation of organic contaminants (Congo red and Reactive yellow - 105) using cellulose acetate - polystyrene (CA-PS) membrane with and without ZnO impregnation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), atomic force microscope (AFM) and thermogravimeric analysis (TG-DTA) analysis were carried out to characterize bare and ZnO impregnated CA-PS membranes. Membrane efficiency was also tested for pure water flux and antifouling performance. The modified membrane showed almost 85% water flux recovery. Blending of ZnO nanoparticles to CA-PS matrix could decrease membrane fouling and increase permeation quality of the membrane with above 90% of photocatalytic degradation efficiency for dyes. The rate of degradation of dyes was observed using UV-Vis spectrometer. Reusability of CA-PS-ZnO membrane was studied and no significant change was noted in the degradation efficiency until fourth cycle. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model well describes the photo degradation capacity and the degradation of dyes CR and RY - 105 exhibited pseudo-first order kinetics. The regression coefficient (R) of CR and RY - 105 found to be 0.99. The novelty of the prepared CA-PS-ZnO membrane is that it has better efficiency and high thermal stability than our previously reported material. Therefore, ZnO impregnated CA-PS membrane had proved to be an innovative alternative for the degradation of CR and RY - 105 dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, B.; Bjornbom, P.; Sylwan, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the present project a system study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system is in progress. Positive synergy effects are expected when combining a SOFC system with a PEM system. By combining the advantages of each fuel cell type it is promising that the hybrid system has higher overall efficiency than a SOFC-only system or a reformer-PEM system. A SOFC stack produces electricity and a reformate gas that can be further processed to hydrogen by the shift reaction. The produced hydrogen can be used by PEM stack in order to produce further electricity. In the PEM system case the complex fuel reformer processing could be eliminated. The simulations were performed with the flowsheeting simulation software Aspen Plus. (author)

  4. Chaos synchronization in autonomous chaotic system via hybrid feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixin; Chu Yandong; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; Chang Yingxiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the synchronization of chaos by designing united controller. First, this method is implemented in synchronization of a simple system, then we realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system, we also take tracking control to realize the synchronization of Lue hyperchaotic system. Comparing with results, we can find that hybrid feedback control approach is more effective than tracking control for hyperchaotic system. Numerical simulations show the united synchronization method works well.

  5. A hybrid electrical power system for aircraft application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Chin, C. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Possible improvements to present aircraft electrical power systems for use in future advanced types of aircraft have been investigated. The conventional power system is examined, the characteristics of electric loads are reviewed, and various methods of power generation and distribution are appraised. It is shown that a hybrid system, with variable-frequency generation and high-voltage dc distribution, could overcome some of the limitations of the conventional system.

  6. A manifesto for conscientious design of hybrid online social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega, Pablo; Verhagen, Harko; d’Inverno, Mark; Padget, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    Online Social Systems such as community forums, social media, e-commerce and gaming are having an increasingly significant impact on our lives. They affect the way we accomplish all sorts of collective activities, the way we relate to others, and the way we construct are own self-image. These systems often have both human and artificial agency creating what we call online hybrid social systems. However, when systems are designed and constructed, the psychological and sociological impact of su...

  7. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  8. Evaluation of a Compact Hybrid Brain-Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We realized a compact hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI system by integrating a portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS device with an economical electroencephalography (EEG system. The NIRS array was located on the subjects’ forehead, covering the prefrontal area. The EEG electrodes were distributed over the frontal, motor/temporal, and parietal areas. The experimental paradigm involved a Stroop word-picture matching test in combination with mental arithmetic (MA and baseline (BL tasks, in which the subjects were asked to perform either MA or BL in response to congruent or incongruent conditions, respectively. We compared the classification accuracies of each of the modalities (NIRS or EEG with that of the hybrid system. We showed that the hybrid system outperforms the unimodal EEG and NIRS systems by 6.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Since the proposed hybrid system is based on portable platforms, it is not confined to a laboratory environment and has the potential to be used in real-life situations, such as in neurorehabilitation.

