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Sample records for hybrid materials syntheses

  1. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, India; The Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, P.O. Box 80203, Saudi Arabia; Institut Universitarid' Electroquímica, Departament de Química Física,Universitatd' Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03080 Alacant, ...

  2. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  3. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Papale, F.; Bollino, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line.

  4. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Papale, F.; Bollino, F.; Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line

  5. Nanoporous ceramic hybrid materials synthesized by organically modified ceramic precursor with terminal amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Nina E.; Vueva, Yuliya E.; Abdallah, Mohammed E.; Ivanova, Yordanka Y.; Dimitriev, Yanko B. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Salvado, Isabel M.; Fernandes, Maria H. [Ceramic and Glass Engineering Department CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous ceramic materials was functionalized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and different 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) amounts in the presence of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20} ), who was previously dissolved in acid solution with different acid concentrations. Pluronic P123 was used as structure-directing agent and xylene as a swelling agent. Inorganic salt was introduced in order to improve structure ordering and to tailor framework porosity. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR), Fourier –transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. The results from NMR and FT-IR show that the organic functional group is successfuly incorporated in the silica framework and P123 was successfully extracted. The results from all analyzes prove that the acid concentration has significant influence on the materials morphology and properties. Kay words: sol-gel, mesoporous materials, hybrid materials, as structure-directing agent.

  6. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  7. Influence of the polymer amount on bioactivity and biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department of Environmental Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which differ in polyethylene glycol (PEG) content, were synthesized by sol–gel technique and the characterization of their structure and biological properties was carried out in order to evaluate the possible use in biomedical field. FT-IR spectroscopy detected that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds between the Si–OH groups of the inorganic phase and the terminal alcoholic groups and/or the ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer. X-ray diffraction analysis ascertained the amorphous nature of the gels and the observation of their morphology by SEM microscopy confirmed that the interpenetration of the two phases (organic and inorganic) occurs on nanometric scale. The biological characterization was carried out as a function of the polymer amount to study its influence on material behavior. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer, indeed, was observed on their surface by SEM/EDX analysis after soaking in simulated body fluid. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed performing MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 and 48 h of exposure, as well as Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. The response to the presence of the investigated materials was positive. The cell growth and proliferation showed dependence on polymer amount and time of exposure to the material extracts. Therefore, the obtained results are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at various PEG percentages • Chemical and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Chemical interactions between inorganic and organic components • Biological characterizations with MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests

  8. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Catauro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2 hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications.

  9. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillo, Elisabetta; Illiano, Michela; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone)/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2) hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones) enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications. PMID:29039803

  10. Adsorptive removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuels over one-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) hybrid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Fei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Liu, Yong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Qin, Feng-Xiang; Ren, Hai-Tao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Wu, Song-Hai, E-mail: songhaiwu@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • One-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) shows high capacity of benzothiophene. • PTA/MIL-101(Cr) obtained via post-modification performs poor in the adsorption. • PTA and MIL-101(Cr) exhibit synergetic effect on adsorption of benzothiophene. • In the presence of aromatics, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remain their capacity. • PTA-dispersed MOFs adsorb dibenzothiophene through acid–base interaction. -- Abstract: Hybrid nanomaterials comprising phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and MIL-101(Cr) were prepared through one-pot synthesis and post-modification methods and then were used as adsorbents of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from simulated diesel fuels. Samples obtained by different ways (encapsulation and impregnation) were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and series of adsorption experiments. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) illustrated that the direct introduction of PTA into MIL-101(Cr) during synthesis resulted in a 10.7% increase compared with MIL-101(Cr). However, porous hybrid adsorbent PTA/MIL-101(Cr) prepared via post-modification method exhibited lower adsorption capacity than virgin MIL-101(Cr). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity (Q{sub 0}) of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) is 136.5 mg S/g adsorbent, 4.2 times of MIL-101(Cr). Even in competitive adsorption between aromatic compounds, which possess strong affinity with MOFs, and DBT, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remained their effectiveness in removal of DBT in the system. Based on these results, it can be presumed that MIL-101(Cr), modified properly, can be used as a promising adsorbent for eliminating aromatics and S-compounds in commercial fuels simultaneously.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  12. High-Performance and Simply-Synthesized Ladder-Like Structured Methacrylate Siloxane Hybrid Material for Flexible Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hyeok Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A high performance ladder-like structured methacrylate siloxane hybrid material (LMSH was fabricated via simple hydrolytic sol–gel reaction, followed by free-radical polymerization. A structurally ordered siloxane backbone, the ladder-like structure, which is an essential factor for high performance, could be achieved by a short period of sol–gel reaction in only 4 h. This results in superior optical (Transmittance > 90% at 550 nm, thermal (T5 wt % decomposition > 400 ℃ , mechanical properties(elastic recovery = 0.86, hardness = 0.6 GPa compared to the random- and even commercialized cage-structured silsesquioxane, which also has ordered structure. It was investigated that the fabricated ladder-like structured MSH showed the highest overall density of organic/inorganic co-networks that are originated from highly ordered siloxane network, along with high conversion rate of polymerizable methacrylate groups. Our findings suggest a potential of the ladder-like structured MSH as a powerful alternative for the methacrylate polysilsesquioxane, which can be applied to thermally stable and flexible optical coatings, even with an easier and simpler preparation process.

  13. Adsorptive removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuels over one-pot synthesized PTA@MIL-101(Cr) hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shao-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Liu, Yong; Qin, Feng-Xiang; Ren, Hai-Tao; Wu, Song-Hai

    2013-11-15

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprising phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and MIL-101(Cr) were prepared through one-pot synthesis and post-modification methods and then were used as adsorbents of dibenzothiophene (DBT) from simulated diesel fuels. Samples obtained by different ways (encapsulation and impregnation) were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and series of adsorption experiments. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) illustrated that the direct introduction of PTA into MIL-101(Cr) during synthesis resulted in a 10.7% increase compared with MIL-101(Cr). However, porous hybrid adsorbent PTA/MIL-101(Cr) prepared via post-modification method exhibited lower adsorption capacity than virgin MIL-101(Cr). The theoretical maximum adsorption capacity (Q0) of PTA@MIL-101(Cr) is 136.5mg S/g adsorbent, 4.2 times of MIL-101(Cr). Even in competitive adsorption between aromatic compounds, which possess strong affinity with MOFs, and DBT, PTA@MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-101(Cr) remained their effectiveness in removal of DBT in the system. Based on these results, it can be presumed that MIL-101(Cr), modified properly, can be used as a promising adsorbent for eliminating aromatics and S-compounds in commercial fuels simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  15. Biological response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to titanium grade 4 implants coated with PCL/ZrO2 hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel route: in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Mozetic, P.; Rainer, A.; Trombetta, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface modification of implantable materials in order to improve their biological proprieties, including tissue tolerance and osseointegration ability, by means of functional coating deposition is a promising strategy to provide a firm fixation of the implants. In this study, organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of an inorganic zirconia-based matrix, in which a biocompatible polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), has been incorporated at different percentages, have been synthesized via sol–gel route. Developed materials have been used to coat titanium grade 4 substrates by means of dip coating technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the obtained coatings has shown that films crack-free can be obtained for high levels of PCL. Chemical composition and interactions between organic and inorganic moieties have been studied by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. The bone-bonding capability of the nanocomposite films has been evaluated in vitro by examining the appearance of an apatite layer on their surface when soaked in a simulated body fluid by means of SEM equipped with EDS microanalysis. In vitro biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Materials were found to be non-toxic and supporting cell proliferation. Additionally, the coating material was not hampering the differentiation of hMSCs in an osteogenic medium. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PCL hybrid coatings on Ti grade 4 were obtained by sol–gel dip coating process. • The PCL acts as a plasticizer and allows us to prepare crack-free coatings. • Independent of PCL amount, the films improve the titanium substrates' bioactivity. • The coatings are non-toxic and supportive of cell proliferation at all compositions. • The coatings don't hamper hMSC differentiation in an osteogenic medium

  16. Biological response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to titanium grade 4 implants coated with PCL/ZrO{sub 2} hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel route: in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Mozetic, P.; Rainer, A.; Trombetta, M. [Tissue Engineering Lab, Center for Integrated Research, “Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma”, via Alvaro del Portillo, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    The surface modification of implantable materials in order to improve their biological proprieties, including tissue tolerance and osseointegration ability, by means of functional coating deposition is a promising strategy to provide a firm fixation of the implants. In this study, organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of an inorganic zirconia-based matrix, in which a biocompatible polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), has been incorporated at different percentages, have been synthesized via sol–gel route. Developed materials have been used to coat titanium grade 4 substrates by means of dip coating technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the obtained coatings has shown that films crack-free can be obtained for high levels of PCL. Chemical composition and interactions between organic and inorganic moieties have been studied by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. The bone-bonding capability of the nanocomposite films has been evaluated in vitro by examining the appearance of an apatite layer on their surface when soaked in a simulated body fluid by means of SEM equipped with EDS microanalysis. In vitro biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Materials were found to be non-toxic and supporting cell proliferation. Additionally, the coating material was not hampering the differentiation of hMSCs in an osteogenic medium. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid coatings on Ti grade 4 were obtained by sol–gel dip coating process. • The PCL acts as a plasticizer and allows us to prepare crack-free coatings. • Independent of PCL amount, the films improve the titanium substrates' bioactivity. • The coatings are non-toxic and supportive of cell proliferation at all compositions. • The coatings don't hamper hMSC differentiation in an osteogenic medium.

  17. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X.

    2010-01-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  18. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X., E-mail: qdchen@pku.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, No. 5, Yiheyuan Load, Haidian District Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-07-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  19. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krkljes, A., E-mail: krkljes@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Physics, ' ' GAMMA' ' (030), P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-01

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  20. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krkljes, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  1. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    ,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was

  2. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  3. Nanocellulose Composite Materials Synthesizes with Ultrasonic Agitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Timothy; Folken, Andrew; Fritch, Byron; Bradley, Derek

    We have extended current techniques in forming nanocellulose composite solids, suspensions and aerogels to enhance the breakdown of cellulose into its molecular components. Using only mechanical processing which includes ball milling, using a simple mortar and pestle, and ultrasonic agitation, we are able to create very low concentration uniform nanocellulose suspensions in water, as well as incorporate other materials such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and magnetic materials. Of interest is that no chemical processing is necessary, nor is the use of nanoparticles, necessary for composite formation. Using both graphite and carbon nanotubes, we are able to achieve conducting nanocellulose solids and aerogels. Standard magnetic powder can also be incorporated to create magnetic solids. The technique also allows for the creation of an extremely fine nanocellulose suspension in water. Using extremely low concentrations, less than 1% cellulose by mass, along with careful control over processing parameters, we are able to achieve highly dilute, yet homogenous nanocellulose suspensions. When air dried, these suspensions have similar hardness and strength properties to those created with more typical starting cellulose concentrations (2-10%). However, when freeze-dried, these dilute suspensions form aerogels with a new morphology with much higher surface area than those with higher starting concentrations. We are currently examining the effect of this higher surface area on the properties of nanocellulose aerogel composites and how it influences the impact of incorporating nanocellulose into other polymer materials.

  4. Generalized syntheses of nanocrystal-graphene hybrids in high-boiling-point organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Danny Wei-Ping; Yuan, Fang-Wei; Chang, Yan-Cheng; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2012-08-07

    Nanocrystal-graphene have been proposed as a new kind of promising hybrid for a wide range of application areas including catalysts, electronics, sensors, biomedicine, and energy storage, etc. Although a variety of methods have been developed for the preparation of hybrids, a facile and general synthetic approach is still highly required. In this study, nanocrystal-graphene hybrids were successfully synthesized in high-boiling-point organic solvents. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were modified by oleylamine (OLA) to form a OLA-GO complex in order to be readily incorporated into hydrophobic synthesis. A rich library of highly crystalline nanocrystals, with types including noble metal, metal oxide, magnetic material and semiconductor were successfully grown on chemically converted graphene (CCG), which is simultaneously reduced from GO during the synthesis. High boiling-point solvents afford sufficient thermal energy to assure the high-quality crystalline nature of NCs, therefore the post-annealing process is obviated. Controlled experiments revealed that OLA-GO triggers heterogeneous nucleation and serves as excellent nuclei anchorage media. The protocol developed here brings one step closer to achieve "unity in diversity" on the preparation of nanocrystal-graphene hybrids.

  5. Hybrid nanostructured materials with tunable magnetic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E.; Garza-Navarro, M. A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx; García-Gutiérrez, Domingo; González-González, Virgilio A.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ortiz-Méndez, U. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the development of hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM) based on spinel-metal-oxide nanoparticles (SMON) stabilized in carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethyl-ammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, with tunable magnetic characteristics. These HNM were synthesized using a one-pot chemical approach to obtain CMC/CTAB templates with controllable size and morphology, where the SMON could be densely arranged. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and its related techniques, such as bright field (BF) and Z-contrast (HAADF-STEM) imaging, and selected area electron diffraction, as well as static magnetic measuring. Experimental evidence suggests that the morphology and size of the CMC/CTAB templates are highly dependent on the weight ratio of CTAB:SMON, as well as the hydration days of the CMC that is used for the synthesis of the HNM. Controlling these parameters allows modifying the density of the SMON arrangement in the CMC/CTAB templates. Moreover, magnetic features such as remanence, coercivity, and blocking/de-blocking processes of the particles’ magnetic moments are highly dependent on the interactions among the SMON assembled in the templates. Hence, the magnetic characteristics of HNM can be modulated or tuned by controlling the manner the SMON are arranged within the CMC/CTAB templates.

  6. Silica–polyethylene glycol hybrids synthesized by sol–gel: Biocompatibility improvement of titanium implants by coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Ferrara, C.; Mustarelli, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia and INSTM, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Although metallic implants are the most used in dental and orthopaedic fields, they can early fail due to low tissue tolerance or osseointegration ability. To overcome this drawback, functional coatings can be applied on the metallic surface to provide a firm fixation of the implants. The objective of the present study was twofold: to synthesize and to characterize silica/polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid materials using sol–gel technique and to investigate their capability to dip-coat titanium grade 4 (Ti-gr4) substrates to improve their biological properties. Various hybrid systems have been synthesized by changing the ratio between the organic and inorganic phases in order to study the influence of the polymer amount on the structure and, thus, on the properties of the coatings. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) allowed us to detect the formation of hydrogen bonds between the inorganic sol–gel matrix and the organic component. SEM analysis showed that high PEG content enables to obtain crack free-coating. Moreover, the effective improvement in biological properties of Ti-gr4 implants has been evaluated by performing in vitro tests. The bioactivity of the hybrid coatings has been showed by the hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of SiO{sub 2}/PEG coated Ti-gr4 substrates after soaking in a simulated body fluid and the lack of cytotoxicity by the WST-8 Assay. The results showed that the coated substrates are more bioactive and biocompatible than the uncoated ones and that the bioactivity is not significantly affected by PEG amount whereas its addition makes the films more biocompatible. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at various PEG percentages • Hybrid coating of titanium substrate with dip-coating technology • Chemical and morphological characterization of hybrids and coating • Biocompatibility improvement of coated titanium with high

  7. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodina, G.S., E-mail: kudgs@mail.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.G.; Kremlev, K.V. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yunin, P.A.; Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603087 (Russian Federation); Kaverin, B.S.; Kaverina, L.B. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ketkov, S.Yu. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flat and curved vanadium oxide nanobelts have been synthesized. • Hybrid material was prepared via decoration of flexible nanobelts with zinc phthalocyanine. • Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures were carried out. - Abstract: Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB – tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (TBA){sub 0.16}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  8. A nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualan; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    A flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic solution, the thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product was obtained with unchanged morphology. The chemical structure of the materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material showed better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. A high specific capacitance of 1126 F g-1 was obtained with a retention life of 84% after 1000 cycles for supercapacitors. The energy density and power density were also better than those of pure component materials.

  9. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  10. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nanotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacarevic-Popovic, Z. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Physics - Gamma, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Laboratory for Radiation chemistry and Physics, Gamma, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, has 15 employed researchers with Ph.D. and 15 graduate students working on ongoing projects in experimental research in nanoscale science and modification of materials by irradiation. This Laboratory has excellence and long lasting tradition in scientific activities. Based on the outstanding results in radiation chemistry in the Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Physics exists radiation unit for industrial sterilization of medical devices. In years 2003 and 2004 Serbian Ministry of Science invested 500,000 € for equipment for developing nanosciences in Laboratory. Laboratory is well equipped for synthesis and characterization of nanoscale materials. (author)

  11. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacarevic-Popovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory for Radiation chemistry and Physics, Gamma, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, has 15 employed researchers with Ph.D. and 15 graduate students working on ongoing projects in experimental research in nanoscale science and modification of materials by irradiation. This Laboratory has excellence and long lasting tradition in scientific activities. Based on the outstanding results in radiation chemistry in the Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Physics exists radiation unit for industrial sterilization of medical devices. In years 2003 and 2004 Serbian Ministry of Science invested 500,000 € for equipment for developing nanosciences in Laboratory. Laboratory is well equipped for synthesis and characterization of nanoscale materials. (author)

  12. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  13. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?

  14. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal-organic materials based on K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Debao; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    By using K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C2O42-=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2}2]·(H-L1)2·H2O 1, [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]·(H2-L2)0.5·(L2)0.5·H2O 2, [{Fe(C2O4)1.5Cl2}2]·(H-L3)43, [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]·(H2-L4)2·2H2O 4, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H2-L5)·2H2O 5, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 6, K[Cr(C2O4)3]·2H2O 7, Na[Fe(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 8 (with L1=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L2=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L3=2-aminobenzimidazole, L4=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L5=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, L6=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]- unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]- anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe2(C2O4)3Cl4]4- unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]4- units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C2O4)3]3- units and K+ cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O-H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6-8 show 2D [KAl(C2O4)3]2- layer, [KCr(C2O4)3]2- layer and [NaFe(C2O4)3]2- layer, respectively.

  15. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  16. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal–organic materials based on K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Debao, E-mail: dbwang@qust.edu.cn; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Lei, E-mail: inorchemwl@126.com

    2016-05-15

    By using K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C_2O_4)_2(H_2O)_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 1}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O 1, [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·(L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·H{sub 2}O 2, [{Fe(C_2O_4)_1_._5Cl_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 3}){sub 4}3, [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 4, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 5})·2H{sub 2}O 5, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 6, K[Cr(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·2H{sub 2}O 7, Na[Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 8 (with L{sub 1}=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L{sub 2}=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L{sub 3}=2-aminobenzimidazole, L{sub 4}=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L{sub 5}=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, L{sub 6}=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup −} unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]{sup -} anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 4−} unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3−} units and K{sup +} cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O–H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6–8 show 2D [KAl(C{sub 2}O

  17. Hybridization of MOFs and COFs: A New Strategy for Construction of MOF@COF Core-Shell Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Zhao, Meiting; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Zhicheng; Huang, Ying; Dai, Fangna; Lai, Zhuangchai; Cui, Xiaoya; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of new porous hybrid materials is of great importance because of their unique properties and promising applications in separation of materials, catalysis, etc. Herein, for the first time, by integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a new type of MOF@COF core-shell hybrid material, i.e., NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF, with high crystallinity and hierarchical pore structure, is synthesized. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF hybrid material is used as an effective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B. The synthetic strategy in this study opens up a new avenue for the construction of other MOF-COF hybrid materials, which could have various promising applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  19. Design and Characterization of Liquidlike POSS-Based Hybrid Nanomaterials Synthesized via Ionic Bonding and Their Interactions with CO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille

    2013-10-01

    Liquidlike nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) were designed and synthesized by ionic grafting of polymer chains onto nanoscale silica units called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The properties of these POSS-based NOHMs relevant to CO2 capture, in particular thermal stability, swelling, viscosity, as well as their interactions with CO 2, were investigated using thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results indicate that POSS units significantly enhance the thermal stability of the hybrid materials, and their porous nature also contributes to the overall CO 2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The viscosity of the synthesized NOHMs was comparable to those reported for ionic liquids, and rapidly decreased as the temperature increased. The sorption of CO2 in POSS-based NOHMs also reduced their viscosities. The swelling behavior of POSS-based NOHMs was similar to that of previously studied nanoparticle-based NOHMs, and this generally resulted in less volume increase in NOHMs compared to their corresponding polymers for the same amount of CO2 loading. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Wang, Peng; Dua, Rubal; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl

  1. A versatile route to hybrid open-framework materials | Ayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation of the intermediate phase and its reaction with metal ions to form open framework solids has been explored and it has proven a facile route of synthesizing inorganic-organic hybrid materials with open pores. Here the amine phosphate route of templating inorganic open-framework materials has been reviewed ...

  2. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  3. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    aNanomaterials and Solar Energy Conversion Lab, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of ... The chemical strategies ... tional building blocks through an intelligent and tuned coding way, to develop a new vectorial chemistry, which.

  4. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  5. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.

    2016-11-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials garner properties from their organic and inorganic matrices as well as synergistic features, and therefore have recently attracted much attention at the nanoscale. Non-porous organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content such as silsesquioxanes (R-SiO, with R organic groups) and bridged silsesquioxanes (OSi-R-SiO) are especially attractive hybrids since they provide 20 to 80 weight percent of organic functional groups in addition to the known chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids. Herein, we comprehensively review non-porous silsesquioxane and bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine, electro-optics, and catalysis.

  6. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  7. Characterization of ureasil-polyethylene oxide/chitosan hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Zaldivar, M.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Peniche Covas, C.; Santilli, C.V. [Universidad de la Habana, Havana (Cuba); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Siloxane-polyether hybrids are an interesting and versatile family of multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid materials, also named ureasils. Ureasils have been the object of intensive studies in the last years due to their versatility and wide range of applications. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan are biocompatible and low toxicity polymers that were used as organic phase while the inorganic phase was siloxane. Therefore, the aim of this work was the characterization of these hybrids that were prepared by the sol–gel route. Hydrochloric and acetic acids were used as catalysts. Due to the insolubility of chitosan in ethanol and organic solvents, water was used in the hydrolysis solution as the main component or alone. The obtained materials were transparent, rubbery, flexible and water-insoluble. They were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetric Analysis), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). Results showed that chitosan addition did not provoke appreciable changes in the thermal properties but modifies the polycondensation degree and the nanoscopic structure of the materials. Significant changes were not found neither by the hydrolysis solution nor by the type of acid, except in the thermal stability. It depended on the type of acid catalyst, being higher in hybrids prepared with HCl. We can conclude that these materials can be synthesized just with water as the hydrolysis solution and that any of the two acids can be used as catalyst without significantly affect its final properties. (author)

  8. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  9. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  10. Sorption and thermodynamic of cation-basic center interactions of inorganic-organic hybrids synthesized from RUB-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, T.R. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Petrucelli, G.C. [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Goias, UFG, P.O. Box 03, 75805-190 Jatai, Goias (Brazil); Airoldi, C., E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-04-20

    Synthesized nanostructured hybrids from RUB-18 layered silicate, containing one (N) or three (3N) basic nitrogen atoms attached to pendant chains were applied for copper, nickel and cobalt sorptions. The isotherms obtained from batchwise processes were adjusted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir-Freundlich models for heterogeneous systems. The basic nitrogen centers/acidic cation interactions were followed by calorimetry under batchwise conditions and the results were analyzed by a modified Langmuir equation. The exothermic enthalpic values of -2.50 {+-} 0.30, -1.62 {+-} 0.10 and -1.35 {+-} 0.20 and -15.61 {+-} 0.20, -8.05 {+-} 0.14 and -20.48 {+-} 0.15 kJ mol{sup -1}, obtained for Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} titrations with C-RUB-xN (x = 1, 3) materials, suggest a favorable process at the solid/liquid interface for inorganic/organic hybrid cation sorptions. These thermodynamic data, expressed also by reaction spontaneity, infer the use of such hybrids for cation removal from aqueous solution.

  11. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  12. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  13. Hybridization change of DNA and nuclear RNA synthesized immediately after ionizing irradiation in spleen cells isolated from 615 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Ziqiang

    1986-01-01

    DNA hybridization with nuclear RNA(nRNA) synthesized immediately after 60 Co Gamma-irradiation in the spleen cells freshly isolated from inbred line 615 mice was investigated, using the technique of Gillespie and Spiegelman. In RNA/DNA hybridization percentage experiment, it was showed that the hybridization of normal DNA with labelled nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reached the saturation point at a much faster rate than with labelled normal nRNA. The hybridization percentage of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells was higher than that of normal nRNA during the different reaction time before the saturation point of DNA with nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells, but it was lower than that of normal nRNA after the zone of high repetitive DNA sequences was stimulated, however, the transcription of some base sequences in the zone of low repetitive DNA sequences was seriously inhibited. Measurements of the exhaustion rates of pulse-labelled nRNA were carried out as described by Greene and Flickinger Biochim. In these studies, pulse-labelled nRNA synthesized in unirradiated and irradiated cells were compared by exhausion with DNA at hybridization time of 4 or 24 hours, When the hybridization time was 4 hours, the nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells displayed a faster exhaustion rate than the control nRNA. But if the hybridization time was 24 hours, the exhaustion rate of nRNA synthesized in irradiated cells reduced. These results demostrated that Gamma-irradiation changed the proportion of transcription of some nRNA species and implayed that the sensitivities of the transcription activeties of the different repetitive DNA sequences to Gamma-irradiation were different, and so were the transcription activeties of the different base sequences in the same repetitive DNA sequences

  14. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  15. Probing photoinduced electron-transfer in graphene-dye hybrid materials for DSSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarracino, Paola; Gatti, Teresa; Canever, Nicolo; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Menna, Enzo; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the photophysical properties of a newly synthesized hybrid material composed of a triphenylamine dye covalently bound to reduced graphene oxide, potentially relevant as a stable photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. The photophysical characterization has been carried out by

  16. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  17. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podust, T.V.; Kulik, T.V.; Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M.; Tóth, A.; Mikhalovska, L.; Menyhárd, A.; László, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO 2 , TiO 2 /SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S BET of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface

  18. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podust, T.V., E-mail: tania_list@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Kulik, T.V., E-mail: tanyakulyk@i.ua [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Tóth, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalovska, L. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Menyhárd, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Materials Science and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); László, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S{sub BET} of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  19. Optimization of CHA-PCFC Hybrid Material for the Removal of Radioactive Cs from Waste Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Park, Minsung; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The liquid waste treatment processes in the normal operation of nuclear power plant are commercialized, those in the abnormal accidents have not been fully developed until now. In the present study, as a preliminary research for the development of precipitation-based treatment process specialized for the removal of Cs from waste seawater generated in the emergency case, the performance test of a hybrid material combining chabazite and potassium cobalt ferrocyanide was conducted. Also the synthesis method for the hybrid adsorbent was optimized for the best Cs removal efficiency on the actual contamination level of waste seawater. Because the temperature effect on the synthesis of PCFC was confirmed by preliminary experiments, the optimization of CHA-PCFC synthesis was also conducted. The hybrid material synthesized at 40 .deg. C showed the highest distribution coefficient of Cs in the same manner of the performance of PCFC synthesized at the lower temperature than that of conventional methods.

  20. Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3 thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,NaNbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved.

  1. Self-assembly of proglycinin and hybrid proglycinin synthesized in vitro from cDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Craig D.; Floener, Liliane A.; Lilley, Glenn G.; Nielsen, Niels C.

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro system was developed that results in the self-assembly of subunit precursors into complexes that resemble those found naturally in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subunits of glycinin, the predominant seed protein of soybeans, were synthesized from modified cDNAs using a combination of the SP6 transcription and the rabbit reticulocyte translation systems. Subunits produced from plasmid constructions that encoded either Gy4 or Gy5 gene products, but modified such that their signal sequences were absent, self-assembled into trimers equivalent in size to those precursors found in the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, proteins synthesized in vitro from Gy4 constructs failed to self-assemble when the signal sequence was left intact (e.g., preproglycinin) or when the coding sequence was modified to remove 27 amino acids from an internal hydrophobic region, which is highly conserved among the glycinin subunits. Various hybrid subunits were also produced by trading portions of Gy4 and Gy5 cDNAs and all self-assembled in our system. The in vitro assembly system provides an opportunity to study the self-assembly of precursors and to probe for regions important for assembly. It will also be helpful in attempts to engineer beneficial nutritional changes into this important food protein. Images PMID:16593868

  2. Synergetic Hybrid Aerogels of Vanadia and Graphene as Electrode Materials of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of synergetic hybrid aerogel materials of vanadia and graphene as electrode materials in supercapacitors was evaluated. The hybrid materials were synthesized by two methods. In Method I, premade graphene oxide (GO hydrogel was first chemically reduced by L-ascorbic acid and then soaked in vanadium triisopropoxide solution to obtain V2O5 gel in the pores of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO hydrogel. The gel was supercritically dried to obtain the hybrid aerogel. In Method II, vanadium triisopropoxide was hydrolyzed from a solution in water with GO particles uniformly dispersed to obtain the hybrid gel. The hybrid aerogel was obtained by supercritical drying of the gel followed by thermal reduction of GO. The electrode materials were prepared by mixing 80 wt % hybrid aerogel with 10 wt % carbon black and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride. The hybrid materials in Method II showed higher capacitance due to better interactions between vanadia and graphene oxide particles and more uniform vanadia particle distribution.

  3. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  4. Ion-exchange properties of zeolite/glass hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei; Fukushima, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid materials were prepared from ground glass powder and various zeolites such as A-type, mordenite, X-type, and Y-type zeolites, and their ion removal effect was investigated. The hybrid materials of A-type, Y-type, and mordenite zeolites showed similar Sr"2"+ removal rates from aqueous solutions. The removal rate of Sr"2"+ ions increased as the amount of zeolite in the hybrid materials increased. Compared with other hybrid materials, the hybrid materials of X-type zeolite showed higher Sr"2"+ removal rates, especially for zeolite content greater than 25%. As the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased, the Sr"2"+ removal rate increased greatly, with a 100% removal rate when the content of X-type zeolite exceeded 62.5%. (author)

  5. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid

  6. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  7. Heavy metals adsorption by novel EDTA-modified chitosan-silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Eveliina; Warchoł, Jolanta K; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-06-01

    Novel adsorbents were synthesized by functionalizing chitosan-silica hybrid materials with (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA ligands. The synthesized adsorbents were found to combine the advantages of both silica gel (high surface area, porosity, rigid structure) and chitosan (surface functionality). The Adsorption potential of hybrid materials was investigated using Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as target metals by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. The kinetic results revealed that the pore diffusion process played a key role in adsorption kinetics, which might be attributed to the porous structure of synthesized adsorbents. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities of the hybrid materials for the metal ions ranged from 0.25 to 0.63 mmol/g under the studied experimental conditions. The adsorbent with the highest chitosan content showed the best adsorption efficiency. Bi-Langmuir and Sips isotherm model fitting to experimental data suggested the surface heterogeneity of the prepared adsorbents. In multimetal solutions, the hybrid adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Pb(II). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture

  9. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  10. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  11. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  12. Synthesizing and Playing with Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Comprehensive Approach to Amazing Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalverny, Anne-Laure; Leyral, Géraldine; Rouessac, Florence; Bernaud, Laurent; Filhol, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized using ammonium cations or poly(vinyl alcohol) to produce amazing materials such as safer aqueous ferrofluids, ferrogels, ferromagnetic inks, plastics, and nanopowders illustrating how versatile materials can be produced just by simple modifications. The synthesis is fast, reliable,…

  13. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Li; Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti; Yusuke Yamauchi

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially p...

  14. Advanced Nano hybrid Materials: Surface Modification and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Metivier, R.; Wang, Sh.; Wang, Sh.; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    The field of functional nano scale hybrid materials is one of the most promising and rapidly emerging research areas in materials chemistry. Nano scale hybrid materials can be broadly defined as synthetic materials with organic and inorganic components that are linked together by noncovalent bonds (Class I, linked by hydrogen bond, electrostatic force, or van der Waals force) or covalent bonds (Class II) at nanometer scale. The unlimited possible combinations of the distinct properties of inorganic, organic, or even bioactive components in a single material, either in molecular or nano scale dimensions, have attracted considerable attention. This approach provides an opportunity to create a vast number of novel advanced materials with well-controlled structures and multiple functions. The unique properties of advanced hybrid nano materials can be advantageous to many fields, such as optical and electronic materials, biomaterials, catalysis, sensing, coating, and energy storage. In this special issue, the breadth of papers shows that the hybrid materials is attracting attention, because of both growing fundamental interest, and a route to new materials. Two review articles and seven research papers that report new results of hybrid materials should gather widespread interest.

  15. Novel composite materials synthesized by the high-temperature interaction of pyrrole with layered oxide matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Alexandru Cezar

    employed very acidic pH levels and long reaction times. The nanoscrolls proved to be an excellent precursor for the synthesis of reduced vanadium oxide nanosheets by the redox intercalation of long chain monoamine molecules. In a related development, the very first synthetic metal---mixed-valence polyoxovanadate salt hybrid material was synthesized in the form of a polypyrrole---tetrammonium hexavanadate microcomposite by a redox simultaneous co-precipitation in an aqueous solution. The novel material displayed good mechanical properties towards solid lubricant applications and tunable electronic conductivity. Nanocomposites of polypyrrole---layered bismuthates were produced by the topotactic intercalation of pyrrole and its subsequent in situ polymerization. Insulating and superconducting layered bismuthates were used in a similar experimental procedure that used pre-intercalated iodine species as sacrificial topotactic oxidizing agents. A novel method of iodine intercalation by a solution-based transport procedure was used in the process. Interaction of pyrrole with layered bismuthates at high reaction temperatures led to the formation of polymer-covered metal nanorods as a result of intrinsic lattice templating effect. The successful synthesis of the 1-D heterogeneous nanostructures represents the first example in which nanocomposites were used as precursors. Appropriate doping of the initial layered ceramic substrates led to polymer-covered metal alloy nanorods.

  16. Facile method to synthesize magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles and their photodegradation application of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many methods have been reported to improving the photocatalytic efficiency of organic pollutant and their reliable applications. In this work, we propose a facile pathway to prepare three different types of magnetic iron oxides/TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles (NPs by seed-mediated method. The hybrid NPs are composed of spindle, hollow, and ultrafine iron oxide NPs as seeds and 3-aminopropyltriethyloxysilane as linker between the magnetic cores and TiO2 layers, respectively. The composite structure and the presence of the iron oxide and titania phase have been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The hybrid NPs show good magnetic response, which can get together under an external applied magnetic field and hence they should become promising magnetic recovery catalysts (MRCs. Photocatalytic ability examination of the magnetic hybrid NPs was carried out in methylene blue (MB solutions illuminated under Hg light in a photochemical reactor. About 50% to 60% of MB was decomposed in 90 min in the presence of magnetic hybrid NPs. The synthesized magnetic hybrid NPs display high photocatalytic efficiency and will find recoverable potential applications in cleaning polluted water with the help of magnetic separation.

