WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid materials constructed

  1. Hybridization of MOFs and COFs: A New Strategy for Construction of MOF@COF Core-Shell Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Zhao, Meiting; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Zhicheng; Huang, Ying; Dai, Fangna; Lai, Zhuangchai; Cui, Xiaoya; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of new porous hybrid materials is of great importance because of their unique properties and promising applications in separation of materials, catalysis, etc. Herein, for the first time, by integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a new type of MOF@COF core-shell hybrid material, i.e., NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF, with high crystallinity and hierarchical pore structure, is synthesized. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF hybrid material is used as an effective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B. The synthetic strategy in this study opens up a new avenue for the construction of other MOF-COF hybrid materials, which could have various promising applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  3. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matseevich Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal. The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  4. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseevich, Tatyana

    2018-03-01

    The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G) are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal). The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  5. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL; Antink, Allison L [Bolingbrook, IL

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  6. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-03

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  7. Construction and material specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Construction and Material Specifications are written to the Bidder before award of the : Contract and to the Contractor after award of the Contract. The sentences that direct the Contractor to perform Work are written as commands. For example, ...

  8. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  9. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  10. Sustainable material selection for construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology with a specific examination of the UAE. The indicators collected from existing literatures were used in evaluation of sustainable construction materials with the assistance of construction sector-based respondents. The proposed framework...

  11. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  12. Fabrication and Performance Test of Aluminium Alloy-Rice Husk Ash Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite as Industrial and Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahat Hossain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs used extensively in various engineering fields due to their exceptional mechanical properties. In this present study, aluminium matrix composites (AMCs such as aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with rice husk ash particles (RHA are made to explore the possibilities of reinforcing aluminium alloy. The stir casting method was applied to produce aluminium alloy (A356 reinforced with various amounts of (2%, 4%, and 6% rice husk ash (RHA particles. Physical treatment was carried out before the rice husk ash manufacturing process. The effect of mechanical strength of the fabricated hybrid composite was investigated. Therefore, impact test, tensile stress, compressive stress, and some other tests were carried out to analyse the mechanical properties. From the experimental results, it was found that maximum tensile, and compressive stress were found at 6% rice husk ash (RHA and aluminium matrix composites (AMCs. In future, the optimum percentages of rice husk ash (RHA to fabricate the hybrid composites will be determined. Also, simulation by finite element method (FEM will be applied for further investigation.

  13. Radioactive materials in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank; Kaltz, Andrea Christine

    2014-01-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  14. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  15. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  16. Construction materials, monuments and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, R.; Siegesmund, S.; Török, A.; Brimblecombe, P.; Gomez-Heras, M.

    2012-04-01

    Construction materials (natural stone, aggregates, bricks, cement, lime, mortar, etc.) form a wide and heterogeneous group both from the genetic and technological point of view. These materials deserve attention from the scientific community due to their long-term use, importance for society and sensitivity to the environment. Most geomaterials have also been used in important monuments designated as a part of the World Cultural Heritage and/or make part of national monuments. Despite of the wide-ranges of studies and our rapidly increasing understanding of material behaviour, our knowledge is still rather limited in many aspects. This concerns the characterisation of traditional raw materials, the knowledge of their processing and use, and/or durability and compatibility assessment. The exploitation and sustainable use of these materials are also new and emerging challenges in the modern society. The use of local materials for monuments can be considered as a part of our cultural and technological heritage, which has, however, significantly deteriorated during the past several decades. This paper summarizes the general topics related to a modern analysis of traditional construction materials derived from the Earth, and on the characteristic aspects of the behaviour of these materials on selected monuments.

  17. Ice as a Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppero, Anthony; Lewis, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The use of ice as a construction material is discussed. A model of an ice tire torus space ship, which slowly spins to produce artificial gravity is proposed. The size of the ship, needed to support a given number of people and the required envelope mass is presented.

  18. Materials in machine, plant, and apparatus construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenauer, H.; Hampe, E.; Hoehne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered under the following headings: principles of materials economy and selection, designation of materials, general construction materials; materials for tools, materials for low temperatures, materials for high temperatures, materials for corrosive stress, materials with high wear resistance and friction materials, sliding and bearing materials, materials for spring load, materials for joints, and materials for nuclear reactors

  19. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  20. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  1. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an example...... investigation, we look at continuous filaments organized into braided structures, within the context of bio-hybrids constructing architectural artifacts. We report the result of an early swarm robot experiment. The robots successfully constructed a braid in a self-organized process. The construction process can...... be extended by using different materials and by embedding sensors during the self-organized construction directly into the braided structure. In future work, we plan to apply dedicated braiding robot hardware and to construct sophisticated 3-d structures with local variability in patterns of filament...

  2. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  3. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?

  4. Effects of radiation rays on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I.; Kilicarslan, S.; Basyigit, C.; Kacar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecules that are bring into existence material determined as gas, liquid and stiff according to their internal structures and heat. Materials show various reaction to various effects that is result from all kind of materials have various internal structures. Radiation is covert materials' mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Nowadays in construction formation there isn't using only one material it is preferred that kind of materials composition because of there are run into some problems about choosing and decision sort of material. Material that using in construction is classified as metals, plastics and ceramics in three groups. About sixty percent of construction cost is being formed from construction materials. In this study effects of various radiations on construction materials are being investigated and the end of study it is being suggestion some useful construction materials according to usage land and radiation properties

  5. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J; Van Weeren, P R

    2011-01-01

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  6. Bioprinting of hybrid tissue constructs with tailorable mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurman, W; Khristov, V; Pot, M W; Dhert, W J A; Malda, J [Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Weeren, P R, E-mail: j.malda@umcutrecht.nl [Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Department of Equine Sciences, Utrecht University (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Tissue/organ printing aims to recapitulate the intrinsic complexity of native tissues. For a number of tissues, in particular those of musculoskeletal origin, adequate mechanical characteristics are an important prerequisite for their initial handling and stability, as well as long-lasting functioning. Hence, organized implants, possessing mechanical characteristics similar to the native tissue, may result in improved clinical outcomes of regenerative approaches. Using a bioprinter, grafts were constructed by alternate deposition of thermoplastic fibers and (cell-laden) hydrogels. Constructs of different shapes and sizes were manufactured and mechanical properties, as well as cell viability, were assessed. This approach yields novel organized viable hybrid constructs, which possess favorable mechanical characteristics, within the same range as those of native tissues. Moreover, the approach allows the use of multiple hydrogels and can thus produce constructs containing multiple cell types or bioactive factors. Furthermore, since the hydrogel is supported by the thermoplastic material, a broader range of hydrogel types can be used compared to bioprinting of hydrogels alone. In conclusion, we present an innovative and versatile approach for bioprinting, yielding constructs of which the mechanical stiffness provided by thermoplastic polymers can potentially be tailored, and combined specific cell placement patterns of multiple cell types embedded in a wide range of hydrogels. (communication)

  7. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  8. Sustainable Management of Construction and Demolition Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This web page discusses how to sustainably manage construction and demolition materials, Information covers, what they are, and how builders, construction crews, demolition teams,and deign practitioners can divert C&D from landfills.

  9. EVALUATION OF CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL WASTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    factors contributing to construction material waste generation on building sites in Rivers State, ... the studied factors at every level of the construction processes and in their waste management plan. ..... Evaluation of Solid Waste in Building.

  10. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  11. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  12. Extraterrestrial materials processing and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of available terrestrial skills to the gathering of lunar materials and the processing of raw lunar materials into industrial feed stock were investigated. The literature on lunar soils and rocks was reviewed and the chemical processes by which major oxides and chemical elements can be extracted were identified. The gathering of lunar soil by means of excavation equipment was studied in terms of terrestrial experience with strip mining operations on earth. The application of electrostatic benefication techniques was examined for use on the moon to minimize the quantity of materials requiring surface transport and to optimize the stream of raw materials to be transported off the moon for subsequent industrial use.

  13. A novel bioprinting method and system for forming hybrid tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanjani, Y; Pan, C C; Elomaa, L; Yang, Y

    2015-12-18

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a promising approach to form tissue engineering constructs (TECs) via positioning biomaterials, growth factors, and cells with controlled spatial distribution due to its layer-by-layer manufacturing nature. Hybrid TECs composed of relatively rigid porous scaffolds for structural and mechanical integrity and soft hydrogels for cell- and growth factor-loading have a tremendous potential to tissue regeneration under mechanical loading. However, despite excessive progress in the field, the current 3D bioprinting techniques and systems fall short in integration of such soft and rigid multifunctional components. Here we present a novel 3D hybrid bioprinting technology (Hybprinter) and its capability enabling integration of soft and rigid components for TECs. Hybprinter employs digital light processing-based stereolithography (DLP-SLA) and molten material extrusion techniques for soft and rigid materials, respectively. In this study, poly-ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were used as a model material for soft hydrogel and rigid scaffold, respectively. It was shown that geometrical accuracy, swelling ratio and mechanical properties of the hydrogel component can be tailored by DLP-SLA module. We have demonstrated the printability of variety of complex hybrid construct designs using Hybprinter technology and characterized the mechanical properties and functionality of such constructs. The compressive mechanical stiffness of a hybrid construct (90% hydrogel) was significantly higher than hydrogel itself (∼6 MPa versus 100 kPa). In addition, viability of cells incorporated within the bioprinted hybrid constructs was determined approximately 90%. Furthermore, a functionality of a hybrid construct composed of porous scaffold with an embedded hydrogel conduit was characterized for vascularized tissue engineering applications. High material diffusion and high cell viability in about 2.5 mm distance

  14. Construction Materials for Coastal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    formaldehyde derivatives. Thermoplastic materials include polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylamides. PPCC process technology is based upon overcoming the...entrained air from a concrete mixture. Compounds such as tributyl phosphate, diburyl phthalate, water-insoluble alcohols , and water-insoluble esters of...of hydrolysis of wood is small and is dependent on the temperature. 0 (3) Wood Oxidation. Wood oxydation by air in dry locations is slow and attacks

  15. Nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilibon, I.; Zisu, T.; Raetchi, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some ultrasonic methods for evaluation of physical-mechanical properties of construction materials (bricks, concrete, BCA), such as: pulse method, examination methods, and direct measurement of the propagation velocity and impact-echo method. Utilizing these nondestructive evaluation ultrasonic methods it can be determined the main material parameters and material characteristics (elasticity coefficients, density, propagation velocity, ultrasound attenuation, etc.) of construction materials. These method are suitable for construction materials because the defectoscopy methods for metallic materials cannot be utilized, due to its rugged and non-homogeneous structures and grate attenuation coefficients of ultrasound propagation through materials. Also, the impact-echo method is a technique for flaw detection in concrete based on stress wave propagation. Studies have shown that the impact-echo method is effective for locating voids, honeycombing, delaminating, depth of surface opening cracks, and measuring member thickness

  16. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  17. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  18. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  19. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  20. Constructing bald eagle nests with natural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    A technique for using natural materials to build artificial nests for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other raptors is detailed. Properly constructed nests are as permanently secured to the nest tree or cliff substrate as any eagle-built nest or human-made platform. Construction normally requires about three hours and at least two people. This technique is...

  1. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  2. Construction of hybrid peptide synthetases by module and domain fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, H D; Schwarzer, D; Marahiel, M A

    2000-05-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are modular enzymes that assemble peptides of diverse structures and important biological activities. Their modular organization provides a great potential for the rational design of novel compounds by recombination of the biosynthetic genes. Here we describe the extension of a dimodular system to trimodular ones based on whole-module fusion. The recombinant hybrid enzymes were purified to monitor product assembly in vitro. We started from the first two modules of tyrocidine synthetase, which catalyze the formation of the dipeptide dPhe-Pro, to construct such hybrid systems. Fusion of the second, proline-specific module with the ninth and tenth modules of the tyrocidine synthetases, specific for ornithine and leucine, respectively, resulted in dimodular hybrid enzymes exhibiting the combined substrate specificities. The thioesterase domain was fused to the terminal module. Upon incubation of these dimodular enzymes with the first tyrocidine module, TycA, incorporating dPhe, the predicted tripeptides dPhe-Pro-Orn and dPhe-Pro-Leu were obtained at rates of 0.15 min(-1) and 2.1 min(-1). The internal thioesterase domain was necessary and sufficient to release the products from the hybrid enzymes and thereby facilitate a catalytic turnover. Our approach of whole-module fusion is based on an improved definition of the fusion sites and overcomes the recently discovered editing function of the intrinsic condensation domains. The stepwise construction of hybrid peptide synthetases from catalytic subunits reinforces the inherent potential for the synthesis of novel, designed peptides.

  3. Construction mediation and its hybridization: the case of the Hong Kong construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Pui-Lam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the sophisticated nature of construction disputes, specialized dispute resolution mechanisms are of pivotal importance to the satisfactory settlement between disputing parties. Among the various construction dispute resolution mechanisms, mediation has been increasingly gaining recognition and acceptance. Its hybrid, namely mediation-arbitration (med-arb, has also emerged and has started receiving attention and appreciation. With special reference to the construction industry practice in Hong Kong, a commentary on the respective merits and demerits of construction mediation and construction med-arb, as well as the ways forward, are presented in this article.

  4. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  5. Radiation hybrids from human chromosome 3: A basis for the construction of region and specific sublibraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, L.; Cosmis, R.L.; Atchison, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are interested in identifying genes on human chromosome involved in disease processes. To date at least 20 different loci on this chromosome are implicated with various disease states. DNA libraries containing clones derived from a small chromosomal subregion implicated in a particular disease would greatly assist these studies. They have utilized the radiation hybrid (RH) technique to generate a series of somatic cell hybrids that contain small segments of human chromosome 3 as the only human genetic material. A Chinese hamster-human cell hybrid (Q314-2) containing only human chromosome 3 was used to prepare radiation hybrids. Cells were lethally X-irradiated with 6,000 rads and fused to Urd(??) Chinese hamster cells by PEG 1000 treatment. The majority of hybrids (>72%) analyzed retained portions of chromosome 3. The amount of chromosome 3 in each hybrid ranged from nearly all of the chromosome to very little. Currently these hybrids are being further characterized with single copy probes of known map location in order to isolate regions of chromosome 3 that contain specific disease locus. These reduced hybrids can then be used for the construction of region specific libraries and for the generation of new DNA probes from the specific region of interest

  6. Biomechanics of Artificial Disc Replacements Adjacent to a 2-Level Fusion in 4-Level Hybrid Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Wei, Na; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal procedure for multilevel cervical degenerative disc diseases remains controversial. Recent studies on hybrid surgery combining anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) for 2-level and 3-level constructs have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to estimate the biomechanics of 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs, which are more likely to be used clinically compared to 4-level arthrodesis. Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2–T1) were evaluated in different testing conditions: intact, with 3 kinds of 4-level hybrid constructs (hybrid C3–4 ACDR+C4–6 ACDF+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–5ACDF+C5–6ACDR+C6–7ACDR; hybrid C3–4ACDR+C4–5ACDR+C5–7ACDF); and 4-level fusion. Results Four-level fusion resulted in significant decrease in the C3–C7 ROM compared with the intact spine. The 3 different 4-level hybrid treatment groups caused only slight change at the instrumented levels compared to intact except for flexion. At the adjacent levels, 4-level fusion resulted in significant increase of contribution of both upper and lower adjacent levels. However, for the 3 hybrid constructs, significant changes of motion increase far lower than 4P at adjacent levels were only noted in partial loading conditions. No destabilizing effect or hypermobility were observed in any 4-level hybrid construct. Conclusions Four-level fusion significantly eliminated motion within the construct and increased motion at the adjacent segments. For all 3 different 4-level hybrid constructs, ACDR normalized motion of the index segment and adjacent segments with no significant hypermobility. Compared with the 4-level ACDF condition, the artificial discs in 4-level hybrid constructs had biomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing adjacent level motion. PMID:26694835

  7. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  8. Indigenous Construction Materials for Theater Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    is shown as a step-by-step plan in Figure 1. ERDC TR-13-13 5 Figure 1. Infrastructure planning. The pyramid can be initially divided into two...disadvantages in terms of constructability, structural integrity, environmental impact, and sociocultural impacts. The lower portions of the pyramid ...United States or the Nile in Sudan and Egypt ) is vital to the local economy and can provide a means for transport- ing such construction materials

  9. Toxic or dangerous substances present construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is the elaboration of a guide which could be used as a support and consultation concerning the topic of safety in the construction, specifically in the area of the use and managing of material and dangerous substances; considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of the common construction materials represent for the health. The gathered information is the result of the review of bibliographical material, the visits to public institutions at national level and to international offices which representation in our country, this way as a work of field and of study of the national market, among others. Besides important consult through the Internet checking many sites of interest with the finality of getting more updated information as possible, like that as the consultation to professionals and workers related to the construction area. (Author) [es

  10. Materials of construction for silicon crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Odonnell, T. P.; Hagan, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of materials for construction and in contact with molten silicon for crystal growth is presented. The basis for selection considers physical compatibility, such as thermal expansion and strength, as well as chemical compatibility as indicated by contamination of the silicon. A number of new high technology materials are included as well as data on those previously used. Emphasis is placed on the sources and processing of such materials in that results are frequently dependent on the way a material is prepared as well as its intrinsic constituents.