  9. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  10. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Vergnes, J.; Zaetta, A.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  11. Sieving of Hot Gases by Hyper-Cross-Linked Nanoscale-Hybrid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel; Hempenius, Mark A.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular networks consisting of homogeneously distributed covalently bonded inorganic and organic precursors are anticipated to show remarkable characteristics, distinct from those of the individual constituents. A novel hypercross-linked ultrathin membrane is presented, consisting of a giant

  12. A Lie algebraic condition for exponential stability of discrete hybrid systems and application to hybrid synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shouwei

    2011-06-01

    A Lie algebraic condition for global exponential stability of linear discrete switched impulsive systems is presented in this paper. By considering a Lie algebra generated by all subsystem matrices and impulsive matrices, when not all of these matrices are Schur stable, we derive new criteria for global exponential stability of linear discrete switched impulsive systems. Moreover, simple sufficient conditions in terms of Lie algebra are established for the synchronization of nonlinear discrete systems using a hybrid switching and impulsive control. As an application, discrete chaotic system's synchronization is investigated by the proposed method.

  13. Performance Analysis of a Hybrid Power Cutting System for Roadheader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrohydraulic hybrid power cutting transmission system for roadheader under specific working condition was proposed in this paper. The overall model for the new system composed of an electric motor model, a hydraulic pump-motor model, a torsional planetary set model, and a hybrid power train model was established. The working mode characteristics were simulated under the conditions of taking the effect of cutting picks into account. The advantages of new hybrid power cutting system about the dynamic response under shock load were investigated compared with the traditional cutting system. The results illustrated that the hybrid power system had an obvious cushioning in terms of the dynamic load of cutting electric motor and planetary gear set. Besides, the hydraulic motor could provide an auxiliary power to improve the performance of the electric motor. With further analysis, a dynamic load was found to have a high relation to the stiffness and damping of coupling in the transmission train. The results could be a useful guide for the design of cutting transmission of roadheader.

  14. A hybrid press system: Motion design and inverse kinematics issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erkan Kütük

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid machine (HM is a system integrating two types of motor; servo and constant velocity with a mechanism. The purpose is to make use of the energy in the system efficiently with a flexible system having more than one degree of freedom (DOF. A review is included on hybrid press systems. This study is included as a part of an industrial project used for metal forming. The system given here includes a 7 link mechanism, one of link is driven by a constant velocity motor (CV and the other is driven by a servo motor (SM. Kinematics analysis of the hybrid driven mechanism is presented here as inverse kinematics analysis. Motion design is very crucial step when using a hybrid machine. So motion design procedure is given with motion curve examples needed. Curve Fitting Toolbox (CFT in Matlab® is offered as an auxiliary method which can be successfully applied. Motion characteristics are chosen by looking at requirements taken from metal forming industry. Results are then presented herein.

  15. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  16. Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcoe, J.R.; Atanassov, P.; Dekel, D.R.; Herring, A.M.; Hickner, M.A.; Kohl, P.A.; Kucernak, A. R.; Mustain, W.E.; Nijmeijer, K.; Scott, Keith; Xu, Tongwen; Zhuang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current

  17. Analysis of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Khalilpour, Rajab

    2013-02-01

    This paper analysed the performance of a membrane system over key design/operation parameters. A computation methodology is developed to solve the model of hollow fibre membrane systems for multicomponent gas feeds. The model represented by a nonlinear differential algebraic equation system is solved via a combination of backward differentiation and Gauss-Seidel methods. Natural gas sweetening problem is investigated as a case study. Model parametric analyses of variables, namely feed gas quality, pressure, area, selectivity and permeance, resulted in better understanding of operating and design optima. Particularly, high selectivities and/or permeabilities are shown not to be necessary targets for optimal operation. Rather, a medium selectivity (<60 in the given example) combined with medium permeance (∼300-500×10-10mol/sm2Pa in the given case study) is more advantageous. This model-based membrane systems engineering approach is proposed for the synthesis of efficient and cost-effective multi-stage membrane networks. © 2012 The Institution of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Hybrid control of the distributed refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, L.; Wisniewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    consumption. The paper focuses on synchronization dynamics of the refrigeration system modeled as a piecewise-affine switched system. System behaviors are analyzed using chaos theory. The synchronization phenomenon is interpreted as a stable low-period orbit; if the system has a high-order periodic orbit...