  17. Keggin type inorganic-organic hybrid material containing Mn(II) monosubstituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Ketan [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India); Patel, Anjali, E-mail: aupatel_chem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A new organic-inorganic hybrid material containing Keggin type manganese substituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized and systematically characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New hybrid material comprising Mn substituted phosphotungstate (PW{sub 11}Mn) and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine (SBA) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectral studies reveal the attachment of SBA to the PW{sub 11}Mn without any distortion of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized material comprises chirality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized hybrid material can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out asymmetric synthesis. -- Abstract: A new inorganic-organic POM-based hybrid material comprising Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate and enantiopure S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized in an aqueous media by simple ligand substitution method. The synthesized hybrid material was systematically characterized in solid as well as solution by various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analysis, TGA, UV-vis, FT-IR, ESR and multinuclear solution NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C). The presence of chirality in the synthesized material was confirmed by CD spectroscopy and polarimeter. The above study reveals the attachment of S-(+)-sec-butyl amine to Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate through N {yields} Mn bond. It also indicates the retainment of Keggin unit and presence of chirality in the synthesized material. An attempt was made to use the synthesized material as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out aerobic asymmetric oxidation of styrene using molecular oxygen. The catalyst shows the potential of being used as a stable recyclable catalytic material after simple regeneration without significant loss in conversion.

  18. Studies on the removal of arsenic (III) from water by a novel hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sandip; Padhi, T.; Patel, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The removal of As (III) is about 98% at pH 7 with the hybrid material (ZrO-EA). → The hybrid material exhibits specific surface area of 201.62 m 2 /g. → The adsorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by the hybrid material is spontaneous. → The material could be easily regenerated with sodium hydroxide at pH 12. - Abstract: The present work provides a method for removal of the arsenic (III) from water. An ion-exchanger hybrid material zirconium (IV) oxide-ethanolamine (ZrO-EA) is synthesized and characterized which is subsequently used for the removal of selective arsenic (III) from water containing 10,50,100 mg/L of arsenic (III) solution. The probable practical application for arsenic removal from water by this material has also been studied. The various parameters affecting the removal process like initial concentration of As (III), adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH are investigated. From the data of results, it is indicated that, the adsorbent dose of 0.7 mg/L, contact time 50 min after which the adsorption process comes to equilibrium, temperature (25 ± 2), solution pH (5-7), which are the optimum conditions for adsorption. The typical adsorption isotherms are calculated to know the suitability of the process. The column studies showed 98% recovery of arsenic from water especially at low concentration of arsenic in water samples.

  19. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  20. Excitonic Properties of Chemically Synthesized 2D Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Chu, Leiqiang; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Wei; Eda, Goki

    2018-05-01

    2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs) represent a unique class of materials with a natural quantum-well structure and quasi-2D electronic properties. Here, a versatile direct solution-based synthesis of mono- and few-layer OIHP nanosheets and a systematic study of their electronic structure as a function of the number of monolayers by photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy are reported. The monolayers of various OIHPs are found to exhibit high electronic quality as evidenced by high quantum yield and negligible Stokes shift. It is shown that the ground exciton peak blueshifts by ≈40 meV when the layer thickness reduces from bulk to monolayer. It is also shown that the exciton binding energy remains effectively unchanged for (C 6 H 5 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 with the number of layers. Similar trends are observed for (C 4 H 9 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4 in contrast to the previous report. Further, the photoluminescence lifetime is found to decrease with the number of monolayers, indicating the dominant role of surface trap states in nonradiative recombination of the electron-hole pairs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Inexpensive sol-gel synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2} hybrids for high performance antibacterial materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nadir; Shao, Godlisten N. [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Haider, M. Salman [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Imran, Syed Muhammad; Park, Sung Soo; Jeon, Sun-Jeong [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Taik, E-mail: khtaik@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    This study reports an inexpensive sol-gel method to synthesize TiO{sub 2}-CNT hybrid materials. Synthesized TiO{sub 2}-CNT materials show strong antibacterial activity in the absence of light. Cheap TiO{sub 2} source TiOCl{sub 2} is used during synthesis in the absence of high temperatures, high pressures and organic solvents. TiO{sub 2}-CNT materials with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% of CNT were synthesized and compared for antibacterial activity, surface area, porosity, crystalline structure, chemical state, and HaCaT cell proliferation. The antibacterial strength of hybrid materials increased significantly with the increase in CNT loading amount, and the TiO{sub 2}-CNT samples with a CNT loading of 10 wt% or more nearly removed all of the E.coli bacteria. HaCaT cell proliferation studies of synthesized hybrid materials illustrated that prepared TiO{sub 2}-CNT systems exhibit minimum cytotoxicity. The characteristics of prepared materials were analyzed by means of XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TEM, and nitrogen gas physisorption studies, compared and discussed. - Highlights: • An inexpensive scheme of preparing TiO{sub 2}-CNT hybrids is presented. • Significant increase in the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} in absence of light • Effects of CNT addition on the physicochemical properties of hybrids are studied. • Antibacterial activity increases with increase in CNT content. • Hybrids show no toxicity towards HaCaT skin cell line.

  3. Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials.

  4. Silicon-organic pigment material hybrids for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.; Weiler, U.; Jaegermann, W. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstreet 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kelting, C.; Schlettwein, D. [Institute for Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Makarov, S.; Woehrle, D. [Institute of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, University Bremen, Leobener Street NW II, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Abdallah, O.; Kunst, M. [Department Solar Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Institute, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-14

    Hybrid materials of silicon and organic dyes have been investigated for possible application as photovoltaic material in thin film solar cells. High conversion efficiency is expected from the combination of the advantages of organic dyes for light absorption and those of silicon for charge carrier separation and transport. Low temperature remote hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) was developed for microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) deposition using SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures. As model dyes zinc phthalocyanines have been evaporated from Knudsen type sources. Layers of dye on {mu}c-Si and {mu}c-Si on dye films, and composites of simultaneously and sequentially deposited Si and dye have been prepared and characterized. Raman, absorption, and photoemission spectroscopy prove the stability of the organic molecules against the rough HWCVD-Si process. Transient microwave conductivity (TRMC) indicates good electronic quality of the {mu}c-Si matrix. Energy transfer from dye to Si is indicated indirectly by luminescence and directly by photoconductivity measurements. F{sub x}ZnPc pigments with x=0,4,8,16 have been synthesized, purified and adsorbed onto H-terminated Si(1 1 1) for electronic state line up determination by photoelectron spectroscopy. For x=4 and 8 the dye frontier orbitals line up symmetrically versus the Si energy gap offering similar energetic driving forces for electron and hole injection, which is considered optimum for bulk sensitization and indicates a direction to improve the optoelectronic coupling of the organic dyes to silicon. (author)

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL novel sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Cristina Mozzati, Maria [Department of Physics, CNISM and INSTM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo [Department of Chemistry, Section of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia and INSTM, Via Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol–gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO{sub 2} matrix, in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si–OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount. - Graphical abstract: Characterization and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL organic–inorganic hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel. FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; solid-state NMR: solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance; SQUID: superconducting quantum interference device. - Highlights: • Sol–gel synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/PCL amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • FT-IR and NMR analyses show the hydrogen bonds formation between SiO{sub 2} and PCL. • AFM and SEM analyses confirm that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL are homogenous hybrid materials. • The SQUID measures show that the simples are diamagnetic. • Diamagnetic susceptibility of SiO{sub 2}/PCL materials increases with the PCL amount.

  6. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu; Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  7. Organosilica hybrid nanomaterials with a high organic content: syntheses and applications of silsesquioxanes

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas G.; Cattoë n, Xavier; Durand, Jean Olivier; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    chemistry and stability of silica. In the organosilica family, silsesquioxanes (R-SiO) stand between silicas (SiO) and silicones (RSiO), and are variously called organosilicas, ormosil (organically-modified silica), polysilsesquioxanes and silica hybrids

  8. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst.

  9. Paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.

  10. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  11. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  12. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  14. Formulation of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanopowder into Hybrid Beads for Dye Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel prepared zinc oxide nanopowder was immobilized onto alginate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer blend to fabricate novel biocomposite beads. Various physicochemical characterization techniques have been utilized to identify the crystalline, morphological, and chemical structures of both the fabricated zinc oxide hybrid beads and their corresponding zinc oxide nanopowder. The thermal stability investigations demonstrate that ZnO nanopowder stability dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500 rpm. Moreover, these hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media (pH < 7 especially within the pH range of 2–7. Finally, the applicability of the formulated ZnO hybrid beads for C.I. basic blue 41 (BB41 decolorization from aqueous solution was examined.

  15. One-pot synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials based on ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M.A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, 66600 Nuevo León (Mexico); Lucio-Porto, Raúl [Université de Nantes, CNRS, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); and others

    2013-09-16

    A novel one-pot synthetic procedure to obtain magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM), based on magnetic spinel-metal-oxide (SMO) nanoparticles stabilized in ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, is reported. The HNM were synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis of inorganic salts of Fe (II) and Fe (III) into aqueous dissolutions of CMC and CTAB. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and static magnetic measurements. The experimental evidence suggests that, due to the competition between CTAB molecules and SMO nanoparticles to occupy CMC intermolecular sites nearby to its carboxylate functional groups, the size of both, SMO nanoparticles and ovoid-like CMC/CTAB templates can be tuned, varying the CTAB:SMO weight ratio. Moreover, it was found that the magnetic response of the HNM depends on the confinement degree of the SMO nanoparticles into the CMC/CTAB template. Hence, their magnetic characteristics can be adjusted controlling the size of the template, the quantity and distribution of the SMO nanoparticles within the template and their size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials is reported. • The hybrid materials were synthesized following a novel one-pot procedure. • The magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized in ovoid-like templates. • The size of the templates was tuned adjusting nanoparticles weight content. • The magnetic properties of hybrid materials depend on the size of the template.

  16. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu

    2015-04-15

    As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(bza) (1), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(mbza) (2), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(fbza) (3), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(pca) (4), and Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy.

  17. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn 2 S 2 (bza) (1), Zn 2 S 2 (mbza) (2), Zn 2 S 2 (fbza) (3), Zn 2 S 2 (pca) (4), and Zn 2 S 2 (thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn 2 S 2 (L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy

  18. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPa...

  19. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine-block-poly(ethylene oxide (abbreviated as PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO.

  20. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  1. Room-temperature vertically-aligned copper oxide nanoblades synthesized by electrochemical restructuring of copper hydroxide nanorods: An electrode for high energy density hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Junya; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Abas, Asim; Su, Qing; Lan, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John)

    2018-04-01

    The fast growing of portable electronics has greatly stimulated the development of energy storage materials, such as transition metal oxides (TMOs). However, TMOs usually involve harsh synthesis conditions, such as high temperature. Here we take advantage of the metastable nature of Cu(OH)2 and grow CuO nanoblades (NBs) on Cu foam under the electric field at room temperature. The electrochemical polarization accelerates the dissolution of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, guides the deposition of the as-dissolved Cu(OH)42- species and eventually leads to the phase transformation of CuO NBs. The unique materials architecture render the vertically-aligned CuO NBs with enhanced electronic and ionic diffusion kinetics, high charge storage (∼779 mC cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), excellent rate capability and long-term cycling performances. Further matching with activated carbon electrode results in high-performance hybrid device, which displays a wide voltage window (1.7 V) in aqueous electrolyte, high energy density (0.17 mWh cm-2) and power density (34 mW cm-2) coupled with long lifetime, surpassing the best CuO based device known. The hybrid device can be randomly connected and power several light-emitting diodes. Importantly, such an electrochemical restructuring approach is cost-effective, environmentally green and universal, and can be extended to synthesize other metastable hydroxides to in-situ grow corresponding oxides.

  2. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  3. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  4. Non-covalently functionalized carbon nanostructures for synthesizing carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqing; Song, Sing I; Song, Ga Young; Kim, Il

    2014-02-01

    Carbon nanostructures (CNSs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and nanodiamonds provide an important type of substrate for constructing a variety of hybrid nanomaterials. However, their intrinsic chemistry-inert surfaces make it indispensable to pre-functionalize them prior to immobilizing additional components onto their surfaces. Currently developed strategies for functionalizing CNSs include covalent and non-covalent approaches. Conventional covalent treatments often damage the structure integrity of carbon surfaces and adversely affect their physical properties. In contrast, the non-covalent approach offers a non-destructive way to modify CNSs with desired functional surfaces, while reserving their intrinsic properties. Thus far, a number of surface modifiers including aromatic compounds, small-molecular surfactants, amphiphilic polymers, and biomacromolecules have been developed to non-covalently functionalize CNS surfaces. Mediated by these surface modifiers, various functional components such as organic species and inorganic nanoparticles were further decorated onto their surfaces, resulting in versatile carbon-based hybrid nanomaterials with broad applications in chemical engineering and biomedical areas. In this review, the recent advances in the generation of such hybrid nanostructures based on non-covalently functionalized CNSs will be reviewed.

  5. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E.; Ortiz, A.; Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A.; Alvarez, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials

  6. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  7. Silane-based hybrid materials for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Jansen, J.A.; Holder, S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of different hybrid silane materials is presented and their possible use in biomedical applications is discussed. The first example describes the development of biocompatible coatings based on sol-gel silicates, which can be used as a protective coating for implantable

  8. Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fields such as catalysis, pharmacology, medicine, nan- otechnology, and molecular ... such POM-based hybrid materials: (a) organic ligands graft onto POMs directly; .... average value of 6.028, close to the ideal value of 6 for MoVI. The bond ...

  9. Hybrid materials for decontamination of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, H.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Water is the most essential component on the earth for vital activities of all living beings. Unfortunately, due to geometrical growth of population, civilization, industrialization, agricultural activities and other geological and environmental changes quality of water from different resources is deteriorating. Water pollution has therefore become a serious issue in the present scenario, affecting all living creatures. In 2008, WHO published a third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Thousands of inorganic, organic and biological pollutants have been reported as water contaminants. Some of them have serious side effects and toxicities. Even few of them are lethal and carcinogenic. A majority of them are heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of low levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Hg, etc.), toxic elements (F) and radionuclides (U, Th, Am, Pu) in various forms from groundwater still remains a problem, both technically and economically. Depending on local geology, groundwater contains these elements in low levels (μg L -1 range), but sometimes in concentrations which are not acceptable for drinking water. Material used for the sorption of heavy metals from waters in commercial applications must be immobilized in order to meet technical demands for onsite use. Generally, packed bed columns, with a stable, porous material that has a specific grain size, are used. Moreover, tailored materials must be stable and resistant to the medium that is investigated so that there is no release of constituent components

  10. Fabrication of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hao, Q.L.; Wang, X.; Lu, L.D.; Yang, X.J. [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material was prepared using an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Graphene oxide and a single layer of graphite oxide were used as a substrate material for the graphene oxide-polyaniline composite using an in situ polymerization method. The composite was then treated with a hot sodium hydroxide solution in order to produce a reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. The sodium hydroxide was also used as a dedoping reagent for the polyaniline in the composite. A thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product with an unchanged morphology was obtained using the process. Analyses of the material demonstrated that the composite showed an improved electrochemical performance than the pure individual components, with a specific capacitance of 1126 F per g and a retention life of 84 per cent after 1000 cycles. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  12. Morphology and properties of silica/novolac hybrid xerogels synthesized using sol–gel polymerization at solvent vapor-saturated atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seraji, Mohamad Mehdi; Seifi, Azadeh; Bahramian, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sol–gel polymerization in vapor of solvent saturated atmosphere is developed. • Highly porous novolac–silica hybrid xerogels are successfully synthesized. • Novolac–silica hybrid gel was dried in ambient condition with low shrinkage. • Required time for preparation of gel reduced from 5 days to about 5 h. • By incorporation of silica into the novolac xerogel structure, the pore size decreases. - Abstract: Highly porous novolac–silica hybrid xerogels were successfully synthesized via the novel method of sol–gel polymerization in solvent vapor-saturated atmosphere. This method removes the need for supercritical drying and yields the hybrid xerogels with reduced shrinkage in comparison with conventional sol–gel process. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as the precursor of silica-based inorganic phase. The chemical and structural characterization of the prepared hybrid xerogels were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, respectively. Thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid samples were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and compressive strength analysis. The resultant hybrid xerogels show a nanostructured colloidal hybrid network with high porosity (above 80%) and low density (below 0.25 g cm −3 ). Si mapping images shows the good distribution of silica phase throughout the hybrid structure

  13. A Novel FCC Catalyst Based on a Porous Composite Material Synthesized via an In Situ Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qin Zheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To overcome diffusion limitations and improve transport in microporous zeolite, the materials with a wide-pore structure have been developed. In this paper, composite microspheres with hierarchical porous structure were synthesized by an in situ technique using sepiolite, kaolin and pseudoboehmite as raw material. A novel fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalyst for maximizing light oil yield was prepared based on the composite materials. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques and tested in a bench FCC unit. The results indicated that the catalyst had more meso- and macropores and more acid sites than the reference catalyst, and thus can increase light oil yield by 1.31 %, while exhibiting better gasoline and coke selectivity.

  14. Graphene-Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Tunneling Junctions with Large-Area Synthesized Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Corey A; Campbell, Philip M; Tarasov, Alexey A; Beatty, Brian R; Perini, Chris J; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Ready, William J; Vogel, Eric M

    2016-04-06

    Tunneling devices based on vertical heterostructures of graphene and other 2D materials can overcome the low on-off ratios typically observed in planar graphene field-effect transistors. This study addresses the impact of processing conditions on two-dimensional materials in a fully integrated heterostructure device fabrication process. In this paper, graphene-molybdenum disulfide-graphene tunneling heterostructures were fabricated using only large-area synthesized materials, unlike previous studies that used small exfoliated flakes. The MoS2 tunneling barrier is either synthesized on a sacrificial substrate and transferred to the bottom-layer graphene or synthesized directly on CVD graphene. The presence of graphene was shown to have no impact on the quality of the grown MoS2. The thickness uniformity of MoS2 grown on graphene and SiO2 was found to be 1.8 ± 0.22 nm. XPS and Raman spectroscopy are used to show how the MoS2 synthesis process introduces defects into the graphene structure by incorporating sulfur into the graphene. The incorporation of sulfur was shown to be greatly reduced in the absence of molybdenum suggesting molybdenum acts as a catalyst for sulfur incorporation. Tunneling simulations based on the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian were performed and compared to the experimental tunneling results. The simulations show the use of MoS2 as a tunneling barrier suppresses contributions to the tunneling current from the conduction band. This is a result of the observed reduction of electron conduction within the graphene sheets.

  15. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  16. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  17. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Unsaturated Mn complex decorated hybrid thioarsenates: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Tian, Ya-Wei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Yi-Qun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Fan [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Yi, Fei-Yan, E-mail: yifeiyan@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The incorporation of unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+}, [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} (1,2-dap=1,2-diaminopropane) complex cations with thioarsenate anions of [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} and [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} led to three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates, namely, [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} (1), [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{[Mn(1,2-dap)]_2As_2S_8} (2) and (NH{sub 4})[Mn(2,2-bipy){sub 2}]AsS{sub 4} (3). In compound 1, the unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} complexes, [MnS{sub 4}]{sup 6−} tetrahedra and [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} trigonal-pyramids are condensed to form the 1D [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} chain, whereas compound 2 features 2D layer composed of [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} and [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complexes as well as [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} tetrahedral units. For compound 3, two [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} anions bridge two [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} complex cations into a butterfly like {[Mn(2,2-bipy)]_2As_2S_8}{sup 2−} anionic unit. Magnetic measurements indicate the ferrimagnetic behavior for compound 1 and antiferromagnetic (AF) behaviors for compounds 2–3. The UV–vis diffuse-reflectance measurements and electronic structural calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) revealed the title compounds belong to semiconductors with band gaps of 2.63, 2.21, and 1.97 eV, respectively. The narrow band-gap of compound 3 led to the efficient and stable photocatalytic degradation activity over organic pollutant than N-doped P25 under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: Three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates have been prepared and structurally characterized. These hybrid phases feature interesting magnetic and visible light responding photocatalytic properties.

  19. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  20. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Syntheses, structures and properties of four organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging rare-earth-containing phosphotungstates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Pang, Jingjing; Zhai, Cuiping; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Four novel organic-inorganic hybrid nicotinate-bridging dimeric rare-earth (RE)-containing phosphotungstates [H2N(CH3)2]8[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2·24H2O (RE = HoIII for 1, ErIII for 2, TbIII for 3, DyIII for 4; HNA = nicotinic acid) have been synthesized from the reaction of trivacant Keggin precursor Na9[α-PW9O34]•16H2O, RE(NO3)3·6H2O, HNA by employing dimethylamine hydrochloride as organic solubilizing agent in the conventional aqueous solution system, which have been further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that the hybrid dimeric {[RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]2}8- polyoxoanion in 1-4 can be considered as two head-to-head mono-RE-containing Keggin [RE(H2O)(NA)(α-HPW11O39)]4- subunits bridged by two (η2,μ-1,1)-nicotinate linkers, which stands for the first organic-inorganic hybrid RE-containing phosphotungstates functionalized by nicotinate ligands. What's more, the solid-state photoluminescence properties and lifetime decay behaviors of 1-4 have been measured at room temperature and their photoluminescence spectra display the characteristic emission bands of corresponding trivalent RE cations.

  2. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO{sub 2}-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol–gel dip coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lamanna, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol–gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO{sub 2} matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PCL organic-inorganic hybrid coatings synthesis via sol-gel dip coating. • Coatings porosity and bioactivity increase in presence of high PCL amount. • Coatings Hardness and Young’s modulus decrease in presence of high PCL amount.

  3. Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings synthesized by hybrid arc enhanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Guizhi; Liu, Sitao; Ma, Shengli; Xu, Kewei; Vincent, Ji; Chu, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings are deposited by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetic sputtering and characterized by various micro- and macro-tools. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that the coatings are nanocomposites consisting of nanocrystallites and amorphous phases. They are generally in the form of nc-(Ti,Al)(C,N)/a-Si_3N_4/a-C depending on the composition of the coatings. With increasing Al concentrations, the X-ray diffraction peaks shift to a lower angle indicating compressive stress in the coatings. The measured hardness also diminishes implying reduced contributions from the self-organized stable nanostructure. The dry friction coefficients of the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings are found to be about 0.3 which is lower than that of conventional Ti-Si-N coatings. These coatings can find potential applications requiring high temperature with heavy contact loading. (author)

  4. Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinliang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: liyf@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 Degree-Sign C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  5. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  6. Hybrid materials of kaolinite clay with polypyrrole and polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Kerstin A; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Composites of the alumino silicate mineral kaolinite, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline have been successfully synthesised. In doing so hybrid materials have been produced in which the high surface area of the mineral is retained, whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and physical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows polypyrrole coatings to comprise of individual polymer spheres, approximately 10 to 15 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of polyaniline was observed to be approximately 5 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the kaolinite platelets in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles onto the redox active surface of the polymers has also been successful, and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterization of the hybrid materials has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  7. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid materials containing quercetin as implants with antioxidant properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gloria, Antonio [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials - National Research Council of Italy, V.le J. F. Kennedy 54 - Mostra d’Oltremare Pad. 20, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In the present work, Silica/Polyethylene glycol (PEG) hybrid nanocomposites containing an antioxidant agent, the quercetin, were synthesized via sol-gel to be used as implants with antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis proved that a modification of both polymer and quercetin occurs due to synthesis process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the proposed materials were hybrid nanocomposites. The bioactivity was ascertained by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF).

  8. Synthesis and functional properties of nanostructured ceria materials; Synthese und funktionelle Eigenschaften nanostrukturierter Ceroxidmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumann, Meike

    2014-06-02

    Nanostructured ceria tubes have been synthesised using electro spun polymer fibers as templating material. These polymer mats are produced by electro spinning starting with a polymer solution. In a next step polymer fibers are decorated with cer containing sol, which is then dried. To receive ceria tubes the polymer is removed on the one hand by thermal decomposition of the polymer or on the other hand by oxygen plasma treatment of ceria/polymer hybrid material. The resulting ceria tubes have a specific surface area of 98 m2 g-1. TEM, XRD, SAED and Raman investigations show a fully nanostructured crystallinity with cubic fluorine type structure. This obtained material shows a photo catalytic activity within decomposition of methylene blue in the Vis part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This photo catalytic activity can be increased using doping ions of transition and rare earth elements that are introduced in the sol-gel synthesis. Also here XRD and TEM investigations show a fully nano crystalline structure of ceria. Raman spectroscopy verifies the doping of ceria by transition and rare earth elements up to 22% of doping. No phase separation can be observed. The photo catalytic activity can be increased using these doped materials. Additionally a catalytic activity of pure ceria and mixed ceria/zirconia materials have been investigated synthesis of dimethylcarboxilate without water addition. Here a direct dependence between turn over and doping cannot be detected. The dependence can be deduced to the synthesis process of the catalyst. Terminal sensoric properties of doped and undoped ceria (n-type semiconductor) are investigated. The prepared materials are used as chemiresistors against oxygen at temperatures of 700 C. These investigations show a reversible increase of the electrical resistance against oxygen.

  9. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl-octadecyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (TPODAC) as a structure directing agent. The mesopores were generated by adding micelle swelling agent, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, during the synthesis and removing it afterward, which was demonstrated to greatly increase the HOC removal efficiency. In this material, TPODAC surfactant is directly anchored on the pore surface of mesoporous silica via SiOSi covalent bond after the synthesis due to its reactive Si(OCH 3) 3 head group, and thus makes the synthesized materials can be easily regenerated for reuse. The obtained materials show great potential in water treatment as pollutants sorbents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO_2 thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, R.; Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G.; Chaussé, A.; Andrieux, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO_2 thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO_2) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO_2 layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  12. A wide bandwidth fractional-N synthesizer for LTE with phase noise cancellation using a hybrid-ΔΣ-DAC and charge re-timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, D.; Lu, Ping; Andreani, Pietro; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 1MHz bandwidth, ΔΣ fractional-N PLL as the frequency synthesizer for LTE. A noise cancellation path composed of a novel hybrid ΔΣ DAC with 9 output bits is incorporated into the PLL in order to cancel the out-of-band phase noise caused by the quantization error. Further, a

  13. Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seog-Jin; Hauser, Adam W; Hayward, Ryan C

    2017-02-21

    The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field. Of particular interest are hybrid systems containing rigid inclusions that can define both the anisotropy and spatial nonuniformity of swelling as well as nanoparticulate additives that can enhance the responsiveness and functionality of the material. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in approaches to achieve well-defined shape morphing in hydrogel hybrids. First, we provide an overview of materials and methods that facilitate fabrication of such systems and outline the geometry and mechanics behind shape morphing of thin sheets. We then discuss how patterning of stiff inclusions within soft responsive hydrogels can be used to program both bending and swelling, thereby providing access to a wide array of complex 3D forms. The use of discretely patterned stiff regions to provide an effective composite response offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and ease of fabrication compared with approaches based on smooth gradients within a single layer of responsive material. We discuss a number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Next, we outline how the inclusion of functional elements such as nanoparticles can enable unique pathways to programmable

  14. Silver/polysaccharide-based nanofibrous materials synthesized from green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, M A; Garza-Navarro, M A; Moreno-Cortez, I E; Lucio-Porto, R; González-González, V A

    2016-01-20

    In this contribution a novel green chemistry approach for the synthesis of nanofibrous materials based on blends of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composite and polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is proposed. These nanofibrous materials were obtained from the electrospinning of blends of aqueous solutions of CMC-AgNPs composite and PVA, which were prepared at different CMC/PVA weight ratios in order to electrospin nanofibers applying a constant tension of 15kV. The synthesized materials were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy; as well as Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Experimental evidence suggests that the diameter of the nanofibers is thinner than any other reported in the literature regarding the electrospinning of CMC. This feature is related to the interactions of AgNPs with carboxyl functional groups of the CMC, which diminish those between the later and acetyl groups of PVA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP): preparation and immunological analysis of vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Kazutaka; Wakita, Daiko; Togashi, Yuji; Kita, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Hidemitsu; Nishimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP), which indicated a great vaccine efficacy in human cancers, we prepared ovalbumin (OVA)-H/K-HELP by conjugating killer and helper epitopes of OVA-model tumor antigen via a glycine-linker. Vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-H/K-HELP (30 amino acids) but not with short peptides mixture of class I-binding peptide (8 amino-acids) and class II-binding peptide (17 amino-acids) combined with adjuvant CpG-ODN (cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides), induced higher numbers of OVA-tetramer-positive CTL with concomitant activation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, replacement of glycine-linker of OVA-H/K-HELP with other peptide-linker caused a significant decrease of vaccine efficacy of OVA-H/K-HELP. In combination with adjuvant CpG-ODN, OVA-H/KHELP exhibited greater vaccine efficacy compared with short peptides vaccine, in both preventive and therapeutic vaccine models against OVA-expressing EG-7 tumor. The elevated vaccine efficacy of OVAH/K-HELP might be derived from the following mechanisms: (i) selective presentation by only professional dendritic cells (DC) in vaccinated draining lymph node (dLN); (ii) a long-term sustained antigen presentation exerted by DC to stimulate both CTL and Th1 cells; (iii) formation of three cells interaction among DC, Th and CTL. In comparative study, H/K-HELP indicated stronger therapeutic vaccine efficacy compared with that of extended class I synthetic long peptide, indicating that both the length of peptide and the presence of Th epitope peptide were crucial aspects for preparing artificially synthesized H/K-HELP vaccine. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hybrid nodal loop metal: Unconventional magnetoresponse and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Yunhao; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Hui Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal loop is formed by a band crossing along a one-dimensional closed manifold, with each point on the loop a linear nodal point in the transverse dimensions, and can be classified as type I or type II depending on the band dispersion. Here, we propose a class of nodal loops composed of both type-I and type-II points, which are hence termed as hybrid nodal loops. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the realization of such loops in the existing electride material Ca2As . For a hybrid loop, the Fermi surface consists of coexisting electron and hole pockets that touch at isolated points for an extended range of Fermi energies, without the need for fine-tuning. This leads to unconventional magnetic responses, including the zero-field magnetic breakdown and the momentum-space Klein tunneling observable in the magnetic quantum oscillations, as well as the peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance.

  17. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  18. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium eerie nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic system's, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. A molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 12 O 27 . 13H 2 O and Ce 2 Ti 3 O 10 . 7.46H 2 O, respectively, was proposed. Thermal stabilities of both ion exchangers were investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared with the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were also investigated

  19. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  20. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  1. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  2. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  3. Preparation of silica-based hybrid materials by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcao, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation is well known to promote the crosslinking of polymer chains. The method is now used by the authors to prepare hybrid materials from a mixture of polymer and metallic alkoxides of silicium and zirconium that are usually obtained via the sol-gel process. Macroscopically homogeneous and transparent hybrid materials have been obtained by γ-irradiation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr). The influence of several parameters has been studied. The dose rate was found to have no significant impact in the prepared material. The polymer molecular weight was also observed not to play any special role. It was found that all irradiated samples consist of a polymer gel matrix. In the case where both alkoxides are present there are inorganic oxide regions linked to the PDMS network. However when one of the alkoxides is absent there is no formation of inorganic oxide regions linked to the polymer matrix, there being only a few individual derived molecules of the other alkoxide linked to the polymer

  4. A new method for synthesizing fluid inclusions in fused silica capillaries containing organic and inorganic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Song, Yucai; Burruss, R. C.

    2008-11-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of physicochemical properties of geological fluids and their roles in many geological processes have been achieved by the use of synthetic fluid inclusions. We have developed a new method to synthesize fluid inclusions containing organic and inorganic material in fused silica capillary tubing. We have used both round (0.3 mm OD and 0.05 or 0.1 mm ID) and square cross-section tubing (0.3 × 0.3 mm with 0.05 × 0.05 mm or 0.1 × 0.1 mm cavities). For microthermometric measurements in a USGS-type heating-cooling stage, sample capsules must be less than 25 mm in length. The square-sectioned capsules have the advantage of providing images without optical distortion. However, the maximum internal pressure ( P; about 100 MPa at 22 °C) and temperature ( T; about 500 °C) maintained by the square-sectioned capsules are less than those held by the round-sectioned capsules (about 300 MPa at room T, and T up to 650 °C). The fused silica capsules can be applied to a wide range of problems of interest in fluid inclusion and hydrothermal research, such as creating standards for the calibration of thermocouples in heating-cooling stages and frequency shifts in Raman spectrometers. The fused silica capsules can also be used as containers for hydrothermal reactions, especially for organic samples, including individual hydrocarbons, crude oils, and gases, such as cracking of C 18H 38 between 350 and 400 °C, isotopic exchanges between C 18H 38 and D 2O and between C 19D 40 and H 2O at similar temperatures. Results of these types of studies provide information on the kinetics of oil cracking and the changes of oil composition under thermal stress. When compared with synthesis of fluid inclusions formed by healing fractures in quartz or other minerals or by overgrowth of quartz at elevated P- T conditions, the new fused-silica method has the following advantages: (1) it is simple; (2) fluid inclusions without the presence of water can be

  5. Selenium-assisted controlled growth of graphene–Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhencui; Man, Baoyuan; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Shouzhen; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jiaxin; Liu, Fuyan; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We synthesize the graphene–Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials via CVD. • The Se seed layer impels the Bi_2Se_3 plates growing along the lateral direction. • The Se seed layer can supply enough Se atoms to fill the Se vacancies. • The Se seed layer can effectively avoid the interaction of Bi_2Se_3 and the graphene. • The Se seed layer can be used to control the density of the Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates. - Abstract: Se seed layers were used to synthesize the high-quality graphene–Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The morphology, crystallization and structural properties of the hybrid Dirac materials were characterized by SEM, EDS, Raman, XRD, AFM and HRTEM. The measurement results verify that the Se seed layer on the graphene surface can effectively saturate the surface dangling bonds of the graphene, which not only impel the uniform Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates growing along the horizontal direction but also can supply enough Se atoms to fill the Se vacancies. We also demonstrate the Se seed layer can effectively avoid the interaction of Bi_2Se_3 and the graphene. Further experiments testify the different Se seed layer on the graphene surface can be used to control the density of the Bi_2Se_3 nanoplates.

  6. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  7. Hybrid silica materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Vidal, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    The present PhD thesis entitled "Silica Hybrid Materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis" is focused on the design and synthesis of new hybrid materials, using different silica supports as inorganic scaffolds, with applications in recognition, sensing and diagnostic protocols. The first chapter of the PhD thesis is devoted to the definition and classification of hybrid materials, relying on concepts of Nanotechnology, Supramolecular and Materials Chemistry. State o...