  11. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  12. Material and construction of primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, A.; Wallner, F.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of SNR's requires specific properties of the materials, i.e. high strength at temperatures of 600 0 C, adequate creep rupture strength, low long-time embrittlement. Aspects are given for optimalization of the mentioned properties with regard to safe manufacture especially good weldability. The austenitic material X6CrNil811 similar the type AISI 304 SS finally was chosen. Besides the fundamental analysis of the material properties it will be reported about the experiences gained during the manufacturing of the essential components. (author)

  13. Ion-exchange properties of zeolite/glass hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei; Fukushima, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid materials were prepared from ground glass powder and various zeolites such as A-type, mordenite, X-type, and Y-type zeolites, and their ion removal effect was investigated. The hybrid materials of A-type, Y-type, and mordenite zeolites showed similar Sr"2"+ removal rates from aqueous solutions. The removal rate of Sr"2"+ ions increased as the amount of zeolite in the hybrid materials increased. Compared with other hybrid materials, the hybrid materials of X-type zeolite showed higher Sr"2"+ removal rates, especially for zeolite content greater than 25%. As the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased, the Sr"2"+ removal rate increased greatly, with a 100% removal rate when the content of X-type zeolite exceeded 62.5%. (author)

  14. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  15. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eYoung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, network approaches to symptom interaction (i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., McNally, Robinaugh, Wu, Wang, Deserno, & Borsboom, 2014, for PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NLDST. The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (Young, 2011 to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning and universal (e.g., causal processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.

  16. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The construction of irradiated material examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Lee, Key Soon; Herr, Young Hoi

    1990-03-01

    A detail design of the examination process, the hot cell facility and the annexed facility of the irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) which will be utilized to examine and evaluate physical and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated materials, has been performed. Also a start-up work of the underground structure construction has been launched out. The project management and tasks required for the license application were duly carried out. The resultant detail design data will be used for the next step. (author)

  18. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  19. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yeast two-hybrid system combined with the gateway technology will greatly facilitate the cloning of interested DNA fragment into yeast two-hybrid vectors and therefore increase the efficiency of yeast two-hybrid analysis. In this study, we constructed a pair of Gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors pBTM116GW and ...

  20. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  1. Materials and techniques for model construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The problems confronting the designer of models for cryogenic wind tunnel models are discussed with particular reference to the difficulties in obtaining appropriate data on the mechanical and physical properties of candidate materials and their fabrication technologies. The relationship between strength and toughness of alloys is discussed in the context of maximizing both and avoiding the problem of dimensional and microstructural instability. All major classes of materials used in model construction are considered in some detail and in the Appendix selected numerical data is given for the most relevant materials. The stepped-specimen program to investigate stress-induced dimensional changes in alloys is discussed in detail together with interpretation of the initial results. The methods used to bond model components are considered with particular reference to the selection of filler alloys and temperature cycles to avoid microstructural degradation and loss of mechanical properties.

  2. Hybrid printing of mechanically and biologically improved constructs for cartilage tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tao; Binder, Kyle W; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Dice, Dennis; Zhao Weixin; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging technique used to fabricate viable, 3D tissue constructs through the precise deposition of cells and hydrogels in a layer-by-layer fashion. Despite the ability to mimic the native properties of tissue, printed 3D constructs that are composed of naturally-derived biomaterials still lack structural integrity and adequate mechanical properties for use in vivo, thus limiting their development for use in load-bearing tissue engineering applications, such as cartilage. Fabrication of viable constructs using a novel multi-head deposition system provides the ability to combine synthetic polymers, which have higher mechanical strength than natural materials, with the favorable environment for cell growth provided by traditional naturally-derived hydrogels. However, the complexity and high cost associated with constructing the required robotic system hamper the widespread application of this approach. Moreover, the scaffolds fabricated by these robotic systems often lack flexibility, which further restrict their applications. To address these limitations, advanced fabrication techniques are necessary to generate complex constructs with controlled architectures and adequate mechanical properties. In this study, we describe the construction of a hybrid inkjet printing/electrospinning system that can be used to fabricate viable tissues for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Electrospinning of polycaprolactone fibers was alternated with inkjet printing of rabbit elastic chondrocytes suspended in a fibrin–collagen hydrogel in order to fabricate a five-layer tissue construct of 1 mm thickness. The chondrocytes survived within the printed hybrid construct with more than 80% viability one week after printing. In addition, the cells proliferated and maintained their basic biological properties within the printed layered constructs. Furthermore, the fabricated constructs formed cartilage-like tissues both in vitro and in vivo as evidenced by the

  3. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  4. Unvulcanized elastomeric waterproofing materials for construction application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction was widespread elastomer profiles, which have the ability to swell in water. Such products should have a high capacity for swelling, elasticity, resistance to weathering. At the present time for these purposes are used materials, mostly of foreign origin. With the increasing pace of construction in Russia the problem of replacement of imported materials is particularly relevant. The work was dedicated to the creation of water-swellable elastomer materials using bentonite powders and study of their properties. Сomparative testing of imported and domestic hydrophilic sealants were held. Rationale and choice of components for the cords of bentonite was conducted. Polymer base is saturated ethylene-propylene rubber. Bentonite from different manufacturers used to increase the swelling of the samples. Filler added in an amount of 50–100 phr. The elastomeric compositions were prepared using laboratory roller at a temperature of 60 ± 5° C. Profiling was performed on a syringe-machine at a temperature of 120° C. Extrusion indicator of the mixtures were evaluated on a 10-point scale (German-Russian system. It is found that high swelling products provided using field Azerbaijan bentonite. It is noted that the dosage of bentonite than 150 w.p. deteriorates technological properties of bentonite cords. It has been shown that activation of the bentonite and sodium carbonate chloride can significantly improve product swelling, wherein the bentonite content of the composition was 150–200 w.p.

  5. Hybrid nanostructured materials with tunable magnetic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E.; Garza-Navarro, M. A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx; García-Gutiérrez, Domingo; González-González, Virgilio A.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ortiz-Méndez, U. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the development of hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM) based on spinel-metal-oxide nanoparticles (SMON) stabilized in carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethyl-ammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, with tunable magnetic characteristics. These HNM were synthesized using a one-pot chemical approach to obtain CMC/CTAB templates with controllable size and morphology, where the SMON could be densely arranged. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and its related techniques, such as bright field (BF) and Z-contrast (HAADF-STEM) imaging, and selected area electron diffraction, as well as static magnetic measuring. Experimental evidence suggests that the morphology and size of the CMC/CTAB templates are highly dependent on the weight ratio of CTAB:SMON, as well as the hydration days of the CMC that is used for the synthesis of the HNM. Controlling these parameters allows modifying the density of the SMON arrangement in the CMC/CTAB templates. Moreover, magnetic features such as remanence, coercivity, and blocking/de-blocking processes of the particles’ magnetic moments are highly dependent on the interactions among the SMON assembled in the templates. Hence, the magnetic characteristics of HNM can be modulated or tuned by controlling the manner the SMON are arranged within the CMC/CTAB templates.

  6. Quality and safety of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Zabala, L.

    2015-01-01

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  7. Natural road construction materials of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Weinert, HH

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available respectively. p. 210. column 4: Insert Notre in rect311glc directly below heading Matrix. p. 240, paragraph 5, line 4: J 770 should read I 700. I ~I -~ r THE NATURAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS OF SOUTHERN AFRICA ACADEMICA I PRETORIA ICAPE TOWN ISBN... and the author acknowledges gratefully the valuable assistance and the trouble taken by the following persons: Southern African road authorities: Mr W. J. Biesenbach, Mr H. K. Geel, Mr C. L. Laubscher, Mr G. P. Marais, Mr R. L. Mitchell, Mr I. P. A. Smit, Mr C...

  8. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available on their visual appearance. In particular, we present a method for an agent to recognise the required unseen raw material images and link them to corresponding novel object images. This capability provides an agent with an increased degree of resourcefulness... construction from component parts, and in doing so we provide a benchmark for future work to compare against within Minecraft and ShapeNet domains. II. BACKGROUND Our model is inspired by Siamese neural networks, a class of neural network that includes multiple...

  9. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuleev, P.V.; Andrews, W.S.; Creber, K.A.M.; Velicogna, D.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134 Cs or 60 Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  10. 46 CFR 164.006-3 - Construction, materials, and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction, materials, and workmanship. 164.006-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Deck Coverings for Merchant Vessels § 164.006-3 Construction, materials, and workmanship. (a) It is the intent of this specification to obtain a...

  11. Advanced Nano hybrid Materials: Surface Modification and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Metivier, R.; Wang, Sh.; Wang, Sh.; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    The field of functional nano scale hybrid materials is one of the most promising and rapidly emerging research areas in materials chemistry. Nano scale hybrid materials can be broadly defined as synthetic materials with organic and inorganic components that are linked together by noncovalent bonds (Class I, linked by hydrogen bond, electrostatic force, or van der Waals force) or covalent bonds (Class II) at nanometer scale. The unlimited possible combinations of the distinct properties of inorganic, organic, or even bioactive components in a single material, either in molecular or nano scale dimensions, have attracted considerable attention. This approach provides an opportunity to create a vast number of novel advanced materials with well-controlled structures and multiple functions. The unique properties of advanced hybrid nano materials can be advantageous to many fields, such as optical and electronic materials, biomaterials, catalysis, sensing, coating, and energy storage. In this special issue, the breadth of papers shows that the hybrid materials is attracting attention, because of both growing fundamental interest, and a route to new materials. Two review articles and seven research papers that report new results of hybrid materials should gather widespread interest.

  12. Superface energy of several construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, J. L.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution was used to characterize the surface of different construction materials (marble, sandstone, granite and brick. Surface energy can be divided into two components: dispersive and polar or acid-base. The highest dispersive energy value was found for sandstone, while the values for the other three materials were all very similar. The lower dispersive energy variation exhibited by sandstone with temperature changes is an indication that substances interact equally well with its surface at any temperature. All the materials were found to be amphoteric, with both acid and alkaline components, although acidity was greater in granite and brick and sandstone and marble had higher alkalinity.En este trabajo se ha realizado la caracterización de la superficie de diferentes materiales de construcción (mármol,arenisca, granito y ladrillo mediante cromatografía inversa gas-sólido a dilución infinita. La energía superficial se puede dividir en dos componentes: dispersiva y ácido-base. Los valores obtenidos para la energía dispersiva son bastante parecidas para mármol, granito y ladrillo, mientras que el valor más alto corresponde a la arenisca. Además, este material presenta una menor variación de la energía dispersiva con la temperatura lo que indica que la interacción de cualquier sustancia con su superficie se dará a cualquier temperatura. Por lo que respecta a las componentes ácido-base, se ha observado que todos los materiales poseen ambas componentes lo que indica un carácter anfótero, sin embargo, la acidez es mayor en el granito y en el ladrillo, mientras que la basicidad es mayor en la arenisca y en el mármol.

  13. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  14. Activated graphene as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Meryl D; Murali, Shanthi; Quarles, Neil; Zhu, Yanwu; Potts, Jeffrey R; Zhu, Xianjun; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-03-14

    Chemically activated graphene ('activated microwave expanded graphite oxide', a-MEGO) was used as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors. The performance of a-MEGO was first verified with Li-ion electrolyte in a symmetrical supercapacitor cell. Hybrid supercapacitors were then constructed with a-MEGO as the cathode and with either graphite or Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) for the anode materials. The results show that the activated graphene material works well in a symmetrical cell with the Li-ion electrolyte with specific capacitances as high as 182 F g(-1). In a full a-MEGO/graphite hybrid cell, specific capacitances as high as 266 F g(-1) for the active materials at operating potentials of 4 V yielded gravimetric energy densities for a packaged cell of 53.2 W h kg(-1).

  15. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, and workmanship. 162.017-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Valves, Pressure-Vacuum Relief, for Tank Vessels § 162.017-3 Materials, construction, and workmanship. (a) The valves shall be of...

  16. 46 CFR 160.053-3 - Materials, construction and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction and workmanship. 160.053-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-3 Materials, construction and workmanship. (a) General. Except as otherwise specifically...

  17. 23 CFR 633.207 - Construction labor and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction labor and materials. 633.207 Section 633... OPERATIONS REQUIRED CONTRACT PROVISIONS Federal-Aid Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.207 Construction labor and materials. (a) Construction and materials shall be in accordance with the State highway...

  18. 46 CFR 160.038-3 - Materials, workmanship, and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, and construction. 160.038-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-3 Materials, workmanship, and construction. (a) Portable magazine chests shall...

  19. 46 CFR 58.05-1 - Material, design and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material, design and construction. 58.05-1 Section 58.05... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Main Propulsion Machinery § 58.05-1 Material, design and construction. (a) The material, design, construction, workmanship, and arrangement of main propulsion machinery...

  20. Design, Construction and Effectiveness Analysis of Hybrid Automatic Solar Tracking System for Amorphous and Crystalline Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupendra Gupta

    2013-01-01

    - This paper concerns the design and construction of a Hybrid solar tracking system. The constructed device was implemented by integrating it with Amorphous & Crystalline Solar Panel, three dimensional freedom mechanism and microcontroller. The amount of power available from a photovoltaic panel is determined by three parameters, the type of solar tracker, materials of solar panel and the intensity of the sunlight. The objective of this paper is to present analysis on the use of two differ...

  1. Sustainable construction : towards a strategic approach to construction material management for waste reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Scheublin, F.J.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van, E.L.C.; Lambert, A.J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The construction sector plays a key role in shaping and developing the built environment. It also has an undisputed and significant impact on it due to the amounts of materials extracted and produced as waste. The construction industry has emphasized to recycling construction waste (CW), however, relatively less emphasis has been paid on construction waste minimization. CW reduction can be achieved through changes in design concepts, material and construction methods selection and material ma...

  2. The Tower: Modelling, Analysis and Construction of Bending Active Tensile Membrane Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Schmeck, Michel; Charles Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The project is the result of an interdisciplinary research collaboration between CITA, KET and Fibrenamics exploring the design of integrated hybrid structures employing bending active elements and tensile membranes with bespoke material properties and detailing. Hybrid structures are defined her...

  3. 49 CFR 176.96 - Materials of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction. 176.96 Section 176.96 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Requirements for Barges § 176.96 Materials of construction. Barges used to transport hazardous materials must...

  4. Research Progress of Building Materials Used in Construction Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Construction land preparation is an important aspect of land remediation project. The research of materials in the process of land improvement is the foundation and the core. Therefore, it is necessary to study the materials that may be involved in the process of building land preparation. In this paper, the research on the construction materials such as recycled concrete, geosynthetics, soil stabilizers, soil improvers, building insulation materials and inorganic fibrous insulation materials, which are commonly used in construction sites, is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Land remediation project involved in the construction of land materials to provide reference.

  5. A Hybrid MCDM Technique for Risk Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Chatterjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder based construction projects are subject to potential risk factors due to dynamic business environment and stakeholders’ lack of knowledge. When solving project management tasks, it is necessary to quantify the main risk indicators of the projects. Managing these requires suitable risk mitigation strategies to evaluate and analyse their severity. The existence of information asymmetry also causes difficulties with achieving Pareto efficiency. Hence, to ensure balanced satisfaction of all participants, risk evaluation of these projects can be considered as an important part of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM process. In real-life problems, evaluation of project risks is often uncertain and even incomplete, and the prevailing methodologies fail to handle such situations. To address the problem, this paper extends the analytical network process (ANP methodology in the D numbers domain to handle three types of ambiguous information’s, viz. complete, uncertain, and incomplete, and assesses the weight of risk criteria. The D numbers based approach overcomes the deficiencies of the exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint of Dempster–Shafer (D–S theory. Here, preference ratings of the decision matrix for each decision-maker are determined using a D numbers extended consistent fuzzy preference relation (D-CFPR. An extended multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC method in D numbers is then developed to rank and select the best alternative risk response strategy. Finally, an illustrative example from construction sector is presented to check the feasibility of the proposed approach. For checking the reliability of alternative ranking, a comparative analysis is performed with different MCDM approaches in D numbers domain. Based on different criteria weights, a sensitivity analysis of obtained ranking of the hybrid D-ANP-MABAC model is performed to verify the robustness of the proposed

  6. Paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.

  7. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  8. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  9. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. 46 CFR 154.1702 - Materials of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction. 154.1702 Section 154.1702... § 154.1702 Materials of construction. When Table 4 references one of the following paragraphs in this section, the materials in the referenced paragraph must not be in components that contact the cargo liquid...