  19. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  20. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  1. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  2. Lower hybrid heating system for an ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Harkness, S.; Jung, J.; Misra, B.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.; Stevens, H.

    1978-01-01

    We have attempted to design a complete Lower Hybrid Resonance Heating System (LHRH) that could be used for TFTR, TNS, EPR, or a reactor. In addition to plasma physics constraints, we have considered those imposed by neutron radiation, surface heating of waveguides, sputtering, multipactoring, vacuum systems, materials, window design, engineering, maintenance and assembly. The system uses a Lallia--Brambilla grill which is fed by a number of waveguides entering the reactor by means of a labyrinth

  3. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  4. Hierarchical models and iterative optimization of hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasina, Irina V. [Ailamazyan Program Systems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter One str. 4a, Pereslavl-Zalessky, 152021 (Russian Federation); Baturina, Olga V. [Trapeznikov Control Sciences Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str. 65, 117997, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nasatueva, Soelma N. [Buryat State University, Smolina str.24a, Ulan-Ude, 670000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    A class of hybrid control systems on the base of two-level discrete-continuous model is considered. The concept of this model was proposed and developed in preceding works as a concretization of the general multi-step system with related optimality conditions. A new iterative optimization procedure for such systems is developed on the base of localization of the global optimality conditions via contraction the control set.

  5. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA; Minford, Eric [Laurys Station, PA; Waldron, William Emil [Whitehall, PA

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  6. The under-critical reactors physics for the hybrid systems; La physique des reacteurs sous-critiques des systemes hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapira, J P [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS 91 - Orsay (France); Vergnes, J [Electricite de France, EDF, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A [CEA/Saclay, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    1998-03-12

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 12 march 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the hybrid systems and more specifically the under-critical reactors. One of the major current preoccupation of nuclear industry is the problems of the increase of radioactive wastes produced in the plants and the destruction of the present stocks. To solve these problems a solution is the utilisation of hybrid systems: the coupling of a particle acceleration to an under-critical reactor. Historical aspects, advantages and performances of such hybrid reactors are presented in general papers. More technical papers are devoted to the spallation, the MUSE and the TARC experiments. (A.L.B.)

  7. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, I. [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica-Culhuacan-IPN, Av. San Ana 1000 Col. San Fco. Culhuacan, Mexico D.F. 04430 (Mexico) and Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: ilse@calmecac.esimecu.ipn.mx; Femat, R. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Leyva-Ramos, J. [Insituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Departamento de Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas Computacionales, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a, seccion C.P. 78216, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained.

  8. Study of a class of hybrid-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, I.; Femat, R.; Leyva-Ramos, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a class of hybrid-time systems. In particular, we concern about switched systems constituted by two linear second order systems with a time varying (sinusoidal type) translation term. By means of numerical simulations, system behavior and its relation to system parameters are studied. It is shown that system eigenvalues play a crucial role in the time evolution of the system leading either to regular behavior, oscillatory patterns or intermittent erratic-periodic behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that under certain conditions, presumable fractal structures can be obtained

  9. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  10. Model-based health monitoring of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Low, Chang Boon; Arogeti, Shai

    2013-01-01

    Offers in-depth comprehensive study on health monitoring for hybrid systems Includes new concepts, such as GARR, mode tracking and multiple failure prognosis Contains many examples, making the developed techniques easily understandable and accessible Introduces state-of-the-art algorithms and methodologies from experienced researchers

  11. Full state hybrid projective synchronization in hyperchaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yandong; Chang Yingxiang; Zhang Jiangang; Li Xianfeng; An Xinlei

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the full state hybrid projective synchronization (FSHPS) which includes complete synchronization, anti-synchronization and projective synchronization as its special items. Based on Lyapunov stability theory a controller can be designed for achieving the FSHPS of hyperchaotic systems. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The real network nodes are always interfered by other messages. So, how to realize the hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems based on the complex network is very important. To solve this problem, two other problems should be considered. One is how the same network node of the complex network ...