  8. Electrochemical Studies of Graphene-like materials Synthesized by the Thermolyzed Asphalt Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuqun

    Developing a facile and cost effective synthetic method for producing graphene materials has been an attractive research topic in several disciplines. Chapter 3 demenstrates sheets of multilayered graphene-like paper materials more than 10 cm2 in area were synthesized in the "Thermolyzed Asphalt Reaction (TAR)". TAR is processed within open containers at 650 °C under atmospheric pressure without the need to exclude oxygen, which is the lowest reported temperature for chemical vapor deposition of graphene-based materials. It was found that multilayered graphene-like materials can be grown on amorphous substrates without catalysts. In chapter 4, further studies of the TAR mechanism have allowed sulfur to be identified as an important co-factor in multilayer graphene-like materials formation. Graphene-like material was produced from simple precursors such as elemental sulfur and cyclohexanol. A proposed scheme illustrates sulfur's role in the growth of graphene-like material based on thermogravimetric analyses. We hypothesize that elemental sulfur is involved with the dehydration/dehydrogenation and eventual crosslinking of cyclohexanol between 100-140 °C. In the range of 240-400 °C further dehydrogenation steps occur yielding an unidentified intermediate with a sharp Raman peak at 1450 cm-1 At 550 °C graphene-like Raman D and G bands appear along with the 1450 cm band of the intermediate. At 600 °C and higher temperatures, the intermediate peak is lost with only bands characteristic of graphene-like material being seen in the spectrum of the material synthesized from the University of Idaho Thermolyzed Asphalt Reaction (GUITAR). Sulfur as a key co-factor for GUITAR synthesis is reinforced by results found with other hydrocarbons. Other organics succeeded or failed in GUITAR formation based on melting and boiling considerations. The failure of the compounds with a boiling point below -89°C, melting point above 300°C is reasoned with the volatility of the

  9. Structural effect of monomer type on properties of copolyimides and copolyimide-silica hybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Canan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of two different diamine monomers, containing phosphine oxide, on thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of copolyimides and their hybrid materials was investigated. Gas separation properties of the synthesized copolyimides were also analysed. Two different diamine monomers with phosphine oxide were bis(3-aminophenyl phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO and bis(3-aminophenoxy-4-phenyl phenylphosphine oxide (m-BAPPO. In the synthesis of copolyimides 3,3’-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS was also used as the diamine, as well as 2,2’-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA. Copolyimide films were prepared by thermal imidization. Hybrid materials containing 5 % SiO2 were synthesised further by sol-gel technique. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR confirmed the expected structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA demonstrated that m-BAPPO based copolyimides had lower glass transition temperatures (Tg than BAPPO based copolyimides. m-BAPPO containing copolyimide without silica shifted the thermal decomposition temperature to a higher value. The moduli and strength values of BAPPO diamine containing copolyimide and its hybrid were higher than those of m-BAPPO containing materials. The contact angle measurements showed the hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis exhibited the silica particles dispersion in the copolyimides. These copolyimides may be used in the coating industry. The CO2 permeability and the permselectivity were the highest among the other values in this study, when m-BAPPO containing copolyimide in the absence of silica was used. The gas permeabilities obtained from this work were in this decreasing order: PCO2 > PO2 > PN2.

  10. High ion-exchange properties of hybrid materials from X-type zeolite and ground glass powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with a homogeneous distribution of micropores with a superior cation-exchange capacity. Because they have especially excellent selective exchange properties, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on treating water containing radioisotopes using the zeolites. When using artificial zeolites, they have inferior sinterability; in addition, it is quite hard for them to remove from polluted liquid since these artificial zeolites are principally synthesized as a form of powder, which is a disadvantage. In this study, hybrid materials were prepared from X-type zeolite and waste glass powder. Their ion-removal effect and mechanical strength were investigated. The zeolite and waste glass were ground in an agate mortar in several ratios. 0.5 g of the mixture was pressure-molded into pellets having a diameter of 7 mm. These pellets were slowly heated at the speed of 240°C/h to 700°C and maintained at 700°C for 2 h. The removal rate of Sr2+ ions increased as the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased; the former increased up to 100% when the content of latter exceeded 50%. The mechanical strength increased by increasing the amount of glass in the hybrid materials. This is attributed to the fact that the glass powder acts as a binder that improves the densification and consequently the mechanical strength of the hybrid materials.

  11. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2015-05-08

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  14. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  16. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  17. Encapsulated Vanadium-Based Hybrids in Amorphous N-Doped Carbon Matrix as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Lei; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Song, Shuqin; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized. The electrode material prepared at 700 °C, i.e., VM-700, exhibits excellent cyclic stability retaining 92% of its reversible capacity after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and attractive rate performance (220 mAh g -1 ) under the current density of up to 2 A g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effect from heterojunction form by the vanadium compound hybrids, the improved ability of the excellent conductive carbon for electron transfer, and restraining the expansion and aggregation of vanadium oxide-nitride in cycling. These interesting findings will provide a reference for the preparation of transition metal oxide and nitride composites as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stannous sulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrids as high-performance anode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuankui; Zuo, Shiyong; Wu, Zhiguo; Liu, Ying; Zhuo, Renfu; Feng, Juanjuan; Yan, De; Wang, Jun; Yan, Pengxun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) anchored with SnS nanosheets is synthesized through a simple solvothermal method for the first time. Interestingly, SnS can be controllably deposited onto the MWCNTs backbone in the shape of nanosheets or nanoparticles to form two types of SnS/MWCNTs hybrids, SnS NSs/MWCNTs and SnS NPs/MWCNTs. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the hybrids exhibit higher lithium storage capacities and better cycling performance compared to pure SnS. It is found that the SnS NSs/MWCNTs hybrid exhibits a large reversible capacity of 620mAhg −1 at a current of 100mAg −1 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, which is better than SnS NPs/MWCNTs. The improved performance may be attributed to the ultrathin nanosheet subunits possess short distance for Li + ions diffusion and large electrode-electrolyte contact area for high Li + ions flux across the interface. It is believed that the structural design of electrodes demonstrated in this work will have important implications on the fabrication of high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  19. Preparation and fluorescent recognition properties for fluoride of a nanostructured covalently bonded europium hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 李景印; 李亚娟; 耿丽君; 甄小丽; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    A novel covalently bonded Eu3+-based silica hybrid material was designed and its spectrophotometric anion sensing prop-erty was studied. The fluorescent receptor (europium complex) was covalently grafted to the silica matrix via a sol-gel approach. FTIR, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra were characterized, and the results revealed that the hybrid material with nanosphere structure displayed excellent photophysical property. In addition, the selective anion sensing property of the hybrid material was studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid material exhibited a smart response with fluoride anions.

  20. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  1. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2010-11-16

    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Sol-gel hybrid materials for aerospace applications: Chemical characterization and comparative investigation of the magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catauro, Michelina; Mozzati, Maria Cristina; Bollino, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    In the material science field, weightless conditions can be successfully used to understand the relationship between manufacturing process, structure and properties of the obtained materials. Aerogels with controlled microstructure could be obtained by sol-gel methods in microgravity environment, simulated using magnetic levitation if they are diamagnetic. In the present work, a sol-gel route was used to synthesize class I, organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials. Two different formulations were prepared: the former consisted in a SiO2 matrix in which different percentages of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were incorporated, the latter was a ZrO2 matrix entrapping different amounts of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) detected that the organic and the inorganic components in both the formulation interact by means of hydrogen bonds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed that they have homogeneous morphology and are nanocomposites. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry confirmed the expected diamagnetic character of those hybrid systems. The obtained results were compared to those achieved in previous studies regarding the influence of the polymer amount on the magnetic properties of SiO2/PCL and ZiO2/PEG hybrids, in order to understand how the diamagnetic susceptibility is influenced by variation of both the inorganic matrix and organic component.

  3. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  4. Organoclay hybrid materials as precursors of porous ZnO/silica-clay heterostructures for photocatalytic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Akkari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures were successfully synthesized by a facile two-step process applied to two types of clays: montmorillonite layered silicate and sepiolite microfibrous clay mineral. In the first step, intermediate silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures were prepared following a colloidal route based on the controlled hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of the starting organoclay. Later on, pre-formed ZnO nanoparticles (NP dispersed in 2-propanol were incorporated under ultrasound irradiation to the silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures dispersed in 2-propanol, and finally, the resulting solids were calcinated to eliminate the organic matter and to produce ZnO nanoparticles (NP homogeneously assembled to the clay–SiO2 framework. In the case of montmorillonite the resulting materials were identified as delaminated clays of ZnO/SiO2-clay composition, whereas for sepiolite, the resulting heterostructure is constituted by the assembling of ZnO NP to the sepiolite–silica substrate only affecting the external surface of the clay. The structural and morphological features of the prepared heterostructures were characterized by diverse physico-chemical techniques (such as XRD, FTIR, TEM, FE-SEM. The efficiency of these new porous ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures as potential photocatalysts in the degradation of organic dyes and the removal of pharmaceutical drugs in water solution was tested using methylene blue and ibuprofen compounds, respectively, as model of pollutants.

  5. Hydrogen bonded supra-molecular framework in inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Wei; Li, Chuanbi; Wang, Yifei; Ma, Li; Dong, Qinqin

    2013-03-01

    Two novel compounds constructed from aromatic acid and N-Heterocyclic ligands have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction: [Cd(mip)(1,8-NDC)(H2O)]2 (1) [mip = 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, 1,8-NDC = naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic acid] and Cd(mip)2(NTC)2 (2) [NTC = nicotinic acid]. Compounds 1 and 2 are characterized by elemental analysis, IR, single crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Single-crystal X-ray investigation reveals that compounds 1-2 are 0 dimensional (0D) structures, and the existence of hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions lead the 0D to 2D novel framework. Hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions are powerful non-covalent intermolecular interactions for directing supra-molecular architectures. TG analysis shows clear courses of weight loss, which corresponds to the decomposition of different ligands. At room temperature, compound 1 exhibits emission at 449 nm upon excitation at 325 nm, and compound 2 shows a strong emission at 656 nm upon excitation at 350 nm. Fluorescent spectrum displays that compounds 1 and 2 are potential luminescent materials.

  6. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  7. Perovskite–fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite–PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3− antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour. PMID:25953105

  8. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fuyi; Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang; Gao, Fenglei; Wang, Po

    2017-01-01

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH 4 oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10 −15 to 10 −11  g mL −1 and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10 −15  g mL −1 . Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 . And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10 −16  g mL −1 level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  9. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  10. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  11. Sonochemically synthesized MnO2 nanoparticles as electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnana Sundara Raj, Balasubramaniam; Asiri, Abdullah M; Qusti, Abdullah H; Wu, Jerry J; Anandan, Sambandam

    2014-11-01

    In this study, manganese oxide (MnO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical reduction of KMnO4 using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a reducing agent as well as structure directing agent under room temperature in short duration of time and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. A supercapacitor device constructed using the ultrasonically-synthesized MnO2 nanoparticles showed maximum specific capacitance (SC) of 282Fg(-1) in the presence of 1M Ca(NO3)2 as an electrolyte at a current density of 0.5mAcm(-2) in the potential range from 0.0 to 1.0V and about 78% of specific capacitance was retained even after 1000 cycles indicating its high electrochemical stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Facile Preparation of Graphene/SnO₂ Xerogel Hybrids as the Anode Material in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Fei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Yang, Fan; Xin, Le; Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Hangyu; Stanciu, Lia; Xie, Jian

    2015-12-16

    SnO2 has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries due to its theoretical ability to store up to 8.4 Li(+). However, it suffers from poor rate performance and short cycle life due to the low intrinsic electrical conductivity and particle pulverization caused by the large volume change upon lithiation/delithiation. Here, we report a facile synthesis of graphene/SnO2 xerogel hybrids as anode materials using epoxide-initiated gelation method. The synthesized hybrid materials (19% graphene/SnO2 xerogel) exhibit excellent electrochemical performance: high specific capacity, stable cyclability, and good rate capability. Even cycled at a high current density of 1 A/g for 300 cycles, the hybrid electrode can still deliver a specific capacity of about 380 mAh/g, corresponding to more than 60% capacity retention. The incorporation of graphene sheets provides fast electron transfer between the interfaces of the graphene nanosheets and the SnO2 and a short lithium ion diffusion path. The porous structure of graphene/xerogel and the strong interaction between SnO2 and graphene can effectively accommodate the volume change and tightly confine the formed Li2O and Sn nanoparticles, thus preventing the irreversible capacity degradation.

  13. One-step synthesis of graphene-Au nanoparticle hybrid materials from metal salt-loaded micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X; Zhang, X W; Meng, J H; Wang, H L; Yin, Z G; Wu, J L; Gao, H L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present a facile one-step method to synthesize graphene-Au nanoparticle (NP) hybrid materials by using HAuCl 4 -loaded poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-P2VP) micelles as solid carbon sources. N-doped graphene with controllable thickness can be grown from PS-P2VP micelles covered by a Ni capping layer by an annealing process; simultaneously, the HAuCl 4 in the micelles were reduced into Au NPs under a reductive atmosphere to form Au NPs on graphene. The decoration of Au NPs leads to an obviously enhanced electrical conductivity and a slightly increased work function of graphene due to the electron transfer effect. The graphene-Au NP hybrid materials also exhibit a localized surface plasmon resonance feature of Au NPs. This work provides a novel and accessible route for the one-step synthesis of graphene-Au NP hybrid materials with high quality, which might be useful for future applications in optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  14. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials for super-capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouki, M.; Tran-Van, F.; Sarrazin, C.; Chevrot, C. [Cergy-Pontoise Univ., Lab. de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), EA 2528 95 (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d' Electrochimie Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, UMR 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); De, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    2004-07-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials chemically synthesized from colloid particles of iron oxide in aqueous solution have been processed to realize electrode materials for super-capacitor applications. The performances have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvano-static techniques in a three-electrode cell. The capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PPy hybrid nano-composite doped with para-toluene-sulfonate reaches 47 mAh/g in PC/NEt{sub 4}BF{sub 4} with a good stability during cycling (loss of 3% after 1000 cycles). Transmission Electronic Microscopy indicates a porous nano-structure with spherical particles in a range of 400-500 nm which ensures a good accessibility of the electrolyte in the bulk of the electro-active hybrid material. Preliminary studies with room temperature ionic liquid show promising results since the specific capacitance reaches 427 F/g in 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis((tri-fluoro-methyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI). (authors)

  15. XPS-nanocharacterization of organic layers electrochemically grafted on the surface of SnO{sub 2} thin films to produce a new hybrid material coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, R., E-mail: richarddrevet@yahoo.fr [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Dragoé, D.; Barthés-Labrousse, M.G. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Chaussé, A. [Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, LAMBE, CNRS-CEA UMR 8587, Boulevard François Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France); Andrieux, M. [Univ. Paris Sud, SP2M-ICMMO, CNRS UMR 8182, Bât. 410, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates and an organic layer made of carboxyphenyl moieties is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. XPS characterizations are carried out to assess the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting. Display Omitted - Highlights: • An innovative hybrid material layer is synthesized by combining two processes. • SnO{sub 2} thin films are deposited by MOCVD on Si substrates. • An organic layer is electrochemically grafted by the reduction of a diazonium salt. • The efficiency of the grafting is accurately assessed by XPS. • Three electrochemical grafting models are proposed. - Abstract: This work presents the synthesis and the characterization of hybrid material thin films obtained by the combination of two processes. The electrochemical grafting of organic layers made of carboxyphenyl moieties is carried out from the reduction of a diazonium salt on tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films previously deposited on Si substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Since the MOCVD experimental parameters impact the crystal growth of the SnO{sub 2} layer (i.e. its morphology and its texturation), various electrochemical grafting models can occur, producing different hybrid materials. In order to evidence the efficiency of the electrochemical grafting of the carboxyphenyl moieties, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is used to characterize the first nanometers in depth of the synthesized hybrid material layer. Then three electrochemical grafting models are proposed.

  16. The chitosan - Porphyrazine hybrid materials and their photochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełminiak-Dudkiewicz, Dorota; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Stolarska, Magdalena; Sobotta, Lukasz; Falkowski, Michal; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Kowalonek, Jolanta; Węgrzynowska-Drzymalska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2018-04-01

    Three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines differing in the size of peripheral substituents (3,5-dimethoxybenzylsulfanyl, (3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzylsulfanyl, 3,5-bis[(3,5-bis[(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzyloxy]benzylsulfanyl) were exposed to visible and ultraviolet radiation (UV A + B + C) in order to determine their photochemical properties. The course of photochemical reactions in dimethylformamide solutions and the ability of the systems to generate singlet oxygen were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which additionally gave information on aggregation processes. The porphyrazines were found to be stable upon visible light irradiation conditions, but when exposed to high energy UV radiation, the efficient photodegradation of these macrocycles was observed. Therefore, these three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines were incorporated into chitosan matrix. The obtained thin films of chitosan doped with porphyrazines were subjected to polychromatic UV-radiation and studied by spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Application of chitosan as a polymer matrix for porphyrazines was found to be successful method that effectively stopped the unwelcome degradation of macrocycles, thus worth considering for their photoprotection. In addition, the surface properties of the hybrid material were determined by contact angle measurements and calculation of surface free energy. Intermolecular interactions between these novel porphyrazines and chitosan were detected. The mechanism of photochemical reactions occurring in studied systems has been discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescent silica hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes obtained by sol-gel method and high pressure processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Helena Sofia; Stefani, Valter; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gallas, Marcia Russman

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sol-gel technique was used to obtain silica based hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes. → The sol-gel catalysts, HF and NaF, produce xerogels with different optical and textural characteristics. → High pressure technique (6.0 GPa) was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the dyes entrapped in closed pores, maintaining their optical properties. → The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. - Abstract: New silica hybrid materials were obtained by incorporation of two benzimidazole dyes in the silica network by sol-gel technique, using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as inorganic precursor. Several syntheses were performed with two catalysts (HF and NaF) producing powders and monoliths with different characteristics. The dye 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-aminophenyl)benzimidazole was dispersed and physically adsorbed in the matrix, and the dye 2'(5'-N-(3-triethoxysilyl)propylurea-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole was silylated, becoming chemically bonded to the silica network. High pressure technique was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the silylated and incorporated dye, at 6.0 GPa and room temperature. The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. The influence of the syntheses conditions was investigated by textural analysis using nitrogen adsorption isotherms.

  18. Nanocrystals-based Macroporous Materials Synthesized by Freeze-drying Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ruiqiang; Chen, Yu; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel freeze-drying combustion method for synthesis of macroporous powders with nano-network, using Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 (SDC) as an example. The metal nitrate salt solution mixed with glycine is frozen to form homogeneous nitrate/glycine mixture and then freeze-dried through sublimation of ice crystals. Upon combustion of the freeze-dried mixture, SDC powders with macroporous microstructure consisting of 10–20 nm nanocrystals, high surface area and excellent sinterability are achieved. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicates that nanodomains due to aggregation/segregation of dopants in the SDC powders obtained from freeze-drying combustion are much smaller than those in the SDC powders synthesized by the conventional nitrate solution combustion approach, demonstrating better elemental homogeneity and improved conductivity. Using low cost precursors and simple processing conditions, freeze-drying combustion can be a versatile method to synthesize nanocrystalline powders with excellent composition homogeneity for broad applications.

  19. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayami Takeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite. The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials.

  20. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E. [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica. Escuela de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte. Avenida Lomas de la Anahuac s/n, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan (Mexico)], E-mail: elena.sanchez@anahuac.mx; Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. A. P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico. Calle del Puente 222, Col. Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-07-31

    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials.

  1. Rapid Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations under Intergeneric Genomic Shock in Newly Synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum Hybrids (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5–50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses. PMID:24407856

  2. Rapid genetic and epigenetic alterations under intergeneric genomic shock in newly synthesized Chrysanthemum morifolium x Leucanthemum paludosum hybrids (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Qi, Xiangyu; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    The Asteraceae family is at the forefront of the evolution due to frequent hybridization. Hybridization is associated with the induction of widespread genetic and epigenetic changes and has played an important role in the evolution of many plant taxa. We attempted the intergeneric cross Chrysanthemum morifolium × Leucanthemum paludosum. To obtain the success in cross, we have to turn to ovule rescue. DNA profiling of the amphihaploid and amphidiploid was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-related amplified polymorphism, start codon targeted polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Hybridization induced rapid changes at the genetic and the epigenetic levels. The genetic changes mainly involved loss of parental fragments and gaining of novel fragments, and some eliminated sequences possibly from the noncoding region of L. paludosum. The MSAP analysis indicated that the level of DNA methylation was lower in the amphiploid (∼45%) than in the parental lines (51.5-50.6%), whereas it increased after amphidiploid formation. Events associated with intergeneric genomic shock were a feature of C. morifolium × L. paludosum hybrid, given that the genetic relationship between the parental species is relatively distant. Our results provide genetic and epigenetic evidence for understanding genomic shock in wide crosses between species in Asteraceae and suggest a need to expand our current evolutionary framework to encompass a genetic/epigenetic dimension when seeking to understand wide crosses.

  3. Supercritical fluid technology in materials science and engineering: syntheses, properties, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Ya-Ping

    2002-01-01

    ... and polymer preparations and as alternative solvent systems for materials processing. In fact, materials-related applications have emerged as a new frontier in the development of supercritical fluid technology. I hope that this book will be a timely contribution to this emerging research field by serving at least two purposes. One is to provide intere...

  4. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  5. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  6. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  7. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  8. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  9. Graphene synthesized on porous silicon for active electrode material of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, B. B.; Chen, X. Y.; Halvorsen, E.

    2016-11-01

    We present graphene synthesized by chemical vapour deposition under atmospheric pressure on both porous nanostructures and flat wafers as electrode scaffolds for supercapacitors. A 3nm thin gold layer was deposited on samples of both porous and flat silicon for exploring the catalytic influence during graphene synthesis. Micro-four-point probe resistivity measurements revealed that the resistivity of porous silicon samples was nearly 53 times smaller than of the flat silicon ones when all the samples were covered by a thin gold layer after the graphene growth. From cyclic voltammetry, the average specific capacitance of porous silicon coated with gold was estimated to 267 μF/cm2 while that without catalyst layer was 145μF/cm2. We demonstrated that porous silicon based on nanorods can play an important role in graphene synthesis and enable silicon as promising electrodes for supercapacitors.

  10. Graphene synthesized on porous silicon for active electrode material of supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, B B; Chen, X Y; Halvorsen, E

    2016-01-01

    We present graphene synthesized by chemical vapour deposition under atmospheric pressure on both porous nanostructures and flat wafers as electrode scaffolds for supercapacitors. A 3nm thin gold layer was deposited on samples of both porous and flat silicon for exploring the catalytic influence during graphene synthesis. Micro-four-point probe resistivity measurements revealed that the resistivity of porous silicon samples was nearly 53 times smaller than of the flat silicon ones when all the samples were covered by a thin gold layer after the graphene growth. From cyclic voltammetry, the average specific capacitance of porous silicon coated with gold was estimated to 267 μF/cm 2 while that without catalyst layer was 145μF/cm 2 . We demonstrated that porous silicon based on nanorods can play an important role in graphene synthesis and enable silicon as promising electrodes for supercapacitors. (paper)

  11. Bifunctional ferromagnetic Eu-Gd-Bi-codoped hybrid organo-silica red emitting phosphors synthesized by a modified Pechini sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Naf, S.M., E-mail: sm.abo-naf@nrc.sci.eg [Glass Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), El-Buhouth Str., Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Hameed, S.A.M.; Marzouk, M.A. [Glass Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC), El-Buhouth Str., Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Hamdy, Y.M. [Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre (NRC), El-Buhouth Str., Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-06-15

    Red phosphor, composed of Eu-Gd-Bi-codoped hybrid organo-silica glass, has been synthesized via a modified Pechini sol-gel process. The synthesized hybrid glass was analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis coupled with thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD and DTA-TG confirmed its amorphous structure up to 1000 °C. Magnetic behavior of the produced phosphor was investigated using vibrating specimen magnetometer (VSM) and the obtained results revealed its unsaturated ferromagnetic behavior. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of the obtained phosphor have been investigated under near-UV excitation at 395 nm. The influence of calcination temperature on the PL intensity and its decay behavior as well as on the ferromagnetic characteristics has been studied to determine the optimal reaction temperature of the phosphor. The PL emission spectra show the characteristic emission bands of Eu{sup 3+} ions in the wavelength range from 580 to 700 nm. These emission spectra have been dominated by the electric dipole {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of the Eu{sup 3+} peaked at 610–620 nm producing the red light emission of the phosphors. It was found that the phosphor performance, expressed by its PL intensity and life time, could be significantly improved by increasing of the heat treatment temperature up to 900 °C. Also, calcination at 900 °C for 6 h greatly increased both of the magnetization and retentivity, while decreased the coercivity value. The organic phenomenon of metal citrate-ethylene glycol chelation and its degradation by calcination were well followed by FTIR spectroscopy. The obtained results are promising and could afford a basis for designing of efficient red phosphors for displays, lighting and bifunctional biosensors for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Eu-Gd-Bi-codoped hybrid organo-silica phosphor was synthesized by sol-gel method. • Inorganic Eu

  12. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim

    2013-03-01

    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Binary iron sulfides as anode materials for rechargeable batteries: Crystal structures, syntheses, and electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian-Ting; Li, Jia-Chuang; Xue, Huai-Guo; Guo, Sheng-Ping

    2018-03-01

    Effective utilization of energy requires the storage and conversion device with high ability. For well-developed lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and highly developing sodium ion batteries (SIBs), this ability especially denotes to high energy and power densities. It's believed that the capacity of a full cell is mainly contributed by anode materials. So, to develop inexpensive anode materials with high capacity are meaningful for various rechargeable batteries' better applications. Iron is a productive element in the crust, and its oxides, sulfides, fluorides, and oxygen acid salts are extensively investigated as electrode materials for batteries. In view of the importance of electrode materials containing iron, this review summarizes the recent achievements on various binary iron sulfides (FeS, FeS2, Fe3S4, and Fe7S8)-type electrodes for batteries. The contents are mainly focused on their crystal structures, synthetic methods, and electrochemical performance. Moreover, the challenges and some improvement strategies are also discussed.

  14. Proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fuyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Yao, Yao; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yu; Yin, Dengyang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Gao, Fenglei, E-mail: jsxzgfl@sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical College, 221004, Xuzhou (China); Wang, Po, E-mail: wangpo@jsnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2017-05-29

    Novel hybridization proximity-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assembly strategy has been proposed for electrochemical immunoassay based on in situ DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles as signal label. The DNA template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles were characterized with atomic force microscopic and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The highly efficient electrocatalysis by DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles for NaBH{sub 4} oxidation produced an intense detection signal. The label-free electrochemical method achieved the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with a linear range from 10{sup −15} to 10{sup −11} g mL{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.43 × 10{sup −15} g mL{sup −1}. Through introducing a supersandwich reaction to increase the DNA length, the electrochemical signal was further amplified, leading to a detection limit of 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1}. And it rendered satisfactory analytical performance for the determination of CEA in serum samples. Furthermore, it exhibited good reproducibility and stability; meanwhile, it also showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition of antigen by antibody. Therefore, the DNA template synthesized Pd nanoparticles based signal amplification approach has great potential in clinical applications and is also suitable for quantification of biomarkers at ultralow level. - Graphical abstract: A novel label-free and enzyme-free electrochemical immunoassay based on proximity hybridization-regulated catalytic DNA hairpin assemblies for recycling of the CEA. - Highlights: • A novel enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of CEA. • The signal amplification was based on catalytic DNA hairpin assembly and DNA-template-synthesized Pd nanoparticles. • The biosensor could detect CEA down to 0.52 × 10{sup −16} g mL{sup −1} level with a dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude.

  15. Lignin Modification for Biopolymer/Conjugated Polymer Hybrids as Renewable Energy Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Ting Yang; Wagner, Michal; Inganäs, Olle

    2015-12-07

    Lignin derivatives, which arise as waste products from the pulp and paper industry and are mainly used for heating, can be used as charge storage materials. The charge storage function is a result of the quinone groups formed in the lignin derivative. Herein, we modified lignins to enhance the density of such quinone groups by covalently linking monolignols and quinones through phenolation. The extra guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroquinone groups introduced by phenolation of kraft lignin derivatives were monitored by (31) P nuclear magnetic resonance and size exclusion chromatography. Electropolymerization in ethylene glycol/tetraethylammonium tosylate electrolyte was used to synthesize the kraft lignin/polypyrrole hybrid films. These modifications changed the phenolic content of the kraft lignin with attachment of hydroquinone units yielding the highest specific capacity (around 70 mA h g(-1) ). The modification of softwood and hardwood lignin derivatives yielded 50 % and 23 % higher charge capacity than the original lignin, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Hybrid ZnO/ZnS nanoforests as the electrode materials for high performance supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Yin, Bosi; Jiang, He; Qu, Fengyu; Umar, Ahmad; Wu, Xiang

    2015-02-07

    Heterostructured ZnO/ZnS nanoforests are prepared through a simple two-step thermal evaporation method at 650 °C and 1300 °C in a tube furnace under the flow of argon gas, respectively. A metal catalyst (Au) to form a binary alloy has been used in the process. The as-obtained ZnO/ZnS products are characterized by using a series of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. A possible growth mechanism is temporarily proposed. The hybrid structures are also directly functionalized as supercapacitor (SC) electrodes without using any ancillary materials such as carbon black or binder. Results show that the as-synthesized ZnO/ZnS heterostructures exhibit a greatly reduced ultraviolet emission and dramatically enhanced green emission compared to pure ZnO nanorods. The SCs data demonstrate high specific capacitance of 217 mF cm(-2) at 1 mA cm(-2) and excellent cyclic performance with 82% capacity retention after 2000 cycles at a current density of 2.0 mA cm(-2).

  17. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  18. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  19. On a novel method to synthesize POSS-based hybrids: An example of the preparation of TPU based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monticelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to prepare polymer/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrids by melt reactive blending is proposed in this paper, by the controlled polymer chain scission and reaction of chain ends with functional silsesquioxanes. Application to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU is addressed, taking advantage of the polyurethane chain scission equilibrium reaction, leading to the formation of highly reactive isocyanate and hydroxyl chain ends. Despite the isocyanate chemistry has been widely studied for the preparation of polymer/POSS hybrids by in situ copolymerisation, the exploitation of similar chemical processes in an industrially viable and environmental friendly melt blending process is currently an open research field. In this work, the reaction in the molten state of dihydroxyl-functionalised POSS with the polyurethane chain is demonstrated to produce a TPU/POSS hybrids. The effect of POSS concentration on nanomorphology, thermal properties and surface properties is studied, showing significant changes compared to pristine TPU. In particular, an increase of glass transition temperature is observed in the presence of reactive POSS (ΔT up to about 10°C in the presence of 10 wt% loading. Furthermore, an increase of surface water wettability, evidenced by the decrease of water contact angle from 95° for pristine TPU to 70° in TPU containing 10"wt% of reactive POSS, is found.

  20. Methods of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites from renewable resource materials and application of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-07-29

    A method of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) dissolving a first amount of an alkali salt of lignosulfonate in water to form a first solution, (b) heating the first solution to a first temperature, (c) adding a second amount of iron sulfate (FeSO.sub.4) to the first solution to form a second solution, (d) heating the second solution at a second temperature for a first duration of time effective to form a third solution of iron lignosulfonate, (e) adding a third amount of 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the third solution of iron lignosulfonate to form a fourth solution with a first pH level, (f) heating the fourth solution at a third temperature for a second duration of time to form a first sample, and (g) subjecting the first sample to a microwave radiation for a third duration of time effective to form a second sample containing a plurality of carbon-magnetite nanocomposites.

  1. Morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanocrystalline materials synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Sumit; Behera, P.; Mishra, A. K.; Krishnan, M.; Patidar, M. M.; Singh, D.; Gangrade, M.; Venkatesh, R.; Deshpande, U. P.; Phase, D. M.; Ganesan, V.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, morphological and spectroscopic properties of Bi2Se3 nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method were investigated systematically. A controlled synthesis of different morphologies by a small variation in synthesis procedure is demonstrated. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of single phase. Crystallite and particle size reductions were studied with XRD and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). Different morphologies such as hexagonal nanoflakes with cross section of around˜6µm, nanoflower and octahedral agglomerated crystals of nearly ˜60 nm size have been observed in scanning electron microscope while varying the microwave assisted synthesis procedures. A significant blue shift observed in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy evidences the energy gap tuning as a result of morphological evolution. The difference in morphology observed in this three fast, facile and scalable synthesis is advantageous for tuning the thermoelectric figure of merit and for probing the surface states of these topological insulators. Low temperature resistivity remains similar for all three variants depicting a 2D character as evidenced by a -lnT term of localization.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  3. High surface area V-Mo-N materials synthesized from amine intercalated foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, Piotr; Narayan Panda, Rabi; Kockrick, Emanuel; Geiger, Dorin; Kaskel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Specific surface areas were in the range between 40 and 198 m 2 g -1 and strongly depended on the preparation method (foam or bulk oxide). Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas. The materials were characterized via nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction patterns, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline ternary V-Mo nitrides were prepared via nitridation of amine intercalated oxide foams or bulk ternary oxides. Foamed precursors were favorable for vanadium rich materials, while for molybdenum rich samples bulk ternary oxides resulted in higher specific surface areas

  4. Solid-phase extraction of the alcohol abuse biomarker phosphatidylethanol using newly synthesized polymeric sorbent materials containing quaternary heterocyclic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Jagadeesan, Kishore Kumar; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Laurell, Thomas; Ekström, Simon

    2017-10-13

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an interesting biomarker finding increased use for detecting long term alcohol abuse with high specificity and sensitivity. Prior to detection, sample preparation is an unavoidable step in the work-flow of PEth analysis and new protocols may facilitate it. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a versatile sample preparation method widely spread in biomedical laboratories due to its simplicity of use and the possibility of automation. In this work, SPE was used for the first time to directly extract PEth from spiked human plasma and spiked human blood. A library of polymeric SPE materials with different surface functionalities was screened for PEth extraction in order to identify the surface characteristics that control PEth retention and recovery. The plasma samples were diluted 1:10 (v/v) in water and spiked at different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5μM. The library of SPE materials was then evaluated using the proposed SPE method and detection was done by LC-MS/MS. One SPE material efficiently retained and recovered PEth from spiked human plasma. With this insight, four new SPE materials were formulated and synthesized based on the surface characteristics of the best SPE material found in the first screening. These new materials were tested with spiked human blood, to better mimic a real clinical sample. All the newly synthetized materials outperformed the pre-existing commercially available materials. Recovery values for the new SPE materials were found between 29.5% and 48.6% for the extraction of PEth in spiked blood. A material based on quaternized 1-vinylimidazole with a poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) backbone was found suitable for PEth extraction in spiked blood showing the highest analyte recovery in this experiment, 48.6%±6.4%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palza, Humberto, E-mail: hpalza@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bravo, Denisse [Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Diaz-Dosque, Mario [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas y Comunitarias, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Bioactive glasses (SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials.

  6. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palza, Humberto; Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian; Bravo, Denisse; Diaz-Dosque, Mario; Perez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials

  7. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  8. Optical and structural properties of Mo-doped NiTiO{sub 3} materials synthesized via modified Pechini methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thanh-Truc; Kang, Sung Gu; Shin, Eun Woo, E-mail: ewshin@ulsan.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Mo-doped NiTiO{sub 3} materials were well prepared by a modified Pechini method. • Recombination rates of the materials were significantly inhibited by Mo doping. • Defect sites were generated by the substitution of Mo for Ni or Ti positions. • The generation of defect sites gradually decreased the grain sizes of the materials. • The surface areas of the materials were increased with decreasing the grain sizes. - Abstract: In this study, molybdenum (Mo)-doped nickel titanate (NiTiO{sub 3}) materials were successfully synthesized as a function of Mo content through a modified Pechini method followed by a solvothermal treatment process. Various characterization methods were employed to investigate the optical and structural properties of the materials. XRD patterns clearly showed that the NiTiO{sub 3} structure maintained a single phase with no observed crystalline structure transformations, even after the addition of 10 wt.% Mo. In the Raman spectra and XRD patterns, peak positions shifted with a change in Mo content, confirming that the NiTiO{sub 3} lattice was doped with Mo. On the other hand, Mo doping of NiTiO{sub 3} materials changed their optical properties. DRS-UV demonstrated that the addition of Mo increased photon absorption within the UV region. Relaxation processes were inhibited by Mo doping, which was evident in the PL spectra. Structural properties of the prepared materials were studied via FE-SEM and HR-TEM. The measured surface area increased proportionally with Mo content due to a reduction in grain size of the materials.