  11. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  12. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPa...

  13. A nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualan; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    A flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic solution, the thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product was obtained with unchanged morphology. The chemical structure of the materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material showed better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. A high specific capacitance of 1126 F g-1 was obtained with a retention life of 84% after 1000 cycles for supercapacitors. The energy density and power density were also better than those of pure component materials.

  14. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  15. Biomechanics of Hybrid Anterior Cervical Fusion and Artificial Disc Replacement in 3-Level Constructs: An In Vitro Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenhua; Fogel, Guy R.; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background The ideal surgical approach for cervical disk disease remains controversial, especially for multilevel cervical disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the cervical spine after 3-level hybrid surgery compared with 3-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Material/Methods Eighteen human cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were evaluated under displacement-input protocol. After intact testing, a simulated hybrid construct or fusion construct was created between C3 to C6 and tested in the following 3 conditions: 3-level disc plate disc (3DPD), 3-level plate disc plate (3PDP), and 3-level plate (3P). Results Compared to intact, almost 65~80% of motion was successfully restricted at C3-C6 fusion levels (p0.05). 3PDP construct resulted in significant decrease of ROM at C3-C6 levels less than 3P (pbiomechanical advantages compared to fusion in normalizing motion. PMID:26529430

  16. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    extreme and reversible water absorption, porosity formation, water blocking and controlled release of substances. The overview does not cover all aspects of SAP use, but is focused on topics the author has been dealing with. In particular examples of SAP use within concrete construction are elaborated....

  17. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining

  18. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  19. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodina, G.S., E-mail: kudgs@mail.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.G.; Kremlev, K.V. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yunin, P.A.; Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603087 (Russian Federation); Kaverin, B.S.; Kaverina, L.B. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ketkov, S.Yu. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flat and curved vanadium oxide nanobelts have been synthesized. • Hybrid material was prepared via decoration of flexible nanobelts with zinc phthalocyanine. • Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures were carried out. - Abstract: Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB – tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (TBA){sub 0.16}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  20. Silane-based hybrid materials for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Jansen, J.A.; Holder, S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of different hybrid silane materials is presented and their possible use in biomedical applications is discussed. The first example describes the development of biocompatible coatings based on sol-gel silicates, which can be used as a protective coating for implantable

  1. Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fields such as catalysis, pharmacology, medicine, nan- otechnology, and molecular ... such POM-based hybrid materials: (a) organic ligands graft onto POMs directly; .... average value of 6.028, close to the ideal value of 6 for MoVI. The bond ...

  2. Hybrid materials for decontamination of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, H.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Water is the most essential component on the earth for vital activities of all living beings. Unfortunately, due to geometrical growth of population, civilization, industrialization, agricultural activities and other geological and environmental changes quality of water from different resources is deteriorating. Water pollution has therefore become a serious issue in the present scenario, affecting all living creatures. In 2008, WHO published a third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Thousands of inorganic, organic and biological pollutants have been reported as water contaminants. Some of them have serious side effects and toxicities. Even few of them are lethal and carcinogenic. A majority of them are heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of low levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Hg, etc.), toxic elements (F) and radionuclides (U, Th, Am, Pu) in various forms from groundwater still remains a problem, both technically and economically. Depending on local geology, groundwater contains these elements in low levels (μg L -1 range), but sometimes in concentrations which are not acceptable for drinking water. Material used for the sorption of heavy metals from waters in commercial applications must be immobilized in order to meet technical demands for onsite use. Generally, packed bed columns, with a stable, porous material that has a specific grain size, are used. Moreover, tailored materials must be stable and resistant to the medium that is investigated so that there is no release of constituent components

  3. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  4. Fabrication of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hao, Q.L.; Wang, X.; Lu, L.D.; Yang, X.J. [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material was prepared using an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Graphene oxide and a single layer of graphite oxide were used as a substrate material for the graphene oxide-polyaniline composite using an in situ polymerization method. The composite was then treated with a hot sodium hydroxide solution in order to produce a reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. The sodium hydroxide was also used as a dedoping reagent for the polyaniline in the composite. A thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product with an unchanged morphology was obtained using the process. Analyses of the material demonstrated that the composite showed an improved electrochemical performance than the pure individual components, with a specific capacitance of 1126 F per g and a retention life of 84 per cent after 1000 cycles. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  6. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  7. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  8. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  9. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  10. Influential Factors Affecting Materials Management in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Zairra Mat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are more often than not plagued by poor performances such as delays, cost overrun, low productivity, construction wastes and compromised quality. Amongst the critical contributory factors of poor project performances, is the ineffectiveness of materials management occurring in the construction sites. Indeed, materials management is a very important component for construction projects. However, there are only limited numbers of research available regarding this topic. Thus, this research focuses its study on materials management, specifically in identifying the influential factors that affect materials management in the construction project activities. Literatures from books, journal articles and conference papers related to poor project performances and materials management have been reviewed. Consequently, this study sorted the salient influential factors and categorized them based on their specific group. Out of 47 factors identified, they are classified into 8 groups. They are (1 site condition; (2 planning and handling on site; (3 management; (4 materials; (5 supplier and manufacturer default; (6 transportation; (7 contractual; and (8 governmental interferences. In conclusion, this study contends that by identifying the influential factors affecting materials management, it will help construction players to avoid the occurrence of those factors and will minimize the negative impacts on the overall performance of construction projects. Hence, the handling-over of project will be according to schedule and not delayed by materials mismanagement.

  11. Sustainable construction : towards a strategic approach to construction material management for waste reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Scheublin, F.J.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Lambert, A.J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The construction sector plays a key role in shaping and developing the built environment. It also has an undisputed and significant impact on it due to the amounts of materials extracted and produced as waste. The construction industry has emphasized to recycling construction waste (CW), however,

  12. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  13. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  14. Behavior of Reinforced Hybrid Concrete Corbel-Column Connection with Vertical Construction Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Yasir Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, shear behavior of reinforced hybrid concrete connection of corbel-column is experimentally investigated. Nine homogenous and hybrid concrete corbel-column connections subjected to vertical applied loads were constructed and tested within two test groups (A, B. The experimental program included the effect of several variables such as type of hybrid concrete;high strength concrete (HSC or steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC, monolithic casting of hybrid concrete connection, and presence of construction joint at the interface of corbel-column. Experimental results showed significant effects of concrete hybridization on the structural behavior of connection specimens such as: ultimate strength, cracking loads, cracking patterns, and failure modes. Hybridization process in group (A included hybrid connection of corbel-column with HSC or SFRC corbel instated of NSC. This process led to increase the capacity of connection by (26%, 38% and shear cracking loads by (20%, 120% respectively. Moreover, connections of hybrid concrete corbels cast monolithically improved the shear capacity of corbels by (19%, 42% for HSC or SFRC respectively. In group (B, presence of construction joint at connection region reduced the shear capacity of connectionsby (10% to 22% and cracking loads by (23%-62% compared with connections cast monolithically.

  15. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. When Construction Material Traders Goes Electronic: Analysis of SMEs in Malaysian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dzul Fahmi Nordin; Rosmini Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the perception of e-commerce application services by construction material traders in Malaysia. Five attributes were tested: usability, reputation, trust, privacy and familiarity. Study methodology consists of survey questionnaire and statistical analysis that includes reliability analysis, factor analysis, ANOVA and regression analysis. The respondents were construction material traders, including hardware stores in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur. Find...

  17. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  18. Material Construction of Care Workers’ Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Sanna Laulainen; Anneli Hujala

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at the unconscious and unnoticed effects of materiality on care workers’ identity. The data was collected through nonactive role-playing using written accounts, in which the respondents described how they felt about working in fictitious ‘good’ or ‘bad’ elderly care homes. The data was analyzed with rhetorical analysis. Five different identity strategies were identified in the accounts. Strong professional identity was defended by downplaying the significanc...

  19. Material Construction of Care Workers’ Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Laulainen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the unconscious and unnoticed effects of materiality on care workers’ identity. The data was collected through nonactive role-playing using written accounts, in which the respondents described how they felt about working in fictitious ‘good’ or ‘bad’ elderly care homes. The data was analyzed with rhetorical analysis. Five different identity strategies were identified in the accounts. Strong professional identity was defended by downplaying the significance of materiality. Adjustment and passive compliance were used to adjust to physical shortcomings of the work environment. A ‘rebellion’ was described as an extreme course of action to resolve the contradiction between good care and poor facilities. At its best, the materiality of care homes, in particular homelikeness, seemed to support professional identity. These identity strategies illustrate how care workers balance between the physical realities of care homes and the requirements of the ethos of care, which are often incompatible with each other. It is crucial that managers as well as workers themselves recognize and acknowledge these connections affecting motivation and commitment to care work. Investments in better environments could be one way to improve the image and the attractiveness of the care branch and relieve the recruitment problems.

  20. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Natural radioactivity in construction materials; Natuerliche Radioaktivitaet in Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bernd [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Rocks and soils contain traces of uranium and thorium and their daughter products, also the primordial nuclide K-40. Most construction materials are produced from mineral raw materials and residuals from industrial processes, thus natural radionuclides can be detected. The radionuclide concentrations are relevant with respect to radiation protection. Radionuclides in construction materials can cause indoor radiation exposure due to their gamma radiation and due to inhalation of radon a gaseous nuclide that can diffuse out of the materials. Based on new legal developments in the European Union the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz is now again concerned with radiation protection issues of building materials.

  2. Use of polymer concrete for construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtanoski, Gligorche; Dukovski, Vladimir; Yamaguchi, Kitazumi

    2002-01-01

    Polymer concrete (PC), or resin concrete, consists of a polymer binder, which may be a thermoplastic but more frequently is a thermosetting polymer, and a mineral filler such as aggregate, gravel and crushed stone. PC has higher strength, greater resistance to chemicals and corrosive agents, lower water absorption and higher freeze-thaw stability than the conventional Portland cement concrete and Cast Iron. This paper is a review of the key features of PC materials as a bases for comparison with the cast iron. (Original)

  3. Constructions, geo-materials and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, C.; Pijaudier-Cabot, G.; Reynouard, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of methods for the evaluation of the functioning safety of buildings and structures during all their service life represents one of the major research goals in civil engineering. The energy production, the industrial development and the management of wastes have led to new safety research problems to ensure the environment and populations protection. The mechanics of geo-materials (soils, concretes, rocks) is the central part of the predictive tools developed to satisfy these socio-economical stakes. The functioning analysis of buildings cover huge size and time scales, from the micro-meter to the kilometer and from the second to the century, and requires various relevant models and multi-subject methods. This volume is divided in 3 parts dealing with: the in-service safety of buildings, the accidental situations, and the behaviour of geo-materials. Five papers dealing with the long-term, seismic and thermal behaviour of concretes were selected for INIS and one paper dealing with the effect of time on a natural clay and on the behaviour of a dam foundations was selected for ETDE. (J.S.)

  4. Management of waste from packaging of construction materials in building construction works

    OpenAIRE

    González Pericot, Natalia; Río Merino, Mercedes del

    2011-01-01

    Every material arriving at the construction site comes protected in some type of packaging, fundamentally cardboard, plastic or wood, and presently the great majority of these packagings finish in a container mixed with the rest of waste of the construction work. The increasing tendency to use prefabricated materials increases the volume of packaging necessary in product transport; in addition, the traditional materials also arrive more protected with packaging. A specific management for ...

  5. The Role of the Military Construction Engineers in the Hybrid War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    an increase in the need for infrastructure. Military construction engineers were responsible for the NIKE construction program, storage sites for...has minimized the significance of geographical and political boundaries. Because of these facts, the NATO Bi-Strategic Command has assessed Hybrid

  6. Charge-transfer channel in quantum dot-graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jingang; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    The energy band theory of a classical semiconductor can qualitatively explain the charge-transfer process in low-dimensional hybrid colloidal quantum dot (QD)-graphene (GR) materials; however, the definite charge-transfer channels are not clear. Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, we simulate the hybrid QD-GR nanostructure, and by constructing its orbital interaction diagram, we show the quantitative coupling characteristics of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the hybrid structure. The main MOs are derived from the fragment MOs (FOs) of GR, and the Cd13Se13 QD FOs merge with the GR FOs in a certain proportion to afford the hybrid system. Upon photoexcitation, electrons in the GR FOs jump to the QD FOs, leaving holes in the GR FOs, and the definite charge-transfer channels can be found by analyzing the complex MOs coupling. The excited electrons and remaining holes can also be localized in the GR or the QD or transfer between the QD and GR with different absorption energies. The charge-transfer process for the selected excited states of the hybrid QD-GR structure are testified by the charge difference density isosurface. The natural transition orbitals, charge-transfer length analysis and 2D site representation of the transition density matrix also verify the electron-hole delocalization, localization, or coherence chacracteristics of the selected excited states. Therefore, our research enhances understanding of the coupling mechanism of low-dimensional hybrid materials and will aid in the design and manipulation of hybrid photoelectric devices for practical application in many fields.

  7. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  8. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  9. Cost Indexing and Unit Price Adjustments for Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    This project was focused on the assimilation of information regarding unit price adjustment clauses, or PACs, : that are offered for construction materials at the state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). It is intended to : provide the South Carol...

  10. Characterization of ureasil-polyethylene oxide/chitosan hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Zaldivar, M.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Peniche Covas, C.; Santilli, C.V. [Universidad de la Habana, Havana (Cuba); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Siloxane-polyether hybrids are an interesting and versatile family of multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid materials, also named ureasils. Ureasils have been the object of intensive studies in the last years due to their versatility and wide range of applications. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan are biocompatible and low toxicity polymers that were used as organic phase while the inorganic phase was siloxane. Therefore, the aim of this work was the characterization of these hybrids that were prepared by the sol–gel route. Hydrochloric and acetic acids were used as catalysts. Due to the insolubility of chitosan in ethanol and organic solvents, water was used in the hydrolysis solution as the main component or alone. The obtained materials were transparent, rubbery, flexible and water-insoluble. They were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetric Analysis), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). Results showed that chitosan addition did not provoke appreciable changes in the thermal properties but modifies the polycondensation degree and the nanoscopic structure of the materials. Significant changes were not found neither by the hydrolysis solution nor by the type of acid, except in the thermal stability. It depended on the type of acid catalyst, being higher in hybrids prepared with HCl. We can conclude that these materials can be synthesized just with water as the hydrolysis solution and that any of the two acids can be used as catalyst without significantly affect its final properties. (author)

  11. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  12. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  13. Hybrid materials of kaolinite clay with polypyrrole and polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Kerstin A; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Composites of the alumino silicate mineral kaolinite, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline have been successfully synthesised. In doing so hybrid materials have been produced in which the high surface area of the mineral is retained, whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and physical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows polypyrrole coatings to comprise of individual polymer spheres, approximately 10 to 15 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of polyaniline was observed to be approximately 5 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the kaolinite platelets in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles onto the redox active surface of the polymers has also been successful, and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterization of the hybrid materials has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  14. Identification of Key Indicators for Sustainable Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Danso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on sustainable construction materials are on the rise with their environmental, social, and economic benefits. This study identifies the key indicators for measuring sustainable construction materials. The design used for the study was that of a survey which relied on a questionnaire with five-point Likert scale to generate data for the analysis. For this purpose, 25 indicators from the three dimensions (environmental, social, and economic identified from the literature were presented to the respondents in a structured questionnaire, and responses were collected and analysed using SPSS. The study identified three key environmental indicators for measuring sustainable construction materials, and these indicators are human toxicity, climate change, and solid waste. Furthermore, adaptability, thermal comfort, local resources, and housing for all were identified as the four key social indicators for sustainable construction materials. In addition, maintenance cost, operational cost, initial cost, long-term savings, and life span were found to be the five key economic indicators for measuring sustainable construction materials. The study therefore suggests that these twelve indicators should be considered in future studies that seek to measure sustainable construction materials.