  13. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This study summarizes the promise and timing of the hybrid concept and culminates in a generic R and D timetable. This document emphasizes the meaningfulness of the concept to tomorrow's energy needs and energy production systems rather than strict analysis of technical feasibility

  14. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  15. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  16. Joint Optimal Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal (Yashar); C. Rosenberg; S. Keshav (Srinivasam); M.-B. Adjaho (Marie-Benedicte)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe wide range of performance characteristics of storage technologies motivates the use of a hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) that combines the best features of multiple technologies. However, HESS design is complex, in that it involves the choice of storage technologies, the

  17. Borazine-boron nitride hybrid hydrogen storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K [Knoxville, TN; Simonson, J Michael [Knoxville, TN; Maya, Leon [Knoxville, TN; Paine, Robert T [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-22

    A hybrid hydrogen storage composition includes a first phase and a second phase adsorbed on the first phase, the first phase including BN for storing hydrogen by physisorption and the second phase including a borazane-borazine system for storing hydrogen in combined form as a hydride.

  18. Storing in carbon nano structures for hybrid systems solar hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazzi, R.; Zini, G.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid energy system for converting energy from renewable sources and its storage in the form of hydrogen. The storage uses activated carbon and the methodology was modelled mathematically and simulated in numerical software. The results show that storage compression is cheaper storage for liquefaction. [it

  19. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  20. Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a hybrid system of artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony algorithm for prediction and modeling of customer choice in the market. ... attempted to present a new method for the modeling and prediction of customer choice in the market using the combination of artificial intelligence and data mining.

  1. Hybrid computer optimization of systems with random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A hybrid computer Monte Carlo technique for the simulation and optimization of systems with random parameters is presented. The method is applied to the simultaneous optimization of the means and variances of two parameters in the radar-homing missile problem treated by McGhee and Levine.

  2. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  3. Variables and equations in hybrid systems with structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.

    2001-01-01

    In many models of physical systems, structural changes are common. Such structural changes may cause a variable to change from a differential variable to an algebraic variable, or to a variable that is not defined by an equation at all. Most hybrid modelling languages either restrict the kind of

  4. Hybrid two fuel system nozzle with a bypass connecting the two fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar [Cincinnati, OH; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC; Yilmaz, Ertan [Albany, NY; Lacy, Benjamin [Greer, SC; Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; York, William David [Greer, SC

    2012-05-29

    A hybrid fuel combustion nozzle for use with natural gas, syngas, or other types of fuels. The hybrid fuel combustion nozzle may include a natural gas system with a number of swozzle vanes and a syngas system with a number of co-annular fuel tubes.

  5. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Adaptive hybrid optimal quantum control for imprecisely characterized systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, D J; Wilhelm, F K

    2014-06-20

    Optimal quantum control theory carries a huge promise for quantum technology. Its experimental application, however, is often hindered by imprecise knowledge of the input variables, the quantum system's parameters. We show how to overcome this by adaptive hybrid optimal control, using a protocol named Ad-HOC. This protocol combines open- and closed-loop optimal control by first performing a gradient search towards a near-optimal control pulse and then an experimental fidelity estimation with a gradient-free method. For typical settings in solid-state quantum information processing, adaptive hybrid optimal control enhances gate fidelities by an order of magnitude, making optimal control theory applicable and useful.