  9. An environment-friendly route to synthesize reduced graphene oxide as a supercapacitor electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dacheng; Zhang Xiong; Chen Yao; Wang Changhui; Ma Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale, environment-friendly method to produce water-soluble reduced graphene oxide by using glutathione as a reducing and stabilization agent has been developed. The results of UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that graphene oxide is reduced to graphene nanosheets which are single-layers and exhibit good dispersion in water. A reaction mechanism is proposed. The electrochemical properties of the graphene nanosheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors are studied by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. A maximum specific capacitance of 238 F g −1 in a 1 M H 2 SO 4 electrolyte has been obtained. Meanwhile, the material shows excellent long-term cycle stability along with the retention of 97% for specific capacitance after 1000 cycle tests.

  10. Multinary lithium (oxo)nitridosilicates. Syntheses, structures and their materials properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horky, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was the synthesis, identification and characterization of novel lithium(oxo)nitridosilicates in order to investigate as well as to expand the materials properties of this compound class. Therefore, different synthesis strategies were carried out. Crystal structure elucidation with single-crystal X-ray diffraction was carried out on new compounds. Moreover, investigations of physical properties like luminescence and lithium ion conductivity were performed.

  11. Transmission electron microscopy of nanostructures synthesized by laser and charged particle beam interaction with materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, G. K.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), because of its ability to image atomic arrangements directly and its ability to give spectroscopic information at similar resolution has emerged as a very powerful tool for understanding the structure of materials at atomic level. TEM has been particularly useful in resolving the interface structures in materials. This form of microscopy is very suitable for resolving the structure and defects in ultrafine microstructures such as those of the nanocrystalline phases. After a brief description of the different characterization abilities of the aberration corrected transmission electron microscope, this presentation describes the results of TEM investigations on nanocrystalline microstructures generated by laser materials interaction and due to interaction of electrons and ions with materials. Excimer laser has become an attractive choice for new and precision application for ablation and deposition in recent times. In this work, a KrF excimer laser having 30 ns pulse width and 600 mJ energy at source has been used to deposit zirconia on Zr-base alloy in order to explore the ability of the thin oxide film to act as a diffusion barrier to hydrogen ingress into the alloy. It has been found that the variation in pressure by an order of three has resulted in maximum influence on the roughness of the laser deposited oxide film that has not been possible to achieve by other parameters within the range of the instrument. Present study has also indicated an interrelation among the roughness, adherence and the film-thickness, where the last one is indicated by the XPS study. Transmission electron microscopy was carried out to study the size, size distribution and defects in the deposited film. Nanocrystalline phases generated by interaction of electron and ion irradiation of Zr based alloys; Ni based alloys and Fe based alloys have been examined in detail by conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results of

  12. Multinary lithium (oxo)nitridosilicates. Syntheses, structures and their materials properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horky, Katrin

    2017-11-06

    The objective of this thesis was the synthesis, identification and characterization of novel lithium(oxo)nitridosilicates in order to investigate as well as to expand the materials properties of this compound class. Therefore, different synthesis strategies were carried out. Crystal structure elucidation with single-crystal X-ray diffraction was carried out on new compounds. Moreover, investigations of physical properties like luminescence and lithium ion conductivity were performed.

  13. Ionic liquid syntheses via click chemistry: expeditious routes toward versatile functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Arsalan

    2018-03-25

    Since the introduction of click chemistry by K. B. Sharpless in 2001, its exploration and exploitation has occurred in countless fields of materials sciences in both academic and industrial spheres. Click chemistry is defined as an efficient, robust, and orthogonal synthetic platform for the facile formation of new carbon-heteroatom bonds, using readily available starting materials. Premier examples of click reactions are copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the thiol-X (X = ene and yne) coupling reactions to form C-N and C-S bonds, respectively. The emphasis of this review is centered on the rapidly expanding area of click chemistry-mediated synthesis of functional ionic liquids via CuAAC, thiol-X and oxime formation, and selected examples of nucleophilic ring-opening reactions, while offering some thoughts on emerging challenges, opportunities and ultimately the evolution of this field. Click chemistry offers tremendous opportunities, and introduces intriguing perspectives for efficient and robust generation of tailored task-specific ionic liquids - an important class of soft materials.

  14. Multi and mixed 3D-printing of graphene-hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Shah, Ramille N

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of three-dimensional (3D)-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (hyperelastic bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic, and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multimaterial constructs, but that composite inks of HB and 3DG can also be synthesized. Specifically, the printability, microstructural, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of a hybrid material comprised of 1:1 HA:graphene by volume is investigated. The resulting HB-3DG hybrid exhibits mixed characteristics of the two distinct systems, while maintaining 3D-printability, electrical conductivity, and flexibility. In vitro assessment of HB-3DG using mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the hybrid material supports cell viability and proliferation, as well as significantly upregulates both osteogenic and neurogenic gene expression over 14 days. This work ultimately demonstrates a significant step forward towards being able to 3D-print graded, multicompositional, and multifunctional constructs from hybrid inks for complex composite tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 274-283, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials of epoxy resin type bisphenol a with silicon and titanium oxides by sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo C, A.; Osuna A, J. G., E-mail: acc.carrillo@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza y Jose Cardenas Valdes, 25000 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrid materials were synthesized from epoxy resins as a result bisphenol type A-silicon oxide and epoxy resin bisphenol type A-titanium oxide were obtained. The synthesis was done by sol-gel process using tetraethyl orthosilicate (Teos) and titanium isopropoxide (I Ti) as inorganic precursors. The molar ratio of bisphenol A to the inorganic precursors was the studied variable. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The hybrid nature of the materials was demonstrated through thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In both systems, as the amount of alkoxide increased, the bands described above were more defined. This behavior indicates the interactions between the resin and the alkoxides. Hybrids with Teos showed a smoother and homogeneous surface in its entirety, without irregularities. Hybrids with titanium isopropoxide had low roughness. Both Teos and I Ti hybrids showed a decrease on the atomic weight percentage of carbon due to a slight reduction of the organic part on the surface. (Author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials of epoxy resin type bisphenol a with silicon and titanium oxides by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo C, A.; Osuna A, J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid materials were synthesized from epoxy resins as a result bisphenol type A-silicon oxide and epoxy resin bisphenol type A-titanium oxide were obtained. The synthesis was done by sol-gel process using tetraethyl orthosilicate (Teos) and titanium isopropoxide (I Ti) as inorganic precursors. The molar ratio of bisphenol A to the inorganic precursors was the studied variable. The materials were characterized by thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The hybrid nature of the materials was demonstrated through thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In both systems, as the amount of alkoxide increased, the bands described above were more defined. This behavior indicates the interactions between the resin and the alkoxides. Hybrids with Teos showed a smoother and homogeneous surface in its entirety, without irregularities. Hybrids with titanium isopropoxide had low roughness. Both Teos and I Ti hybrids showed a decrease on the atomic weight percentage of carbon due to a slight reduction of the organic part on the surface. (Author)

  17. Hybrid conducting polymer materials incorporating poly-oxo-metalates for extraction of actinides; Materiaux polymeres conducteurs hybrides incorporant des polyoxometallates pour l'extraction d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racimor, D

    2003-09-15

    The preparation and characterization of hybrid conducting polymers incorporating poly-oxo-metalates for extracting actinides is discussed. A study of the coordination of various lanthanide cations (Ce(III), Ce(IV), Nd(III)) by the mono-vacant poly-oxo-metalate {alpha}{sub 2}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}]{sup 10-} showed significant differences according to the cation.. Various {alpha}-A-[PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}(RPO){sub 2}]{sup 5-} hybrids were synthesized and their affinity for actinides or lanthanides was demonstrated through complexation. The first hybrid poly-oxo-metallic lanthanide complexes were then synthesized, as was the first hybrid functionalized with a pyrrole group. The electro-polymerization conditions of this pyrrole remain still to be optimized. Poly-pyrrole materials incorporating {alpha}{sub 2}-[P{sub 2}W{sub 17}O{sub 61}]{sup 10-} or its neodymium or cerium complexes as doping agents proved to be the first conducting polymer incorporating poly-oxo-metalates capable of extracting plutonium from nitric acid. (author)

  18. Improvement of the titanium implant biological properties by coating with poly (ε-caprolactone)-based hybrid nanocomposites synthesized via sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Papale, Ferdinando [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    When bioactive coatings are applied to medical implants by means of sol-gel dip coating technique, the biological proprieties of the implant surface can be modified to match the properties of the surrounding tissues. In this study organo-inorganic nanocomposites materials were synthesized via sol-gel. They consisted of an inorganic zirconium-based and silica-based matrix, in which a biodegradable polymer (the poly-ε-caprolactone, PCL) was incorporated in different weight percentages. The synthesized materials, in sol phase, were used to dip-coat a substrate of commercially pure titanium grade 4 (CP Ti gr. 4) in order to improve its biological properties. A microstructural analysis of the obtained films was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Biological proprieties of the coated substrates were investigated by means of in vitro tests.

  19. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  20. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  1. Composite materials with ionic conductivity: from inorganic composites to hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslavtsev, Andrei B [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    Information on composite materials with ionic conductivity including inorganic composites and hybrid polymeric ion exchange membranes containing inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles is generalized. The nature of the effect of increase in the ionic conductivity in this type of materials and the key approaches used for theoretical estimation of the conductivity are considered. Data on the ionic conductivity and some other important properties of composites and membrane materials are presented. Prospects for utilization of composite materials and hybrid membranes in hydrogen power engineering are briefly outlined.

  2. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  3. Syntheses and sintering of materials in view of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picot, V.; Glorieux, B.; Montel, J.M.; Deschanels, X.; Jorion, F.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of nuclear waste conditioning, the solid solution monazite-brabantite is extensively studied. Previous works have already shown its potential ability to confine minor actinides with excellent performance in term of chemical durability and structural stability. This present work concerns the synthesis and the sintering of such matrices. The challenge is to propose a synthesis and a sintering processes able to ensure the containment of actinides up to 10%wt. (Am, Cm, Np) in dense matrices (about 95% of the theoretical density). Those processes have to be performed on the equipment similar to that used in a facility dedicated to the high-level radioactive materials studies (glove box and hot cell). The optimized protocols, implying mixer-mill, synthesis by solid reaction at high temperature, uniaxial press compaction and sintering, are presented and discussed. (authors)

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesized of CoMoO4 Microspheres as Excellent Electrode Material for Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixia; Wang, Xianwei; Hu, Yanchun; Sun, Lingyun; Gao, Chang; Zhang, Cuicui; Liu, Han; Duan, Meng

    2018-04-01

    The single-phase CoMoO4 was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method coupled with calcination treatment at 400 °C. The structures, morphologies, and electrochemical properties of samples with different hydrothermal reaction times were investigated. The microsphere structure, which consisted of nanoflakes, was observed in samples. The specific capacitances at 1 A g-1 are 151, 182, 243, 384, and 186 F g-1 for samples with the hydrothermal times of 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h, respectively. In addition, the sample with the hydrothermal time of 12 h shows a good rate capability, and there is 45% retention of initial capacitance when the current density increases from 1 to 8 A g-1. The high retain capacitances of samples show the fine long-cycle stability after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at current density of 8 A g-1. The results indicate that CoMoO4 samples could be a choice of excellent electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  5. Gadolinium(III) ion selective sensor using a new synthesized Schiff's base as a sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Mohammadhosseini, Majid; Haji-Mohammadrezazadeh, Saeed; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Meghdadi, Soraia; Davoodnia, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    According to a solution study which showed a selective complexation between N,N′-bis(methylsalicylidene)-2-aminobenzylamine (MSAB) and gadolinium ions, MSAB was used as a sensing element in construction of a gadolinium(III) ion selective electrode. Acetophenon (AP) was used as solvent mediator and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as an anion excluder. The electrode showed a good selectivity towards Gd(III) ions over a wide variety of cations tested. The constructed sensor displayed a Nernstian behavior (19.7 ± 0.3 mV/decade) in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10 −6 to 1.0 × 10 −2 mol L −1 with detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −7 mol L −1 and a short response time ( 3+ –PVC membrane sensor based on an ion carrier as sensing material is introduced. ► This technique is very simple and it's not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. ► This sensor shows good selectivity against other metal ions.

  6. Part 1: characterization of beam synthesized catalytic materials. Part 2: further development of molecular SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheifers, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Part I of this thesis concerns characterization of catalyst materials prepared by an ion beam implanter and by a multiple expansion cluster source. Ion beam synthesis was carried out on a 250-kev ion implanter. After assembling a special reaction chamber, zeolites were implanted with phosphorous and iron. This work contributed to development of a sputter reactor for ion beam synthesis. Silver catalysts were examined in a reactor designed, built and evaluated for catalysts produced by the sputter reactor and by a multiple expansion cluster source. Small surface area silver foil catalysts and silver cluster catalysts showed kinetic activity for epoxidation of ethylene. Positive results for the small surface area silver cluster catalyst demonstrate the feasibility of studying these catalysts with the special reactor. Part 2 concerns fundamentals and applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry. A data system was implemented for a secondary ion mass spectrometer that involved design and construction of a computer interface. Software routines for the interface were written in assembly language for increased operation efficiency

  7. Large-Scale Quantum Many-Body Perturbation on Spin and Charge Separation in the Excited States of the Synthesized Donor-Acceptor Hybrid PBI-Macrocycle Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-03-17

    The reliable calculation of the excited states of charge-transfer (CT) compounds poses a major challenge to the ab initio community because the frequently employed method, time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), massively relies on the underlying density functional, resulting in heavily Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange-dependent excited-state energies. By applying the highly sophisticated many-body perturbation approach, we address the encountered unreliabilities and inconsistencies of not optimally tuned (standard) TD-DFT regarding photo-excited CT phenomena, and present results concerning accurate vertical transition energies and the correct energetic ordering of the CT and the first visible singlet state of a recently synthesized thermodynamically stable large hybrid perylene bisimide-macrocycle complex. This is a large-scale application of the quantum many-body perturbation approach to a chemically relevant CT system, demonstrating the system-size independence of the quality of the many-body-based excitation energies. Furthermore, an optimal tuning of the ωB97X hybrid functional can well reproduce the many-body results, making TD-DFT a suitable choice but at the expense of introducing a range-separation parameter, which needs to be optimally tuned. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Recent advances in syntheses and biomedical applications of nano-rare earth metal-organic framework materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pengyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years,the syntheses of nano-rare earth metal-organic framework (MOF materials and their applications in biomedicine,especially in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer have attracted extensive attentions.On the one hand,nano-rare earth MOFs,which have unique optical and magnetic properties,are promising multimodal imaging contrast agents for biomedical imaging,such as fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.On the other hand,nano-rare earth MOFs have various compositions and structures,and excellent intrinsic properties such as large specific surface area,high pore volume and tunable pore size,which enable them to perform as promising nanoplatforms for drug delivery.Therefore,nano-rare earth MOFs may provide a new platform for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.In this article,the recent advances in the syntheses of nano-rare earth MOFs and their applications in biomedicine are summarized.

  9. Hybrid materials engineering in biology, chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroux, F; Rabu, P; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Taubert, A.

    The Guest Editors emphasize the rapidly growing research in advanced materials. "Telecommunication, health and environment, energy and transportation, and sustainability are just a few examples where new materials have been key for technological advancement."

  10. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO 2 capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO2 and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO2 loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO2 capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO2 could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO2 more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO2 absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO2 capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO2 capture. © the Owner Societies 2011.

  11. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-10-28

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature of the grafted polymeric canopy allows for enhanced CO(2) capture capacity and selectivity via the enthalpic intermolecular interactions between CO(2) and the task-specific functional groups, such as amines. Interestingly, for the same amount of CO(2) loading NOHMs have also exhibited significantly different swelling behavior compared to that of the corresponding polymers, indicating a potential structural effect during CO(2) capture. If the frustrated canopy species favor spontaneous ordering due to steric and/or entropic effects, the inorganic cores of NOHMs could be organized into unusual structural arrangements. Likewise, the introduction of small gaseous molecules such as CO(2) could reduce the free energy of the frustrated canopy. This entropic effect, the result of unique structural nature, could allow NOHMs to capture CO(2) more effectively. In order to isolate the entropic effect, NOHMs were synthesized without the task-specific functional groups. The relationship between their structural conformation and the underlying mechanisms for the CO(2) absorption behavior were investigated by employing NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results provide fundamental information needed for evaluating and developing novel liquid-like CO(2) capture materials and give useful insights for designing and synthesizing NOHMs for more effective CO(2) capture. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  12. Hybrid friction stir welding for dissimilar materials through electro-plastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-29

    A hybrid Friction Stir Welding approach and device for dissimilar materials joining employing Electro-Plastic Effect. The approach and device include an introduction of high density, short period current pulses into traditional friction stir welding process, which therefore can generate a localized softened zone in the workpiece during plastic stirring without significant additional temperature increase. This material softened zone is created by high density current pulses based on Electro-Plastic Effect and will move along with the friction stir welding tool. Smaller downward force, larger processing window and better joint quality for dissimilar materials are expected to be achieved through this hybrid welding technique.

  13. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  14. Activated graphene as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Meryl D; Murali, Shanthi; Quarles, Neil; Zhu, Yanwu; Potts, Jeffrey R; Zhu, Xianjun; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-03-14

    Chemically activated graphene ('activated microwave expanded graphite oxide', a-MEGO) was used as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors. The performance of a-MEGO was first verified with Li-ion electrolyte in a symmetrical supercapacitor cell. Hybrid supercapacitors were then constructed with a-MEGO as the cathode and with either graphite or Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) for the anode materials. The results show that the activated graphene material works well in a symmetrical cell with the Li-ion electrolyte with specific capacitances as high as 182 F g(-1). In a full a-MEGO/graphite hybrid cell, specific capacitances as high as 266 F g(-1) for the active materials at operating potentials of 4 V yielded gravimetric energy densities for a packaged cell of 53.2 W h kg(-1).

  15. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: Anjon.K.Mondal@student.uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaogang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.wang@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO{sub 2} nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO{sub 2}) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g{sup −1}. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO{sub 2} ratios. • The graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles.

  16. Graphene/MnO2 hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO 2 nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO 2 ) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g −1 . Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO 2 ratios. • The graphene/MnO 2 hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles

  17. Novel bioactive materials: silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reséndiz-Hernández, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite materials were synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS using also methanol (MeOH and pseudowollastonite particles. The gels obtained were dried using a novel process based on an ambient pressure drying. Hexane and hexamethyl-disilazane (HMDZ were the solvents used to chemically modify the surface. In order to assess bioactivity, aerogels, without and with pseudowollastonite particles, were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 7 and 14 days. The hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite showed a higher bioactivity than that observed for the single silica aerogel. However, as in both cases a lower bioactivity was observed, a biomimetic method was also used to improve it. In this particular method, samples of both materials were immersed in SBF for 7 days followed by their immersion in a more concentrated solution (1.5 SBF for 14 days. A thick and homogeneous bonelike apatite layer was formed on the biomimetically treated materials. Thus, bioactivity was successfully improved even on the aerogel with no pseudowollastonite particles. As expected, the hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite particles showed a higher bioactivity.Se sintetizaron aerogel de sílice y aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita por hidrólisis controlada de tetraetoxisilano (TEOS usando metanol (MeOH y partículas de pseudowollastonita. Los geles obtenidos se secaron utilizando un novedoso proceso basado en una presión de secado ambiental. Hexano y hexametil-disilazano fueron los solventes usados para modificar químicamente la superficie. Para evaluar la bioactividad, los aerogeles con y sin partículas de pseudowollastonita se sumergieron en un fluido fisiológico simulado (SBF por 7 y 14 días. El aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita mostró más alta bioactividad que la observada por el aerogel solo. Sin embargo, en ambos casos, se

  18. Fabrication and properties of aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wei, Nan; Wang, Zhou-fu; Wang, Xi-tang; Ma, Yan

    2017-11-01

    To improve their mechanical and thermal insulation properties, aluminum silicate fibrous materials with in situ synthesized K2Ti6O13 whiskers were prepared by firing a mixture of short aluminum silicate fibers and gel powders obtained from a sol-gel process. During the preparation process, the fiber surface was coated with K2Ti6O13 whiskers after the fibers were subjected to a heat treatment carried out at various temperatures. The effects of process parameters on the microstructure, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity were analyzed systematically. The results show that higher treatment temperatures and longer treatment durations promoted the development of K2Ti6O13 whiskers on the surface of aluminum silicate fibers; in addition, the intersection structure between whiskers modulated the morphology and volume of the multi-aperture structure among fibers, substantially increasing the fibers' compressive strength and reducing their heat conduction and convective heat transfer at high temperatures.

  19. Bioinspired Syntheses of Dimeric Hydroxycinnamic Acids (Lignans and Hybrids, Using Phenol Oxidative Coupling as Key Reaction, and Medicinal Significance Thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Magoulas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lignans are mainly dimers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and reduced analogs thereof which are produced in Nature through phenol oxidative coupling (POC as the primary C-C or C-O bond-forming reaction under the action of the enzymes peroxidases and laccases. They present a large structural variety and particularly interesting biological activities, therefore, significant efforts has been devoted to the development of efficient methodologies for the synthesis of lignans isolated from natural sources, analogs and hybrids with other biologically interesting small molecules. We summarize in the present review those methods which mimic Nature for the assembly of the most common lignan skeleta by using either enzymes or one-electron inorganic oxidants to effect POC of HCAs and derivatives, such as esters and amides, or cross-POC of pairs of HCAs or HCAs with 4-hydrocycinnamyl alcohols. We, furthermore, provide outlines of mechanistic schemes accounting for the formation of the coupled products and, where applicable, indicate their potential application in medicine.

  20. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  1. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  2. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  3. Synthesis of hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laera, A. M.; Resta, V.; Ferrara, M. C.; Schioppa, M.; Piscopiello, E.; Tapfer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties. In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular, in hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). However, applications of hybrid nanocomposites in photovoltaic devices require a homogeneous and highly dense dispersion of NCs in polymer in order to guarantee not only an efficient charge separation, but also an efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. In previous works, we demonstrated that cadmium thiolate complexes are suitable precursors for the in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS. Here, we show that the soluble [Cd(SBz) 2 ] 2 ·(1-methyl imidazole) complex can be efficiently annealed in a conjugated polymer obtaining a nanocomposite with a regular and compact network of NCs. The proposed synthetic strategies require annealing temperatures well below 200 °C and short time for the thermal treatment, i.e., less than 30 min. We also show that the same complex can be used to synthesize CdS NCs in mesoporous TiO 2 . The adsorption of cadmium thiolate molecule in TiO 2 matrix can be obtained by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequent thermal annealing. The use of NCs, quantum dots, as sensitizers of TiO 2 matrices represents a very promising alternative to common dye-sensitized solar cells and an interesting solution for heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  4. Improved Optical and Morphological Properties of Vinyl-Substituted Hybrid Silica Materials Incorporating a Zn-Metalloporphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Dudás

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on a novel class of hybrid materials exhibiting enhanced optical properties and high surface areas that combine the morphology offered by the vinyl substituted silica host, and the excellent absorption and emission properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphyrin-Zn(II tetrachloride as a water soluble guest molecule. In order to optimize the synthesis procedure and the performance of the immobilized porphyrin, silica precursor mixtures of different compositions were used. To achieve the requirements regarding the hydrophobicity and the porous structure of the gels for the successful incorporation of porphyrin, the content of vinyltriacetoxysilane was systematically changed and thoroughly investigated. Substitution of the silica gels with organic groups is a viable way to provide new properties to the support. An exhaustive characterization of the synthesized silica samples was realised by complementary physicochemical methods, such as infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis and photoluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si-MAS-NMR transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, nitrogen absorption (BET, contact angle (CA, small angle X ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS. All hybrids showed an increase in emission intensity in the wide region from 575 to 725 nm (Q bands in comparison with bare porphyrin. By simply tuning the vinyltriacetoxysilane content, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic profile of the hybrid materials was changed, while maintaining a high surface area. Good control of hydrophobicity is important to enhance properties such as dispersion, stability behaviour, and resistance to water, in order to achieve highly dispersible systems in water for biomedical applications.

  5. Crash simulation of hybrid structures considering the stress and strain rate dependent material behavior of thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Schöngart, M.; Weber, M.; Klein, J.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic materials are more and more used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in the automotive industry. Since these materials do not provide the mechanical properties, which are required to manufacture supporting elements like an auto body or a cross bearer, plastics are combined with metals in so called hybrid structures. Normally, the plastics components are joined to the metal structures using different technologies like welding or screwing. Very often, the hybrid structures are made of flat metal parts, which are stiffened by a reinforcement structure made of thermoplastic materials. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in the crash situation of an automobile. Due to the large stiffness variation of metal and thermoplastic materials, complex states of stress and very high local strain rates occur in the contact zone under impact conditions. Since the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is highly dependent on these types of load, the crash failure of metal plastic hybrid parts is very complex. The problem is that the normally used strain rate dependent elastic/plastic material models are not capable to simulate the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials depended on the state of stress. As part of a research project, a method to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid structures under impact conditions is developed at the IKV. For this purpose, a specimen for the measurement of mechanical properties dependet on the state of stress and a method for the strain rate depended characterization of thermoplastic materials were developed. In the second step impact testing is performed. A hybrid structure made from a metal sheet and a reinforcement structure of a Polybutylenterephthalat Polycarbonate blend is tested under impact conditions. The measured stress and strain rate depended material data are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid structure under highly dynamic load with

  6. Syntheses and structure characterization of ten acid-base hybrid crystals based on imidazole derivatives and mineral acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaikai; Deng, Bowen; Jin, Shouwen; Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shide; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi

    2018-04-01

    Cocrystallization of the imidazole derivatives with a series of mineral acids gave a total of ten hybrid salts with the compositions: [(H2bzm)(Cl)2·3H2O] (1), [(H2bzm)(ClO4)2] (2), [(H2bze)(Cl)2·2H2O] (3), [(H2bze)(Br)2·2H2O] (4), [(H2bzp)(Cl)2·4H2O] (5), [(H2bzp)(Br)2·4H2O] (6), (2-(imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylethanone): (phosphoric acid) [(Himpeta)+(H2PO4)-] (7), [(H2impd)(Br)2] (8), [(H2impd)(ClO4)2] (9), and [(Hbzml)(Cl)] (10). The ten salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the ten investigated crystals the ring N atoms of the imidazole are protonated when the acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted classical H-bonds between the NH+ and deprotonated acidic groups. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different set of additional CHsbnd O, CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd Cl, CH2sbnd Cl, CHsbnd N, CHsbnd Br, CH2sbnd Br, Osbnd O, O-π, Br-π, CH-π, and π-π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional frameworks. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R21(7), R22(7), R22(8), and R42(8), usually observed in the organic solids, were again shown to be involved in constructing some of these H-bonding networks.

  7. Bioinspired Nanocellulose Based Hybrid Materials With Novel Interfacial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Sinan

    This talk will overview a simulation-based approach to enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites by utilizing cellulose - the most abundant and renewable structural biopolymer found on our planet. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit outstanding mechanical properties exceeding that of Kevlar, serving as reinforcing domains in nature's toughest hierarchical nanocomposites such as wood. Yet, weak interfaces at the surfaces of CNCs have so far made it impossible to scale these inherent properties to macroscopic systems. In this work, I will discuss how surface functionalization of CNCs influences their properties in their self-assembled films and nanocomposites with engineered polymer matrices . Specifically, the role of ion exchange based surface modifications and polymer conjugation will be discussed, where atomistic and coarse-grained simulations will reveal new insights into how superior mechanical properties can potentially be attained by hybrid constructs.

  8. Facilely synthesized Fe2O3–graphene nanocomposite as novel electrode materials for supercapacitors with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Hailin; Liu, Zonghuai; Hao, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe 2 O 3 Graphene nanocomposite was synthesized in a simple hydrothermal way by using urea to adjust the system pH value, by this method the reduction of graphite oxide and the formation of Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite are finished in one step. The specific capacitance of the Fe 2 O 3 Graphene electrode reached 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g –1 . Highlights: ► The Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite was obtained by friendly method with urea in one step. ► The addition of Fe 2 O 3 composites has positive effect on the electrical performance of the graphene nanosheets. ► The specific capacitance of the Fe 2 O 3 –graphene electrode was 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g −1 . -- Abstract: Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite with high capacitive properties had been prepared friendly and facilely by hydrothermal method in one-step. The morphology and structure of the obtained material were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. It was revealed by TEM images that Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles grow well on the surface of graphene and the formation of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles hinders the aggregation of graphene (reduced graphene oxide, namely, RGO). Electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were characterized by serials of electrochemical measurements in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite electrode show higher specific capacitance than graphene, indicating an accelerative effect of Fe 2 O 3 and graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The specific capacitance of Fe 2 O 3 –graphene nanocomposite is 226 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. These attractive results indicate it is possible to seek and develop the promising, environmentally benign and commercial electrodes material based on Fe 2 O 3 and graphene

  9. A strategy to synthesize graphene-incorporated lignin polymer composite materials with uniform graphene dispersion and covalently bonded interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Duong, Le Dai; Ma, Yifei; Sun, Yan; Hong, Sung Yong; Kim, Ye Chan; Suhr, Jonghwan; Nam, Jae-Do

    2017-08-01

    Graphene-incorporated polymer composites have been demonstrated to have excellent mechanical and electrical properties. In the field of graphene-incorporated composite material synthesis, there are two main obstacles: Non-uniform dispersion of graphene filler in the matrix and weak interface bonding between the graphene filler and polymer matrix. To overcome these problems, we develop an in-situ polymerization strategy to synthesize uniformly dispersed and covalently bonded graphene/lignin composites. Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified by 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to introduce isocyanate groups and form the urethane bonds with lignin macromonomers. Subsequential polycondensation reactions of lignin groups with caprolactone and sebacoyl chloride bring about a covalent network of modified GO and lignin-based polymers. The flexible and robust lignin polycaprolactone polycondensate/modified GO (Lig-GOm) composite membranes are achieved after vacuum filtration, which have tunable hydrophilicity and electrical resistance according to the contents of GOm. This research transforms lignin from an abundant biomass into film-state composite materials, paving a new way for the utilization of biomass wastes.

  10. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Alves, Luís C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N.10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2} have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO{sub 2}. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol–gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • A hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO material was prepared with the incorporation of Ti. • Sr was released in concentrations suitable for the induction of bone tissue repair. • The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with osteoblastic cells.

  11. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Near IR spectral region (1000–2500 nm) shows the elimination of water in the compound which ... 1-Butyl 3-methyl imidazolium bromide; molecular material; phosphotungstic acid; near IR. ..... attributable to the first overtone of hydroxyl groups,.

  12. Hybrid Van Der Waals Materials In Next-Generation Electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In nature, there exists a class of materials which are inherently two-dimensional (2D). Although they form solid 3D structures, the individual atoms have strong...

  13. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar

  14. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua; Xie, Xing; Pan, Lijia; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer

  15. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH 2 ). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O. The Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO 2 .nH 2 O / Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  16. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Canopy Configurations in Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials of Various Grafting Densities during CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille; Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) made of polyetheramine chains tethered onto functionalized silica nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized before and after exposure to CO 2 using NMR, Raman, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies in order to investigate the effect of the grafting densities on the NOHM canopy structure. Considering the promising tunable properties for CO 2 capture of NOHMs, this study was conducted to provide important structural information to better design NOHMs for CO 2 capture. In order to minimize the CO 2 absorption via enthalpic effect and provide a more accurate assessment of the structural effects, the NOHMs were synthesized without task-specific groups. A greater chain ordering and decreased intermolecular interactions were observed in NOHMs compared to the unbound polymer. This was attributed to the specific structural arrangement of the frustrated canopy. The distinct configuration of grafted polymer chains caused different CO 2 packing and CO 2-induced swelling behaviors between the NOHMs and the unbound polymer. The grafting density influenced the ordering and coupling of the polymer chains and CO 2-induced swelling. Its effect on the CO 2 packing behavior was less pronounced. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Spectroscopic Investigation of the Canopy Configurations in Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials of Various Grafting Densities during CO 2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille

    2012-01-12

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) made of polyetheramine chains tethered onto functionalized silica nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized before and after exposure to CO 2 using NMR, Raman, and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies in order to investigate the effect of the grafting densities on the NOHM canopy structure. Considering the promising tunable properties for CO 2 capture of NOHMs, this study was conducted to provide important structural information to better design NOHMs for CO 2 capture. In order to minimize the CO 2 absorption via enthalpic effect and provide a more accurate assessment of the structural effects, the NOHMs were synthesized without task-specific groups. A greater chain ordering and decreased intermolecular interactions were observed in NOHMs compared to the unbound polymer. This was attributed to the specific structural arrangement of the frustrated canopy. The distinct configuration of grafted polymer chains caused different CO 2 packing and CO 2-induced swelling behaviors between the NOHMs and the unbound polymer. The grafting density influenced the ordering and coupling of the polymer chains and CO 2-induced swelling. Its effect on the CO 2 packing behavior was less pronounced. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  19. Synthesis of NiMn-LDH Nanosheet@Ni3S2 Nanorod Hybrid Structures for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Yingxi; Lou, Gaobo; Wu, Yatao; Zhu, Xinqiang; Chen, Hao; Shen, Zhehong; Fu, Shenyuan; Bao, Binfu; Wu, Limin

    2018-03-27

    One of the key challenges for pseudocapacitive electrode materials with highly effective capacitance output and future practical applications is how to rationally construct hierarchical and ordered hybrid nanoarchitecture through the simple process. Herein, we design and synthesize a novel NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheet@Ni 3 S 2 nanorod hybrid array supported on porous nickel foam via a one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefited from the ultrathin and rough nature, the well-defined porous structure of the hybrid array, as well as the synergetic effect between NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheets and Ni 3 S 2 nanorods, the as-fabricated hybrid array-based electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2703 F g -1 at 3 A g -1 . Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor with this hybrid array as a positive electrode and wood-derived activated carbon as a negative electrode demonstrates high energy density (57 Wh Kg -1 at 738 W Kg -1 ) and very good electrochemical cycling stability.

  20. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  1. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-10-06

    High-performance hybrid materials using carbon molecular sieve materials and 6FDA-6FpDA were produced. A detailed analysis of the effects of casting processes and the annealing temperature is reported. Two existing major obstacles, sieve agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves to increase the selectivity of the membranes above the neat polymer properties. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement was seen with increased sieve loading in the hybrid membranes, leading to an actual performance above the upper bound for pure polymer membranes. The membranes were also tested under a mixed-gas environment, which further demonstrated promising results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. New porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity in acetylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-10-14

    New hybrid complexes based on covalent interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatozinc(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatotin(IV) chloride, and a Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate, Mo(6)O(19)(2-), were prepared. These new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided several spectral data for synthesis of these compounds. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the polyoxometalate on the redox process of the porphyrin ring. The catalytic activity of tin(IV)porphyrin-hexamolybdate hybrid material was investigated in the acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride. The reusability of this catalyst was also investigated.