  15. Considering Materials Management in Construction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Dakhli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While materials count for a considerable amount of construction costs, the way materials are managed seems to be improvised rather than approached methodically. This study investigates the practice of novel techniques used to manage materials in the construction industry. Techniques that have already proven themselves to be efficient ways to manage the production pace within the industry include the pull system, Just-In-Time, Kitting and off-site fabrication. These are explained and assessed in the context of the French construction industry through an exploratory study, supported by a questionnaire completed by contractors. The results reveal that a clear plan to manage materials on-site is lacking among the respondents, creating common inventory problems. This research provides evidence to support the central role played by an efficient management of material flow on-site. It also highlights the obstacles that hinder the adoption of innovative techniques, such as sub-contractor coordination.

  16. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Cuizhen Xue; Aiqin Shen; Yinchuan Guo; Tianqin He

    2016-01-01

    The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM) as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, ...

  17. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  19. Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seog-Jin; Hauser, Adam W; Hayward, Ryan C

    2017-02-21

    The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field. Of particular interest are hybrid systems containing rigid inclusions that can define both the anisotropy and spatial nonuniformity of swelling as well as nanoparticulate additives that can enhance the responsiveness and functionality of the material. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in approaches to achieve well-defined shape morphing in hydrogel hybrids. First, we provide an overview of materials and methods that facilitate fabrication of such systems and outline the geometry and mechanics behind shape morphing of thin sheets. We then discuss how patterning of stiff inclusions within soft responsive hydrogels can be used to program both bending and swelling, thereby providing access to a wide array of complex 3D forms. The use of discretely patterned stiff regions to provide an effective composite response offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and ease of fabrication compared with approaches based on smooth gradients within a single layer of responsive material. We discuss a number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Next, we outline how the inclusion of functional elements such as nanoparticles can enable unique pathways to programmable

  20. Investigations of construction materials by means of cracking mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Wasiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic procedure for typical construction materials based on cracking tests has been presented. Results of investigations for aluminium base alloys and tungsten sintered materials have been shown and discussed. Application of the method for pipelines testing has been also performed. 6 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Molecular tools for the construction of peptide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, B E I; van Hest, J C M; Löwik, D W P M

    2014-04-21

    Proteins and peptides are fundamental components of living systems where they play crucial roles at both functional and structural level. The versatile biological properties of these molecules make them interesting building blocks for the construction of bio-active and biocompatible materials. A variety of molecular tools can be used to fashion the peptides necessary for the assembly of these materials. In this tutorial review we shall describe five of the main techniques, namely solid phase peptide synthesis, native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, NCA polymerisation, and genetic engineering, that have been used to great effect for the construction of a host of peptide-based materials.

  2. Hybrid nodal loop metal: Unconventional magnetoresponse and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Yunhao; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Hui Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal loop is formed by a band crossing along a one-dimensional closed manifold, with each point on the loop a linear nodal point in the transverse dimensions, and can be classified as type I or type II depending on the band dispersion. Here, we propose a class of nodal loops composed of both type-I and type-II points, which are hence termed as hybrid nodal loops. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the realization of such loops in the existing electride material Ca2As . For a hybrid loop, the Fermi surface consists of coexisting electron and hole pockets that touch at isolated points for an extended range of Fermi energies, without the need for fine-tuning. This leads to unconventional magnetic responses, including the zero-field magnetic breakdown and the momentum-space Klein tunneling observable in the magnetic quantum oscillations, as well as the peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance.

  3. Construction and repair: A hybrid approach to search in CSPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikokolakis, K.; Boukeas, G.; Stamatopoulos, P.; Vouros, G.A.; Panayiotopoulos, T.

    2004-01-01

    In order to obtain a solution to a constraint satisfaction problem, constructive methods iteratively extend a consistent partial assignment until all problem variables are instantiated. If the current partial assignment is proved to be inconsistent, it is then necessary to backtrack and perform

  4. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  5. Role of coal combustion products in sustainable construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, T.R.; Siddique, R.; Vaniker, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (USA). UWM Center for Products Utilization, College of Engineering and Applied Science

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes various coal combustion products, CCPs produced in the process of power generation. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and flue gas desulfurization products. Typical test protocol used for testing, analysis and evaluation of CCPs, as well as the current best recycling use options for these materials are discussed. Materials, productions, properties, and potential applications in the manufacture of emerging materials for sustainable construction, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. 47 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  7. Algorithm of constructing hybrid effective modules for elastic isotropic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetashkov, A. A.; Miciński, J.; Kupriyanov, N. A.; Barashkov, V. N.; Lushnikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm of constructing of new effective elastic characteristics of two-component composites based on the superposition of the models of Reiss and Voigt, Hashin and Strikman, as well as models of the geometric average for effective modules. These effective characteristics are inside forks Voigt and Reiss. Additionally, the calculations of the stress-strain state of composite structures with new effective characteristics give more accurate prediction than classical models do.

  8. Hybrid Cryogenic Tank Construction and Method of Manufacture Therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight, high-pressure cryogenic tank construction includes an inner layer comprising a matrix of fiber and resin suitable for cryogenic use. An outer layer in intimate contact with the inner layer provides support of the inner layer, and is made of resin composite. The tank is made by placing a fiber preform on a mandrel and infusing the preform with the resin. The infused preform is then encapsulated within the outer layer.

  9. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  10. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  11. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podust, T.V.; Kulik, T.V.; Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M.; Tóth, A.; Mikhalovska, L.; Menyhárd, A.; László, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO 2 , TiO 2 /SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S BET of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface

  12. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podust, T.V., E-mail: tania_list@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Kulik, T.V., E-mail: tanyakulyk@i.ua [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Tóth, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalovska, L. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Menyhárd, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Materials Science and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); László, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S{sub BET} of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  13. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  14. Preparation of silica-based hybrid materials by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcao, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation is well known to promote the crosslinking of polymer chains. The method is now used by the authors to prepare hybrid materials from a mixture of polymer and metallic alkoxides of silicium and zirconium that are usually obtained via the sol-gel process. Macroscopically homogeneous and transparent hybrid materials have been obtained by γ-irradiation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr). The influence of several parameters has been studied. The dose rate was found to have no significant impact in the prepared material. The polymer molecular weight was also observed not to play any special role. It was found that all irradiated samples consist of a polymer gel matrix. In the case where both alkoxides are present there are inorganic oxide regions linked to the PDMS network. However when one of the alkoxides is absent there is no formation of inorganic oxide regions linked to the polymer matrix, there being only a few individual derived molecules of the other alkoxide linked to the polymer

  15. Enablers of Innovation in the Construction Material Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    , which creates a strong interdependence between the different supply network partners and can be seen as a hindrance for innovation. Innovation models must embrace such a contemporary business structures, where competition often takes place between supply chains rather than between individual companies......The construction material industry is often acknowledged as slightly more innovative than the overall construction industry and could hence serve as a valuable learning place for how innovation could flourish in the construction industry. Construction is viewed as network or supply chain based......, it was found that different approaches for facilitating this journey exists, based on company characteristics. This paper adds to the body of knowledge on how to succeed with innovation in the construction industry. The increased awareness of an open and cooperative approach to innovation is of value both...

  16. Design and construction of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Final design is more than 85 percent complete on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility, the facility for post-irradiation examination of the fuels and materials tests irradiated in the FFTF and for fuel process development, experimental test pin fabrication and supporting storage, assay, and analytical chemistry functions. The overall facility is generally described with specific information given on some of the design features. Construction has been initiated and more than 10% of the construction contracts have been awarded on a fixed price basis

  17. Expanding Application of Perforated Metal Materials in Construction and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironovs, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Gorbacova, S.

    2017-10-01

    Perforated metal materials (PMM) combine a range of properties, including rigidity, strength, lightweight, small thickness, a dosed transparency and decorative attractiveness. All these bring new application effects in construction industry and architecture. Nowadays, PMM are widely used in design of facades and interiors all over the world, becoming more popular in Latvia as well. The paper touches several aspects of PMM applications, including its decoration function, shadowing of sunlight, sound and noise barrier function and the problem of corrosion when exploited outdoors. Possible perfection may include using different coatings, multi-layer design variants and integration with other constructional materials in order to provide better sound absorption, corrosion resistance and functionality.

  18. Fast Construction of Near Parsimonious Hybridization Networks for Multiple Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Sajad; Wu, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization networks represent plausible evolutionary histories of species that are affected by reticulate evolutionary processes. An established computational problem on hybridization networks is constructing the most parsimonious hybridization network such that each of the given phylogenetic trees (called gene trees) is "displayed" in the network. There have been several previous approaches, including an exact method and several heuristics, for this NP-hard problem. However, the exact method is only applicable to a limited range of data, and heuristic methods can be less accurate and also slow sometimes. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm for constructing near parsimonious networks for multiple binary gene trees. This method is more efficient for large numbers of gene trees than previous heuristics. This new method also produces more parsimonious results on many simulated datasets as well as a real biological dataset than a previous method. We also show that our method produces topologically more accurate networks for many datasets.

  19. Engineering of the Lactococcus lactis serine proteinase by construction of hybrid enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, Ingrid J.; Buist, Girbe; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Reuver, Marjon B. de; Siezen, Roland J.; Venema, Gerhardus; Vos, Willem M. de; Kok, Jan

    Plasmids containing wild-type and hybrid proteinase genes were constructed from DNA fragments of the prtP genes of Lactococcus lactis strains Wg2 and SK11. These plasmids were introduced into the plasmid-free strain L. lactis MG1363. The serine proteinases produced by these L. lactis strains were

  20. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  1. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  2. Hybrid silica materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Vidal, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    The present PhD thesis entitled "Silica Hybrid Materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis" is focused on the design and synthesis of new hybrid materials, using different silica supports as inorganic scaffolds, with applications in recognition, sensing and diagnostic protocols. The first chapter of the PhD thesis is devoted to the definition and classification of hybrid materials, relying on concepts of Nanotechnology, Supramolecular and Materials Chemistry. State o...

  3. Intelligent Materials Tracking System for Construction Projects Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimah Kasim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor adversely affecting the performance of construction projects is the improper handling of materials during site activities. In addition, paper-based reports are mostly used to record and exchange information related to the material components within the supply chain, which is problematic and inefficient. Generally, technologies (such as wireless systems and RFID are not being adequately used to overcome human errors and are not well integrated with project management systems to make tracking and management of materials easier and faster. Findings from a literature review and surveys showed that there is a lack of positive examples of such tools having been used effectively. Therefore, this research focused on the development of a materials tracking system that integrates RFID-based materials management with resources modelling to improve on-site materials tracking. Rapid prototyping was used to develop the system and testing of the system was carried out to examine the functionality and working appropriately. The proposed system is intended to promote the employment of RFID for automatic materials tracking with integration of resource modelling (Microsoft (R Office Project in the project management system in order to establish which of the tagged components are required resources for certain project tasks. In conclusion, the system provides an automatic and easy tracking method for managing materials during materials delivery and inventory management processes in construction projects.

  4. A primer on wood as dock construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    To be a successful marina owner and operator, it’s important to understand all the facets of one’s facility, including the intricacies of one part of the marina that most boaters take for granted: the docks. When it comes to dock construction, marinas have a wide-range of materials to choose from, with one of the most commonly used materials being preservative-treated...

  5. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2015-05-08

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  6. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  7. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  8. Bioinspired Nanocellulose Based Hybrid Materials With Novel Interfacial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Sinan

    This talk will overview a simulation-based approach to enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites by utilizing cellulose - the most abundant and renewable structural biopolymer found on our planet. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit outstanding mechanical properties exceeding that of Kevlar, serving as reinforcing domains in nature's toughest hierarchical nanocomposites such as wood. Yet, weak interfaces at the surfaces of CNCs have so far made it impossible to scale these inherent properties to macroscopic systems. In this work, I will discuss how surface functionalization of CNCs influences their properties in their self-assembled films and nanocomposites with engineered polymer matrices . Specifically, the role of ion exchange based surface modifications and polymer conjugation will be discussed, where atomistic and coarse-grained simulations will reveal new insights into how superior mechanical properties can potentially be attained by hybrid constructs.

  9. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  10. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  11. Aeolian sands as material to construct low-volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeolian sands are widespread in many semi-arid to arid areas of the world and often provide the only economic source of construction materials for low volume roads. Experience in southern Africa over a number of decades has shown that provided...

  12. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...

  13. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic

  14. Natural and construction materials and plant products. Raw materials, constructional physics, design and construction. 2. upd. and enl. ed.; Natuerliche und pflanzliche Baustoffe. Rohstoff - Bauphysik - Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, Gerhard; Wangelin, Matthias; Bruns, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses all relevant renewable constructional materials made from fibre or dyeing plants along with their physical and chemical fundamentals. Protection of resources, environmental protection, and pollutants in constructional materials are gone into as well. [German] Dieses Buch behandelt alle wichtige nachwachsenden, pflanzlichen Baustoffe aus Faser- und Faerberpflanzen sowie dazugehoerige physikalische und chemische Grundlagen. Angesprochen werden auch Ressourcen- und Umweltschutz sowie Schadstoffe aus Bauprodukten.

  15. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of pollutants removal in hybrid constructed wetlands – different configurations case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewska Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in interest in hybrid constructed wetland systems (HCWs has been observed. The aim of the paper is to compare different HCW configurations in terms of mass removal rates and efficiency of pollutants removal. Analysed data have been collected at multistage constructed wetlands in Poland, which are composed by at least two beds: horizontal subsurface flow (SSHF and vertical subsurface flow (SSVF. The evaluation was focused on hybrid constructed wetlands performance with HF+VF vs. VF+HF configuration, where influent wastewater of the same composition was treated. In analysed HCWs, the effective removal of organic matter from 75.2 to 91.6% COD was confirmed. Efficiency of total nitrogen removal varied from 47.3 to 91.7%. The most effective removal of TN (8.3 g m−2 d−1 occurred in the system with VF+VF+HF configuration.

  17. An Insight into the Convenience and Efficiency of the Freeze-Drying Route to Construct 3D Graphene-Based Hybrids for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Caihua; Zhao, Yongjie; Yan, Dong; Zhao, Yuzhen; Zhou, Heping; Li, Jingbo; Jin, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    Constructing hybrids of transition metal oxides with different kinds of carbon based materials has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, scalable synthesis of homogeneous hybrids with active controllable of microstructure remains great challenge. Here, we proposed a convenient and efficient strategy named freeze-drying process for scalable production of 3D NiO/graphene hybrids. With a controllable procedure, NiO microflowers and graphene layers could preserve uniform configuration from fully mixed solvent to final hybrids materials. The mechanical stability and electrical conductivity of NiO microflowers was increased by graphene. NiO microflowers as spacers intercalated into graphene layers and effectively prevented it from aggregation or restacking, leading to a high specific surface area in hybrids. The NiO/graphene exhibited enhanced cycle stability and rate performance when evaluated as an anode for lithium ion batteries. It rendered high specific capacities about 1000 mA h g −1 after 70 cycles, and 770 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles at 300 mA g −1 . Excellent electrochemical properties were probably ascribed to the synergistic effect of NiO microflowers and graphene layers, as a result of smart structure design by a freeze-drying route. This strategy with merits of rational construction and scalable production could establish new aspects for diverse hybrid towards industrialization.