  7. Village power hybrid systems development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Green, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States); Lilley, A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mott, L. [Northern Power Systems, Moretown, VT (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The energy demand in developing countries is growing at a rate seven times that of the OECD countries, even though there are still 2 billion people living in developing countries without electricity. Many developing countries have social and economic development programs aimed at stemming the massive migration from the rural communities to the overcrowded, environmentally problematic, unemployment-bound urban centers. To address the issue of providing social, educational, health, and economic benefits to the rural communities of the developing world, a number of government and nongovernment agencies are sponsoring pilot programs to install and evaluate renewable energy systems as alternatives to line extension, diesels, kerosene, and batteries. The use of renewables in remote villages has yielded mixed results over the last 20 years. However, recently, photovoltaics, small wind turbines, and microhydro system shave gained increasing recognition as reliable, cost-effective alternatives to grid extension and diesel gensets for village-electricity applications. At the same time, hybrid systems based on combinations of PV/wind/batteries/diesel gensets have proven reliable and economic for remote international telecommunications markets. With the growing emphasis on environmentally and economically sustainable development of international rural communities, the US hybrid industry is responding with the development and demonstration of hybrid systems and architectures that will directly compete with conventional alternatives for village electrification. Assisting the US industry in this development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on a program of collaborative technology development and technical assistance in the area of hybrid systems for village power. Following a brief review of village-power hybrid systems application and design issues, this paper presents the present industry development activities of three US suppliers and the NREL.

  8. Evaluation for membrane components of water recycling system. Mizu saisei junkan system yoso no tokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanemura, T; Otsubo, K; Oguchi, M [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ashida, A; Hamano, N; Mitani, K [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    The configuration of water recycling systems with membrane filters was studied to purify waste water discharged from human beings, animals and plants which is a key subsystem for closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) essential to long-term manned space activity. The filter performance test apparatus with three kinds of filters such as pre-filter, reverse osmosis membrane filter and ultra membrane filter was fabricated to conduct long-term cycling high-concentration tests using artificial urine as original waste water. As a result, since every membrane filter offered their nominal performance incompletely in high-concentration tests, it was necessary to add an NaCl removing apparatus to the system as primary treated water should be used for vegetation. It was also required to test the membrane performance preliminarily because the performance such as membrane life was different between various waste waters. 7 refs., 32 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  10. Quantum dot-dye hybrid systems for energy transfer applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ting

    2010-07-01

    In this thesis, we focus on the preparation of energy transfer-based quantum dot (QD)-dye hybrid systems. Two kinds of QD-dye hybrid systems have been successfully synthesized: QD-silica-dye and QD-dye hybrid systems. In the QD-silica-dye hybrid system, multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stoeber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-24 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the total sensitized acceptor emission, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of QDs with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with Monte-Carlo simulations, and by control experiments confirming attractive interactions between QDs and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution. New QD-dye hybrid system consisting of multishell QDs and organic perylene dyes have been synthesized. We developed a versatile approach to assemble extraordinarily stable QD-dye hybrids, which uses dicarboxylate anchors to bind rylene dyes to QD. This system yields a good basis to study the energy transfer between QD and dye because of its simple and compact design: there is no third kind of molecule linking QD and dye; no spacer; and the affinity of the functional group to the QD surface is strong. The FRET signal was measured for these complexes as a function of both dye to QD ratio and center-to-center distance between QD and dye by controlling number of covered ZnS layers. Data showed that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was the dominant mechanism of the energy transfer in our QD-dye hybrid system. FRET efficiency can be controlled by not only adjusting the number of dyes on the QD surface or the QD to dye distance, but also properly choosing different dye and QD components. Due to the strong stability, our QD

  11. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  12. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...... phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...

  13. A hybrid power system for unmanned aerial vehicle electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Wu, Jun; Huang, Shengjun

    2018-06-01

    According to the UAV electromagnetic catapult with fixed timing, a hybrid energy storage system consist with battery and super capacitor is designed, in order to reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system. The battery is regarded as the energy storage device and the super capacitor as power release device. Firstly, the battery charges the super capacitor, and then the super capacitor supplies power to electromagnetic catapult separately. The strategy is using the Buck circuit to charge the super capacitor with constant current and using the Boost circuit to make super capacitor provide a stable voltage circuit for electromagnetic catapult. The Simulink simulation results show that the designed hybrid energy storage system can meet the requirements of electromagnetic catapult. Compared with the system powered by the battery alone, the proposed scheme can reduce the number of batteries, and greatly reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system.