  3. Zeolite-derived hybrid materials with adjustable organic pillars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opanasenko, Maksym; Shamzhy, Mariya; Yu, F.; Zhou, W.; Morris, R. E.; Čejka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 3589-3601 ISSN 2041-6520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-17593P; GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : zeolites * inorganic aluminosilicate * nanoporous materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.668, year: 2016

  4. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matseevich Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal. The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  5. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseevich, Tatyana

    2018-03-01

    The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G) are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal). The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  6. Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks hybrid materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongyu; Liu, Yanguo; Yu, Yanlong; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Nan, Ding; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks have been found to display better LIB performance as compare with Co 3 O 4 /CNT and Co 3 O 4 structures. • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the addition of 3DGN largely enhanced the electrochemical activity of Co 3 O 4 during the cycling processes. • The large specific surface area and porous nature of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are very convenient and accessible for electrolyte diffusion and intercalation of Li + ions into the active phases. - Abstract: Mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanosheets-3D graphene networks (3DGN) hybrid materials have been synthesized by combining chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and hydrothermal method and investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Microscopic characterizations have been performed to confirm the 3DGN and mesoporous Co 3 O 4 nanostructures. The specific surface area and pore size of the hybrid structures have been found ∼ 34.5 m 2 g −1 and ∼ 3.8 nm respectively. It has been found that the Co 3 O 4 /3DGNs composite displays better LIB performance with enhanced reversible capacity, good cyclic performance and rate capability as compare with Co 3 O 4 /CNT and Co 3 O 4 structures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results show that the addition of 3DGN not only preserves high conductivity of the composite electrode, but also largely enhanced the electrochemical activity of Co 3 O 4 during the cycling processes. The improved electrochemical performance is considered due to the addition of 3DGNs which prevent the cracking of electrode. In addition, the large specific surface area and porous nature of the Co 3 O 4 nanosheets are also very convenient and accessible for electrolyte diffusion and intercalation of Li + ions into the active phases. Therefore, this combination can be considered to be an attractive candidate as an anode material for LIBs

  7. Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet anode materials for lithium-ion batteries synthesized by ball milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xiaoyong; Han, Qianyan; Liang, Chunyan; Li, Bo; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2017-12-01

    Si@SiOx/Graphene nanosheet (GNS) nanocomposites as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries are synthesized by mechanically blending the mixture of expanded graphite with Si nanoparticles, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During the ball milling process, the size of Si nanoparticles will decrease, and the layer of expanded graphite can be peeled off to thin multilayers. Electrochemical performances reveal that the obtained Si@SiOx/GNS nanocomposites exhibit improved cycling stability, high reversible lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability, e.g. the discharge capacity is kept as high as 1055 mAh g-1 within 50 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, retaining 63.6% of the initial value. The high performance of the obtained nanocomposites can be ascribed to GNS prepared through heat-treat and ball-milling methods, the decrease in the size of Si nanoparticles and SiOx layer on Si surface, which enhance the interactions between Si and GNS.

  8. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  9. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  10. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  11. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  12. Charge-transfer channel in quantum dot-graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jingang; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    The energy band theory of a classical semiconductor can qualitatively explain the charge-transfer process in low-dimensional hybrid colloidal quantum dot (QD)-graphene (GR) materials; however, the definite charge-transfer channels are not clear. Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, we simulate the hybrid QD-GR nanostructure, and by constructing its orbital interaction diagram, we show the quantitative coupling characteristics of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the hybrid structure. The main MOs are derived from the fragment MOs (FOs) of GR, and the Cd13Se13 QD FOs merge with the GR FOs in a certain proportion to afford the hybrid system. Upon photoexcitation, electrons in the GR FOs jump to the QD FOs, leaving holes in the GR FOs, and the definite charge-transfer channels can be found by analyzing the complex MOs coupling. The excited electrons and remaining holes can also be localized in the GR or the QD or transfer between the QD and GR with different absorption energies. The charge-transfer process for the selected excited states of the hybrid QD-GR structure are testified by the charge difference density isosurface. The natural transition orbitals, charge-transfer length analysis and 2D site representation of the transition density matrix also verify the electron-hole delocalization, localization, or coherence chacracteristics of the selected excited states. Therefore, our research enhances understanding of the coupling mechanism of low-dimensional hybrid materials and will aid in the design and manipulation of hybrid photoelectric devices for practical application in many fields.

  13. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    provides a versatile, fascinating, and promising method for synthesizing a variety of epoxy-based hybrid materials.

  14. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  15. Advanced Asymmetrical Supercapacitors Based on Graphene Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Chen, Zhuo; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Supercapacitors operating in aqueous solutions are low cost energy storage devices with high cycling stability and fast charging and discharging capabilities, but have suffered from low energy densities. Here, we grow Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and RuO2 nanoparticles on high quality graphene sheets to maximize the specific capacitances of these materials. We then pair up a Ni(OH)2/graphene electrode with a RuO2/graphene electrode to afford a high performance asymmetrical supercapacitor with high ener...

  16. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  17. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  18. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  19. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  20. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  1. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  2. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  3. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  4. Transuranic Hybrid Materials: Crystallographic and Computational Metrics of Supramolecular Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surbella, Robert G. [Department; Ducati, Lucas C. [Department; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Autschbach, Jochen [Department; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Cahill, Christopher L. [Department

    2017-07-26

    A family of twelve supramolecular [AnO2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) containing compounds assembled via hydrogen and halogen bonds donated by substituted 4-X-pyridinium cations (X = H, Cl, Br, I) is reported. These materials were prepared from a room-temperature synthesis wherein crystallization of unhydrolyzed and valence pure [An(VI)O2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) tectons are the norm. We present a hierarchy of assembly criteria based on crystallographic observations, and subsequently quantify the strengths of the non-covalent interactions using Kohn-Sham density functional calculations. We provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) of the actinyl tetrahalide dianions and reconcile crystallographically observed structural motifs and non-covalent interaction (NCI) acceptor-donor pairings. Our findings indicate that the average electrostatic potential across the halogen ligands (the acceptors) changes by only ~2 kJ mol-1 across the AnO22+ series, indicating the magnitude of the potential is independent of the metal center. The role of the cation is therefore critical in directing structural motifs and dictating the resulting hydrogen and halogen bond strengths, the former being stronger due to the positive charge centralized on the pyridyl nitrogen N-H+. Subsequent analyses using the Quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) approaches support this conclusion and highlight the structure directing role of the cations. Whereas one can infer that the 2 Columbic attraction is the driver for assembly, the contribution of the non-covalent interaction is to direct the molecular-level arrangement (or disposition) of the tectons.

  5. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Shanshan; Zhang Yaobin; Liu Bin; Li Zuoxi; Hu Huaiming; Xue Ganglin; Fu Feng; Wang Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 Mo 6 O 19 2DMF (1) and [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 W 6 O 19 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-bar . Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials. -- Graphical abstract: Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations. Display Omitted

  7. Sulfur‐Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By‐Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Michael P.; Evans, Austin M.; Worthington, Max J. H.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Lewis, David A.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d‐limonene, by‐products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur‐limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next‐generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  8. Amorphous Mn oxide-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Kim, Nam Dong; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Park, Junsu; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-07-01

    A supercapacitor has the advantages of both the conventional capacitors and the rechargeable batteries. Mn oxide is generally recognized one of the potential materials that can be used for a supercapacitor, but its low conductivity is a limiting factor for electrode materials. In this study, a hybrid of amorphous Mn oxide (AMO) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2/77 K sorption techniques, and electrochemical analyses. The findings indicate that the electrochemical activities of Mn oxide were facilitated when it was in the hybrid state because OMC acted as a pathway for both the electrolyte ions and the electrons due to the characteristics of the ordered mesoporous structure. The ordered mesoporous structure of OMC was well maintained even after hybridization with amorphous Mn oxide. The electrochemical-activity tests revealed that the AMO/OMC hybrid had a higher specific capacitance and conductivity than pure Mn oxide. In the case where the Mn/C weight ratio was 0.75, the composite showed a high capacitance of 153 F/g, which was much higher than that for pure Mn oxide, due to the structural effects of OMC.

  9. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan

    2017-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan [Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu (Malaysia)

    2017-04-15

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on novel hybrid materials made of carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuentas-Gallegos, Ana Karina; Martinez-Rosales, Rosa; Rincon, Marina E. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, C.P. 62580 Temixco, Mor (Mexico); Baibarac, Mihaela; Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We have characterized symmetric solid-state supercapacitors in swagelok cells using film electrodes made of novel hybrid materials based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and phosphomolybdate polyanion (Cs-PMo12) with PVA as binder. These hybrid materials were carried out by Cs-PMo12 adhesion onto previously functionalized CNT, in order to disperse both components at a molecular level and use Cs-PMo12 as energy density enhancer in supercapacitor cells. Our results show high capacitance values (up to 285 F/g at I = 200 mA/g) due to the contribution of Cs-PMo12, which was revealed on the higher energy density values compared to pure CNT electrodes. Additionally, good stability was observed during 500 charge-discharge cycles for most hybrid electrodes. These preliminary results show a new approach to enhance energy density of double layer supercapacitor cells through the introduction of Cs-PMo12, whereas from a material science point of view these materials are innovative, and open the way to search for diverse applications aside from supercapacitors (sensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, etc.). (author)

  12. Graphene-based hybrid structures combined with functional materials of ferroelectrics and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wenjing; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-06-21

    Fundamental studies and applications of 2-dimensional (2D) graphene may be deepened and broadened via combining graphene sheets with various functional materials, which have been extended from the traditional insulator of SiO2 to a versatile range of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals, as well as organic compounds. Among them, ferroelectric materials have received much attention due to their unique ferroelectric polarization. As a result, many attractive characteristics can be shown in graphene/ferroelectric hybrid systems. On the other hand, graphene can be integrated with conventional semiconductors and some newly-discovered 2D layered materials to form distinct Schottky junctions, yielding fascinating behaviours and exhibiting the potential for various applications in future functional devices. This review article is an attempt to illustrate the most recent progress in the fabrication, operation principle, characterization, and promising applications of graphene-based hybrid structures combined with various functional materials, ranging from ferroelectrics to semiconductors. We focus on mechanically exfoliated and chemical-vapor-deposited graphene sheets integrated in numerous advanced devices. Some typical hybrid structures have been highlighted, aiming at potential applications in non-volatile memories, transparent flexible electrodes, solar cells, photodetectors, and so on.

  13. A new porous hybrid material derived from silica fume and alginate for sustainable pollutants reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Alessandra; Vassura, Ivano; Venturini, Elisa; Monai, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Federici, Stefania; Zacco, Annalisa; Treccani, Laura; Bontempi, Elza

    2018-03-01

    In this work a new mesoporous adsorbent material obtained from a natural, high abundant raw material and a high volume industrial by-product is presented. The material is consolidated by the gelling properties of alginate and by decomposition of sodium-bicarbonate controlled porosity at low temperatures (70-80°C) at different scale lengths. The structural, thermal, and morphological characterization shows that the material is a mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid. The material is tested as adsorbent, showing high performances. Methylene blue, used as model pollutant, can be adsorbed and removed from aqueous solutions even at a high concentration with efficiency up to 94%. By coating the material with a 100 nm thin film of titania, good photodegradation performance (more than 20%) can be imparted. Based on embodied energy and carbon footprint of its primary production, the sustainability of the new obtained material is evaluated and quantified in respect to activated carbon as well. It is shown that the new proposed material has an embodied energy lower than one order of magnitude in respect to the one of activated carbon, which represents the gold standards. The versatility of the new material is also demonstrated in terms of its design and manufacturing possibilities. In addition, this material can be printed in 3D. Finally, preliminary results about its ability to capture diesel exhaust particulate matter are reported. The sample exposed to diesel contains a large amount of carbon in its surface. At the best of our knowledge this is the first time that hybrid porous materials are proposed as a new class of sustainable materials, produced to reduce pollutants in the wastewaters and in the atmosphere.

  14. Hybrid materials of SBA-16 functionalized by rare earth (Eu3+, Tb3+) complexes of modified β-diketone (TTA and DBM): Covalently bonding assembly and photophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yajuan; Yan Bing; Li Ying

    2010-01-01

    Novel mesoporous SBA-16 type of hybrids TTA-S16 and DBM-S16 were synthesized by co-condensation of modified β-diketone (TTA-Si and DBM-Si, DBM=1,3-diphenyl-1,3- propanepione, TTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of Pluronic F127 as template, which were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, 29 Si CP-MAS NMR, and N 2 adsorption measurements. Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid containing RE 3+ (Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ) complexes covalently attached to the functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-16 (TTA-S16 and DBM-S16), which were designated as bpy-RE-TTA-S16 and bpy-RE-DBM-S16, were obtained by sol-gel process. The luminescence properties of these resulting materials were characterized in detail, and the results reveal that mesoporous hybrid material bpy-Eu-TTA-S16 present stronger luminescent intensities, longer lifetimes, and higher luminescent quantum efficiencies than the corresponding DBM-containing materials bpy-Eu-DBM-S16, while bpy-Tb-DBM-S16 exhibit the stronger characteristic emission of Tb 3+ and longer lifetime than the corresponding TTA-containing materials bpy-Tb-TTA-S16. - Graphical abstract: Novel organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrids containing RE 3+ complex covalently attached to the β-diketone-functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-16, which were designated as bpy-RE-TTA-S16 and bpy-RE-DBM-S16, were obtained by sol-gel process.

  15. Electro-catalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-metal (Pt or Pd) nanohybrid materials synthesized using microwave-induced reactions and their possible use in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Lakshman Kumar; Ntim, Susana Addo; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Janardhana, Chelli; Lakshminarayanan, V; Mitra, Somenath

    2012-11-30

    Microwave induced reactions for immobilizing platinum and palladium nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotubes are presented. The resulting hybrid materials were used as catalysts for direct methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation in acidic as well as alkaline media. The electrodes are formed by simply mixing the hybrids with graphite paste, thus using a relatively small quantity of the precious metal. We report Tafel slopes and apparent activation energies at different potentials and temperatures. Ethanol electro-oxidation with the palladium hybrid showed an activation energy of 7.64 kJmol(-1) which is lower than those observed for other systems. This system is economically attractive because Pd is significantly less expensive than Pt and ethanol is fast evolving as a commercial biofuel.

  16. Electro-catalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-metal (Pt or Pd) nanohybrid materials synthesized using microwave-induced reactions and their possible use in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Lakshman Kumar; Ntim, Susana Addo; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Janardhana, Chelli; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Mitra, Somenath

    2012-01-01

    Microwave induced reactions for immobilizing platinum and palladium nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotubes are presented. The resulting hybrid materials were used as catalysts for direct methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation in acidic as well as alkaline media. The electrodes are formed by simply mixing the hybrids with graphite paste, thus using a relatively small quantity of the precious metal. We report Tafel slopes and apparent activation energies at different potentials and temperatures. Ethanol electro-oxidation with the palladium hybrid showed an activation energy of 7.64 kJmol−1 which is lower than those observed for other systems. This system is economically attractive because Pd is significantly less expensive than Pt and ethanol is fast evolving as a commercial biofuel. PMID:23118490

  17. High photoresponse of individual WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Georgies Alene; Järvinen, Topias; Lorite, Gabriela S.; Mohl, Melinda; Pitkänen, Olli; Dombovari, Aron; Tóth, Geza; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lei, Sidong; Talapatra, Saikat; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    van der Waals solids have been recognized as highly photosensitive materials that compete conventional Si and compound semiconductor based devices. While 2-dimensional nanosheets of single and multiple layers and 1-dimensional nanowires of molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides have been studied, their nanostructured derivatives with complex morphologies are not explored yet. Here, we report on the electrical and photosensitive properties of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials we developed lately. We probe individual hybrid nanostructured particles along the structure using focused ion beam deposited Pt contacts. Further, we use conductive atomic force microscopy to analyze electrical behavior across the nanostructure in the transverse direction. The electrical measurements are complemented by in situ laser beam illumination to explore the photoresponse of the nanohybrids in the visible optical spectrum. Photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜0.4 AW-1 are demonstrated outperforming graphene as well as most of the other transition metal dichalcogenide based devices.

  18. Enhancing the piezoelectric properties of flexible hybrid AlN materials using semi-crystalline parylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Mathewson, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Flexible piezoelectric materials are desired for numerous applications including biomedical, wearable, and flexible electronics. However, most flexible piezoelectric materials are not compatible with CMOS fabrication technology, which is desired for most MEMS applications. This paper reports on the development of a hybrid flexible piezoelectric material consisting of aluminium nitride (AlN) and a semi-crystalline polymer substrate. Various types of semi-crystalline parylene and polyimide materials were investigated as the polymer substrate. The crystallinity and surfaces of the polymer substrates were modified by micro-roughening and annealing in order to determine the effects on the AlN quality. The AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric properties decreased when the polymer surfaces were treated with O2 plasma. However, increasing the crystallinity of the parylene substrate prior to deposition of AlN caused enhanced c-axis (002) AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric response of the AlN. Piezoelectric properties of 200 °C annealed parylene-N substrate resulted in an AlN d 33 value of 4.87 pm V-1 compared to 2.17 pm V-1 for AlN on polyimide and 4.0 pm V-1 for unannealed AlN/parylene-N. The electrical response measurements to an applied force demonstrated that the parylene/AlN hybrid material had higher V pp (0.918 V) than commercial flexible piezoelectric material (PVDF) (V pp 0.36 V). The results in this paper demonstrate that the piezoelectric properties of a flexible AlN hybrid material can be enhanced by increasing the crystallinity of the polymer substrate, and the enhanced properties can function better than previous flexible piezoelectrics.

  19. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  20. Original Conductive Nano-Co3O4 Investigated as Electrode Material for Hybrid Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Godillot, Gérôme; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Delmas, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt oxides have been extensively used as conductive additives for Ni-MH batteries. We report in this paper the performances of an original nanometric cobalt oxide, close to Co3O4, as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. This spinel type phase contains hydrogen, lithium, cobalt vacancies, and especially Co4þ ions within the structure, leading to a high electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements show interesting capacitance (320 F/g in 8M-KO...

  1. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  2. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis for new multifunctional materials: A few examples of phosphates and phosphonate-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.rueff@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Poienar, Maria [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Plautius Andronescu Str Nr. 1, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Guesdon, Anne; Martin, Christine; Maignan, Antoine [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Jaffrès, Paul-Alain [Université de Brest, Université Européenne de Bretagne, CNRS UMR 6521, CEMCA, SFR 148 ScInBios, 6 Avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest (France)

    2016-04-15

    Novel physical or chemical properties are expected in a great variety of materials, in connection with the dimensionality of their structures and/or with their nanostructures, hierarchical superstructures etc. In the search of new advanced materials, the hydrothermal technique plays a crucial role, mimicking the nature able to produce fractal, hyperbranched, urchin-like or snow flake structures. In this short review including new results, this will be illustrated by examples selected in two types of materials, phosphates and phosphonates, prepared by this method. The importance of the synthesis parameters will be highlighted for a magnetic iron based phosphates and for hybrids containing phosphonates organic building units crystallizing in different structural types. - Graphical abstract: Phosphate dendrite like and phosphonate platelet crystals.

  4. Grindability determination of torrefied biomass materials using the Hybrid Work index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essendelft, D.T.; Zhou, X.; Kang, B.S.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The grindability of torrefied biomass materials is a difficult parameter to evaluate due to its inhomogeneous character and non-uniform morphology. However, it is necessary to develop a grinding test that is representative of the wide ranging character of biomass and torrefied biomass materials. Previous research has shown that Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) can be linearly correlated to thermally driven weight loss in biomass. In particular, the RIM equipment was found to supply the right energy level to physically break down structurally deficient biomass materials while leaving the un-touched material relatively intact [1–3]. However, the RIM procedure was not designed to extract the comminution energy. Alternatively, the Bond Work Index (BWI) procedure was developed to accurately assess the grinding energy of brittle materials [4,5]. However, the milling energy is too low to be effective for biomass comminution. In this research, the BWI procedure was utilized with the ball–mill approach in the RIM test to evaluate torrefied biomass materials. The hybridized procedure has been shown to be both highly correlated to energy consumption and sensitive to degree of torrefaction. The proposed Hybrid Work Index (HWI) is certainly useful for assessing torrefaction in a laboratory environment, but it may also be correlated to grinding energy at industrial scales.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material and investigation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-03-14

    In the present work, the preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material in which tetrakis(p-aminophenylporphyrin) is covalently linked to a Lindqvist structure of polyoxometalate, is reported. This new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided spectral data of the synthesis of this compound. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the porphyrin on the redox process of the polyoxometalate. The catalytic activity of this hybrid material was investigated in the alkene epoxidation with NaIO(4).

  6. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  7. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UO_2, 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% NpO_2, and 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO_2, UO_2, NpO_2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion–fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library

  8. Assembly of three organic–inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yu, Kai, E-mail: hlyukai188@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhou, Bai-Bin, E-mail: zhou_bai_bin@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4′-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV–vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metal–organic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1–3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: • Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. • Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. • 3 shows unusual layers based on

  9. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector......The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...

  10. Optimal behavior of responsive residential demand considering hybrid phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Kheradmand, M.; Javadi, S.; Azenha, M.; Aguiar, J.L.B. de; Castro-Gomes, J.; Siano, P.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An operational model of HEM system incorporating with a hybrid PCM is proposed in this paper. • Incorporation of hybrid PCM mortar had a complementary effect on the proposed HEM system. • The proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. • The customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model. - Abstract: Due to communication and technology developments, residential consumers are enabled to participate in Demand Response Programs (DRPs), control their consumption and decrease their cost by using Household Energy Management (HEM) systems. On the other hand, capability of energy storage systems to improve the energy efficiency causes that employing Phase Change Materials (PCM) as thermal storage systems to be widely addressed in the building applications. In this paper, an operational model of HEM system considering the incorporation of more than one type of PCM in plastering mortars (hybrid PCM) is proposed not only to minimize the customer’s cost in different DRPs but also to guaranty the habitants’ satisfaction. Moreover, the proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. Different case studies indicate that implementation of hybrid PCM in the buildings can meaningfully affect the operational pattern of HEM systems in different DRPs. The results reveal that the customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model.

  11. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira, E-mail: bia_ms_@hotmail.com [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  12. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  13. Graphene/VO2 hybrid material for high performance electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Zhang, Gaini; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Chunling; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/VO 2 hybrid materials are prepared by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The prepared graphene (1.0)/VO 2 hybrid material shows a specific capacitances of 225 F g −1 in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 solution. Furthermore, an asymmetric electrochemical capacitor with graphene (1.0)/VO 2 as a positive electrode and graphene as a negative electrode is assembled, and it can work in a cell voltage of 1.7 V and show excellent capacitive property. - Highlights: • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material has been prepared by one-step hydrothermal reduction. • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material exhibits high specific capacitance. • An asymmetric capacitor working at 1.7 V in aqueous solution is assembled based on graphene/VO 2 electrode. • The asymmetric capacitor exhibits high energy density. - Abstract: Vanadium oxides have attracted significant attention for electrochemical capacitor because of their extensive multifunctional properties. In the present work, graphene/VO 2 (RG/VO 2 ) hybrid materials with different RG amounts are prepared in a mixture of ammonium vanadate, formic acid and graphite oxide (GO) nanosheets by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The hydrothermal treatment makes the reduction of GO into RG and the formation of VO 2 particles with starfruit morphology. The starfruit-like VO 2 particles are uniformly embedded in the hole constructed by RG nanosheets, which makes the electrode–electrolyte contact better. A high specific capacitance of 225 F g −1 has been achieved for RG(1.0)/VO 2 electrode with RG content of 26 wt% in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. An asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor is assembled by using RG(1.0)/VO 2 as positive electrode and RG as negative electrode, and it can be reversibly charged–discharged at a cell voltage of 1.7 V in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. The asymmetrical capacitor can deliver an energy density of 22.8 Wh kg −1 at a power density

  14. Understanding supercapacitors based on nano-hybrid materials with interfacial conjugation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The recent fast development of supercapacitors, also known scientifically as electrochemical capacitors, has benefited significantly from synthesis, characterisations and electrochemistry of nanoma-terials. Herein, the principle of supercapacitors is explained in terms of performance characteristics and charge storage mechanisms, i.e. double layer (or interfacial) capacitance and pseudo-capacitance. The semiconductor band model is applied to qualitatively account for the pseudo-capacitance in association with rectangular cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and linear galvanostatic charging and discharging plots (GCDs), aiming to differentiate supercapacitors from rechargeable batteries. The invalidity of using peak shaped CVs and non-linear GCDs for capacitance measurement is highlighted. A selective review is given to the nano-hybrid materials between carbon nanotubes and redox active materials such as electronically conducting polymers and transition metal oxides. A new concept,“interfacial conjugation”, is introduced to reflect the capacitance enhancement resulting from π-π stacking interactions at the interface between two materials with highly conjugated chemical bonds. The prospects of carbon nanotubes and graphenes for supercapacitor applications are briefly compared and discussed. Hopefully, this article can help readers to understand supercapacitors and nano-hybrid materials so that further developments in materials design and synthesis, and device engineering can be more efficient and objective.

  15. Importance of material and friction characterisation for FE-aided process design of hybrid bevel gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Matthias, T.

    2017-10-01

    Solid-forming components are often used in areas where they are subjected to very high loads. For most solid components locally divergent and sometimes contradictory requirements exist. Despite these contradictory requirements, almost exclusively monomaterials are nowadays used for the production of solid components. These components often reach their material-specific limits because of increasing demands on the products. Thus a significant increase in product quality and profitability would result from combining different materials in order to create tailored properties. In the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1153 "Tailored Forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, this topic is investigated. The primary objective of the CRC 1153 is to develop and investigate new tailored manufacturing processes to produce reliable hybrid solid semi-finished components. In contrast to existing production processes of hybrid solid components, semi-finished workpieces in the CRC 1153 are joined before the forming phase. Thus, it will be possible to produce complex and highly stressable solid components made of different metals, which cannot be produced yet with the current used technologies. In this work the material and friction characteristics are investigated and the forming tool for the production of hybrid bevel gears made of different steel alloys (C22 and 41Cr4) is designed by numerical simulations. For this purpose, flow curves of both materials are determined by means of upsetting tests at process-related forming temperatures and strain rates. The temperature range for the forming process of the semi-finished product is determined by comparing the respective flow curves regarding similar flow stresses. Furthermore, the friction between the tool and the joining materials is investigated by means of ring upsetting tests at a process-relevant temperature. Finally, a stress analysis of the forming tools is carried out.

  16. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  17. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon

    2018-01-01

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas. PMID:29364861

  18. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE, designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  19. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-01-24

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  20. Optimum design of brake friction material using hybrid entropy-GRA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Kevlar and natural fibres on the performance of brake friction materials was evaluated. Four friction material specimens were developed by varying the proportion of Kevlar and natural fibres. Two developed composite contained 5-10 wt.% of Kevlar fibre while in the other two the Kevlar fibre was replaced with same amount of natural fibre. SAE J661 protocol was used for the assessment of the tribological properties on a Chase testing machine. Result shows that the specimens containing Kevlar fibres shows higher friction and wear performance, whereas Kevlar replacement with natural fibre resulted in improved fade, recovery and friction fluctuations. Further hybrid entropy-GRA (grey relation analysis approach was applied to select the optimal friction materials using various performance defining attributes (PDA including friction, wear, fade, recovery, friction fluctuations and cost. The friction materials with 10 wt% of natural fibre exhibited the best overall quality.

  1. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature

  2. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  3. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhang Huang; Zhanhong Yang; Zhaobin Feng; Xiaoe Xie; Xing Wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with n...

  4. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  5. Characterization and electrochemical performances of MoO2 modified LiFePO4/C cathode materials synthesized by in situ synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jichuan; Wang, Haibin; Gu, Chunlei; Liu, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the LiFePO 4 /C particles surface and does not alter LiFePO 4 crystal structure, and the adding of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. The existence of MoO 2 improves electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 cathode materials in specific capability and lithium ion diffusion and charge transfer resistance of cathode materials. - Highlights: • The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. • The existence of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. • MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the surface of LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials. • The existence of MoO 2 enhanced electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials. - Abstract: The MoO 2 modified LiFePO 4 /C cathode materials were synthesized by in situ synthesis method. Phase compositions and microstructures of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM and EDS. Results indicate that MoO 2 can sufficiently coat on the LiFePO 4 surface and does not alter LiFePO 4 crystal structure, the existence of MoO 2 decreases the particles size and increases the tap density of cathode materials. The electrochemical behavior of cathode materials was analyzed using galvanostatic measurement, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the existence of MoO 2 improves electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 cathode materials in specific capability and lithium ion diffusion and charge transfer resistance. The initial charge–discharge specific capacity and apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient increase, the charge transfer resistance decreases with MoO 2 content and maximizes around the MoO 2 content is 5 wt%. It has been had further proved that

  6. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  7. Nitrogen doped graphene - Silver nanowire hybrids: An excellent anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Elizabeth, Indu; S, Gopukumar; Thomas, Sabu; M. S, Kala; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-01-01

    We present an in-situ polyol assisted synthesis approach for the preparation of silver nanowires (AgNW) over the nitrogen doped graphene (NG) sheets and has been tested as a viable LIBs anode material for the first time. The use of NG serves as nucleation sites, thereby facilitating the growth of AgNWs. The specific material design of the as-prepared NG-AgNW hybrids involves some advantages, including a continuous AgNW-graphene conducting network. Since AgNWs are electrically conductive, it provides an electrical contact with NG sheets which can effectively help the charge transport process and limit the variations in volume during the lithiation/de-lithiation processes. Apart from this, the insertion of metallic Ag nanowires into a percolated NG network increases the interlayer distance of NG sheets and prevent its restacking. Moreover, the more porous nature of the hybrid structure accommodating the large volume changes of AgNWs. As an anode material for LIBs, the NG-AgNW hybrid displays a remarkable initial discharge capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 and attains a stable capacity of 724 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The electrode exhibits a stable reversible capacity of 714, 634, 550 and 464 mA h g-1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Ag-1 respectively. The reversible capacity (710 mAh g-1) at 0.1 Ag-1 is recovered after the cycling at various current densities confirming outstanding rate performance of the material. In addition, the coulombic efficiency, the NG-AgNW anode retains nearly 99% after the second cycle, further indicating its excellent reversibility. The hybrid material exhibits better cycling stability, greater rate capability, capacity retention and superior reversible capacity than that of bare AgNW and NG sheets. Our smart design will pave way for the development of efficient electrode materials for high capacity and long cycle life LIBs.

  8. Three-Dimensional (3D Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fafenrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a three-dimensional (3D printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid (PLA printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  9. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  10. Pickering emulsion: A novel template for microencapsulated phase change materials with polymer–silica hybrid shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Dezhong; Ma, Li; Liu, Jinjie; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-01

    MePCMs (microencapsulated phase change materials) with covalently bonded SiO 2 /polymer hybrid as shell were fabricated via Pickering emulsion polymerization stabilized solely by organically-modified SiO 2 particles. Morphology and core–shell structure of these microcapsules were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties of microencapsulated 1-dodecanol were determined using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis). The results indicate that mass ratio of St (styrene)/DVB (divinylbenzene)/dodecanol has great effect on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulation efficiency and durability of resultant MePCMs. When ratio of St/DVB/dodecanol was 5/1/12, dodecanol content of as much as 62.8% is obtained and the utility efficiency of dodecanol reaches 94.2%. The prepared MePCMs present good durability and thermal reliability. 2.2% of core material leached away the microcapsule after suspended in water for 10 days and 5.8% of core material leached after 2000 accelerated thermal cycling. Our study demonstrated that Pickering emulsion polymerization is a simple and robust method for the preparation of MePCMs with polymer–inorganic hybrids as shell. - Highlights: • We fabricated MePCM via surfactant-free Pickering emulsion polymerization. • The shell of MePCM was composed of PS/SiO 2 organic–inorganic hybrids. • The phase change enthalpy of MePCM is 125.0 J g −1 and the utility efficiency of 1-dodecanol reached 94.2%. • Only 2.2% and 5.8% of core material lost after durability test and 2000 accelerated thermal cycling respectively

  11. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  12. Luminescent hybrid materials functionalized with lanthanide ethylenodiaminotetraacetate complexes containing β-diketonate as antenna ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Franklin P.; Costa, Israel F.; Espínola, José Geraldo P.; Faustino, Wagner M.; Moura, Jandeilson L. [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F.; Paolini, Tiago B. [Departamento de Química Fundamental-Instituto de Química da Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felinto, Maria Cláudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas energéticas e Nucleares-IPEN, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teotonio, Ercules E.S., E-mail: teotonioees@quimica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Three organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on silica gel functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS), [3-(2-aminoetilamino)-propil]-trimetoxissilano (DAPTS) and 3-[2-(2-aminoetilamino)etilamino] propiltrimetoxysilane (TAPTS) and subsequently modified with EDTA derivative were prepared by nonhomogeneous route and were then characterized. The resulting materials named SilXN-EDTA (X=1 for APTS, 2 for DAPTS and 3 for TAPTS) were used to obtain new lanthanide Ln{sup 3+}-β-diketonate (Ln{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) complexes covalently linked to the functionalized silica gel surfaces (named SilXN-EDTALn-dik, dik=tta, dbm, bzac and acac). The photophysical properties of the new luminescent materials were investigated and compared with those with similar system presenting water molecules coordinated to the lanthanide ions, SilXN-EDTALn-H{sub 2}O. The SilXN-EDTAEu-dik and SilXN-EDTATb-dik systems displayed characteristic red and green luminescence when excited by UV radiation. Furthermore, the quantitative results showed that the emission quantum efficiency (η), experimental intensity parameters Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 4}, and Einstein's emission coefficient (A{sub 0J}) of the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik materials were largely dependent on the ligands. Based on the luminescence data, the most efficient intramolecular energy transfer processes were found to the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik (dik: tta and dbm) and SilXN-EDTATb-acac materials, which exhibited more pure emission colors. These materials are promising red and green phosphors, respectively. - Highlights: • New highly luminescent hybrid materials containing lanthanide-EDTA complexes. • The effect of three silylanting agent on the adsorption and luminescent properties has been studied. • The luminescence sensitizing by different β-diketonate ligands have been investigated.

  13. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Matizamhuka, Wallace R.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Herrmann, Mathias; Dubronvinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Mera, Gabriela; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C) in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond...

  14. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC2N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed.

  15. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC₂N Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matizamhuka, Wallace R; Sigalas, Iakovos; Herrmann, Mathias; Dubronvinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Mera, Gabriela; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-11-29

    Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C) in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC 1.97 N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC₂N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed.