  18. Mathematical Methods of System Analysis in Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkina, Irina; Danilov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    System attributes of construction materials are defined: complexity of an object, integrity of set of elements, existence of essential, stable relations between elements defining integrative properties of system, existence of structure, etc. On the basis of cognitive modelling (intensive and extensive properties; the operating parameters) materials (as difficult systems) and creation of the cognitive map the hierarchical modular structure of criteria of quality is under construction. It actually is a basis for preparation of the specification on development of material (the required organization and properties). Proceeding from a modern paradigm (model of statement of problems and their decisions) of development of materials, levels and modules are specified in structure of material. It when using the principles of the system analysis allows to considered technological process as the difficult system consisting of elements of the distinguished specification level: from atomic before separate process. Each element of system depending on an effective objective is considered as separate system with more detailed levels of decomposition. Among them, semantic and qualitative analyses of an object (are considered a research objective, decomposition levels, separate elements and communications between them come to light). Further formalization of the available knowledge in the form of mathematical models (structural identification) is carried out; communications between input and output parameters (parametrical identification) are defined. Hierarchical structures of criteria of quality are under construction for each allocated level. On her the relevant hierarchical structures of system (material) are under construction. Regularities of structurization and formation of properties, generally are considered at the levels from micro to a macrostructure. The mathematical model of material is represented as set of the models corresponding to private criteria by which separate

  19. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  20. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  1. Construction of a map of chromosome 16 by using radiation hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, I.; Romeo, G.; Lawrence, S.; Morton, N.E.; Breuning, M.H.; Harris, P.C.; Himmelbauer, H.; Frischauf, A.M.; Sutherland, G.R.; Germino, G.G.; Reeders, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    A human-hamster cell hybrid carrying a single copy of chromosome 16 as the only human genetic material was irradiated with a single dose of γ-rays and then fused with a thymidine kinase-deficient hamster cell line (RJKM) to generate radiation hybrids retaining unselected fragments of this human chromosome. In two experiments, 223 hybrids were isolated in hypoxanthine/aminopterine/thymidine (HAT) medium and screened with 38 DNA probes, corresponding to anonymous DNA or gene sequences localized on chromosome 16. The most likely order and location of the 38 DNA sequences were established by multiple pairwise analysis and scaled to estimate physical distance in megabases. The order and the distances thus obtained are mostly consistent with available data on genetic and physical mapping of these markers, illustrating the usefulness of radiation hybrids for mapping

  2. Environmental impacts of construction materials. A report on the contribution of construction materials to greenhouse gas emissions of construction; Rakennusmateriaalien ympaeristoevaikutukset. Selvitys rakennusmateriaalien vaikutuksesta rakentamisen kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin, tiivistelmaeraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuska, A.; Haekkinen, T.; Vares, S.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T.

    2013-05-15

    As the energy performance of new construction improves and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions diminish the carbon footprint of construction materials becomes more important. One objective in the current government's programme is to take into account construction materials and products in the energy performance assessment of buildings. At the request of the Ministry of the Environment, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Finnish Environment Institute analysed, through a case study, the significance of the environmental impacts of construction materials. The aim was to develop preliminary recommendations for guiding construction. The case study calculated the overall GHG emissions from the materials used in an apartment building over its life cycle and estimated the range of emissions. In addition, the amount of construction waste was assessed, as was the effects of waste management and waste utilisation processes on GHG emissions. This report presents a summary of the results. According to this case study, GHG emissions can vary in typical multi-storey residential buildings within the range of 1 to 2.2 or 1 to 3.9 when the site foundation work also taken into account. The study shows that the construction materials and related processes contribute significantly to the GHG emissions of a building over its life cycle. In fact the level of significance is of the same order as the heating of spaces in an A-class energy performance building. The efficient recycling of materials can contribute to reductions in GHG emissions. The study showed that the estimated benefit was 9 % of the total life-cycle emissions. In the future, specific assessments of different types of waste could look at opportunities for the recycling and reuse of critical materials. Plastics and wood are especially important waste components. Future research topics include improving the use of recycled materials, collecting information on user experiences and enhancing quality

  3. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part I- Radiation damage of the construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevic, Dj.

    1962-10-01

    The objective of this task was testing the mechanical properties of stainless steels having different grain size. Being an important material used mainly for reactor vessel construction stainless steel will be exposed to neutron flux in the RA reactor for testing

  4. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  5. Graphene/VO2 hybrid material for high performance electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Zhang, Gaini; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Chunling; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/VO 2 hybrid materials are prepared by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The prepared graphene (1.0)/VO 2 hybrid material shows a specific capacitances of 225 F g −1 in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 solution. Furthermore, an asymmetric electrochemical capacitor with graphene (1.0)/VO 2 as a positive electrode and graphene as a negative electrode is assembled, and it can work in a cell voltage of 1.7 V and show excellent capacitive property. - Highlights: • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material has been prepared by one-step hydrothermal reduction. • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material exhibits high specific capacitance. • An asymmetric capacitor working at 1.7 V in aqueous solution is assembled based on graphene/VO 2 electrode. • The asymmetric capacitor exhibits high energy density. - Abstract: Vanadium oxides have attracted significant attention for electrochemical capacitor because of their extensive multifunctional properties. In the present work, graphene/VO 2 (RG/VO 2 ) hybrid materials with different RG amounts are prepared in a mixture of ammonium vanadate, formic acid and graphite oxide (GO) nanosheets by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The hydrothermal treatment makes the reduction of GO into RG and the formation of VO 2 particles with starfruit morphology. The starfruit-like VO 2 particles are uniformly embedded in the hole constructed by RG nanosheets, which makes the electrode–electrolyte contact better. A high specific capacitance of 225 F g −1 has been achieved for RG(1.0)/VO 2 electrode with RG content of 26 wt% in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. An asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor is assembled by using RG(1.0)/VO 2 as positive electrode and RG as negative electrode, and it can be reversibly charged–discharged at a cell voltage of 1.7 V in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. The asymmetrical capacitor can deliver an energy density of 22.8 Wh kg −1 at a power density

  6. Preparation and fluorescent recognition properties for fluoride of a nanostructured covalently bonded europium hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 李景印; 李亚娟; 耿丽君; 甄小丽; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    A novel covalently bonded Eu3+-based silica hybrid material was designed and its spectrophotometric anion sensing prop-erty was studied. The fluorescent receptor (europium complex) was covalently grafted to the silica matrix via a sol-gel approach. FTIR, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra were characterized, and the results revealed that the hybrid material with nanosphere structure displayed excellent photophysical property. In addition, the selective anion sensing property of the hybrid material was studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid material exhibited a smart response with fluoride anions.

  7. Construction material processed using lunar simulant in various environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Stan; Ocallaghan-Hay, Bridget; Housman, Ralph; Kindig, Michael; King, John; Montegrande, Kevin; Norris, Raymond; Vanscotter, Ryan; Willenborg, Jonathan; Staubs, Harry

    1995-01-01

    The manufacture of construction materials from locally available resources in space is an important first step in the establishment of lunar and planetary bases. The objective of the CoMPULSIVE (Construction Material Processed Using Lunar Simulant In Various Environments) experiment is to develop a procedure to produce construction materials by sintering or melting Johnson Space Center Simulant 1 (JSC-1) lunar soil simulant in both earth-based (1-g) and microgravity (approximately 0-g) environments. The characteristics of the resultant materials will be tested to determine its physical and mechanical properties. The physical characteristics include: crystalline, thermal, and electrical properties. The mechanical properties include: compressive tensile, and flexural strengths. The simulant, placed in a sealed graphite crucible, will be heated using a high temperature furnace. The crucible will then be cooled by radiative and forced convective means. The core furnace element consists of space qualified quartz-halogen incandescent lamps with focusing mirrors. Sample temperatures of up to 2200 C are attainable using this heating method.

  8. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2010-11-16

    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  10. Toxic substances or dangerous presents in the construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Alvarado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work of investigation is the elaboration of a guide who serves as support and consults in the referring thing to the subject of the security in the construction, specifically in and area of the use and handling of materials and dangerous substances; Considering the possible dangers to medium and long term that some of but the common construction equipments represent for the health. The obtained data is a bibliographical review, the visits to public institutions and international offices with representation in our country, as well as a work of field and study of the national market, among others. In addition it made an important consultation through network Internet reviewing many sites of with the purpose of obtaining the data but updated interest possible, as well as the consultation to professionals and workers with the area of the construction. (Author) [es

  11. Towards high-performance materials for road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, V.; Korolev, E.; Smirnov, V.

    2017-10-01

    Due to constant increase of traffic, modern road construction is in need of high-performance pavement materials. The operational performance of such materials can be characterized by many properties. Nevertheless, the most important ones are resistance to rutting and resistance to dynamical loads. It was proposed earlier to use sulfur extended asphalt concrete in road construction practice. To reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide during the concrete mix preparation and pavement production stages, it is beneficial to make such a concrete on the base of complex sulfur modifier. In the present work the influence of the complex modifier to mechanical properties of sulfur extended asphalt concrete was examined. It was shown that sulfur extended asphalt concrete is of high mechanical properties. It was also revealed that there as an anomalous negative correlations between strain capacity, fatigue life and fracture toughness.

  12. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  13. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  14. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridah Md Tahir; Ong, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  15. Full Mouth Oral Rehabilitation by Maxillary Implant Supported Hybrid Denture Employing a Fiber Reinforced Material Instead of Conventional PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamheya, Ala Hassan A; Yeniyol, Sinem; Arısan, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Many people have life-long problems with their dentures, such as difficulties with speaking and eating, loose denture, and sore mouth syndrome. The evolution of dental implant supported prosthesis gives these patients normal healthy life for their functional and esthetic advantages. This case report presents the fabrication of maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis by using Nanofilled Composite (NFC) material in teeth construction to rehabilitate a complete denture wearer patient.

  16. Full Mouth Oral Rehabilitation by Maxillary Implant Supported Hybrid Denture Employing a Fiber Reinforced Material Instead of Conventional PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Hassan A. Qamheya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people have life-long problems with their dentures, such as difficulties with speaking and eating, loose denture, and sore mouth syndrome. The evolution of dental implant supported prosthesis gives these patients normal healthy life for their functional and esthetic advantages. This case report presents the fabrication of maxillary implant supported hybrid prosthesis by using Nanofilled Composite (NFC material in teeth construction to rehabilitate a complete denture wearer patient.

  17. 48 CFR 25.605 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 25.605 Section 25.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... American Act-Construction Materials 25.605 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (a) If the... evaluation factors to the offer incorporating the use of such foreign construction material as follows: (1...

  18. 43 CFR 12.830 - Buy American Act-Construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buy American Act-Construction materials... Assistance Programs Buy American Act-Construction Materials § 12.830 Buy American Act—Construction materials...—Construction Materials (a) The Buy American Act (41 U.S.C. 10) provides that the Government give preference to...

  19. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  20. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  1. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  2. Perovskite–fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite–PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3− antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour. PMID:25953105

  3. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  4. Vegetable Fibers for Composite Materials In Constructive Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Francesca; Savoja, Giulia

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the research is to study and to test bio-mixture for laminas to use in construction field components. Composite materials are becoming more common in different sectors, but their embodied energy is an environmental problem. For this, in recent years, the researchers investigate new mixtures for composites, in particular with vegetable fibers and bio-based epoxy resin. The research carried out different laboratory tests for material and mechanical characterization, starting from the analysis of vegetable fibers, and arriving to test different kind of laminas with sundry fabrics and bio-based epoxy resin. In the most general organization of the theme, the research has the overall objective to contribute to reduce composites environmental impacts, with the promotion of local production chains about innovative materials from renewable and sustainable sources.

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  6. The use of shale ash in dry mix construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbe, L.; Setina, J.; Juhnevica, I.

    2017-10-01

    The research was made to determine the use of shale ash usage in dry mix construction materials by replacing part of cement amount. Cement mortar ZM produced by SIA Sakret and two types of shale ashes from Narva Power plant (cyclone ash and electrostatic precipitator ash) were used. Fresh mortar properties, hardened mortar bulk density, thermal conductivity (λ10, dry) (table value) were tested in mortar ZM samples and mortar samples in which 20% of the amount of cement was replaced by ash. Compressive strenght, frost resistance and resistance to sulphate salt solutions were checked. It was stated that the use of electrostatic precipitator ash had a little change of the material properties, but the cyclone ash significantly reduced the mechanical strength of the material.

  7. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  8. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  9. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  10. TFTR materials issues and problems during design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabado, M.; Little, R.

    1984-01-01

    TFTR as well as its contemporaries, T15, JT60, and JET, have important contributions to make towards our understanding of plasma conditions in the thermonuclear regime. One of the main objectives of TFTR is to produce fusion power densities approaching those in a fusion reactor, approx.= 1 Wcm -3 at Q approx.= 1-2. TFTR will be the first tokamak to routinely use deuterium tritium, and produce approx.= 10 19 fusion neutrons per pulse. With startup of TFTR on December 24, 1982, the demonstration of physics feasibility of 'breakeven' is close at hand. Since TFTR performance will be reactor relevant, the capability of materials/components to withstand the hostile effects of a plasma environment will be presented. It is intended that designers of future fusion devices benefit from the materials technology developments and applications on TFTR. In an attempt to comply with this mandate, this paper will describe TFTR issues on materials, their developments, selections, problems, and solutions. Special emphasis will be given, in particular, to the impurity control devices in TFTR, namely, the limiter and surface pumping system located inside the vacuum vessel. The plasma will interact with these components and they will be subjected to disruptions, a vacuum of 10 -6 to 10 -8 torr and a nominal temperatures of 0 C. 'Painful' materials development problems encountered will be reviewed, as well as important 'lessons learned'. A briefing on the materials of construction will be given, with some comments on the problems that developed and their solutions. (orig.)

  11. The chitosan - Porphyrazine hybrid materials and their photochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełminiak-Dudkiewicz, Dorota; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Stolarska, Magdalena; Sobotta, Lukasz; Falkowski, Michal; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Kowalonek, Jolanta; Węgrzynowska-Drzymalska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2018-04-01

    Three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines differing in the size of peripheral substituents (3,5-dimethoxybenzylsulfanyl, (3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzylsulfanyl, 3,5-bis[(3,5-bis[(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzyloxy]benzylsulfanyl) were exposed to visible and ultraviolet radiation (UV A + B + C) in order to determine their photochemical properties. The course of photochemical reactions in dimethylformamide solutions and the ability of the systems to generate singlet oxygen were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which additionally gave information on aggregation processes. The porphyrazines were found to be stable upon visible light irradiation conditions, but when exposed to high energy UV radiation, the efficient photodegradation of these macrocycles was observed. Therefore, these three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines were incorporated into chitosan matrix. The obtained thin films of chitosan doped with porphyrazines were subjected to polychromatic UV-radiation and studied by spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Application of chitosan as a polymer matrix for porphyrazines was found to be successful method that effectively stopped the unwelcome degradation of macrocycles, thus worth considering for their photoprotection. In addition, the surface properties of the hybrid material were determined by contact angle measurements and calculation of surface free energy. Intermolecular interactions between these novel porphyrazines and chitosan were detected. The mechanism of photochemical reactions occurring in studied systems has been discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lunar materials for construction of space manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Development of industrial operations in deep space would be prohibitively expensive if most of the construction and expendable masses had to be transported from earth. Use of lunar materials reduces the needed investments by a factor of 15 to 20. It is shown in this paper that judicious selection of lunar materials will allow one to obtain hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, helium and other specific elements critical to the support of life in large space habitats at relatively low costs and lower total investment even further. Necessary selection techniques and extraction schemes are outlined. In addition, tables are presented of the oxide and elemental abundances characteristic of the mare and highland regions of the moon which should be useful in evaluating what can be extracted from the lunar soils.

  13. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Silicon-organic pigment material hybrids for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.; Weiler, U.; Jaegermann, W. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstreet 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kelting, C.; Schlettwein, D. [Institute for Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Makarov, S.; Woehrle, D. [Institute of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, University Bremen, Leobener Street NW II, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Abdallah, O.; Kunst, M. [Department Solar Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Institute, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-14

    Hybrid materials of silicon and organic dyes have been investigated for possible application as photovoltaic material in thin film solar cells. High conversion efficiency is expected from the combination of the advantages of organic dyes for light absorption and those of silicon for charge carrier separation and transport. Low temperature remote hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) was developed for microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) deposition using SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures. As model dyes zinc phthalocyanines have been evaporated from Knudsen type sources. Layers of dye on {mu}c-Si and {mu}c-Si on dye films, and composites of simultaneously and sequentially deposited Si and dye have been prepared and characterized. Raman, absorption, and photoemission spectroscopy prove the stability of the organic molecules against the rough HWCVD-Si process. Transient microwave conductivity (TRMC) indicates good electronic quality of the {mu}c-Si matrix. Energy transfer from dye to Si is indicated indirectly by luminescence and directly by photoconductivity measurements. F{sub x}ZnPc pigments with x=0,4,8,16 have been synthesized, purified and adsorbed onto H-terminated Si(1 1 1) for electronic state line up determination by photoelectron spectroscopy. For x=4 and 8 the dye frontier orbitals line up symmetrically versus the Si energy gap offering similar energetic driving forces for electron and hole injection, which is considered optimum for bulk sensitization and indicates a direction to improve the optoelectronic coupling of the organic dyes to silicon. (author)

  15. Marine dredged sediments as new materials resource for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Kamali; Fabrice, Bernard; Edine, Abriak Nor; Patrick, Degrugilliers

    2008-01-01

    Large volumes of sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities. With the new European Union directives, harbour managers are encouraged to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. This paper investigates the potential uses of Dunkirk marine dredged sediment as a new material resource for road building. The mineralogical composition of sediments is evaluated using X-ray diffraction and microscopy analysis. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, a dewatering treatment has been used. Different suitable mixtures, checking specific geotechnical criteria as required in French standards, are identified. The mixtures are then optimized for an economical reuse. The mechanical tests conducted on these mixtures are compaction, bearing capacity, compression and tensile tests. The experimental results show the feasibility of the beneficial use of Dunkirk marine dredged sand and sediments as a new material for the construction of foundation and base layers for roads. Further research is now needed to prove the resistance of this new material to various environmental impacts (e.g., frost damage).