  14. Hybrid Intrusion Forecasting Framework for Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehun; Shin, Seong-Jun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Ki Hoon; Han, Younggoo

    Recently, cyber attacks have become a serious hindrance to the stability of Internet. These attacks exploit interconnectivity of networks, propagate in an instant, and have become more sophisticated and evolutionary. Traditional Internet security systems such as firewalls, IDS and IPS are limited in terms of detecting recent cyber attacks in advance as these systems respond to Internet attacks only after the attacks inflict serious damage. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion forecasting system framework for an early warning system. The proposed system utilizes three types of forecasting methods: time-series analysis, probabilistic modeling, and data mining method. By combining these methods, it is possible to take advantage of the forecasting technique of each while overcoming their drawbacks. Experimental results show that the hybrid intrusion forecasting method outperforms each of three forecasting methods.

  15. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  16. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  17. Protein permeation through polymer membranes for hybrid-type artificial pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burczak, K; Fujisato, Toshiya; Ikada, Yoshito [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Hatada, Motoyoshi

    1991-05-01

    Hydrogel membranes were prepared by radiation crosslinking of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in aqueous solutions. Effects of PVA concentration, PVA molecular weight, and radiation dose on the permeation of insulin and immunoglobulin through the membranes were investigated. Glucose permeation was also studied. The crosslinking density affected the size of macromolecular mesh of hydrogel network as well as the water content of membrane responsible for the diffusion of the solutes. The diffusion coefficient linearly increased for all the solutes with the increasing water content in PVA hydrogels, indicating that diffusion occurs primarily through the water hydrating the polymer network. The increase in crosslinking density of hydrogels by changing PVA molecular weight brought about the decrease in mesh size of the hydrogels, which, in turn, had an influence on the diffusion of immunoglobulin, but not of insulin and glucose. (author).

  18. Breaking Dense Structures: Proving Stability of Densely Structured Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike Möhlmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstraction and refinement is widely used in software development. Such techniques are valuable since they allow to handle even more complex systems. One key point is the ability to decompose a large system into subsystems, analyze those subsystems and deduce properties of the larger system. As cyber-physical systems tend to become more and more complex, such techniques become more appealing. In 2009, Oehlerking and Theel presented a (de-composition technique for hybrid systems. This technique is graph-based and constructs a Lyapunov function for hybrid systems having a complex discrete state space. The technique consists of (1 decomposing the underlying graph of the hybrid system into subgraphs, (2 computing multiple local Lyapunov functions for the subgraphs, and finally (3 composing the local Lyapunov functions into a piecewise Lyapunov function. A Lyapunov function can serve multiple purposes, e.g., it certifies stability or termination of a system or allows to construct invariant sets, which in turn may be used to certify safety and security. In this paper, we propose an improvement to the decomposing technique, which relaxes the graph structure before applying the decomposition technique. Our relaxation significantly reduces the connectivity of the graph by exploiting super-dense switching. The relaxation makes the decomposition technique more efficient on one hand and on the other allows to decompose a wider range of graph structures.

  19. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-07-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the January 2003 to June 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. This report summarizes the results obtained to date on: System performance analysis and model optimization; Reliability and cost model development; System control including dynamic model development; Heat exchanger material tests and life analysis; Pressurized SOFC evaluation; and Pre-baseline system definition for coal gasification fuel cell system concept.

  20. A Hybrid Approach to the Optimization of Multiechelon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In freight transportation there are two main distribution strategies: direct shipping and multiechelon distribution. In the direct shipping, vehicles, starting from a depot, bring their freight directly to the destination, while in the multiechelon systems, freight is delivered from the depot to the customers through an intermediate points. Multiechelon systems are particularly useful for logistic issues in a competitive environment. The paper presents a concept and application of a hybrid approach to modeling and optimization of the Multi-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. Two ways of mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP are integrated in one environment. The strengths of MP and CLP in which constraints are treated in a different way and different methods are implemented and combined to use the strengths of both. The proposed approach is particularly important for the discrete decision models with an objective function and many discrete decision variables added up in multiple constraints. An implementation of hybrid approach in the ECLiPSe system using Eplex library is presented. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-CVRP and its variants are shown as an illustrative example of the hybrid approach. The presented hybrid approach will be compared with classical mathematical programming on the same benchmark data sets.