  16. Characterization of the Materials Synthesized by High Pressure-High Temperature Treatment of a Polymer Derived t-BC2N Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matizamhuka, Wallace R.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Herrmann, Mathias; Dubronvinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Mera, Gabriela; Riedel, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Bulk B-C-N materials were synthesized under static high thermobaric conditions (20 GPa and 2,000 °C) in a multianvil apparatus from a polymer derived t-BC1.97N ceramic. The bulk samples were characterised using X-ray synchrotron radiation and analytical transmission electron microscopy in combination with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Polycrystalline B-C-N materials with a cubic type structure were formed under the applied reaction conditions, but the formation of a ternary cubic diamond-like c-BC2N compound, could not be unambiguously confirmed. PMID:28824124

  17. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David

    2015-09-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization mechanisms using conventional (various amines) as well as some recently developed initiators (hexamethyldisilazane, N-heterocyclic persistent carbenes, etc.) is presented, and their benefits and drawbacks for preparation of polypeptides with well-defined chain lengths and chain-end functionality are discussed. Recent examples from literature are used to illustrate different possibilities for synthesis of pure polypeptide materials with different molecular architectures bearing various functional groups, which are introduced either by modification of amino acids, before they are transformed into corresponding Ncarboxyanhydrides, or by post-polymerization modifications using protective groups and/or orthogonal functional groups. Different approaches for preparation of polypeptide-based hybrid materials are discussed as well using examples from recent literature. Syntheses of simple block copolymers or copolymers with more complex molecular architectures (graft and star copolymers) as well as modifications of nanoparticles and other surfaces with polypeptides are described.

  18. Metal chloride precursor synthesization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Min-Yen; Huang, Yu-Fong; Huang, Cheng-Liang; Yang, Chyi-Da [National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Wuu, Dong-Sing [National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lei, Po-Hsun [National Formosa University, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with kesterite structures were prepared by directly sol-gel synthesizing spin-coated precursors on soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. The CZTS precursors were prepared by using solutions of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea. The ratio of SnCl{sub 4} in the precursors was found to play a critical role in the synthesization of CZTS. CZTS phases of SnS and SnS{sub 2} were observed in the synthesized films as prepared using precursors with a close to stoichiometric ratio of CuCl{sub 2}:ZnCl{sub 2}:SnCl{sub 4}:CH{sub 4}N{sub 2}S = 4:1:1:8, where SnCl{sub 4} was 1 mol/l. The amounts of the educed SnS and SnS{sub 2} phases observed in the SEM images could be readily reduced by decreasing the volume of SnCl{sub 4} in the mixed solution. With decreasing amount of SnCl{sub 4} from 1 mol/l, the as prepared CZTS reveals a significant improvement in its crystalline properties. In this work, CZTS with an average absorption coefficient and an optical energy gap of over 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} and ∼1.5 eV, respectively, was obtained using precursors of copper (II) chloride, zinc (II) chloride, tin (IV) chloride, and thiourea mixed in a ratio of 2:1:0.25:8, and it had good crystallinity revealing a Cu-poor composition.

  19. Synthesis of novel amperometric urea-sensor using hybrid synthesized NiO-NPs/GO modified GCE in aqueous solution of cetrimonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, Zohreh

    2018-06-01

    In this study NiO nanostructures were synthesized via combinational synthetic method (ultrasound-assisted biosynthesis) and immobilized on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as a highly sensitive and selective enzyme-less sensor for urea detection. NiO-NPs were fully characterized using SEM, EDX, XRD, BET, TGA, FT-IR, UV-vis and Raman methods which revealed the formation of NiO nanostructures in the form of cotton like porous material and crystalline in nature with the average size of 3.8 nm. GCE was modified with NiO-NPs in aqueous solution of cetrimonium bromide(CTAB). Highly adhesive NiO/CTAB/GO nanocomposite membrane has been formed on GCE by immersing NiO/CTAB modified GCE in GO suspension. CTAB has a major role in the production and immobilization of the nanocomposites on the GCE surface and the binding NiO nanoparticles on GO plates. In addition, CTAB/GO composition made a highly adhesive surface on the GCE. The resulting NiO/CTAB/GO/GCE contains potently sensitive to urea in aqueous environments. The response of as developed amperometric sensor was linear in the range of 100-1200 µM urea with R 2 value of 0.991 and limit of detection (LOD), 8 µM. The sensor responded negligibly to various interfering species like glucose, uric acid and ascorbic acid. This sensor was applied successfully for determining urea in real water samples such as mineral water, tap water and river water with acceptable recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Stergiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor–acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor–acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  1. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Unravelling the High-Pressure Behaviour of Dye-Zeolite L Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gigli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of chromophores nanoconfined in porous materials such as zeolite L has led to technologically relevant host-guest systems exploited in solar energy harvesting, photonics, nanodiagnostics and information technology. The response of these hybrid materials to compression, which would be crucial to enhance their application range, has never been explored to date. By a joint high-pressure in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics approach, herein we unravel the high-pressure behaviour of hybrid composites of zeolite L with fluorenone dye. High-pressure experiments were performed up to 6 GPa using non-penetrating pressure transmitting media to study the effect of dye loading on the structural properties of the materials under compression. Computational modelling provided molecular-level insight on the response to compression of the confined dye assemblies, evidencing a pressure-induced strengthening of the interaction between the fluorenone carbonyl group and zeolite L potassium cations. Our results reveal an impressive stability of the fluorenone-zeolite L composites at GPa pressures. The remarkable resilience of the supramolecular organization of dye molecules hyperconfined in zeolite L channels may open the way to the realization of optical devices able to maintain their functionality under extreme conditions.

  4. One-Pot Facile Methodology to Synthesize Chitosan-ZnO-Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composites for Better Dye Adsorption and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandhavelu Sanmugam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel chitosan–ZnO–graphene oxide hybrid composites were prepared using a one-pot chemical strategy, and their dye adsorption characteristics and antibacterial activity were demonstrated. The prepared chitosan and the hybrids such as chitosan–ZnO and chitosan–ZnO–graphene oxide were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal and mechanical properties indicate a significant improvement over chitosan in the hybrid composites. Dye adsorption experiments were carried out using methylene blue and chromium complex as model pollutants with the function of dye concentration. The antibacterial properties of chitosan and the hybrids were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, which revealed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 0.1 µg/mL.

  5. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  6. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  7. Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials: Synthesis and in vitro delivery of diclofenac and biocompatibility with periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, José A. [Departamento de Química, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Gutiérrez, Sandra J., E-mail: s.gutierrez@javeriana.edu.co [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Villamil, Jean C. [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Agudelo, Natalia A. [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Pérez, León D., E-mail: ldperezp@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Macromoléculas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26–85, edificio 451 of. 449, Bogotá D.C. Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) based hybrid materials containing hydrophilic domains composed of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The hybrid materials were obtained by RAFT copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and MPS using a pre-formed dixanthate-end-functionalized PCL as macro-chain transfer agent, followed by a post-reaction crosslinking step. The composition of the samples was determined by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallinity of PCL decreases in the presence of the hydrophilic domains. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the samples present an interconnected porous structure on the swelling. Compared to PCL, the hybrid materials presented low water contact angle values and higher elastic modulus. These materials showed controlled release of diclofenac, and biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials • Moderated hydrophilic materials with high swelling resistance • Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were biocompatible.

  8. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel

  9. Fabrication of CuO-doped catalytic material containing zeolite synthesized from red mud and rice husk ash for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu Do Thi, Minh; Thinh Tran, Quoc; Nguyen, Tri; Van Nguyen Thi, Thuy; Huynh, Ky Phuong Ha

    2018-06-01

    In this study a series of the CuO-doped materials containing zeolite with varying CuO contents were synthesized from red mud (RM) and rice husk ash (RHA). The rice husk ash/red mud with the molar ratio of , and being 1.8, 2.5 and 60, respectively, were maintained during the synthetic process of materials. The characteristic structure samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and H2 temperature program reduction (H2-TPR). The catalytic activity of samples was evaluated in CO oxidation reaction in a microflow reactor at temperature range 200 °C–350 °C. The obtained results showed that all synthetic samples there exist the A-type zeolites with the average crystal size of 15–20 nm, the specific surface area of , and pore volume of . The material synthesized from RM and RHA with the zeolite structure (ZRM, undoped CuO) could also oxidize CO completely at 350 °C, and its activity was increase significantly when doped with CuO. CuO-doped materials with the zeolite structure exhibited excellent catalytic activity in CO oxidation. The ZRM sample loading 5 wt% CuO with particle nanosize about 10–30 nm was the best one for CO oxidation with complete conversion temperature at 275 °C.

  10. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  11. Synthesis, structure and characterization of a hybrid centrosymmetric material (4-dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate gallic acid monohydrate) well-designed for non-linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Nasreddine; Jalel, Boutheina; Henchiri, Rokaya; Cordier, Marie; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid material: 4-Dimethylaminopyridinium nitrate gallic acid monohydrate abbreviated DNGA monohydrate has been successfully synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) on a single crystal showed that the latter was crystallized in P-1 space group. Likewise, thermal analyses demonstrated the stability of our crystal up to 80 °C. Besides, the analysis of the infrared spectrum (FTIR), allowed us to confirm the presence of the different groups present in the structure. Furthermore, by studying the UV-Visible spectrum, the transparency of our crystal was proven. Despite the fact that of having a centrosymmetric structure, the nonlinear optical properties of our single crystal, which was tested by Kurtz-Perry technique, proved that its second harmonic generation efficiency was 1.22 times more than that of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) single crystal. This nonlinear optical behavior of the studied compound was also determined through the calculations of polarizability and first hyperpolarizability values.

  12. CO 2 Capture Capacity and Swelling Measurements of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials via Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune

    2012-01-12

    Novel nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), which are comprised of organic oligomers or polymers tethered to an inorganic nanosized cores of various sizes, have been synthesized, and their solvating property for CO 2 was investigated using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Simultaneous measurements of CO 2 capture capacity and swelling behaviors of polyetheramine (Jeffamine M-2070) and its corresponding NOHMs (NOHM-I-PE2070) were reported at temperatures of (298, 308, 323 and 353) K and CO 2 pressure conditions ranging from (0 to 5.5) MPa. The polymeric canopy, or polymer bound to the nanoparticle surface, showed significantly less swelling behavior with enhanced or comparable CO 2 capture capacity compared to pure unbound polyetheramine. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  14. Development and material properties of new hybrid plywood from oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Bhat, A.H.; Jawaid, M.; Nik Fuad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of wood as a raw material has forced wood-based industries to find alternative local raw materials. Currently, oil palm biomass is undergoing research and development (R and D) and appears to be the most viable alternative. This work examines the conversion of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) into new plywood and analyses its properties. We prepared five-ply veneer hybrid plywood (alternating layers of oil palm trunk veneer and empty fruit bunch mat) with different spread levels (300 g/m 2 and 500 g/m 2 ) of resins (phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde). We then studied the mechanical and physical properties of the plywood. The results show that hybridisation of EFB with OPT improves some properties of plywood, such as bending strength, screw withdrawal and shear strength. The thermal properties of the plywood panels were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The panels glued with phenol formaldehyde with a spread level of 500 g/m 2 showed better thermal stability than the other panels. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the fibre matrix bonding and surface morphology of the plywood at different glue spread levels of the resins. The fibre-matrix bonding showed good improvement for the hybrid panel glued with 500 g/m 2 phenol formaldehyde.

  15. Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide synthesized using alkali chloride flux: morphology and performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongseon

    2012-05-01

    Li(Ni(0.8)Co(0.1)Mn(0.1))O(2) (NCM811) was synthesized using alkali chlorides as a flux and the performance as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries was examined. Primary particles of the powder were segregated and grown separately in the presence of liquid state fluxes, which induced each particle to be composed of one primary particle with well-developed facet planes, not the shape of agglomerates as appears with commercial NCMs. The new NCM showed far less gas emission during high temperature storage at charged states, and higher volumetric capacity thanks to its high bulk density. The material is expected to provide optimal performances for pouch type lithium ion batteries, which require high volumetric capacity and are vulnerable to deformation caused by gas generation from the electrode materials.

  16. Leachability of heavy metals in geopolymer-based materials synthesized from red mud and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoc Thang; Pham, Vo Thi Ha Quyen; Dang, Thanh Phong; Dao, Thanh Khe

    2018-04-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste generated during aluminum production from bauxite whereas rice husk ash is an agricultural waste from burning of rice husk that could cause negative impact on the environment if not properly managed. This study demonstrates the utilization of red mud in combination with rice husk ash to form a geopolymer-based material which can be used as bricks or replacement for traditional cement materials. The focus of this study is on the leachability of heavy metals in the raw materials and the geopolymer as this would be significant in assessing the environmental impact of the product. Leachability of metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Cr was evaluated based on European (EN 124572-2 EU CEN TC292/ CEN TC 308) standard with pH value 7. Results indicate that the leachability of these metals in the geopolymer matrix is lower than that of the raw materials.

  17. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  18. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Aidy, A.; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  19. Polyaniline - Carrageenan - Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Material Synthesized Via Interfacial Polymerization, its Morphological Characteristics and Enhanced Solubility in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbo, R. C. K.; Marquez, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, conducting polyaniline (PAni) has been a popular interest of research in the field of conducting polymers due to its relatively low cost, ease of production, good conductivity, and environmental stability. Many studies however, have focused on improving its short-comings such as its limited processability and solubility in common solvents. In this study, PAni, soluble in water was produced via interfacial polymerization with chloroform as the organic solvent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and kappa(κ), iota(ι) and lambda(λ) - carrageenan (κCGN, ιCGN, λCGN) were added to the aqueous layer to stabilize PAni in the medium. FTIR and UV-Vis absorption spectra of the solutions as well as the fabricated film confirmed the existence of PAni emeraldine salt (PAni-ES). FTIR spectrum also confirmed the peaks corresponding to the interaction of PAni with the CGNs. Moreover, PVA-CGN played a very large role on the stability of the PAni nanofibers integrated on the PVA-CGN matrix. The morphologies of the products were further investigated using SEM and TEM. Polymer electrolyte for supercapacitor or an interfacial layer for organic solar cell is being targeted as potential application of the synthesized water soluble PAni.

  20. Low Cost CaTiO3 Perovskite Synthesized from Scallop (Anadara granosa) Shell as Antibacterial Ceramic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, Is; Nur Ilahi, Rico; Pratami, Rismayanti

    2018-01-01

    Research on perovskite CaTiO3 synthesis from scallop (Anadara granosa) shell and its test as material for antibacterial ceramic application have been conducted. The synthesis was performed by calcium extraction from the scallop shell followed by solid-solid reaction of obtained calcium with TiO2. Physicochemical character of the perovskite wasstudied by measurement of crystallinity using x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse-reflectance UV Visible spectrophotometry, scanning electrone microscope-energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-Transform InfraRed. Considering the future application of the perovskite as antibacterial agent, laboratory test of the peroskite as material in antibacterial ceramic preparation was also conducted. Result of research indicated that perovskite formation was obtained and the material demonstrated photocatalytic activity as identified by band gap energy (Eg) value. The significant activity was also reflected by the antibacterial action of formed ceramic.

  1. Turning Waste Chemicals into Wealth-A New Approach To Synthesize Efficient Cathode Material for an Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng

    2017-09-20

    An Li-O 2 battery requires the oxygen-breathing cathode to be highly electronically conductive, rapidly oxygen diffusive, structurally stable, and often times electrocatalytically active. Catalyst-decorated porous carbonaceous materials are the chosen air cathode in this regard. Alternatively, biomass-derived carbonaceous materials possess great ability to remove heavy and toxic metal ions from waste, forming a metal-adsorbed porous carbonaceous material. The similar structure between the air cathode and the metal-adsorbed biomass-derived carbon nicely bridges these two irrelevant areas. In this study, we investigated the electrochemical activity of a biochar material Ag-ESB directly synthesized from ethanol sludge residue in a rechargeable aprotic Li-O 2 battery. Ag ions were adsorbed from sewage and became Ag nanoparticles with uniform coverage on the biochar surface. The as-prepared material exhibits good electrochemical behavior in battery testing, especially toward the battery efficiency and cyclability. This study provides the possibility of synthetically efficient cathode material by reusing "waste" such as biofuel sludge residue. It is an economically and environmentally friendly approach both for an energy-storage system and for waste recycling.

  2. Turning Waste Chemicals into Wealth—A New Approach To Synthesize Efficient Cathode Material for an Li–O 2 Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng (Beijing Inst. Tech.)

    2017-03-20

    An Li–O2 battery requires the oxygen-breathing cathode to be highly electronically conductive, rapidly oxygen diffusive, structurally stable, and often times electrocatalytically active. Catalyst-decorated porous carbonaceous materials are the chosen air cathode in this regard. Alternatively, biomass-derived carbonaceous materials possess great ability to remove heavy and toxic metal ions from waste, forming a metal-adsorbed porous carbonaceous material. The similar structure between the air cathode and the metal-adsorbed biomass-derived carbon nicely bridges these two irrelevant areas. In this study, we investigated the electrochemical activity of a biochar material Ag-ESB directly synthesized from ethanol sludge residue in a rechargeable aprotic Li–O2 battery. Ag ions were adsorbed from sewage and became Ag nanoparticles with uniform coverage on the biochar surface. The as-prepared material exhibits good electrochemical behavior in battery testing, especially toward the battery efficiency and cyclability. This study provides the possibility of synthetically efficient cathode material by reusing “waste” such as biofuel sludge residue. It is an economically and environmentally friendly approach both for an energy-storage system and for waste recycling.

  3. Silver Nanowire/MnO2 Nanowire Hybrid Polymer Nanocomposites: Materials with High Dielectric Permittivity and Low Dielectric Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraati, Ali Shayesteh; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2017-04-26

    This study reports the fabrication of hybrid nanocomposites based on silver nanowire/manganese dioxide nanowire/poly(methyl methacrylate) (AgNW/MnO 2 NW/PMMA), using a solution casting technique, with outstanding dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss. AgNW was synthesized using the hard-template technique, and MnO 2 NW was synthesized employing a hydrothermal method. The prepared AgNW:MnO 2 NW (2.0:1.0 vol %) hybrid nanocomposite showed a high dielectric permittivity (64 at 8.2 GHz) and low dielectric loss (0.31 at 8.2 GHz), which are among the best reported values in the literature in the X-band frequency range (8.2-12.4 GHz). The superior dielectric properties of the hybrid nanocomposites were attributed to (i) dimensionality match between the nanofillers, which increased their synergy, (ii) better dispersion state of AgNW in the presence of MnO 2 NW, (iii) positioning of ferroelectric MnO 2 NW in between AgNWs, which increased the dielectric permittivity of nanodielectrics, thereby increasing dielectric permittivity of the hybrid nanocomposites, (iv) barrier role of MnO 2 NW, i.e., cutting off the contact spots of AgNWs and leading to lower dielectric loss, and (v) AgNW aligned structure, which increased the effective surface area of AgNWs, as nanoelectrodes. Comparison of the dielectric properties of the developed hybrid nanocomposites with the literature highlights their great potential for flexible capacitors.

  4. Potential of hybrid functionalized meso-porous materials for the separation and immobilization of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, V.

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized meso-porous materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic material in which a meso-porous metal oxide framework is functionalized with multifunctional organic molecules. These molecules may contain one or more anchor groups that form strong bonds to the pore surfaces of the metal oxide framework and free functional groups that can impart and or modify the functionality of the material such as for binding metal ions in solution. Such materials have been extensively studied over the past decade and are of particular interest in absorption applications because of the tremendous versatility in choosing the composition and architecture of the metal oxide framework and the nature of the functional organic molecule as well as the efficient mass transfer that can occur through a well-designed hierarchically porous network. A sorbent for nuclear applications would have to be highly selective for particular radio nuclides, it would need to be hydrolytically and radiolytically stable, and it would have to possess reasonable capacity and fast kinetics. The sorbent would also have to be available in a form suitable for use in a column. Finally, it would also be desirable if once saturated with radio nuclides, the sorbent could be recycled or converted directly into a ceramic or glass waste form suitable for direct repository disposal or even converted directly into a material that could be used as a transmutation target. Such a cradle-to- grave strategy could have many benefits in so far as process efficiency and the generation of secondary wastes are concerned.This paper will provide an overview of work done on all of the above mentioned aspects of the development of functionalized meso-porous adsorbent materials for the selective separation of lanthanides and actinides and discuss the prospects for future implementation of a cradle-to-grave strategy with such materials. (author)

  5. Super-resolution nanofabrication with metal-ion doped hybrid material through an optical dual-beam approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yaoyu; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    We apply an optical dual-beam approach to a metal-ion doped hybrid material to achieve nanofeatures beyond the optical diffraction limit. By spatially inhibiting the photoreduction and the photopolymerization, we realize a nano-line, consisting of polymer matrix and in-situ generated gold nanoparticles, with a lateral size of sub 100 nm, corresponding to a factor of 7 improvement compared to the diffraction limit. With the existence of gold nanoparticles, a plasmon enhanced super-resolution fabrication mechanism in the hybrid material is observed, which benefits in a further reduction in size of the fabricated feature. The demonstrated nanofeature in hybrid materials paves the way for realizing functional nanostructures

  6. Porous nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide ternary hybrid spheres as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2014-06-11

    This paper reports the first nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO) ternary hybrid sphere powders as supercapacitor electrode materials. Due to the abundant porous nanostructure, relatively high specific surface area, well-defined spherical morphology, and the synergetic effect of Ni(OH)2, MnO2, and RGO, the electrodes with the as-obtained Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO ternary hybrid spheres as active materials exhibited significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1985 F·g(-1)) and energy density (54.0 Wh·kg(-1)), based on the total mass of active materials. In addition, the Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO hybrid spheres-based asymmetric supercapacitor also showed satisfying energy density and electrochemical cycling stability.

  7. Laser-induced emission, fluorescence and Raman hybrid setup: A versatile instrument to analyze materials from cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Bai, X. S.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research project was the development of a hybrid system in laboratory coupling together three analytical techniques, namely laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Raman spectroscopy in a single instrument. The rationale for combining these three spectroscopies was to identify a material (molecular and elemental analysis) without any preliminary preparation, regardless of its organic or inorganic nature, on the surface and in depth, without any surrounding light interference thanks to time resolution. Such instrumentation would allow characterizing different materials from cultural heritage. A complete study on LIBS-LIF-Raman hybrid was carried out, from its conception to instrumental achievement, in order to elaborate a strategy of analysis according to the material and to be able to address conservation issues. From an instrumental point of view, condensing the three spectroscopies was achieved by using a single laser for excitation and two spectrometers (time-integrated and not time-integrated) for light collection. A parabolic mirror was used as collecting system, while three excitation sources directed through this optical system ensured the examination of a similar probe area. Two categories of materials were chosen to test the hybrid instrumentation on cultural heritage applications (copper corrosion products and wall paintings). Some examples are reported to illustrate the wealth of information provided by the hybrid, thus demonstrating its great potential to be used for cultural heritage issues. Finally, several considerations are outlined aimed at further improving the hybrid.

  8. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  9. Composites of amorphous and nanocrystalline Zr–Cu–Al–Nb bulk materials synthesized by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, P., E-mail: philipp.drescher@uni-rostock.de [Fluidic Technology and Microfluidics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Witte, K. [Physics of New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Yang, B. [Polymer Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Steuer, R.; Kessler, O. [Chair of Materials Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Burkel, E. [Physics of New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Schick, C. [Polymer Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Seitz, H. [Fluidic Technology and Microfluidics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The fabrication of Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} bulk metallic glass composite samples by spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been successfully realized. The unique characteristics of bulk metallic glasses could lead to the possibility of future applications as new structural and functional materials. The densification of an amorphous Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} powder was realized in a systematic study changing the sintering temperature in the SPS process leading to stable composites characteristic of amorphous and nanocrystalline structures. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as hardness tests were applied to determine the structural and mechanical properties of the sintered materials. A stable amorphous bulk metallic glass based on Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 24}Al{sub 4}Nb{sub 2} with a low fraction of crystallites could be fabricated applying a nominal sintering temperature of 400 °C. Higher sintering temperatures lead to composites with high fractions of nanocrystalline material with porosities below 0.5%.

  10. Positive electrode for lithium secondary battery of the next generation. Part 3. Positive electrode active material synthesized by soft chemistry; 3 sofutokemisutori de gosei sareru seikyoku katsubusshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, N.; Jo, A [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-05

    Synthesis of high performance positive electrode material for the lithium secondary battery using soft chemistry methods such as sol-gel method, precipitation method, and ion exchange method as well as the electrochemical properties and the positive electrode material for the metal oxides synthesized by soft chemistry methods are introduced. V2O5 gel is obtained by acidifying aqueous solution of vanadate such as NaVO3. MnO2 exists in various crystalline forms, and the characteristics of the electrode depend strongly on the crystal structure, chemical composition, water content, conditions of powder, and density, which can be controlled by the methods of synthesis and heat treatment. Sol-gel method is applied to the synthesis of MnO2 related compounds. LiCoO2 is synthesized by the precipitation method of the aqueous solution of the mixture of lithium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Tungsten trioxide hydrate and molybdenum trioxide hydrate are obtained as precipitation by adding strong acid for acidification to tungstate or molybdate A2MO4 aqueous solution. 31 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate: a hybrid material for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyuchul; Kim, Yongkwan; Strobel, Timothy A; Prasad, P S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Lee, Huen; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-06-11

    In this study, we demonstrate that tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)NBH(4)] can be used to form a hybrid hydrogen storage material. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements verify the formation of tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate, while Raman spectroscopic and direct gas release measurements confirm the storage of molecular hydrogen within the vacant cavities. Subsequent to clathrate decomposition and the release of physically bound H(2), additional hydrogen was produced from the hybrid system via a hydrolysis reaction between the water host molecules and the incorporated BH(4)(-) anions. The additional hydrogen produced from the hydrolysis reaction resulted in a 170% increase in the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity, or 27% greater storage than fully occupied THF + H(2) hydrate. The decomposition temperature of tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate was measured at 5.7 degrees C, which is higher than that for pure THF hydrate (4.4 degrees C). The present results reveal that the BH(4)(-) anion is capable of stabilizing tetraalkylammonium hydrates.

  12. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  13. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications.

  14. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from C32H20N10M (M Co, Pb, Fe): Film formation, electrical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Sanchez Vergara, M.E.; Garcia Montalvo, V.; Ortiz, A.; Alvarez, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecular materials formed from metallic phthalocyanines and 1,4-phenylenediamine is reported. The powder and thin film (∼80-115 nm thickness) samples of the synthesized materials, deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation, show the same intra-molecular bonds in the IR spectroscopy studies, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds. The morphology of the deposited films was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their optical and electrical properties were studied as well. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance in the wavelength range 200-1200 nm. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The optical activation energy was calculated and found to be 3.41 eV for the material with cobalt, 3.34 eV for the material including lead and 3.5 eV for the material with iron. The effect of temperature on conductivity was measured for the thin films and the corresponding conduction processes are discussed in this work.

  15. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered...

  16. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de; Cardoso, Celso X.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization (ΑH) and activation energy (E a ) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E a ) and heat of polymerization (ΑH) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E a and ΑH. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  17. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: nldias@dfq.feis.unesp.br; Cardoso, Celso X. [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2006-09-15

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) and activation energy (E{sub a}) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E{sub a}) and heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E{sub a} and {alpha}H. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  18. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  19. Preparation and characterization of hybrid A359/(SiC+Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) composites synthesized by stir/squeeze casting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalaby, Essam A.M.; Churyumov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: churyumov@misis.ru; Solonin, Alexey N.; Lotfy, A.

    2016-09-30

    Stir followed by squeeze casting techniques were used to produce A359 composites containing different weight percentage of (SiC+Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) particles. Microstructures of the composites showed a homogeneous and even distribution of hybrid reinforcements within the matrix. Moreover, particles agglomerations, residual porosity, and other casting problems were not noticed. Interfacial reactions between the particles and the matrix were investigated using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analyses. The presence of particles in squeezed composites did not only increase the peak hardness of the composites, but also accelerated the aging kinetics. As compared with the A359 matrix alloy, a compression test of the hybrid composites exhibited a significant increase in the yield and the ultimate compressive strengths with a relative reduction in the failure strain. Finite element modeling of the composite compression showed that strain concentration near large SiC particles is the main reason for low ductility of the composite. The development of those lightweight hybrid composites with high mechanical properties has a high potential to be used for automotive and aerospace applications.

  20. Photovoltaic Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Using Hybrid Carbon Quantum Dots and Absorption Polymer Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hwain; Lee, Kyu Seung; Liu, Yang; Kim, Hak Yong; Son, Dong Ick

    2018-05-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of the carbon quantum dots (C-dots) easily obtained from citric acid and ethanediamine, and also investigated structural, optical and electrical properties. The C-dots have extraordinary optical and electrical features such as absorption of ultraviolet range and effective interface for charge separation and transport in active layer, which make them attractive materials for applications in photovoltaic devices (PV). The C-dots play important roles in charge extraction in the PV structures, they can be synthesized by a simple method and used to insert in active layer of polymer solar cells. In this study, we demonstrate that improve charge transport properties of inverted polymer solar cells (iPSCs) with C-dots and structural, optical and electrical properties of C-dots. As a result, iPSCs with C-dots showed enhancement of more than 30% compared with that of the contrast device in power conversion efficiency.

  1. Mushrooms dehydration in a hybrid-solar dryer, using a phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Mahn, Andrea; Vásquez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mushroom slices were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer. • Drying and dehydrated kinetics were adjusted with models. • Effective diffusivity, were estimated considering or not shrinkage. • Paraffin wax as a phase change material was used in an accumulator of solar energy. - Abstract: Mushrooms were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer provided with a solar panel of a total exposed surface of 10 m 2 , electric resistances and paraffin wax as a phase change material. Mushrooms were cut in 8 mm or 12 mm slices. At the outlet of the drying chamber the air was recycled (70% or 80%) and the air temperature was adjusted to 60 °C. At the outlet of the solar panel the air temperature rose up to 30 °C above the ambient temperature, depending on solar radiation level. The effective diffusivity, estimated by the Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model, considering or not shrinkage, fluctuated between 2.5 · 10 −10 m 2 /s and 8.4 · 10 −10 m 2 /s with R 2 higher than 0.99, agreeing with values reported in literature. The empirical Page’s model resulted in a better adjustment, with R 2 above 0.998. In all runs the dehydrated mushrooms showed a notorious darkening and shrinkage. Rehydration assays at 30 °C showed that in less than 30 min rehydrated mushrooms reached a moisture content of 1.91 (dry basis). Rehydrated mushrooms had a higher hardness compared with fresh mushrooms. The Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model and the Peleg’s model adjusted to the rehydration data with RMSE values below 0.080. Thermal efficiency fluctuated between 22% and 62%, while the efficiency of the accumulator panel varied between 10% and 21%. The accumulator allowed reducing the electric energy input

  2. EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTOR ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF AEOLIAN BLADES: APPLICATION OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The great interest which the wind power brings in the development of the various economic sectors encourages to contribute in the improvement of the hydrothermal and mechanical performances of the blades of wind rotors with horizontal axis. The use of composite materials involves a profit of substantial weight, strength to the directional constraints that the blade will undergo during its work and a reduction of the aerodynamic and mechanical losses. The adoption of composite materials with unidirectional reinforcement carbon/epoxy makes it possible to get for the structure a high wear resistance and a reduction of the phenomenon of bearing pressure created around the airfoil of the blade moving relative compared to the speed of the wind. The evaluation of the behavior of such composites with [+θ/- θ]4S stacking sequence, with the combined effect of the temperature, the moisture and the tensile effort constitutes the principal axis of this contribution. In order to minimize the costs, our analysis will direct towards hybrid composite materials glass-carbon/epoxy being presented in the form of symmetrical laminates [+q/0°]2S and antisymmetric [+q/0°/90°/-q]. The results obtained showed that their use contributes to the improvement of their thermomechanical behavior by involving profits of performance, weight, cost savings and energy.

  3. Manganese Dioxide Supported on Porous Biomorphic Carbons as Hybrid Materials for Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Pardo, Antonio; Lacroix, Bertrand; Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Ramirez-Rico, Joaquin

    2016-11-16

    A facile and low-cost method has been employed to fabricate MnO 2 /C hybrid materials for use as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Biocarbon monoliths were obtained through pyrolysis of beech wood, replicating the microstructure of the cellulosic precursor, and serve as 3D porous and conductive scaffolds for the direct growth of MnO 2 nanosheets by a solution method. Evaluation of the experimental results indicates that a homogeneous and uniform composite material made of a carbon matrix exhibiting ordered hierarchical porosity and MnO 2 nanosheets with a layered nanocrystalline structure is obtained. The tuning of the MnO 2 content and crystallite size via the concentration of KMnO 4 used as impregnation solution allows to obtain composites that exhibit enhanced electrochemical behavior, achieving a capacitance of 592 F g -1 in electrodes containing 3 wt % MnO 2 with an excellent cyclic stability. The electrode materials were characterized before and after electrochemical testing.

  4. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Pradyumna; Legedza, Stanislav; Dhar, Aditya; Salgado, Ruben; Renteria, Jacqueline; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    Li-ion batteries are crucial components for progress in mobile communications and transport technologies. However, Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates reliability and environmental problems. Here we show that thermal management and the reliability of Li-ion batteries can be drastically improved using hybrid phase change material with graphene fillers. Conventional thermal management of batteries relies on the latent heat stored in the phase change material as its phase changes over a small temperature range, thereby reducing the temperature rise inside the battery. Incorporation of graphene to the hydrocarbon-based phase change material allows one to increase its thermal conductivity by more than two orders of magnitude while preserving its latent heat storage ability. A combination of the sensible and latent heat storage together with the improved heat conduction outside of the battery pack leads to a significant decrease in the temperature rise inside a typical Li-ion battery pack. The described combined heat storage-heat conduction approach can lead to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion and other types of batteries.

  5. Living hybrid materials capable of energy conversion and CO2 assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Christophe F; Rooke, Joanna C; Léonard, Alexandre; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian

    2010-06-14

    This paper reviews our work on the fabrication of photobiochemical hybrid materials via immobilisation of photosynthetically active entities within silica materials, summarising the viability and productivity of these active entities post encapsulation and evaluating their efficiency as the principal component of a photobioreactor. Immobilisation of thylakoids extracted from spinach leaves as well as whole cells such as A. thaliana, Synechococcus and C. caldarium was carried out in situ using sol-gel methods. In particular, a comprehensive overview is given of the efforts to find the most biocompatible inorganic precursors that can extend the lifetime of the organisms upon encapsulation. The effect of matrix-cell interactions on cell lifetime and the photosynthetic efficiency of the resultant materials are discussed. Precursors based on alkoxides, commonly used in "Chimie Douce" to form porous silica gel, release by-products which are often cytotoxic. However by controlling the formation of gels from aqueous silica precursors and silica nanoparticles acting as "cements" one can significantly enhance the life span of the entrapped organelles and cells. Adapted characteristic techniques have shown survival times of up to 5 months with the photosynthetic production of oxygen recorded as much as 17 weeks post immobilisation. These results constitute a significant advance towards the final goal, long-lasting semi-artificial photobioreactors that can advantageously exploit solar radiation to convert polluting carbon dioxide into useful biofuels, sugars or medical metabolites.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  7. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Yun-Jr; Yeh, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm 2 , and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  8. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang, E-mail: fsjuang@seed.net.tw [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yun-Jr [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Pei-Hsun [Raystar Optronics, Inc., 5F No. 25, Keya Rd. Daya Township, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yu-Sheng [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  9. Gadolinium(III) ion selective sensor using a new synthesized Schiff's base as a sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali, E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadhosseini, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haji-Mohammadrezazadeh, Saeed [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Ardakan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridbod, Farnoush [Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza [Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meghdadi, Soraia [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoodnia, Abolghasem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    According to a solution study which showed a selective complexation between N,N Prime -bis(methylsalicylidene)-2-aminobenzylamine (MSAB) and gadolinium ions, MSAB was used as a sensing element in construction of a gadolinium(III) ion selective electrode. Acetophenon (AP) was used as solvent mediator and sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) as an anion excluder. The electrode showed a good selectivity towards Gd(III) ions over a wide variety of cations tested. The constructed sensor displayed a Nernstian behavior (19.7 {+-} 0.3 mV/decade) in the concentration range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} with detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} and a short response time (< 10 s). The working pH range of the electrode was 3.5-10.1 and lifetime of the sensor was at least 10 weeks. Analysis of certified reference materials confirmed the accuracy of the proposed sensor. The electrode was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in gadolinium titration with EDTA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Gd{sup 3+}-PVC membrane sensor based on an ion carrier as sensing material is introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique is very simple and it's not necessary to use sophisticated equipment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensor shows good selectivity against other metal ions.