  16. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward the establishment of outposts on the Moon and Mars. Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and tensile, flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal 'liquefaction' of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.), and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress. Details of the development of intermediate ceramic composites (ICC) and testing for their flexural and compression characteristics were described in various reports and papers. The subject of behavior of compacted simulant under vacuum was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum be utilized for further investigation.

  17. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  18. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  19. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  20. Construction cost estimation of spherical storage tanks: artificial neural networks and hybrid regression—GA algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Vida; Niaki, S. T. A.; Arabzadeh, Vahid

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important processes in the early stages of construction projects is to estimate the cost involved. This process involves a wide range of uncertainties, which make it a challenging task. Because of unknown issues, using the experience of the experts or looking for similar cases are the conventional methods to deal with cost estimation. The current study presents data-driven methods for cost estimation based on the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. The learning algorithms of the ANN are the Levenberg-Marquardt and the Bayesian regulated. Moreover, regression models are hybridized with a genetic algorithm to obtain better estimates of the coefficients. The methods are applied in a real case, where the input parameters of the models are assigned based on the key issues involved in a spherical tank construction. The results reveal that while a high correlation between the estimated cost and the real cost exists; both ANNs could perform better than the hybridized regression models. In addition, the ANN with the Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm (LMNN) obtains a better estimation than the ANN with the Bayesian-regulated learning algorithm (BRNN). The correlation between real data and estimated values is over 90%, while the mean square error is achieved around 0.4. The proposed LMNN model can be effective to reduce uncertainty and complexity in the early stages of the construction project.

  1. Construction of radiation-reduced hybrids and their use in mapping of microclones from chromosome 10p11.2-q11.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shoichi; Shin, Eisei; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Mori, Takesada; Takai, Shin-ichiro; Nishisho, Isamu; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Kiyoji.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-reduced hybrids for mapping of DNA markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 were developed. A Chinese hamster/human somatic cell hybrid (762-8A) carrying chromosomes 10 and Y as the only human material were exposed to 40,000 rads of irradiation and then rescued by fusion with non-irradiated recipient Chinese hamster cells (GM459). Southern hybridization analyses revealed that 10 of 128 HAT-resistant clones contained human chromosomal fragments corresponding to at least one marker locus between FNRB (10p11.2) and RBP3 (10q11.2). These hybrids were then used to map microdissection clones previously isolated and roughly mapped to this chromosomal region by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two of the six microclones studies could be mapped to the proximity of the D10S102 locus. These radiation hybrids are useful for the construction of refined genetic maps of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. (author) 50 refs

  2. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayami Takeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite. The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials.

  3. Constructing ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance in photo-generated cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiwei, E-mail: vivizhg@yahoo.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China); Guo, Hanlin; Sun, Haiqing [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); Zeng, Rongchang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590 (China); State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control Co-founded by Shandong Province and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266590 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized. • Flat band potential shift facilitates electron injection to the coupled metal. • Electrons and holes transfer in the hybrids promotes electron–hole separation. • Synergistic effects of the ternary components make the hybrids photo-chargeable. - Abstract: Ternary polyaniline-graphene-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were constructed through a stepwise synthetic route. The hybrids exhibit remarkable enhancement in photoelectrochemical performance. The transfer of photo-excited carriers in the ternary composites facilitates the photo-induced electron-hole separation. Meanwhile, the flat band potential shift of the hybrids increases the inner electric field intensity that drives the photo-excited electron migration from the composites to the coupled metal. Furthermore, the ternary hybrids were found firstly to be photo-chargeable, which shows application potentials in photo-generated cathodic protection in dark.

  4. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  5. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  6. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  7. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  8. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  9. Country Selection Model for Sustainable Construction Businesses Using Hybrid of Objective and Subjective Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Wook Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for international businesses and academia is selecting countries in which to expand in order to achieve entrepreneurial sustainability. This study develops a country selection model for sustainable construction businesses using both objective and subjective information. The objective information consists of 14 variables related to country risk and project performance in 32 countries over 25 years. This hybrid model applies subjective weighting from industrial experts to objective information using a fuzzy LinPreRa-based Analytic Hierarchy Process. The hybrid model yields a more accurate country selection compared to a purely objective information-based model in experienced countries. Interestingly, the hybrid model provides some different predictions with only subjective opinions in unexperienced countries, which implies that expert opinion is not always reliable. In addition, feedback from five experts in top international companies is used to validate the model’s completeness, effectiveness, generality, and applicability. The model is expected to aid decision makers in selecting better candidate countries that lead to sustainable business success.

  10. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrík, P., E-mail: p.katrik@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Mustafin, E. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, D-64289 (Germany); Pavlovič, M. [FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Strašík, I. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u {sup 238}U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  11. Sorption of tritium and tritiated water on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.; Miller, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    Sorption and desorption of tritium (HT) and tritiated water (HTO) on materials to be used in the construction of fusion facilities were studied. In ∼ 24-hour exposures in argon or room air, metal samples sorbed 8-200 μCi/m 2 of tritium from atmospheres of 5-9 Ci/m 3 HT, and non-metallic samples sorbed 60-800 μCi/m 2 from atmospheres of 14 Ci/m 3 HT. Sorption of HTO varied much more widely than HT sorption for different samples, ranging from 4 μCi/m 2 for glass to 1,300,000 μCi/m 2 for concrete samples, in 24-hour exposures to 1 Ci/m 3 HTO in room air. Time dependence of desorption in dry air showed a rapid initial process and a slower secondary process. (Author) (10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  12. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  13. Uniformity in radon exhalation from construction materials using can technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amri, E.A.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Abu-Jarad, F.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2003-06-01

    The uniformity in radon exhalation rates for 46 tiles of granite, marble and ceramic used as construction materials were determined using 'Can Technique' employing CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). On each tile, two sealed cans, each enclosing one NTD fixed at the center of the tile surface area covered by the can, were mounted at two different locations of each individual tiles. The track production rates on the NTDs representing radon exhalation rates were measured. The radon exhalation rates from the surface of individual tiles showed uniform exhalations within the calculated uncertainties of the measured values. This makes Can Technique an alternative simple method to measure radon exhalation rates. Calibration required to convert track production rates into radon exhalation rates for the used can and NTD was done using an active technique. The correlation between the measurements by the two techniques shows a good linear correlation coefficient (0.83)

  14. The design, construction and testing of packaging[Radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    Essentially uniform regulations, based on the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, have been adopted on a world-wide basis with the aim of ensuring safety in the transport of radioactive and fissile substances by road, rail, sea and air. The application of these regulations over a period of almost 20 years has resulted in practically complete safety in the sense that there has been no evidence of death or injury that could be attributed to the special properties of the material even when consignments were involved in serious accidents. In the regulations, reliance is placed, to the greatest extent possible, on the packaging to provide adequate shielding and containment of the contents under both normal transport and accident conditions. The Agency organized an international seminar in 1971 to consider the performance tests that have to be applied to packaging to demonstrate compliance with the regulatory requirements. The general conclusion was that the testing programme specified in the regulations was adequate for the near future, but that further consideration should be given to assessing the risks presented by the increasing volume of transport. The second international seminar, which is the subject of this report, dealt with all aspects of the design, construction and testing of packaging for the transport both of relatively small quantities of radioactive substances, which are being used to an ever increasing extent for medical and research purposes, and of the much larger quantities arising in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The programme covered the general requirements for packaging; risk assessment for the transport of various radioactive and fissile substances, including plutonium; specific features of the design and construction of packaging; quality assurance; damage simulation tests, including calculational methods and scale-model testing; tests for the retention of shielding and containment after damage; and the

  15. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  16. Tough and flexible CNT-polymeric hybrid scaffolds for engineering cardiac constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaziha, Mahshid; Shin, Su Ryon; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Topkaya, Seda Nur; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-08-01

    In the past few years, a considerable amount of effort has been devoted toward the development of biomimetic scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. However, most of the previous scaffolds have been electrically insulating or lacked the structural and mechanical robustness to engineer cardiac tissue constructs with suitable electrophysiological functions. Here, we developed tough and flexible hybrid scaffolds with enhanced electrical properties composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded aligned poly(glycerol sebacate):gelatin (PG) electrospun nanofibers. Incorporation of varying concentrations of CNTs from 0 to 1.5% within the PG nanofibrous scaffolds (CNT-PG scaffolds) notably enhanced fiber alignment and improved the electrical conductivity and toughness of the scaffolds while maintaining the viability, retention, alignment, and contractile activities of cardiomyocytes (CMs) seeded on the scaffolds. The resulting CNT-PG scaffolds resulted in stronger spontaneous and synchronous beating behavior (3.5-fold lower excitation threshold and 2.8-fold higher maximum capture rate) compared to those cultured on PG scaffold. Overall, our findings demonstrated that aligned CNT-PG scaffold exhibited superior mechanical properties with enhanced CM beating properties. It is envisioned that the proposed hybrid scaffolds can be useful for generating cardiac tissue constructs with improved organization and maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance of hybrid constructed wetland systems for treating septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-hua; Liu, Wen; Zhu, Xi-zhen; Ma, Mei; Huang, Xi-hua; Xia, Yan-yang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated wetland systems were constructed by combining horizontal-flow and vertical-flow bed, and their purification efficiencies for septic tank effluent were detected when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 1 d, 3 d, 5 d under different seasons. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, phosphorus were steady in the hybrid systems, but the removal efficiency of total nitrogen was not steady due to high total nitrogen concentration in the septic tank effluent. The average removal rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) were 89%, 87%, 83%, and 86% in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively, and it was up to 88%, 85%, 73%, and 74% for BOD5 (5 d biochemical oxygen demand) removal rate in four seasons. The average removal rates of TP (total phosphorous) could reach up to 97%, 98%, 95%, 98% in four seasons, but the removal rate of TN (total nitrogen) was very low. The results of this study also indicated that the capability of purification was the worst in winter. Cultivating with plants could improve the treated effluent quality from the hybrid systems. The results of the operation of the horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells (hybrid systems) showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, TP and TN in horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells were improved significantly with the extension of HRT under the same season. The removal rate of 3 d HRT was obviously higher than that of 1 d HRT, and the removal rate of 5 d HRT was better than that of 3 d HRT, but the removal efficiency was not very obvious with the increment of HRT. Therefore, 3 d HRT might be recommended in the actual operation of the hybrid systems for economic and technical reasons.

  18. Synergetic Hybrid Aerogels of Vanadia and Graphene as Electrode Materials of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of synergetic hybrid aerogel materials of vanadia and graphene as electrode materials in supercapacitors was evaluated. The hybrid materials were synthesized by two methods. In Method I, premade graphene oxide (GO hydrogel was first chemically reduced by L-ascorbic acid and then soaked in vanadium triisopropoxide solution to obtain V2O5 gel in the pores of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO hydrogel. The gel was supercritically dried to obtain the hybrid aerogel. In Method II, vanadium triisopropoxide was hydrolyzed from a solution in water with GO particles uniformly dispersed to obtain the hybrid gel. The hybrid aerogel was obtained by supercritical drying of the gel followed by thermal reduction of GO. The electrode materials were prepared by mixing 80 wt % hybrid aerogel with 10 wt % carbon black and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride. The hybrid materials in Method II showed higher capacitance due to better interactions between vanadia and graphene oxide particles and more uniform vanadia particle distribution.

  19. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  20. Construction demolition wastes, Waelz slag and MSWI bottom ash: a comparative technical analysis as material for road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegas, I; Ibañez, J A; San José, J T; Urzelai, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the technical suitability of using secondary materials from three waste flows (construction and demolition waste (CDW), Waelz slag and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash), under the regulations and standards governing the use of materials for road construction. A detailed technical characterization of the materials was carried out according to Spanish General Technical Specifications for Road Construction (PG3). The results show that Waelz slag can be adequate for using in granular structural layers, while CDW fits better as granular material in roadbeds. Likewise, fresh MSWI bottom ash can be used as roadbed material as long as it does not contain a high concentration of soluble salts. This paper also discusses the adequacy of using certain traditional test methods for natural soils when characterizing secondary materials for use as aggregates in road construction.

  1. Needs study of polymer materials concrete constructions; Behovsstudie av polymera material i betongkonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomfeldt, Thomas; Bergsjoe, Petter

    2013-02-15

    Polymeric materials are frequently used in concrete constructions at hydro and nuclear power facilities. They are most commonly used as expansion joints, seals, lead-thought's, coatings and as additives in cement or mortar. Polymeric materials in concrete constructions are difficult to evaluate, since they are often located within the concrete construction. In some cases the materials have been in place for over 30 years. In addition, these materials are also used to a great extent e.g. as protective coating on all concrete in a nuclear power plant or as several kilometres of joints. Replacing these materials is difficult, time consuming and very costly. That is why it is of great importance to evaluate their actual status and life-time expectancy with the largest possible precision. This report summarises the research needs in nuclear and hydro power regarding polymers in concrete constructions. During the project information has been gathered through inspections, interviews and surveys, to obtain the clearest possible picture of which polymeric components that have a need of in-depth research. In this project the nuclear power plants Oskarshamn (O1, O2 and O3), Forsmark (F2) and Ringhals (R1, R2 and R3) were visited. In the field of hydro power the concrete laboratory of Vattenfall R and D in Aalvkarleby and the hydro power plants of Aalvkarleby and Olidan were visited. The studies indicate that there are different needs for hydro and nuclear power. The survey showed that hydro-power facilities have a greater interest in joints. The nuclear power plants are more interested in components that are related to either the plant's security or if the component could lead to high future maintenance costs.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.; Petruchina, I.; Christensen, E.; Bjerrum, N.J.; Tomas-Garcya, A.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry, Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study in which the feasibility of using different corrosion resistant stainless steels as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material was evaluated in terms of corrosion resistance under conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). PEM water electrolysis technology has been touted as an effective alternative to more conventional alkaline water electrolysis. Although the energy efficiency of this technology can be increased considerably at temperatures above 100 degrees C, this increases the demands to all the used materials with respect to corrosion stability and thermal stability. In this study, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum samples were exposed to anodic polarization in 85 per cent phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Tests were performed at 80 and 120 degrees C to determine the dependence of corrosion speed and working temperature. Platinum and gold plates were also tested for a comparative evaluation. Steady-state voltammetry was used along with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Titanium showed the poorest corrosion resistance, while Ni-based alloys showed the highest corrosion resistance, with Inconel R 625 being the most promising alloy for the bipolar plate of an HTPEMWE. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  4. 48 CFR 25.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 25.204 Section 25.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 25.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (a) Offerors proposing to use foreign...

  5. 46 CFR 160.037-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements. (a...

  6. 46 CFR 160.062-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...

  7. 46 CFR 160.031-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-3 Materials, construction, workmanship, and...

  8. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All borrowers... system design, construction standards, and the use of RUS accepted materials. Borrowers must comply with...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Program-Construction Material. 252.225-7044 Section 252.225-7044 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material (JAN 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Commercially available off-the-shelf...

  10. 46 CFR 160.036-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.036-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and...

  11. 48 CFR 52.225-10 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials. 52.225-10 Section 52.225-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.225-10 Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials. As prescribed... Materials (FEB 2009) (a) Definitions. “Commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) item,” “construction...

  12. 46 CFR 160.040-3 - Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, construction, workmanship, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Line-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-3 Materials, construction, workmanship...

  13. 48 CFR 625.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 625.204 Section 625.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 625.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. (b) The head of the contracting activity is the agency...

  14. 46 CFR 160.024-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Pistol-Projected Parachute Red Flare Distress Signals § 160.024-3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance...

  15. 48 CFR 1325.204 - Evaluating offers of foreign construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign construction material. 1325.204 Section 1325.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 1325.204 Evaluating offers of foreign construction material. The designee authorized to specify a...

  16. 46 CFR 160.058-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Desalter Kits, Sea Water, for Merchant Vessels § 160.058-3 Materials, workmanship, construction and performance...

  17. Rock as a construction material: durability, deterioration and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbert, Rosa M.ª

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The different aspects related to the deterioration and conservation of stone, used as a construction material, are reviewed in this article. The petrographical characteristics and physical properties which control the durability of stone material are stated. The importance of the voids and the properties more directly linked to the up-taking and transfer of humidity through the stone are pointed out. Regarding to the deterioration processes, the role of water, soluble salts and atmospheric pollutants upon the different alteration mechanisms of the building stones is emphasized. Finally, the steps related to the stone conservation, and the methods and products more currently employed to that aim are revised.

    Se compendian los distintos aspectos relacionados con el deterioro y la conservación de la piedra utilizada como material de edificación. Se revisan las características petrográficas y propiedades físicas que controlan la durabilidad de los materiales pétreos, resaltando la importancia de los espacios vacíos y de aquellas propiedades más directamente relacionadas con la captación y transferencia de humedad por el interior de la piedra. En cuanto a los procesos de deterioro se destaca el papel del agua, de las sales solubles y de los contaminantes atmosféricos en los diversos mecanismos de alteración desarrollados en la piedra de edificación. Finalmente se plantean las diversas fases relacionadas con la conservación de la piedra, y se revisan los métodos y productos más empleados en la actualidad para tal fin.

  18. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  19. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  1. The use of hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment with special attention to nitrogen removal: a review of a recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2013-09-15

    The hybrid systems were developed in the 1960s but their use increased only during the late 1990 s and in the 2000s mostly because of more stringent discharge limits for nitrogen and also more complex wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands (CWs). The early hybrid CWs consisted of several stages of vertical flow (VF) followed by several stages of horizontal flow (HF) beds. During the 1990 s, HF-VF and VF-HF hybrid systems were introduced. However, to achieve higher removal of total nitrogen or to treat more complex industrial and agricultural wastewaters other types of hybrid constructed wetlands including free water surface (FWS) CWs and multistage CWs have recently been used as well. The survey of 60 hybrid constructed wetlands from 24 countries reported after 2003 revealed that hybrid constructed wetlands are primarily used on Europe and in Asia while in other continents their use is limited. The most commonly used hybrid system is a VF-HF constructed wetland which has been used for treatment of both sewage and industrial wastewaters. On the other hand, the use of a HF-VF system has been reported only for treatment of municipal sewage. Out of 60 surveyed hybrid systems, 38 have been designed to treat municipal sewage while 22 hybrid systems were designed to treat various industrial and agricultural wastewaters. The more detailed analysis revealed that VF-HF hybrid constructed wetlands are slightly more efficient in ammonia removal than hybrid systems with FWS CWs, HF-VF systems or multistage VF and HF hybrid CWs. All types of hybrid CWs are comparable with single VF CWs in terms of NH4-N removal rates. On the other hand, CWs with FWS units remove substantially more total nitrogen as compared to other types of hybrid constructed wetlands. However, all types of hybrid constructed wetlands are more efficient in total nitrogen removal than single HF or VF constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  3. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  4. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  5. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  6. Composite materials with ionic conductivity: from inorganic composites to hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslavtsev, Andrei B [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    Information on composite materials with ionic conductivity including inorganic composites and hybrid polymeric ion exchange membranes containing inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles is generalized. The nature of the effect of increase in the ionic conductivity in this type of materials and the key approaches used for theoretical estimation of the conductivity are considered. Data on the ionic conductivity and some other important properties of composites and membrane materials are presented. Prospects for utilization of composite materials and hybrid membranes in hydrogen power engineering are briefly outlined.

  7. 49 CFR 178.358-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  8. 49 CFR 178.356-2 - Materials of construction and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials of construction and other requirements... Materials of construction and other requirements. (a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire-resistant and... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  9. Optimising material procurement for construction waste minimization: An exploration of success factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, SO; Oyedele, LO; Akinade, OO; Bilal, M; Alaka, HA; Owolabi, HA

    2017-01-01

    Although construction waste occurs during the actual construction activities, there is an understanding that it is caused by activities and actions at design, materials procurement and construction stages of project delivery processes. This study investigates the material procurement and logistics measures for mitigating waste generated by construction activities. In a bid to explore the phenomenon from the perspectives of experts from the construction industry, this study used a combination ...

  10. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  11. Recent trend in construction materials field. Kenzai bun[prime]ya ni okeru saikin no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    The Japanese construction industry, the construction market and the technical trend of construction materials made by Kawasaki Steel Group were described. The roles of the steel industry in the construction material market are to increase the ratio of steel used in construction, to manufacture steel products of high value added and to develop new applications. Appearance and good design are required to provide for the construction materials made of processed steel in addition to the necessary functions. In the construction material market, qualitative changes in needs are taking place, such as labor saving shortening of construction period and simplification of construction management. Kawasaki Steel Group intends to expand the integrated business such as system building, external wall materials for buildings made of metals, highly corrosion resistant stainless steel for metallic roof field, and roof materials of the heat insulation, good appearance and horizontally covering type based on the overall business strategy. In addition, Kawasaki Steel Group is expanding the Kawasaki Design Steel Plaza and its construction material research laboratory to cope with the trend of diversified functions and design of construction goods and of making kinds of construction material much more and to develop more rational construction techniques. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  12. Proto-CIRCUS tilted-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid: Design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A.W.; Doumet, M.; Hammond, K.C. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kornbluth, Y. [Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10033 (United States); Spong, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Sweeney, R. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Volpe, F.A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A tokamak-like device with tilted toroidal field (TF) coils needs less plasma current than a conventional tokamak. • Rotational transform is partly generated by external coils. Device can be considered a tokamak–torsatron hybrid. • We designed and constructed the first device of this type. • Tilted TF coils are interlinked to each other, which helps to reduce aspect ratio of plasma. • This is a six-coil generalization of CNT stellarator, also at Columbia University, which features two interlinked coils. - Abstract: We present the field-line modeling, design, and construction of a prototype circular-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid called Proto-CIRCUS. The device has a major radius R = 16 cm and minor radius a < 5 cm. The six “toroidal field” coils are planar as in a tokamak, but they are tilted. This, combined with induced or driven plasma current, is expected to generate rotational transform, as seen in field-line tracing and equilibrium calculations. The device is expected to operate at lower plasma current than a tokamak of comparable size and magnetic field, which might have interesting implications for disruptions and steady-state operation. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced than in an equivalent tokamak in which the coils are not tilted. The tilted coils are interlocked, resulting in a relatively low aspect ratio, and can be moved, both radially and in tilt angle, between discharges. This capability will be exploited for detailed comparisons between calculations and field-line mapping measurements. Such comparisons will reveal whether this relatively simple concept can generate the expected rotational transform.

  13. Multi and mixed 3D-printing of graphene-hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Shah, Ramille N

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of three-dimensional (3D)-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (hyperelastic bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic, and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multimaterial constructs, but that composite inks of HB and 3DG can also be synthesized. Specifically, the printability, microstructural, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of a hybrid material comprised of 1:1 HA:graphene by volume is investigated. The resulting HB-3DG hybrid exhibits mixed characteristics of the two distinct systems, while maintaining 3D-printability, electrical conductivity, and flexibility. In vitro assessment of HB-3DG using mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the hybrid material supports cell viability and proliferation, as well as significantly upregulates both osteogenic and neurogenic gene expression over 14 days. This work ultimately demonstrates a significant step forward towards being able to 3D-print graded, multicompositional, and multifunctional constructs from hybrid inks for complex composite tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 274-283, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 46 CFR 50.20-30 - Alternative materials or methods of construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative materials or methods of construction. 50.20... ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal and Approval § 50.20-30 Alternative materials or methods of construction. (a) When new or alternative procedures, designs, or methods of construction are submitted for...

  15. 77 FR 23117 - Rigging Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Equipment for Material Handling Construction Standard; Correction and Technical Amendment AGENCY... AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Subpart H--Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 0 1... amendment. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting its sling standard for construction titled ``Rigging Equipment for...

  16. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid

  17. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  18. Hybrid materials engineering in biology, chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroux, F; Rabu, P; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Taubert, A.

    The Guest Editors emphasize the rapidly growing research in advanced materials. "Telecommunication, health and environment, energy and transportation, and sustainability are just a few examples where new materials have been key for technological advancement."

  19. Hybrid friction stir welding for dissimilar materials through electro-plastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-29

    A hybrid Friction Stir Welding approach and device for dissimilar materials joining employing Electro-Plastic Effect. The approach and device include an introduction of high density, short period current pulses into traditional friction stir welding process, which therefore can generate a localized softened zone in the workpiece during plastic stirring without significant additional temperature increase. This material softened zone is created by high density current pulses based on Electro-Plastic Effect and will move along with the friction stir welding tool. Smaller downward force, larger processing window and better joint quality for dissimilar materials are expected to be achieved through this hybrid welding technique.

  20. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: Anjon.K.Mondal@student.uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaogang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.wang@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO{sub 2} nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO{sub 2}) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g{sup −1}. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO{sub 2} ratios. • The graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles.

  1. Graphene/MnO2 hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO 2 nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO 2 ) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g −1 . Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO 2 ratios. • The graphene/MnO 2 hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles

  2. A versatile route to hybrid open-framework materials | Ayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation of the intermediate phase and its reaction with metal ions to form open framework solids has been explored and it has proven a facile route of synthesizing inorganic-organic hybrid materials with open pores. Here the amine phosphate route of templating inorganic open-framework materials has been reviewed ...

  3. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  5. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  6. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  7. Hybrid cellular automaton modeling of nutrient modulated cell growth in tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C A; Lin, Tze-Hung; Chen, Shih-Di; Huang, Hsing-I

    2010-01-21

    Mathematic models help interpret experimental results and accelerate tissue engineering developments. We develop in this paper a hybrid cellular automata model that combines the differential nutrient transport equation to investigate the nutrient limited cell construct development for cartilage tissue engineering. Individual cell behaviors of migration, contact inhibition and cell collision, coupled with the cell proliferation regulated by oxygen concentration were carefully studied. Simplified two-dimensional simulations were performed. Using this model, we investigated the influence of cell migration speed on the overall cell growth within in vitro cell scaffolds. It was found that intense cell motility can enhance initial cell growth rates. However, since cell growth is also significantly modulated by the nutrient contents, intense cell motility with conventional uniform cell seeding method may lead to declined cell growth in the final time because concentrated cell population has been growing around the scaffold periphery to block the nutrient transport from outside culture media. Therefore, homogeneous cell seeding may not be a good way of gaining large and uniform cell densities for the final results. We then compared cell growth in scaffolds with various seeding modes, and proposed a seeding mode with cells initially residing in the middle area of the scaffold that may efficiently reduce the nutrient blockage and result in a better cell amount and uniform cell distribution for tissue engineering construct developments.

  8. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  9. The research on the material management system in nuclear power plant construction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuegeng; Huang Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    According to the module construction speciality of nuclear power plant, this article analyzes the relationship between the actual amount of the material transported to the construction site and the planed needs of the material, and points out the zero inventory management target in the nuclear power plant construction site. Based on this, the article put forward a nuclear power plant material management system which is based on the 'pull' information driver. This system is composed by material coding sub-system, procurement and site material integrated management sub-system and project control sub-system, and is driven by the material demand from construction site to realize the JIT purchasing. This structure of the system can reduce the gap between the actual amount of the material transported to the site and the planed needs of the material and achieve the target of reducing storage at construction site. (authors)

  10. 46 CFR 58.50-15 - Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate material for construction of independent fuel...) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Independent Fuel Tanks § 58.50-15 Alternate material for construction of independent fuel tanks. (a) Materials other than those specifically...

  11. AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING MATERIAL STOCK CONTROL PRACTICE ON SELECTED CONSTRUCTION SITES IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adafin, Johnson Kayode; Ayodele, Elijah Olusegun; Daramola, Olufemi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the stock control methods utilized by construction firms on construction sites with a view to assessing the factors affecting material stock control practice by construction firms as well as determining the impact of factors affecting material stock control on building project performance. Data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered on a number of construction professionals and technicians in some randomly selected building constructio...

  12. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy

  13. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.; Vladar, M.

    1998-01-01

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg -1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg -1 of 226 Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm 3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232 Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214 Bi (609 keV), 214 Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228 Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212 Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40 K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  14. Crash simulation of hybrid structures considering the stress and strain rate dependent material behavior of thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Schöngart, M.; Weber, M.; Klein, J.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic materials are more and more used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in the automotive industry. Since these materials do not provide the mechanical properties, which are required to manufacture supporting elements like an auto body or a cross bearer, plastics are combined with metals in so called hybrid structures. Normally, the plastics components are joined to the metal structures using different technologies like welding or screwing. Very often, the hybrid structures are made of flat metal parts, which are stiffened by a reinforcement structure made of thermoplastic materials. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in the crash situation of an automobile. Due to the large stiffness variation of metal and thermoplastic materials, complex states of stress and very high local strain rates occur in the contact zone under impact conditions. Since the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is highly dependent on these types of load, the crash failure of metal plastic hybrid parts is very complex. The problem is that the normally used strain rate dependent elastic/plastic material models are not capable to simulate the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials depended on the state of stress. As part of a research project, a method to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid structures under impact conditions is developed at the IKV. For this purpose, a specimen for the measurement of mechanical properties dependet on the state of stress and a method for the strain rate depended characterization of thermoplastic materials were developed. In the second step impact testing is performed. A hybrid structure made from a metal sheet and a reinforcement structure of a Polybutylenterephthalat Polycarbonate blend is tested under impact conditions. The measured stress and strain rate depended material data are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid structure under highly dynamic load with

  15. Geotechnical Materials Database for Embankment Design and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This project was focused on the assimilation of engineering properties of borrow soils across the state of : South Carolina. Extensive data on soils used for embankment construction were evaluated and compared : within Group A (Piedmont) and Group B ...

  16. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Doh, Jeung-Hwan, E-mail: j.doh@griffith.edu.au [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia); Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  17. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-01-01

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models

  18. Synthesis and superior lithium storage performances of hybrid hollow urchin-like silicate constructed by nanotubes wrapped in reduced graphene oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xuefang; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Kaichuang; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid hollow urchin-like cobalt and copper silicate constructed by nanotubes encapsulated in graphene nanosheets composites were successfully prepared using graphene oxide as carrier and silica spheres as template, which were done through a well-known Stȍber process and a hydrothermal method. In fact, the synthesis of hybrid urchin-like silicate constructed by nanotubes through onestep hydrothermal reaction has rarely been reported.The electrochemical performances of the composites as lithium-ion battery anode materials were studiedfor the first time. As novel anode materials of Li-ion batteries, the special hollow urchin-like structure not only could facilitate the Li + diffusion and electron transport but alsocouldaccommodate the volume variation during the conversion reactions. In addition, the introduction of graphene can make the electrical conductivity better. Graphene wrapped hollow urchin-like silicate compositespossesses superior electrochemical cycling properties. The first discharge capacity is1955.2mAh/g with a current density of 300 mA/g. The unique well-designed configuration presents a beneficial method to synthesize efficient and high performance electrode materials for advanced power applications.

  19. Up-Scaled Supercritical Flow Synthesis of Hybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus is currently under construction in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis, and the large...

  20. Studies on the removal of arsenic (III) from water by a novel hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sandip; Padhi, T.; Patel, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The removal of As (III) is about 98% at pH 7 with the hybrid material (ZrO-EA). → The hybrid material exhibits specific surface area of 201.62 m 2 /g. → The adsorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by the hybrid material is spontaneous. → The material could be easily regenerated with sodium hydroxide at pH 12. - Abstract: The present work provides a method for removal of the arsenic (III) from water. An ion-exchanger hybrid material zirconium (IV) oxide-ethanolamine (ZrO-EA) is synthesized and characterized which is subsequently used for the removal of selective arsenic (III) from water containing 10,50,100 mg/L of arsenic (III) solution. The probable practical application for arsenic removal from water by this material has also been studied. The various parameters affecting the removal process like initial concentration of As (III), adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH are investigated. From the data of results, it is indicated that, the adsorbent dose of 0.7 mg/L, contact time 50 min after which the adsorption process comes to equilibrium, temperature (25 ± 2), solution pH (5-7), which are the optimum conditions for adsorption. The typical adsorption isotherms are calculated to know the suitability of the process. The column studies showed 98% recovery of arsenic from water especially at low concentration of arsenic in water samples.