  10. Hybrid Materials Polypyrrole-heteropolytungstate Electrosynthesis of Electrodes for Secondary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng, S. A.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrroles doped with heterpolytungstate anion [PW12O40]3- was electrogenerated from acetonitrile solutions. It is found that the productivity of the consumed charge to produce the hybrids always keeps at high constant value of about 1.9 x 10-3 mg mC-1, whatever the studied conditions including different potentials, different concentrations of pyrrole, different concentrations of PW12O40 3- or different temperatures. The hybrid material coats the electrode as a compact, adherent, conducting and dark-blue film. The specific charges of the materials initially increase as the polymer weight increases keeping a constant value for greater weight than 0.15 mg cm-2. Consecutive charge-discharge promotes a fast initial loss of material by solubility, the specific charge of the insoluble part increases until 90 mA h g-1. Both evolution of the cyclic voltammograms and UV-vis spectroscopies indicate the presence of macroanion in solution after cycling.

    Los polipirroles dopados con anión heteropoliwolframato [PW12O40]3- (materiales híbridos han sido electrogenerados desde disoluciones de acetonitrilo. Se ha visto que la productividad de la carga consumida para producir los híbridos siempre se mantiene a valores constantes elevados alrededor de 1.9 x 10-3 mg mC-1, cualquiera que sea la condición estudiada de síntesis: diferentes potenciales, diferentes concentraciones de pirrol, diferentes concentraciones de PW12O40 3- o diferentes temperaturas. El material híbrido recubre el electrodo en forma de film azul marino, compacto, adherente y conductor. Las cargas específicas almacenadas en los materiales inicialmente aumentan a medida que el peso del polímero aumenta, manteniendo un valor constante a partir de pesos mayores que 0.15 mg cm-2. La voltamperometría cíclica y la espectroscopía UV-vis indican la presencia de un intercambio de iones entre el macroión del film y el ClO4 -1 de la solución durante los procesos de oxidaci

  11. Student Interactions with Online Videos in a Large Hybrid Mechanics of Materials Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Benjamin; Bir, Devayan D.

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid course format has gained popularity in the engineering education community over the past few years. Although studies have examined student outcomes and attitudes toward hybrid courses, a limited number of studies have examined how students interact with online videos in hybrid courses. This study examined the video-viewing behaviors of…

  12. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  13. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  14. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  15. Textural Properties of Hybrid Biomedical Materials Made from Extracts of Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Imbibed and Deposited on Mesoporous and Microporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research group has developed a group of hybrid biomedical materials potentially useful in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations. The organic part of this type of hybrid materials consists of nanometric deposits, proceeding from the Mexican medicinal plant Tournefortia hirsutissima L., while the inorganic part is composed of a zeolite mixture that includes LTA, ZSM-5, clinoptilolite, and montmorillonite (PZX as well as a composite material, made of CaCO3 and montmorillonite (NABE. The organic part has been analyzed by GC-MS to detect the most abundant components present therein. In turn, the inorganic supports were characterized by XRD, SEM, and High Resolution Adsorption (HRADS of N2 at 76 K. Through this latter methodology, the external surface area of the hybrid materials was evaluated; besides, the most representative textural properties of each substrate such as total pore volume, pore size distribution, and, in some cases, the volume of micropores were calculated. The formation and stabilization of nanodeposits on the inorganic segments of the hybrid supports led to a partial blockage of the microporosity of the LTA and ZSM5 zeolites; this same effect occurred with the NABE and PZX substrates.

  16. A study of nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite as the positive electrode material for electrochemical hybrid capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-qiao; Zou, Ying; Xia, Yong-yao [Chemistry Department and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-01-01

    We present a new concept of the hybrid electrochemical capacitor technology in which a poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite (PTMA-AC) is used as the positive electrode material and activated carbon is used as the negative electrode material. On the positive electrode, both reversible reduction and oxidation of nitroxide polyradical and non-faradic ion sorption/de-sorption of activated carbon are involved during charge and discharge process. The capacity of the composite electrode is 30% larger than that of the pure activated carbon electrode. A hybrid capacitor fabricated by the PTMA-AC composite positive electrode and the activated carbon negative electrode shows a good cycling life, it can be charged/discharged for over 1000 cycles with slight capacity loss. The hybrid capacitor also has a good rate capability, it maintains 80% of the initial capacity even at the high discharge current of up to 20C. (author)

  17. Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Composite Synthesized Using Microwave Water Plasma for Cathode Material in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Yajima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent cation rechargeable batteries are expected to perform well as high-capacity storage devices. Rechargeable magnesium batteries have an advantage in terms of resource utilization and safety. Here, we report on sulfur-doped vanadium pentoxide (S-V2O5 as a potential material for the cathodes of such a battery; S-V2O5 showed a specific capacity of 300 mAh·g−1. S-V2O5 was prepared by a method using a low-temperature plasma generated by carbon felt and a 2.45 GHz microwave generator. This study investigates the ability of S-V2O5 to achieve high capacity when added to metal oxide. The highest recorded capacity (420 mAh·g−1 was reached with MnO2 added to composite SMn-V2O5, which has a higher proportion of included sulfur than found in S-V2O5. Results from transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the bulk of the SMn-V2O5 was the orthorhombic V2O5 structure; the surface was a xerogel-like V2O5 and a solid solution of MnO2 and sulfur.

  18. Porous carbon as electrode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) synthesized by the direct carbonization of MOF-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Inayatali

    2014-01-12

    Porous carbon (PC-900) was prepared by direct carbonization of porous metal-organic framework (MOF)-5 (Zn4O(bdc)3, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) at 900 °C. The carbon material was deposited with PtM (M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu (20 %) metal loading) nanoparticles using the polyol reduction method, and catalysts PtM/PC-900 were designed for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). However, herein, we are reporting PtFe/PC-900 catalyst combination which has exhibited superior performance among other options. This catalyst was characterized by powder XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. The electrocatalytic capability of the catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and direct ethanol single cell testing. The results were compared with those of PtFe and Pt supported on Vulcan XC72 carbon catalysts (PFe/CX-72 and Pt/XC-72) prepared via the same method. It has been observed that the catalyst PtFe/PC-900 developed in this work showed an outstanding normalized activity per gram of Pt (6.8 mA/g Pt) and superior power density (121 mW/cm2 at 90 °C) compared to commercially available carbon-supported catalysts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  19. Porous carbon as electrode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) synthesized by the direct carbonization of MOF-5

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Inayatali; Badshah, Amin; Haider, Naghma; Ullah, Shafiq; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif

    2014-01-01

    Porous carbon (PC-900) was prepared by direct carbonization of porous metal-organic framework (MOF)-5 (Zn4O(bdc)3, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) at 900 °C. The carbon material was deposited with PtM (M=Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu (20 %) metal loading) nanoparticles using the polyol reduction method, and catalysts PtM/PC-900 were designed for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). However, herein, we are reporting PtFe/PC-900 catalyst combination which has exhibited superior performance among other options. This catalyst was characterized by powder XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) technique. The electrocatalytic capability of the catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and direct ethanol single cell testing. The results were compared with those of PtFe and Pt supported on Vulcan XC72 carbon catalysts (PFe/CX-72 and Pt/XC-72) prepared via the same method. It has been observed that the catalyst PtFe/PC-900 developed in this work showed an outstanding normalized activity per gram of Pt (6.8 mA/g Pt) and superior power density (121 mW/cm2 at 90 °C) compared to commercially available carbon-supported catalysts. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

  20. Syntheses of carbon porous materials with varied pore sizes and their performances as catalyst supports during methanol oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, An-Ya; Hung, Chin-Te; Yu, Ningya; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Liu, Shang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CPMs with varied pore sizes (1–400 nm) were replicated from various porous silicas by CVI method. ► MOR activities of Pt/CPM electrocatalysts increase with increasing pore size of CPM support. ► Microporous CPMs are favorable supports for Pt in terms of catalytic performance and CO-tolerance. -- Abstract: Carbon porous materials (CPMs) with extended ranges of pore size and morphology were replicated using various porous silicas, such as zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and photonic crystals, as templates by means of chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) method. The micro-, meso-, and macro-porous carbons so fabricated were adopted as supports for the metal (Pt) catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), and the supported Pt/CPM electrocatalysts were characterized by a variety of different spectroscopic/analytical techniques, viz. transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas physisorption/chemisorption analyses, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). That these Pt/CPMs were found to exhibit superior electrocatalytic activities compared to the commercial Pt/XC-72 with a comparable Pt loading during methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) is attributed to the presence of Pt nanoparticles (NPs; typically 1–3 nm in size) that are highly dispersed in the CPMs, facilitating an improved tolerance for CO poisoning. While the MOR activity observed for various Pt/CPMs tend to increase with increasing pore size of the carbon supports, Pt catalyst supported on carbon substrates possessing microporosities was found to have superior stability in terms of tolerance for CO poisoning than those with greater pore size or having meso- and macroporosities.

  1. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  2. Influence of antioxidants synthesized by plants on physico-chemical and microbiological evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian clay material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubersfeld, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    situ on a heap of old argillite (10 years) for one year. The lavandin grew better than lavender and was retained for the second study in situ. The comparison of the planted part of the COx heap with bare COx showed (i) a significant reduction in the quantities of calcium, strontium, iron and sulfur leached (ii) a significant reduction (by two orders of magnitude) to the amount of eroded material on the slope planted compared to unplanted (iii) a significant rate of mycorrhiza roots and microbial growth. In conclusion, although the naturally derived antioxidants did not significantly inhibit the alteration of argillite, the lavandin is an excellent plant for phyto-stabilisation of heap and for production of antioxidants. (author) [fr

  3. Acidic and catalytic properties of hierarchical zeolites and hybrid ordered mesoporous materials assembled from MFI protozeolitic units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serrano, D. P.; García, R. A.; Vicente, G.; Linares, M.; Vitvarová, Dana; Čejka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 2 (2011), s. 366-380 ISSN 0021-9517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hierarchical zeolites * hybrid zeolitic-mesostructured materials * Bronsted and Lewis acid centres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.002, year: 2011

  4. Improved selectivity towards NO₂ of phthalocyanine-based chemosensors by means of original indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Pauly, A; Dubois, M; Rodriguez-Mendez, M L; Ndiaye, A L; Varenne, C; Guérin, K

    2014-09-01

    A new and original gas sensor-system dedicated to the selective monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in air and in the presence of ozone, has been successfully achieved. Because of its high sensitivity and its partial selectivity towards oxidizing pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone), copper phthalocyanine-based chemoresistors are relevant. The selectivity towards nitrogen dioxide results from the implementation of a high efficient and selective ozone filter upstream the sensing device. Thus, a powdered indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material has been developed and investigated for such an application. If nanocarbonaceous material acts as a highly permeable matrix with a high specific surface area, immobilized indigo nanoparticles are involved into an ozonolysis reaction with ozone leading to the selective removal of this analytes from air sample. The filtering yields towards each gas have been experimentally quantified and establish the complete removal of ozone while having the concentration of nitrogen dioxide unchanged. Long-term gas exposures reveal the higher durability of hybrid material as compared to nanocarbons and indigo separately. Synthesis, characterizations by many complementary techniques and tests of hybrid filters are detailed. Results on sensor-system including CuPc-based chemoresistors and indigo/carbon nanotubes hybrid material as in-line filter are illustrated. Sensing performances will be especially discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  6. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang; Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Liang, Yongye; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free

  7. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-03-23

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  8. The effect of fibre layering pattern in resisting bending loads of natural fibre-based hybrid composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Muhamad Shahirul Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre layering pattern and hybridization on the flexural properties of composite hybrid laminates between natural fibres of basalt, jute and flax with synthetic fibre of E-glass reinforced epoxy have been investigated experimentally. Results showed that the effect fibre layering pattern was highly significant on the flexural strength and modulus, which were strongly dependent on the hybrid configuration between sandwich-like (SL and intercalation (IC sequence of fibre layers. In addition, specific modulus based on the variation densities of the hybrid laminates was used to discover the best combination either basalt, jute or flax with E-glass exhibits superior properties concerning on the strength to weight-ratio. Generally, SL sequence of glass/basalt exhibited superior strength and stiffness compared with glass/jute and glass/flax in resisting bending loads. In terms of hybridization effect, glass/jute was found to be the best combination with E-glass compared to the rest of natural fibres investigated in the present study. Hence, the proper stacking sequences and material selection are among predominant factors that influence on mechanical properties and very crucial in designing composite hybrid system to meet the desired requirements.

  9. Silver Nanoparticles Influence on Photocatalytic Activity of Hybrid Materials Based on TiO2 P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkouani Kodom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study consists in the obtaining of a hybrid material film, obtained using TiO2 P25 and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The film manufacturing process involved realization of physical mixtures of TiO2 P25 and AgNPs dispersions. The size distribution of the AgNPs proved to be a key factor determining the photodegradation activity of the materials measured using methyl orange. The best result was 33% degradation of methyl orange (MO after 150 min. The second approach was the generation of AgNPs on the surface of TiO2 P25. The obtained hybrid material presents photocatalytic activity of 45% MO degradation after 150 min. The developed materials were characterized by UV-VIS, SEM, and DLS analyses.

  10. Survey of Materials for Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors Vol 1 Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry Materials and Life Sciences Directorate

    2007-07-03

    Materials for fusion-fission hybrid reactors fall into several broad categories, including fuels, blanket and coolant materials, cladding, structural materials, shielding, and in the specific case of inertial-confinement fusion systems, laser and optical materials. This report surveys materials in all categories of materials except for those required for lasers and optics. Preferred collants include two molten salt mixtures known as FLIBE (Li2BeF4) and FLINABE (LiNaBeF4). In the case of homogenous liquid fuels, UF4 can be dissolved in these molten salt mixtures. The transmutation of lithium in this coolant produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid species (HF and TF), which can rapidly degrade structural materials. Broad ranges of high-melting radiation-tolerant structural material have been proposed for fusion-fission reactor structures. These include a wide variety of steels and refractory alloys. Ferritic steels with oxide-dispersion strengthening and graphite have been given particular attention. Refractory metals are found in Groups IVB and VB of the periodic table, and include Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W, as serve as the basis of refractory alloys. Stable high-melting composites and amorphous metals may also be useful. Since amorphous metals have no lattice structure, neutron bombardment cannot dislodge atoms from lattice sites, and the materials would be immune from this specific mode of degradation. The free energy of formation of fluorides of the alloying elements found in steels and refractory alloys can be used to determine the relative stability of these materials in molten salts. The reduction of lithium transmutation products (H+ and T+) drives the electrochemical corrosion process, and liberates aggressive fluoride ions that pair with ions formed from dissolved structural materials. Corrosion can be suppressed through the use of metallic Be and Li, though the molten salt becomes laden with colloidal suspensions of Be and Li corrosion

  11. Charge transfer processes in hybrid solar cells composed of amorphous silicon and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Sebastian; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam, Inst. Physik u. Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Schulze, Tim; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Inst. fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of hybrid solar cells composed of organic materials and amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) strongly depends upon the efficiency of charge transfer processes at the inorganic-organic interface. We investigated the performance of devices comprising an ITO/a-Si:H(n-type)/a-Si:H(intrinsic)/organic/metal multilayer structure and using two different organic components: zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The results show higher power conversion- and quantum efficiencies for the P3HT based cells, compared to ZnPc. This can be explained by larger energy-level offset at the interface between the organic layer and a-Si:H, which facilitates hole transfer from occupied states in the valence band tail to the HOMO of the organic material and additionally promotes exciton splitting. The performance of the a-Si:H/P3HT cells can be further improved by treatment of the amorphous silicon surface with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and p-type doping of P3HT with F4TCNQ. The improved cells reached maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1%.

  12. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  13. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  14. Naturally Abundance Vanillin as Starting Material to Synthesizing 4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri MASRURI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the second biggest producer of natural vanillin. Traditionally it was isolated from the bean of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews. This paper reports on applying vanillin as starting material for synthesizing a biologically important chemical structure 3,4-dihydropyrimidinone. The reaction was undertaken in one step following multi component reaction (MCR. Products determination was undergone using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and also liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS. After purification under flash column chromatography in ethyl acetate-hexane, it was found a white solid of 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-one in 67% yield with a few amount of an unreacted vanillin.

  15. Zr doping effect with low-cost solid-state reaction method to synthesize submicron Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Inseok; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    To improve the electrochemical properties, fine Zr-doping Li4Ti5O12 anode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries with a uniform particle size distribution were synthesized by a modified solid-state reaction using fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors with a Li:Ti molar ratio of 4:5. The use of fine Li2CO3 and TiO2 (anatase) powders as precursors prevented the formation of ZrO2 at 0.1 mol Zr-doping. XRD analysis revealed that the substitution of Zr for Ti leads to the increase of lattice parameters, allowing improved Li diffusion. The discharge capacity retention increased slightly with Zr-doping and the 0.1 mol Zr-doped Li4Ti5O12 electrode achieved 99% retention of discharge capacity.

  16. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  17. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  18. Microporous-mesoporous carbons for energy storage synthesized by activation of carbonaceous material by zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide or mixture of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmas, M.; Thomberg, T.; Kurig, H.; Romann, T.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E.

    2016-09-01

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate solution in acetonitrile and activated carbon based electrodes. Activated microporous carbon materials used for the preparation of electrodes have been synthesized from the hydrothermal carbonization product (HTC) prepared via hydrothermal carbonization process of D-(+)-glucose solution in H2O, followed by activation with ZnCl2, KOH or their mixture. Highest porosity and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (SBET = 2150 m2 g-1), micropore surface area (Smicro = 2140 m2 g-1) and total pore volume (Vtot = 1.01 cm3 g-1) have been achieved for HTC activated using KOH with a mass ratio of 1:4 at 700 °C. The correlations between SBET, Smicro, Vtot and electrochemical characteristics have been studied to investigate the reasons for strong dependence of electrochemical characteristics on the synthesis conditions of carbon materials studied. Wide region of ideal polarizability (ΔV ≤ 3.0 V), very short characteristic relaxation time (0.66 s), and high specific series capacitance (134 F g-1) have been calculated for the mentioned activated carbon material, demonstrating that this system can be used for completing the EDLC with high energy- and power densities.

  19. One-pot syntheses of Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode material for lithium ion batteries via ascorbic acid reduction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.S.; Yang, L.; Liu, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) was used as reducing agent and organic carbon source. → The strategy shortened the period of material preparation and lowered energy cost. → Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C was obtained with enhanced electrochemical performance. → Effects of reagents on electrochemical performance of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 were evaluated. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite synthesized by ascorbic acid reduction method is examined as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the nano-size particles are obtained. The reversible capacity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C prepared with LiOH and H 3 PO 4 is 141.2 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles at 1C discharge rate between 3 V and 4.8 V, and the retention rates of discharge capacity is 93.4%. Ascorbic acid plays not only as reduction reagent, but also as carbon sources. This strategy shortens the time of solid state reaction and facilitates the procedure of synthesis. Effects of different precursors materials on the performance of the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C are investigated.

  20. Analysis of the characteristics of a white organic LED using the newly synthesized blue material methyl-DPVT by varying the thickness of the DPVBi layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hwan-Sool; Cho, Jae-Young; Yoon, Seok-Beom

    2004-01-01

    A two-wavelength type of white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) having a blue/orange emitting layer was fabricated by synthesizing Methyl-DPVT, a new derivative of the blue-emitting material DPVBi on the market. The white-emission of the two-wavelength type was successfully obtained by representing not only blue emission by using DPVBi but also orange emission by using methyl-DPVT as a host material and Rubrene as a guest material. The basic structure of the fabricated white OLED is glass/ITO/NPB(150 A)/DPVBi/methyl-DPVT :Rubrene [2.0 wt%](100 A)/BCP(70 A)/Alq 3 (150 A)/Al(600 A). To evaluate the characteristics of the devices, we varied the thickness of the DPVBi layer from 100 A to 80 A to 60 A. A nearly pure white-emission was obtained in CIE coordinates of (0.3327, 0.3397) when the DPVBi layer was 60-A thick at an applied voltage of 11 V. The device started to operate at 1 V and to emit light at 2.5 V. The external quantum efficiency was above 0.5 % both when almost all of the current was injected and the applied voltage was over 10 V. A superior maximum quantum effciency of 0.746 % was obtained at an applied voltage of 18.5 V.

  1. Investigation of CdS clusters in solution for their use as building blocks in hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendova, M.

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor CdS nanoparticles (NPs) represent a system between bulk solids and molecules with novel properties of matter, originating from 'quantum size effects'. Part of the research is aiming to prepare polymers doped with CdS NPs, so called hybrid materials, in order to introduce photoluminescent properties. Clusters are a special case of NPs with defined molecular structure. The aim of this work is related: to prepare hybrid materials with CdS clusters covalently bound in a polymeric matrix. To this end, functional CdS clusters had to be prepared first, with organic groups on the surface capable of polymerization; then they had to be covalently incorporated into a polymeric matrix. During the whole procedure, the molecular structure of the cluster has to be precisely defined. The investigation proceeded differently. In the first part, the molecular structure of the chosen model clusters was investigated in solution at conditions similar to polymerization. It was shown that solvent coordination plays an important role in the maintainance of the cluster structure. When strongly coordinating solvents were used (DMSO, DMF), the cluster (NMe 4 ) 4 [Cd 10 S 4 (SPh) 16 ] rearranged to bigger clusters and NPs, in weakly coordinating solvents (MeCN) the effect was observable only to low degrees at elevated temperatures. Simultaneously, a byproduct was formed which was characterized as [Cd(SPh) x (DMSO) y ] (2-x) (x =ca. 3) in DMSO. The second investigated compound, 'Cd 10 S 4 (SPh) 12 ', revealed the same behavior in coordinating solvents which led also to crystallization of diverse Cd54 clusters. The compound 'Cd 10 S 4 (SPh) 12 ' was investigated also for different reason: theoretically, it should have four free Cd coordination sites capable of functionalization. It turned out, that it does not have the postulated structure Cd 10 S 4 (SPh) 12 , but that it is a mixture of differently sized CdS clusters. Thus, it could not be used for controlled functionalization

  2. 3D carbon fiber mats/nano-Fe3O4 hybrid material with high electromagnetic shielding performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yingqing; Long, Zhihang; Wan, Xinyi; Zhang, Jiemin; He, Shuangjiang; He, Yi

    2018-06-01

    To obtain high-performance electromagnetic shielding materials, structure and morphology are two key factors. We here developed an efficient and facial method to prepare high-performance 3D carbon nanofiber mats (CFM)/Fe3O4 hybrid electromagnetic shielding materials. For this purpose, the CFM were chemically modified by mussel-inspired poly-dopamine coating, which were further used as templates for decoration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles via solvothermal route. It was found that the Fe3O4 nano-spheres with diameters of 200-250 nm were uniformly coated on the surface of 3D carbon nanofibers. More importantly, the morphology and structure of resulting 3D carbon nanofiber mats/Fe3O4 hybrids could be easily controlled by altering the experiment parameters, which were examined by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, SEM, and TEM. The measured magnetic properties showed that saturation magnetism and coercivity increased from 13.4 to 39.7 emu/g and 85.3 to 104.6 Oe, respectively. The lowest reflectivity of resulting hybrid was calculated to be -47 dB at 10.0 GHz (2.5 mm). In addition, the reflectivity of 3D carbon nanofiber mats/Fe3O4 hybrid was less than -25 dB in the range of 7-13 GHz. Moreover, the resulting 3D carbon nanofiber mats/Fe3O4 hybrid exhibited an EMI shielding performance of -62.6 dB in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. Therefore, 3D carbon fiber mats/Fe3O4 hybrids can be ideal EMI materials with strong absorption, low density, and wide absorption range.

  3. Ultrahigh and Selective SO2 Uptake in Inorganic Anion-Pillared Hybrid Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xili; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Lifeng; Krishna, Rajamani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Bao, Zongbi; Wu, Hui; Ren, Qilong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Xing, Huabin

    2017-07-01

    The efficient capture of SO 2 is of great significance in gas-purification processes including flue-gas desulfurization and natural-gas purification, but the design of porous materials with high adsorption capacity and selectivity of SO 2 remains very challenging. Herein, the selective recognition and dense packing of SO 2 clusters through multiple synergistic host-guest and guest-guest interactions by controlling the pore chemistry and size in inorganic anion (SiF 6 2- , SIFSIX) pillared metal-organic frameworks is reported. The binding sites of anions and aromatic rings in SIFSIX materials grasp every atom of SO 2 firmly via S δ+ ···F δ- electrostatic interactions and O δ- ···H δ+ dipole-dipole interactions, while the guest-guest interactions between SO 2 molecules further promote gas trapping within the pore space, which is elucidated by first-principles density functional theory calculations and powder X-ray diffraction experiments. These interactions afford new benchmarks for the highly efficient removal of SO 2 from other gases, even if at a very low SO 2 concentration. Exceptionally high SO 2 capacity of 11.01 mmol g -1 is achieved at atmosphere pressure by SIFSIX-1-Cu, and unprecedented low-pressure SO 2 capacity is obtained in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i (4.16 mmol g -1 SO 2 at 0.01 bar and 2.31 mmol g -1 at 0.002 bar). More importantly, record SO 2 /CO 2 selectivity (86-89) and excellent SO 2 /N 2 selectivity (1285-3145) are also achieved. Experimental breakthrough curves further demonstrate the excellent performance of these hybrid porous materials in removing low-concentration SO 2 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of Carbon Coating on Li4TiO12 of Anode Material for Hybrid Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Kyu; Lee, Byung-Gwan; Yoon, Jung-Rag

    2015-11-01

    The carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 of anode material for hybrid capacitor was prepared by controlling carbonization time at 700 degrees C in nitrogen. With increasing of carbonization time, the discharge capacity and capacitance were decreased, while the equivalent series resistance was not changed remarkably. The rate capability and cycle performance of carbon-coated Li4Ti5O12 were larger than that of Li4Ti5O12. Carbon coating improved conductivity as well as Li-ion diffusion, and thus also resulted in good rate capabilities and cycle stability. The effects of carbon coating on the gas generation of hybrid capacitor were also discussed.

  5. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  6. Effect of natural extracts pH on morphological characteristics of hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenic, L.; Vulcu, A.; Chiorean, I.; Crisan, M.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Dreve, S.; David, L.; Tudoran, L. B.; Kacso, I.; Bratu, I.; Neamtu, C.; Voica, C.

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the pH influence on the morphology of some new hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles and natural extracts from fruits of Romanian native plants of Adoxaceae family (Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.). It is well known that the natural plants extracts are beneficial for humans thanks to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The biological activity of these berries is mainly due to their high content of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. The nanoparticles facilitate the penetration of substances in skin, enhancing their antimitotic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. We have chosen the optimal method to get these materials in which gold nanoparticles of 10-80 nm were obtained. We characterized them by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, by TEM and DSC. Creams prepared with the hybrid materials have been tested on psoriatic lesions and the medical results emphasized a remarkable improvement in this diseases.

  7. Metal-organic hybrid materials built with tetrachlorophthalate acid and different N-donor coligands: Structure diversity and photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Siwei; Wang, Debao; Yang, Yu; Wang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    Eight new metal-organic hybrid materials, namely {Cd(Tcph)(4,4‧-bipy)1/2} (1), {[Cd2(Tcph)2(1,4-bimb)1/2(H2O)4]·H2O} (2), {Cd2(Tcph)2(1,4-bmimb)1/2(H2O)4} (3), {Cd(Tcph)(1,2-bmimb)} (4), {Cu(Tcph)(1,4-bimb)(H2O)} (5), {[Co(Tcph)(1,4-bimb)1/2(H2O)3]·(H2O)} (6), {Zn(Tcph)(1,2-bimb)} (7), {Cu2(Tcph)2(1,2-bimb)(H2O)4} (8), where Tcph=tetrachlorophthalate acid, 4,4‧-bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine, 1,4-bimb=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, 1,4-bmimb=1,4-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, 1,2-bimb=1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene, 1,2-bmimb=1,2-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, have been synthesized and characterized. Their structures are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and further characterized by infrared spectra (IR) and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Complex 1, 4 and 7 display 2D layer structures. 1 possesses two-dimensional sheet containing an unusual [Cd(Tcph)] chains linked by 4,4‧-bipy co-ligand, while 4 and 7 hold the similar 4-connected 44-sql nets. Complex 2 and 3 feature a similar three dimensional (3D) internal compensation structure with a topology of {42·63·8}2{63}. 5 is a novel 2-fold self-penetrating 3D network with 4-coordinated 65·8-CdSO4 subnets. The ladder-like chains of 6 are further connected through O-H···O interactions to yield a 3D supramolecular structure. 8 is a discrete tetranuclear complex. The thermal stabilities of 1-8 and the luminescent properties of 1-4 and 7 in the solid state are also discussed.

  8. Nanocomposite/Hybrid Materials of Electroactive Polymers With Inorganic Oxides for Biosensor Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Yen

    2001-01-01

    As proposed, we have successfully synthesized new electroactive and electronically conductive polyaniline polymethacrylate-silica nanocomposites and fabricated biosensor devices, aimed for detecting...

  9. Facilely synthesized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene nanocomposite as novel electrode materials for supercapacitors with high performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhuo; Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Hailin [Department of Environmental Nano-Materials, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu, Zonghuai [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Hao, Zhengping, E-mail: zpinghao@rcees.ac.cn [Department of Environmental Nano-Materials, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}Graphene nanocomposite was synthesized in a simple hydrothermal way by using urea to adjust the system pH value, by this method the reduction of graphite oxide and the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite are finished in one step. The specific capacitance of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}Graphene electrode reached 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup –1}. Highlights: ► The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene nanocomposite was obtained by friendly method with urea in one step. ► The addition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites has positive effect on the electrical performance of the graphene nanosheets. ► The specific capacitance of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene electrode was 226 F/g at a discharge current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene nanocomposite with high capacitive properties had been prepared friendly and facilely by hydrothermal method in one-step. The morphology and structure of the obtained material were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. It was revealed by TEM images that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles grow well on the surface of graphene and the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles hinders the aggregation of graphene (reduced graphene oxide, namely, RGO). Electrochemical properties of the synthesized materials were characterized by serials of electrochemical measurements in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene nanocomposite electrode show higher specific capacitance than graphene, indicating an accelerative effect of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and graphene on improving the electrochemical performance of the electrode. The specific capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–graphene nanocomposite is 226 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. These attractive results indicate it is possible to seek and develop the promising, environmentally benign and commercial

  10. Numerical simulation of the induction heating of hybrid semi-finished materials into the semi-solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. As part of the research project "Hybrid interaction during and after thixoforging of multi-material systems", which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), a thixoforging process for producing hybrid components with cohesive metal-to-metal connections is developed. In this context, this paper deals with the numerical simulation of the inductive heating process of hybrid semi-finished materials, consisting of two different aluminium alloys. By reason of the skin effect that leads to inhomogeneous temperature distributions during inductive heating processes, the aluminium alloy with the higher melting point is thereby assembled in the outer side and the alloy with the lower melting point is assembled in the core of the semi-finished material. In this way, the graded heat distribution can be adapted to the used materialś flow properties that are heavily heat dependent. Without this graded heat distribution a proper forming process in the semi-solid state will not be possible. For numerically modelling the inductive heating system of the institute, a coupling of the magnetostatic and the thermal solver was realized by using Ansys Workbench. While the electromagnetic field and its associated heat production rate were solved in a frequency domain, the temperature development was solved in the time based domain. The numerical analysis showed that because of the high thermal conductivity of the aluminium, which leads to a rapid temperature equalization in the semi-finished material, the heating process has to be fast and with a high frequency for produce most heat in the outer region of the material. Finally, the obtained numerical results were validated with experimental heating tests.

  11. Crystallisation of hydroxyapatite in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) as a synthetic route to tough mechanical hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusakabe, Akane; Hirota, Ken; Mizutani, Tadashi, E-mail: tmizutan@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2017-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared by treating poly(vinyl alcohol) with 100% phosphoric acid, and 5, 10 and 20% of the hydroxyl groups were converted to phosphoric acid ester. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to an aqueous solution of phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave a transparent gel. Five cycles of alternate soaking of the gel in aqueous CaCl{sub 2} and aqueous (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4} were carried out to crystallise hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The X-ray diffraction peaks of HAP formed in 5% phosphorylated PVA were sharp, while those of HAP formed in 20% phosphorylated PVA were broad. The contents of inorganic phase in the hybrid powder were increased from 58 to 76 wt% as the fraction of phosphate groups in the gel was decreased from 20% to 5%. The hybrid powder was first subjected to uniaxial pressing, followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and warm isostatic pressing (WIP) at 120 °C at pressures of 300–980 MPa, to obtain the specimens for three-point bending test. These hybrid specimens showed bending strengths of 15–53 MPa. The hybrid compacts prepared from 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) showed the smallest Young's modulus, the largest displacement at break, and the largest fracture energy, showing that it has the highest toughness among the hybrid materials prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) with varying degrees of phosphorylation. - Graphical abstract: Densification of hydroxyapatite crystallised in 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave the toughest compact. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was crystallised in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gels. • Crystallite size of hydroxyapatite decreased as phosphate density was increased. • The hybrid specimens prepared in 10% phosphorylated gel was the toughest. • Phosphate density in organic matrix regulated the mechanical properties of the hybrid.

  12. Crystallisation of hydroxyapatite in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) as a synthetic route to tough mechanical hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Akane; Hirota, Ken; Mizutani, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Partially phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) was prepared by treating poly(vinyl alcohol) with 100% phosphoric acid, and 5, 10 and 20% of the hydroxyl groups were converted to phosphoric acid ester. Addition of Ca 2+ to an aqueous solution of phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave a transparent gel. Five cycles of alternate soaking of the gel in aqueous CaCl 2 and aqueous (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 were carried out to crystallise hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix. The X-ray diffraction peaks of HAP formed in 5% phosphorylated PVA were sharp, while those of HAP formed in 20% phosphorylated PVA were broad. The contents of inorganic phase in the hybrid powder were increased from 58 to 76 wt% as the fraction of phosphate groups in the gel was decreased from 20% to 5%. The hybrid powder was first subjected to uniaxial pressing, followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and warm isostatic pressing (WIP) at 120 °C at pressures of 300–980 MPa, to obtain the specimens for three-point bending test. These hybrid specimens showed bending strengths of 15–53 MPa. The hybrid compacts prepared from 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) showed the smallest Young's modulus, the largest displacement at break, and the largest fracture energy, showing that it has the highest toughness among the hybrid materials prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) with varying degrees of phosphorylation. - Graphical abstract: Densification of hydroxyapatite crystallised in 10% phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gave the toughest compact. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite was crystallised in phosphorylated poly(vinyl alcohol) gels. • Crystallite size of hydroxyapatite decreased as phosphate density was increased. • The hybrid specimens prepared in 10% phosphorylated gel was the toughest. • Phosphate density in organic matrix regulated the mechanical properties of the hybrid.

  13. Electrospun antimicrobial hybrid mats: Innovative packaging material for meat and meat-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Yang, Jieun; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Hwang, I H

    2015-07-01

    To prevent the development and spread of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms via meat foodstuffs, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging can serve as a potential alternative. The objective of this study was to develop a new class of antimicrobial hybrid packaging mat composed of biodegradable polyurethane supplemented with virgin olive oil and zinc oxide via electrospinning. Instead of mixing antimicrobial compounds directly with food, incorporation in packaging materials allows the functional effect at food surfaces where microbial activity is localized. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM. The antibacterial activity was tested against two common foodborne pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The present results indicated that incorporation of olive oil in the polymer affected morphology of PU nanofibers and nanocomposite packaging were able to inhibit growth of pathogens. Thus; as-spun mat can be used as prospective antimicrobial packaging, which potentially reduces contamination of meat/meat-products. Moreover, introduced biodegradable packaging for meat products could serve to replace PVC films and simultaneously help to protect natural environment.

  14. Novel Carbon Materials in the Cathode Formulation for High Rate Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel carbon materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and porous graphene (PG, were exploited and used as conductive additives to improve the rate performance of LiMn2O4 cathode for the rechargeable aqueous Zn/LiMn2O4 battery, namely the rechargeable hybrid aqueous battery (ReHAB. Thanks to the long-range conductivity and stable conductive network provided by CNTs, the rate and cycling performances of LiMn2O4 cathode in ReHAB are highly improved—up to about 100 mAh·g−1 capacity is observed at 10 C (1 C = 120 mAh·g−1. Except for CNTs, porous graphene (PG with a high surface area, an abundant porous structure, and an excellent electrical conductivity facilitates the transportation of Li ions and electrons, which can also obviously enhance the rate capability of the ReHAB. This is important because the ReHAB could be charged/discharged in a few minutes, and this leads to potential application of the ReHAB in automobile industry.

  15. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  16. Hybrid High-Order methods for finite deformations of hyperelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mickaël; Ern, Alexandre; Pignet, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    We devise and evaluate numerically Hybrid High-Order (HHO) methods for hyperelastic materials undergoing finite deformations. The HHO methods use as discrete unknowns piecewise polynomials of order k≥1 on the mesh skeleton, together with cell-based polynomials that can be eliminated locally by static condensation. The discrete problem is written as the minimization of a broken nonlinear elastic energy where a local reconstruction of the displacement gradient is used. Two HHO methods are considered: a stabilized method where the gradient is reconstructed as a tensor-valued polynomial of order k and a stabilization is added to the discrete energy functional, and an unstabilized method which reconstructs a stable higher-order gradient and circumvents the need for stabilization. Both methods satisfy the principle of virtual work locally with equilibrated tractions. We present a numerical study of the two HHO methods on test cases with known solution and on more challenging three-dimensional test cases including finite deformations with strong shear layers and cavitating voids. We assess the computational efficiency of both methods, and we compare our results to those obtained with an industrial software using conforming finite elements and to results from the literature. The two HHO methods exhibit robust behavior in the quasi-incompressible regime.

  17. A hybrid 3D SEM reconstruction method optimized for complex geologic material surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shang; Adegbule, Aderonke; Kibbey, Tohren C G

    2017-08-01

    Reconstruction methods are widely used to extract three-dimensional information from scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. This paper presents a new hybrid reconstruction method that combines stereoscopic reconstruction with shape-from-shading calculations to generate highly-detailed elevation maps from SEM image pairs. The method makes use of an imaged glass sphere to determine the quantitative relationship between observed intensity and angles between the beam and surface normal, and the detector and surface normal. Two specific equations are derived to make use of image intensity information in creating the final elevation map. The equations are used together, one making use of intensities in the two images, the other making use of intensities within a single image. The method is specifically designed for SEM images captured with a single secondary electron detector, and is optimized to capture maximum detail from complex natural surfaces. The method is illustrated with a complex structured abrasive material, and a rough natural sand grain. Results show that the method is capable of capturing details such as angular surface features, varying surface roughness, and surface striations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid cell adhesive material for instant dielectrophoretic cell trapping and long-term cell function assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Darwin R; Hong, Jennifer S; Elliott, John T; Gaitan, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) for cell manipulation has focused, for the most part, on approaches for separation/enrichment of cells of interest. Advancements in cell positioning and immobilization onto substrates for cell culture, either as single cells or as cell aggregates, has benefited from the intensified research efforts in DEP (electrokinetic) manipulation. However, there has yet to be a DEP approach that provides the conditions for cell manipulation while promoting cell function processes such as cell differentiation. Here we present the first demonstration of a system that combines DEP with a hybrid cell adhesive material (hCAM) to allow for cell entrapment and cell function, as demonstrated by cell differentiation into neuronlike cells (NLCs). The hCAM, comprised of polyelectrolytes and fibronectin, was engineered to function as an instantaneous cell adhesive surface after DEP manipulation and to support long-term cell function (cell proliferation, induction, and differentiation). Pluripotent P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells flowing within a microchannel were attracted to the DEP electrode surface and remained adhered onto the hCAM coating under a fluid flow field after the DEP forces were removed. Cells remained viable after DEP manipulation for up to 8 d, during which time the P19 cells were induced to differentiate into NLCs. This approach could have further applications in areas such as cell-cell communication, three-dimensional cell aggregates to create cell microenvironments, and cell cocultures.

  19. Developing an aqueous approach for synthesizing Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars with plasmonic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingshan; Yu, Junjie; Xiong, Yalin; Lin, Zhuoqing; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticles show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which make it attractive in optical, sensing, and biomedical applications. In this contribution, we report a general and facile strategy towards aqueous synthesis of Au and M@Au (M = Pd, CuPt) hybrid nanostars by reducing HAuCl4 with ethanolamine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). According to electron microscopic observation and spectral monitoring, we found that the layered epitaxial growth mode (i.e., Frank-van der Merwe mechanism) contributes to the enlargement of the core, while, the random attachment of Au nanoclusters onto the cores accounts for the formation of the branches. Both of them are indispensable for the formation of the nanostars. The LSPR properties of the Au nanoparticles have been well investigated with morphology control via precursor amount and growth temperature. The Au nanostars showed improved surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) performance for rhodamine 6G due to their sharp edges and tips, which were therefore confirmed as good SERS substrate to detect trace amount of molecules.

  20. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  1. Influence of annealing temperature on the electrochemical and surface properties of the 5-V spinel cathode material LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 synthesized by a sol–gel technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Malmgren, Sara; Edström, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 was synthesized by a sol–gel technique in which tartaric acid was used as oxide precursor. The synthesized powder was annealed at five different temperatures from 600 to 1,000 °C and tested as a 5-V cathode material in Li-ion batteries. The study shows that annealing at higher...

  2. A role of nanotube dangling pyrrole and oxygen functions in the electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/MWCNTs hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Herman, Artur P.; Turczyn, Roman; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Koziol, Krzysztof K.K.; Boncel, Sławomir; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of MWCNT functionalization on properties of PPy composites was explained. • The behavior of pristine, pyrrole-modified and oxidized MWCNT was explained. • Functionalization of MWCNT improved their dispersibility and processability. • Different mechanisms of (f-)MWCNT incorporation into PPy composites were explained. • Orientation of growing PPy chains was tailored through the addition of (f-)MWCNT. - Abstract: The effect of the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the process of electrochemical co-deposition of MWCNTs and polypyrrole (PPy), as well as the morphology of obtained composites have been demonstrated. As the nanotube components of the hybrids, three types of MWCNT were used, namely c-CVD derived (pristine) MWCNTs, their oxidized counterparts MWCNT-Ox and pyrrole-modified MWCNT-Py. The stability of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNT) dispersions in tetrahydrofuran and water was studied together with the description of the process of formation PPy/(f-)MWCNT hybrid materials via electrochemical co-deposition. The structural and morphological properties of the hybrids were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealing substantial differences among hybrid materials in their surface morphology and the influence of MWCNT functionalization on the orientation of growing PPy chains

  3. A role of nanotube dangling pyrrole and oxygen functions in the electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/MWCNTs hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.krukiewicz@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Herman, Artur P., E-mail: artur.herman@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, Gliwice 44-100 (Poland); Turczyn, Roman, E-mail: roman.turczyn@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Szymańska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.szymanska@polsl.pl [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 7, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koziol, Krzysztof K.K., E-mail: kk292@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Boncel, Sławomir, E-mail: slawomir.boncel@polsl.pl [Department of Organic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry and Biotechnology, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 4, Gliwice 44-100 (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K., E-mail: jerzy.zak@polsl.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The effect of MWCNT functionalization on properties of PPy composites was explained. • The behavior of pristine, pyrrole-modified and oxidized MWCNT was explained. • Functionalization of MWCNT improved their dispersibility and processability. • Different mechanisms of (f-)MWCNT incorporation into PPy composites were explained. • Orientation of growing PPy chains was tailored through the addition of (f-)MWCNT. - Abstract: The effect of the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the process of electrochemical co-deposition of MWCNTs and polypyrrole (PPy), as well as the morphology of obtained composites have been demonstrated. As the nanotube components of the hybrids, three types of MWCNT were used, namely c-CVD derived (pristine) MWCNTs, their oxidized counterparts MWCNT-Ox and pyrrole-modified MWCNT-Py. The stability of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNT) dispersions in tetrahydrofuran and water was studied together with the description of the process of formation PPy/(f-)MWCNT hybrid materials via electrochemical co-deposition. The structural and morphological properties of the hybrids were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealing substantial differences among hybrid materials in their surface morphology and the influence of MWCNT functionalization on the orientation of growing PPy chains.

  4. Studies on soy protein isolate/polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofiber membranes as multi-functional eco-friendly filtration materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Qun; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Siruo; Sui, Gang, E-mail: suigang@mail.buct.edu.cn; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Biodegradable filtration membranes were prepared. • Polar groups in the membrane surface helped capture fine particles. • Loading filtration efficiency can reach 99.99% in the case of small pressure drop. • Filtration membrane showed antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli. - Abstract: A biodegradable and multifunctional air filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning of soy protein isolate (SPI)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) system in this paper. The optimized SPI/PVA proportion in the spinning solution was determined according to the analyses of microstructure, surface chemical characteristic and mechanical property of the hybrid nanofiber membranes. Under the preferred preparation condition, two kinds of polymer materials displayed a good compatibility in the hybrid nanofibers, and a large number of polar groups existed in the membrane surface. The loading filtration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane with optimal material ratio and areal density can reach 99.99% after test of 30 min for fine particles smaller than 2.5 μm in the case of small pressure drop. Besides, this kind of filtration membrane showed an antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli in the study. The SPI/PVA hybrid nanofiber membrane with proper material composition and microstructure can be used as a new type of high performance eco-friendly filtration materials.

  5. Studies on soy protein isolate/polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanofiber membranes as multi-functional eco-friendly filtration materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Qun; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Siruo; Sui, Gang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodegradable filtration membranes were prepared. • Polar groups in the membrane surface helped capture fine particles. • Loading filtration efficiency can reach 99.99% in the case of small pressure drop. • Filtration membrane showed antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli. - Abstract: A biodegradable and multifunctional air filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning of soy protein isolate (SPI)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) system in this paper. The optimized SPI/PVA proportion in the spinning solution was determined according to the analyses of microstructure, surface chemical characteristic and mechanical property of the hybrid nanofiber membranes. Under the preferred preparation condition, two kinds of polymer materials displayed a good compatibility in the hybrid nanofibers, and a large number of polar groups existed in the membrane surface. The loading filtration efficiency of the nanofiber membrane with optimal material ratio and areal density can reach 99.99% after test of 30 min for fine particles smaller than 2.5 μm in the case of small pressure drop. Besides, this kind of filtration membrane showed an antimicrobial activity to Escherichia coli in the study. The SPI/PVA hybrid nanofiber membrane with proper material composition and microstructure can be used as a new type of high performance eco-friendly filtration materials.

  6. The development of fuel pins and material specimens mixed loading irradiation test rig in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The development of the fuel-material hybrid rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamatsu, Yasuko; Someya, Hiroyuki

    2013-02-01

    In the experimental fast reactor Joyo, there were many tests using the irradiation rigs that it was possible to be set irradiation conditions for each compartment independently. In case of no alternative fuel element to irradiate after unloading the irradiated compartments, the irradiation test was restarted with the dummy compartment which the fuel elements was not mounted. If the material specimens are mounted in this space, it is possible to use the irradiation space effectively. For these reasons, the irradiation rig (hybrid rig) is developed that is consolidated with material specimens compartment and fuel elements compartment. Fuel elements and material specimens differ greatly with heat generation, so that the most important issue in developing of hybrid rig is being able to distribute appropriately the coolant flow which satisfies irradiation conditions. The following is described by this report. (1) It was confirmed that the flow distribution of loading the same irradiation rig with the compartment from which a flow demand differs could be satisfied. (2) It was confirmed that temperature setting range of hybrid rig could be equivalent to that of irradiation condition. (3) By standardizing the coolant entrance structure of the compartment lower part, the prospect which can perform easily recombination of the compartment from which a type differs between irradiation rigs was acquired. (author)

  7. Syntheses and structure characterization of ten acid-base hybrid crystals based on N-containing aromatic brønsted bases and mineral acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihao; Jin, Shouwen; Li, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Kaikai; Guo, Ming; Chi, Xinchen; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2017-10-01

    Cocrystallization of the aromatic brønsted bases with a series of mineral acids gave a total of ten hybrid salts with the compositions: (2-methylquinoline)2: (hydrochloride acid): 3H2O [(HL1)+. (L1)·· (Cl-) · (H2O)3] (1), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (hydrochloride acid) [(HL2)+. (Cl-)] (2), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (nitric acid) [(HL2)+. (NO3-)] (3), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (sulfuric acid) [(HL2)+ · (HSO4)-] (4), (6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine): (phosphoric acid) [(HL2)+ · (H2PO4)-] (5), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (hydrochloride acid): 3H2O [(HL3)+ · (Cl-) (H2O)3] (6), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (hydrobromic acid): CH3OH [(HL3)+ · (Br)- · CH3OH] (7), (5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine): (sulfuric acid): H2O [(HL3)+ · (HSO4)- · H2O] (8), (2-aminophenol): (phosphoric acid) [(HL4)+ · (H2PO4)-] (9), and (2-amino-4-chlorophenol): (phosphoric acid) [(HL5)+ · (H2PO4)-] (10). The ten salts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the ten investigated crystals the ring N of the heterocycle or the NH2 in the aminophenol are protonated when the acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted classical hydrogen bonds between the NH+/NH3+ and deprotonated acidic groups. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O, CHsbnd Cl, CH3sbnd N, CH3sbnd O, CHsbnd Br, CH3sbnd Br, Brsbnd Cl, Clsbnd S, Osbnd S, Osbnd O, Brsbnd S, Hsbnd H, and π-π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional frameworks. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical

  8. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  9. Differently-catalyzed silica-based precursors as functional additives for the epoxy-based hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Zhigunov, Alexander; Serkis, Magdalena; Pavlova, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2 September (2016), s. 434-446 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid material * solvent-free sol-gel process * silica-based precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  10. Full Mouth Oral Rehabilitation by Maxillary Implant Supported Hybrid Denture Employing a Fiber Reinforced Material Instead of Conventional PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamheya, Ala Hassan A; Yeniyol, Sinem; Arısan, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Many people have life-long problems with their dentures, such as difficulties with speaking and eating, loose denture, and sore mouth syndrome. The evolution of dental implant supported prosthesis gives these patients normal healthy life for their functional and esthetic advantages. This case report presents the fabrication of maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis by using Nanofilled Composite (NFC) material in teeth construction to rehabilitate a complete denture wearer patient.

  11. Full Mouth Oral Rehabilitation by Maxillary Implant Supported Hybrid Denture Employing a Fiber Reinforced Material Instead of Conventional PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Hassan A. Qamheya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people have life-long problems with their dentures, such as difficulties with speaking and eating, loose denture, and sore mouth syndrome. The evolution of dental implant supported prosthesis gives these patients normal healthy life for their functional and esthetic advantages. This case report presents the fabrication of maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis by using Nanofilled Composite (NFC material in teeth construction to rehabilitate a complete denture wearer patient.

  12. Fabrication and materials properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) hybrid bone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sun Young; Youn, Min Ho; Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang

    2010-01-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (BCP/HDPE) hybrid composite is a new orthopedic biomaterial, which was made to simulate a natural bone composition. Calcium phosphate systems and HDPE hybrid composites have been used in biomedical applications without any inflammatory response. Differences in natural bone of both materials have motivated the use of coupling agents to improve their interfacial interfacial interactions. The composites were prepared using medical grade BCP powder and granular polyethylene. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with BCP and HDPE, respectively. As expected, increased volume fraction of either reinforcement type over 0 ∼ 50 vol.% resulted in a increased Vickers hardness and Young's modulus. Thus, BCP particle-reinforced HDPE composites possessed improved material and mechanical properties. BCP particles-reinforced composites were anisotropic due to an alignment of the particles in the matrix during a processing. On the other hand, bending and tensile strength was dramatically changed in the matrix. To change the material and mechanical properties of HDPE/BCP composites, the process of a blending was used, and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical proprieties of HDPE/BCP composites were investigated by means of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, Vickers Hardness Testing Machine, Universal Testing Machine, Mercury Porosimeter and Ultrasonic Flaw Detector at room temperature. For the evaluation of the cell viability and proliferation onto the external surface of HDPE/BCP hybrid plates with a HaCaT cell line, which is a multipotent cell line able to differentiate towards different phenotypes under the action of biological factors, has been evaluated with in vitro studies and quantified by colormetric assays. These findings indicate that the HDPE/BCP hybrid plates are biocompatible and non-toxic

  13. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  14. Nitrogen-doped hierarchical lamellar porous carbon synthesized from the fish scale as support material for platinum nanoparticle electrocatalyst toward the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijing; Cao, Yinliang; Wang, Feng; Huang, Yaqin

    2014-01-22

    Novel hierarchical lamellar porous carbon (HLPC) with high BET specific surface area of 2730 m(2) g(-1) and doped by nitrogen atoms has been synthesized from the fish scale without any post-synthesis treatment, and applied to support the platinum (Pt) nanoparticle (NP) catalysts (Pt/HLPC). The Pt NPs could be highly dispersed on the porous surface of HLPC with a narrow size distribution centered at ca. 2.0 nm. The results of the electrochemical analysis reveal that the electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of Pt/HLPC is larger than the Pt NP electrocatalyst supported on the carbon black (Pt/Vulcan XC-72). Compared with the Pt/Vulcan XC-72, the Pt/HLPC exhibits larger current density, lower overpotential, and enhanced catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through the direct four-electron pathway. The improved catalytic activity is mainly attributed to the high BET specific surface area, hierarchical porous structures and the nitrogen-doped surface property of HLPC, indicating the superiority of HLPC as a promising support material for the ORR electrocatalysts.

  15. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  16. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-01

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  17. Binder-free cobalt phosphate one-dimensional nanograsses as ultrahigh-performance cathode material for hybrid supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, K. Vijaya; Lee, S. C.; Seo, Y.; Ray, C.; Liu, S.; Kundu, A.; Jun, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructure exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of their unique physico-chemical properties like fast electron transfer, good rate capability, and cyclic stability. In the present study, Co3(PO4)2 1D nanograsses are grown on Ni foam using a simple and eco-friendly hydrothermal technique with different reaction times. The open space with uniform nanograsses displays a high areal capacitance, rate capability, energy density, and cyclic stability due to the nanostructure enhancing fast ion and material interactions. Ex-situ microscope images confirm the dependence of structural stability on the reaction time, and the nanograsses promoted ion interaction through material. Further, the reproducibility of the electrochemical performance confirms the binder-free Co3(PO4)2 1D nanograsses to be a suitable high-performance cathode material for application to hybrid supercapacitor. Finally, the assembled hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a high energy density (26.66 Wh kg-1 at 750 W kg-1) and longer lifetimes (80% retained capacitance after 6000 cycles). Our results suggests that the Co3(PO4)2 1D nanograss design have a great promise for application to hybrid supercapacitor.

  18. IrOx-carbon nanotube hybrids: a nanostructured material for electrodes with increased charge capacity in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Nina M; Lichtenstein, Mathieu P; Pérez, Estela; Cabana, Laura; Suñol, Cristina; Casañ-Pastor, Nieves

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured iridium oxide-carbon nanotube hybrids (IrOx-CNT) deposited as thin films by dynamic electrochemical methods are suggested as novel materials for neural electrodes. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) serve as scaffolds for growing the oxide, yielding a tridimensional structure with improved physical, chemical and electrical properties, in addition to high biocompatibility. In biological environments, SWCNT encapsulation by IrOx makes more resistant electrodes and prevents the nanotube release to the media, preventing cellular toxicity. Chemical, electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of the hybrids has been accomplished. The high performance of the material in electrochemical measurements and the significant increase in cathodal charge storage capacity obtained for the hybrid in comparison with bare IrOx represent a significant advance in electric field application in biosystems, while its cyclability is also an order of magnitude greater than pure IrOx. Moreover, experiments using in vitro neuronal cultures suggest high biocompatibility for IrOx-CNT coatings and full functionality of neurons, validating this material for use in neural electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoluminescence and Photoconductivity to Assess Maximum Open-Circuit Voltage and Carrier Transport in Hybrid Perovskites and Other Photovoltaic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braly, Ian L; Stoddard, Ryan J; Rajagopal, Adharsh; Jen, Alex K-Y; Hillhouse, Hugh W

    2018-06-06

    Photovoltaic (PV) device development is much more expensive and time consuming than the development of the absorber layer alone. This perspective focuses on two methods that can be used to rapidly assess and develop PV absorber materials independent of device development. The absorber material properties of quasi-Fermi level splitting and carrier diffusion length under steady effective one-Sun illumination are indicators of a material's ability to achieve high VOC and JSC. These two material properties can be rapidly and simultaneously assessed with steady-state absolute intensity photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements. As a result, these methods are extremely useful for predicting the quality and stability of PV materials prior to PV device development. Here, we summarize the methods, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and compare photoluminescence and photoconductivity results with device performance for four hybrid perovskite compositions of various bandgaps (1.35 to 1.82 eV), CISe, CIGSe, and CZTSe.

  20. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita; Perry, John D.; Koros, William J.

    2010-01-01

    agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves

  1. Novel bio-synthetic hybrid materials and coculture systems for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseung Janice

    Tissue Engineering is a truly exciting field of this age, trying to regenerate and repair impaired tissues. Unlike the old artificial implants, tissue engineering aims at making a long-term functional biological replacement. One strategy for such tissue engineering requires the following three components: cells, scaffolds, and soluble factors. Cells are cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with medium containing various soluble factors. Once a tissue is developed in vitro, then it is implanted in vivo. The overall goal of this thesis was to develop novel bio-synthetic hybrid scaffolds and coculture system for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. The most abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components are collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which are the natural scaffold for chondrocytes. As two different peptides, collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) and hyaluronic acid binding peptide (HABPep) were previously shown to bind to collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) of GAG, respectively, it was hypothesized that immobilizing CMP and HABP on 3D scaffold would results in an interaction between ECM components and synthetic scaffolds via peptide-ECM bindings. CMP or HABPep-conjugated photopolymerizable poly(ethylene oxide) diacrylate (PEODA) hydrogels were synthesized and shown to retain encapsulated collagen or HA, respectively. This result supported that conjugated CMP and HABPep can interact with collagen and HA, respectively, and can serve as biological linkers in 3D synthetic hydrogels. When chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded, cells in CMP-conjugated scaffolds produced significantly more amount of type II collagen and GAG, compared to those in control scaffolds. Moreover, MSCs cultured in CMP-conjugated scaffolds exhibited lower level of hypertrophic markers, cbfa-1 and type X collagen. These results demonstrated that enhanced interaction between collagen and scaffold via CMP improves chondrogenesis of chondrocytes and MSCs and

  2. Study of in vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of diopside nano-bioceramic synthesized by a facile method using eggshell as raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazemi, Amirhossein [Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdellahi, Majid, E-mail: Abdellahi@Pmt.iaun.ac.ir [Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh-Sharafabadi, Armina [Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khandan, Amirsalar; Ozada, Neriman [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus, Gazimağusa, TRNC, Mersin 10 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    In this study, diopside bioceramic was synthesized using a mechanical milling process and subsequent heat treatment. The simplicity of experiments and also the high energy available in ball milling lead to rapid synthesis of the products in comparison with other synthesis methods. Magnesium oxide (MgO), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and eggshell (as the calcium source) powders were weighted in stoichiometric conditions and milled to initial activation of the surface of the powder's mixture. Then a sintering process was conducted to complete formation of diopside nanopowder and also evaluates its thermal stability. The mechanisms occurred during the synthesis of this bioceramic were carefully investigated. X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were used for gathering and analyzing data. The ability and rate of apatite formation on the sample surface were evaluated by Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) test, a method that is well recognized to characterize the in vitro bioactivity of ceramic materials. According to the results obtained, the diopside samples had a significant potential to form apatite layer on their surface during soaking in the SBF solution. Besides, the bonding strength of this bioceramic was about 350 ± 7 MPa which was almost more than three times of that reported for hydroxyapatite. An excellent fracture toughness of 4 ± 0.3 MPa m{sup 0.5} was also obtained for this ceramic which was higher than that of previously reported works. - Highlights: • Diopside was synthesized using a mechanical milling process and subsequent heat treatment. • The mechanisms occurred during the synthesis of this bioceramic were carefully investigated. • The bonding strength of diopside samples prepared in this study was about 350 ± 7 MPa. • The fracture toughness of

  3. A fast hybrid methodology based on machine learning, quantum methods, and experimental measurements for evaluating material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Sun; Haverty, Michael; Simka, Harsono; Shankar, Sadasivan; Rajan, Krishna

    2017-09-01

    We present a hybrid approach based on both machine learning and targeted ab-initio calculations to determine adhesion energies between dissimilar materials. The goals of this approach are to complement experimental and/or all ab-initio computational efforts, to identify promising materials rapidly and identify in a quantitative manner the relative contributions of the different material attributes affecting adhesion. Applications of the methodology to predict bulk modulus, yield strength, adhesion and wetting properties of copper (Cu) with other materials including metals, nitrides and oxides is discussed in this paper. In the machine learning component of this methodology, the parameters that were chosen can be roughly divided into four types: atomic and crystalline parameters (which are related to specific elements such as electronegativities, electron densities in Wigner-Seitz cells); bulk material properties (e.g. melting point), mechanical properties (e.g. modulus) and those representing atomic characteristics in ab-initio formalisms (e.g. pseudopotentials). The atomic parameters are defined over one dataset to determine property correlation with published experimental data. We then develop a semi-empirical model across multiple datasets to predict adhesion in material interfaces outside the original datasets. Since adhesion is between two materials, we appropriately use parameters which indicate differences between the elements that comprise the materials. These semi-empirical predictions agree reasonably with the trend in chemical work of adhesion predicted using ab-initio techniques and are used for fast materials screening. For the screened candidates, the ab-initio modeling component provides fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions at the interface, and explains the wetting thermodynamics of thin Cu layers on various substrates. Comparison against ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experiments for well-characterized Cu/Ta and Cu/α-Al2O3 interfaces is

  4. Hybrid Nanocomposites of 2D Black Phosphorous Nanosheets Encapsulated in PMMA Polymer Material: New Platforms for Advanced Device Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesio, Francesca; Passaglia, Elisa; Cicogna, Francesca; Costantino, Federica; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Heun, Stefan

    2018-04-12

    Hybrid materials, containing a 2D filler embedded in a polymeric matrix, are an interesting platform for several applications, because of the variety of properties that the filler can impart to the polymer matrix when dispersed at the nanoscale. Moreover, novel properties could arise from the interaction between the two. Mostly the bulk properties of these materials have been studied so far, especially focusing on how the filler changes the polymeric matrix properties. Here we propose a complete change of perspective by using the hybrid nanocomposite material as a platform suitable to engineer the properties of the filler and to exploit its potential in the fabrication of devices. As a proof of concept of the versatility and potentiality of the new method, we applied this approach to prepare black phosphorus nanocomposites through its dispersion in poly (methyl methacrylate). Black phosphorus is a very interesting 2D material, whose application have so far been limited by its very high reactivity to oxygen and water. In this respect, we show that electronic-grade black phosphorus flakes, already embedded in a protecting matrix since their exfoliation from the bulk material, are endowed with significant increased stability, and can be further processed into devices without degrading their properties. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  5. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  6. Effects of Bonding Types and Functional Groups on CO 2 Capture using Novel Multiphase Systems of Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO 2 capture capacities were investigated. NOHMs can be classified based on the synthesis methods involving different bonding types, the existence of linkers, and the addition of task-specific functional groups including amines for CO 2 capture. As a canopy of polymeric chains was grafted onto the nanoparticle cores, the thermal stability of the resulting NOHMs was improved. In order to isolate the entropy effect during CO 2 capture, NOHMs were first prepared using polymers that do not contain functional groups with strong chemical affinity toward CO 2. However, it was found that even ether groups on the polymeric canopy contributed to CO 2 capture in NOHMs via Lewis acid-base interactions, although this effect was insignificant compared to the effect of task-specific functional groups such as amine. In all cases, a higher partial pressure of CO 2 was more favorable for CO 2 capture, while a higher temperature caused an adverse effect. Multicyclic CO 2 capture tests confirmed superior recyclability of NOHMs and NOHMs also showed a higher selectivity toward CO 2 over N 2O, O 2 and N 2. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  8. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization

  9. Continuous Carbon Nanotube-Ultrathin Graphite Hybrid Foams for Increased Thermal Conductivity and Suppressed Subcooling in Composite Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmanov, Iskandar; Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Ruoff, Rodney S; Shi, Li

    2015-12-22

    Continuous ultrathin graphite foams (UGFs) have been actively researched recently to obtain composite materials with increased thermal conductivities. However, the large pore size of these graphitic foams has resulted in large thermal resistance values for heat conduction from inside the pore to the high thermal conductivity graphitic struts. Here, we demonstrate that the effective thermal conductivity of these UGF composites can be increased further by growing long CNT networks directly from the graphite struts of UGFs into the pore space. When erythritol, a phase change material for thermal energy storage, is used to fill the pores of UGF-CNT hybrids, the thermal conductivity of the UGF-CNT/erythritol composite was found to increase by as much as a factor of 1.8 compared to that of a UGF/erythritol composite, whereas breaking the UGF-CNT bonding in the hybrid composite resulted in a drop in the effective room-temperature thermal conductivity from about 4.1 ± 0.3 W m(-1) K(-1) to about 2.9 ± 0.2 W m(-1) K(-1) for the same UGF and CNT loadings of about 1.8 and 0.8 wt %, respectively. Moreover, we discovered that the hybrid structure strongly suppresses subcooling of erythritol due to the heterogeneous nucleation of erythritol at interfaces with the graphitic structures.

  10. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-methacrylic acid monomer for miniaturized solid-phase extraction: A new and economical sample preparation strategy for determination of acyclovir in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Wang, Mingyu; Han, Yehong; Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-06-13

    The miniaturized molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (mini-MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the determination of acyclovir in urine. 1.5-mL tapered plastic centrifuge tube filled with hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers (HMIPs) was used as the cartridge of mini-MISPE, and the HMIPs synthesized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane-methacrylic acid as monomer exhibited good recognition and selectivity for acyclovir. Under the optimized condition, good linear calibration was obtained in a range of 0.5-15μgmL(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994, and the recoveries at three spiked levels were 91.6-103.3% in urine with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤3.5%. Excellent intra-day and inter-day repeatability were achieved with RSD of ≤2.6% and 4.0% in three different concentrations. This method combined the advantages of HMIPs and mini-MISPE, and it could become an alternative tool for analyzing the residues of acyclovir in complex urine matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonlinear optical switching of PDA/Ag hybrid materials based on temperature- and pH-responsive threading and dethreading of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Jinan; Wen, Xiaolei; Leng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology in Anhui Province, Anhui (China)

    2012-11-15

    We developed a novel temperature and pH dual-responsive supramolecular system in which the aggregation and disaggregation of polydiacetylene/silver (PDA/Ag) hybrid nanocrystals can be mediated by environmentally responsive threading and dethreading processes of polypseudorotaxane. The PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals provide a nonlinear optical (NLO) property. The host-guest interaction between poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and cyclodextrin (CD) cavities on the surface of the hybrid nanocrystals causes the PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals to be sufficiently close to each other for providing an enhanced surface plasmon resonance and a corresponding NLO effect. NLO switching of the colloidal materials can be easily realized by varying temperature and pH. The facile preparation procedures and their response to the surrounding media render these novel hybrid colloidal materials potential candidates for applications in sensors, catalysis and optical/electronic devices. (orig.)

  12. Enhancement of the electrochemical performance in LiFePO4 cathode materials synthesized by using the sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Soo Hong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 powders were synthesized by using the sol-gel and the solid-state reaction methods. The chemical states of Fe ions were studied by using XPS, and their electrochemical properties according to the oxidation states of Fe ions were compared. The average oxidation state of Fe ions in LiFePO4 powders synthesized by using the solid-state reaction method was found to be Fe3+, on the other hand, that of Fe ions synthesized by using the sol-gel method was found to be Fe2+. The obtained discharge capacities were 50 mAh/g and 120 mAh/g at a rate 0.1 C in LiFePO4 synthesized by using the solid-state reaction and sol-gel methods, respectively. Relatively a good cycling stability was observed in sol-gel prepared powder.

  13. Solution-combustion synthesized nickel-substituted spinel cathode materials (LiNixMn2-xO4; 0≤x≤0.2) for lithium ion battery: enhancing energy storage, capacity retention, and lithium ion transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherically shaped Ni-substituted LiNi(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) spinel cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and remarkable cycling performance were synthesized using the solution...

  14. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani, Narsito, Nuryono, Eko Sri Kunarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted hybrid material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media. Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, CH3COONa 0.1 M (pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition. Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique

  15. Ciprofloxacin-intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxides Hybrid Material: Synthesis and in Vitro Release Profiles of an Antibiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Stanslas, J.; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The intriguing anion exchange properties of layered hydroxides salts, combined with its high layer charge density have provided strong motivations for the potential use of the inorganic layered host material in drug delivery applications. Ciprofloxacin (CFX), a wide spectrum antibiotic has been anion exchanged with nitrate of zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), which belongs to the LHS family, resulted in the expansion of the basal spacing from 9.92 Amstrom of ZHN to 21.5 Angstrom of ZCFX, the obtained hybrid material. Other characterizations, such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), CHNS analysis and TGA/ DTG have further corroborated this finding. Electron microscopy study reveals the plate-like structure of the nano hybrid material. The in vitro release of CFX was performed in phosphate saline buffer at pH 7.4 and it behaves in a slow and sustained release profile over a period of 72 hours. This study suggests that ZHN, which demonstrates a controlled release behavior, could be a potential host material in the drug delivery applications. (author)