  1. Inheritance of brewing-relevant phenotypes in constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Castillo, Sandra; Gibson, Brian

    2017-04-21

    Interspecific hybridization has proven to be a potentially valuable technique for generating de novo lager yeast strains that possess diverse and improved traits compared to their parent strains. To further enhance the value of hybridization for strain development, it would be desirable to combine phenotypic traits from more than two parent strains, as well as remove unwanted traits from hybrids. One such trait, that has limited the industrial use of de novo lager yeast hybrids, is their inherent tendency to produce phenolic off-flavours; an undesirable trait inherited from the Saccharomyces eubayanus parent. Trait removal and the addition of traits from a third strain could be achieved through sporulation and meiotic recombination or further mating. However, interspecies hybrids tend to be sterile, which impedes this opportunity. Here we generated a set of five hybrids from three different parent strains, two of which contained DNA from all three parent strains. These hybrids were constructed with fertile allotetraploid intermediates, which were capable of efficient sporulation. We used these eight brewing strains to examine two brewing-relevant phenotypes: stress tolerance and phenolic off-flavour formation. Lipidomics and multivariate analysis revealed links between several lipid species and the ability to ferment in low temperatures and high ethanol concentrations. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, and ergosterol were shown to positively influence growth at high ethanol concentrations. The ability to produce phenolic off-flavours was also successfully removed from one of the hybrids, Hybrid T2, through meiotic segregation. The potential application of these strains in industrial fermentations was demonstrated in wort fermentations, which revealed that the meiotic segregant Hybrid T2 not only didn't produce any phenolic off-flavours, but also reached the highest ethanol concentration and consumed the most maltotriose. Our study demonstrates the

  2. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Alves, Luís C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N.10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2} have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO{sub 2}. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol–gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • A hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO material was prepared with the incorporation of Ti. • Sr was released in concentrations suitable for the induction of bone tissue repair. • The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with osteoblastic cells.

  3. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Near IR spectral region (1000–2500 nm) shows the elimination of water in the compound which ... 1-Butyl 3-methyl imidazolium bromide; molecular material; phosphotungstic acid; near IR. ..... attributable to the first overtone of hydroxyl groups,.

  4. Hybrid Van Der Waals Materials In Next-Generation Electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In nature, there exists a class of materials which are inherently two-dimensional (2D). Although they form solid 3D structures, the individual atoms have strong...

  5. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar

  6. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua; Xie, Xing; Pan, Lijia; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer

  7. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH 2 ). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O. The Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO 2 .nH 2 O / Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  8. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  9. Assessment on the sustainable use of alternative construction materials as a substitute to natural aggregates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    George, Theresa B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available , and identifies potential construction materials such as glass, slags and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) that are locally available as alternative aggregate materials to virgin aggregates. An economic cost analysis conducted indicated that it is more cost...

  10. Options and recommendations for a web database of material and construction inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has been using software developed in-house for their : materials management and construction project management needs. The primary packages under : review MISTIC (Materials Management) and ICORS (Const...

  11. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials.

  13. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  14. Flammability tests for regulation of building and construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Sumathipala

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of building materials and products for flammability is critical to ensure the safety of occupants in buildings and other structures. The involvement of exposed building materials and products in fires resulting in the loss of human life often spurs an increase in regulation and new test methods to address the problem. Flammability tests range from those...

  15. High-volume recycled materials for sustainable pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using high-volume recycled materials for concrete production in rigid pavement. The goal was to replace 50% of the solids with recycled materials and industrial by-products. The pe...

  16. Mudflow utilization for construction materials of tertiary irrigation canal lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, Subandiyah; Kustamar

    2017-11-01

    Mudflow in Siring Village, Sidoarjo Regency, Indonesia, has been in eruption since May 29, 2006. It still shows irregular large bursts which loaded in a sludge reservoir with capacity of 59 million m3. From 2007 until 2015, there were more than 20 studies which concluded that the mudflow could be used as a mixture of building materials. However, the studies were not detailed and needed further research. This research aims to investigate the use of mudflow as tertiary irrigation canal lining material. This research comes with several laboratory tests to obtain a mixture that is solid and water-resistant. The methods that were used are descriptive methods as follows: 1). Sampling of mudflow, to be analyzed in Material Testing Laboratory. 2). Sampling of soil at research site, to be analyzed in Soil Mechanics Laboratory 3). Mixing of materials which are consist of mudflow and other materials and doing strength test in the laboratory. 4). Installation of tertiary irrigation canal lining using materials that have been tested. 5). Observation of lining's strength inactive soil pressure-bearing and its impermeability. It is expected that the results of this research will be applied extensively throughout the tertiary irrigation canals, so mudflow can be utilized as raw materials that are environmentally friendly, which are able to help preserving the environment, also to reduce the removal of sand / rock in the river, which has been used for lining materials, that benefits in preventing damage to the river ecosystem.

  17. A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1999-01-01

    A plastic micropump which can be produced using conventional production techniques and materials is presented. By applying well-known techniques and materials, economic fabrication of micropumps for various applications is feasible even at low production volumes. The micropump is capable of pumping

  18. Engineering properties of scoria concrete as a construction material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weight and cost of plain concrete are part of the setbacks in its use for construction purposes especially in low-cost housing delivery. This paper reports the experimental results of samples of concrete produced from a mix combination of cement, fine aggregate (sand) and volcanic scoria as coarse aggregate. The scoria ...

  19. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  20. Using terrestrial laser scanning in inventorying of a hybrid constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obroślak, Radomir; Mazur, Andrzej; Jóźwiakowski, Krzysztof; Dorozhynskyy, Oleksandr; Grzywna, Antoni; Rybicki, Roman; Nieścioruk, Kamil; Król, Żanna; Gabryszuk, Justyna; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for inventorying of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) wastewater treatment plant. The object under study was a turtle-shaped system built in 2015 in Eastern Poland. Its main purpose is the treatment of wastewater from the Museum and Education Centre of Polesie National Park. The study showed that the CW system had been built in compliance with the technical documentation, as differences between values obtained from the object and those given in the design project (max. ± 20 cm for situation and ±5 cm for elevation) were within the range defined by the legislator. It was also shown that the results were sufficiently precise to be used for as-built surveying of the aboveground elements of the CW system. The TLS technique can also be employed to analyse quantitative changes in object geometry arising during long-term use (e.g. landmass slides or erosion), the identification of which can help in selecting the hot-spots at risk of damage and thus restore the object to its original state as well as prevent new changes.

  1. Optimization of CHA-PCFC Hybrid Material for the Removal of Radioactive Cs from Waste Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Park, Minsung; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The liquid waste treatment processes in the normal operation of nuclear power plant are commercialized, those in the abnormal accidents have not been fully developed until now. In the present study, as a preliminary research for the development of precipitation-based treatment process specialized for the removal of Cs from waste seawater generated in the emergency case, the performance test of a hybrid material combining chabazite and potassium cobalt ferrocyanide was conducted. Also the synthesis method for the hybrid adsorbent was optimized for the best Cs removal efficiency on the actual contamination level of waste seawater. Because the temperature effect on the synthesis of PCFC was confirmed by preliminary experiments, the optimization of CHA-PCFC synthesis was also conducted. The hybrid material synthesized at 40 .deg. C showed the highest distribution coefficient of Cs in the same manner of the performance of PCFC synthesized at the lower temperature than that of conventional methods.

  2. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  3. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-10-06

    High-performance hybrid materials using carbon molecular sieve materials and 6FDA-6FpDA were produced. A detailed analysis of the effects of casting processes and the annealing temperature is reported. Two existing major obstacles, sieve agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves to increase the selectivity of the membranes above the neat polymer properties. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement was seen with increased sieve loading in the hybrid membranes, leading to an actual performance above the upper bound for pure polymer membranes. The membranes were also tested under a mixed-gas environment, which further demonstrated promising results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. New porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity in acetylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-10-14

    New hybrid complexes based on covalent interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatozinc(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatotin(IV) chloride, and a Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate, Mo(6)O(19)(2-), were prepared. These new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided several spectral data for synthesis of these compounds. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the polyoxometalate on the redox process of the porphyrin ring. The catalytic activity of tin(IV)porphyrin-hexamolybdate hybrid material was investigated in the acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride. The reusability of this catalyst was also investigated.

  5. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, India; The Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, P.O. Box 80203, Saudi Arabia; Institut Universitarid' Electroquímica, Departament de Química Física,Universitatd' Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03080 Alacant, ...

  6. Zeolite-derived hybrid materials with adjustable organic pillars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opanasenko, Maksym; Shamzhy, Mariya; Yu, F.; Zhou, W.; Morris, R. E.; Čejka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 3589-3601 ISSN 2041-6520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-17593P; GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : zeolites * inorganic aluminosilicate * nanoporous materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.668, year: 2016

  7. 46 CFR 160.013-3 - Materials, workmanship, and construction details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials, workmanship, and construction details. 160.013-3 Section 160.013-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT... materials, workmanship, and construction details shall be in substantial compliance with the provisions of...

  8. 46 CFR 160.023-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. 160.023-3 Section 160.023-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination... requirements. (a) The materials, construction, workmanship, general and detail requirements shall conform to...

  9. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property construction. Sales of building materials to a contractor or speculative builder for the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  10. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  11. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for residential or farm building construction. Section 3(n) of the Act, as amended, excludes from... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND...

  12. Improved construction materials for polar regions using microcellular thermoplastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Microcellular polymer foams (MCF) are thermoplastic foams with very small cell diameters, less than 10 microns, and very large cell densities, 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 15) cells per cubic centimeter of unfoamed material. The concept of foaming polymers with microcellular voids was conceived to reduce the amount of material used for mass-produced items without compromising the mechanical properties. The reasoning behind this concept was that if voids smaller than the critical flaw size pre-existing in polymers were introduced into the matrix, they would not affect the overall strength of the product. MCF polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were examined to determine the effects of the microstructure towards the mechanical properties of the materials at room and arctic temperatures. Batch process parameters were discovered for these materials and foamed samples of three densities were produced for each material. To quantify the toughness and strength of these polymers, the tensile yield strength, tensile toughness, and impact resistance were measured at room and arctic temperatures. The feasibility of MCF polymers has been demonstrated by the consistent and repeatable MCF microstructures formed, but the improvements in the mechanical properties were not conclusive. Therefore the usefulness of the MCF polymers to replace other materials in arctic environments is questionable.

  13. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A M

    2013-01-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc

  14. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  15. The use of bio-based materials to reduce the environmental impact of construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the construction industry is responsible for over 50 % of total carbon emissions. 20% of these carbon emissions are embodied within the construction and materials of buildings and the balance is expended in environmental control (heating, lighting, air conditioning) and other ‘in use’ aspects of occupation of buildings. This is replicated in other countries to a similar extent. This lecture identifies ways in which the use of bio-based construction materials can significantly reduc...

  16. Probing photoinduced electron-transfer in graphene-dye hybrid materials for DSSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarracino, Paola; Gatti, Teresa; Canever, Nicolo; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Menna, Enzo; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the photophysical properties of a newly synthesized hybrid material composed of a triphenylamine dye covalently bound to reduced graphene oxide, potentially relevant as a stable photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. The photophysical characterization has been carried out by

  17. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  18. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  19. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  20. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  1. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst.

  2. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.

    2017-11-01

    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  3. The application of waste fly ash and construction-waste in cement filling material in goaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. X.; Xiao, F. K.; Guan, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Shi, X. P.; Liu, S. M.; Wang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    As the process of urbanization accelerated, resulting in a large number of abandoned fly ash and construction waste, which have occupied the farmland and polluted the environment. In this paper, a large number of construction waste and abandoned fly ash are mixed into the filling material in goaf, the best formula of the filling material which containing a large amount of abandoned fly ash and construction waste is obtained, and the performance of the filling material is analyzed. The experimental results show that the cost of filling material is very low while the performance is very good, which have a good prospect in goaf.

  4. Improvement of the material and transport component of the system of construction waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyshak, Mikhail; Lunyakov, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    Relevance of the topic of selected research is conditioned with the growth of construction operations and growth rates of construction and demolition wastes. This article considers modern approaches to the management of turnover of construction waste, sequence of reconstruction or demolition processes of the building, information flow of the complete cycle of turnover of construction and demolition waste, methods for improvement of the material and transport component of the construction waste management system. Performed analysis showed that mechanism of management of construction waste allows to increase efficiency and environmental safety of this branch and regions.

  5. Ecological performance of construction materials subject to ocean climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kay L; Coleman, Melinda A; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2017-10-01

    Artificial structures will be increasingly utilized to protect coastal infrastructure from sea-level rise and storms associated with climate change. Although it is well documented that the materials comprising artificial structures influence the composition of organisms that use them as habitat, little is known about how these materials may chemically react with changing seawater conditions, and what effects this will have on associated biota. We investigated the effects of ocean warming, acidification, and type of coastal infrastructure material on algal turfs. Seawater acidification resulted in greater covers of turf, though this effect was counteracted by elevated temperatures. Concrete supported a greater cover of turf than granite or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) under all temperature and pH treatments, with the greatest covers occurring under simulated ocean acidification. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency under acidification was greater on concrete substratum compared to all other materials and treatment combinations. These results demonstrate the capacity to maximise ecological benefits whilst still meeting local management objectives when engineering coastal defense structures by selecting materials that are appropriate in an ocean change context. Therefore, mitigation efforts to offset impacts from sea-level rise and storms can also be engineered to alter, or even reduce, the effects of climatic change on biological assemblages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  7. Modified glycogen as construction material for functional biomimetic microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabyk, Mariia; Hruby, Martin; Vetrik, Miroslav; Kucka, Jan; Proks, Vladimir; Parizek, Martin; Konefal, Rafal; Krist, Pavel; Chvatil, David; Bacakova, Lucie; Slouf, Miroslav; Stepanek, Petr

    2016-11-05

    We describe a conceptually new, microfibrous, biodegradable functional material prepared from a modified storage polysaccharide also present in humans (glycogen) showing strong potential as direct-contact dressing/interface material for wound healing. Double bonds were introduced into glycogen via allylation and were further exploited for crosslinking of the microfibers. Triple bonds were introduced by propargylation and served for further click functionalization of the microfibers with bioactive peptide. A simple solvent-free method allowing the preparation of thick layers was used to produce microfibers (diameter ca 2μm) from allylated and/or propargylated glycogen. Crosslinking of the samples was performed by microtron beta-irradiation, and the irradiation dose was optimized to 2kGy. The results from biological testing showed that these highly porous, hydrophilic, readily functionalizable materials were completely nontoxic to cells growing in their presence. The fibers were gradually degraded in the presence of cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advanced Asymmetrical Supercapacitors Based on Graphene Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Chen, Zhuo; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Supercapacitors operating in aqueous solutions are low cost energy storage devices with high cycling stability and fast charging and discharging capabilities, but have suffered from low energy densities. Here, we grow Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and RuO2 nanoparticles on high quality graphene sheets to maximize the specific capacitances of these materials. We then pair up a Ni(OH)2/graphene electrode with a RuO2/graphene electrode to afford a high performance asymmetrical supercapacitor with high ener...

  9. Ceramic luminescent radiographic materials for medicine and tool construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnacker, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray recording luminescent materials form the basis of a new concept for X ray imaging. Essential advantages as compared to the conventional film systems are the digitalisation of the X ray as well as the high dynamics of registration. Modern methods of image processing and video recording can be applied. Advantages also show where a very extensive video material must be filed. Compared to the films used up to now, one expects higher sensitivity, higher homogeneity and higher spatial resolution of pictures taken with ceramic films. (BaFBr:Eu, RbJ:Tl). (orig.) [de

  10. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  11. Electric characterization of construction materials through radar data inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriarca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive evaluation with the aim of characterizing objects before or after treatment has taken place, and the monitoring of long-term performance is analyzed in this thesis. Generally, these test methods measure material properties or changes in these properties that decision makers are

  12. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance w...

  13. Deconstructing the Constructed Experience: Reforming Science Materials to Develop Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Timothy A.; Hughes, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    For over 50 years, science educators have been calling for increased opportunities for students to engage with science in creative manners, but teachers are still reliant on packaged materials that promote single and 'correct' responses with cookbook approaches. This article suggests five strategies that teachers can use to enhance constructed…

  14. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  15. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  16. Performance of hybrid subsurface constructed wetland system for piggery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Inoue, T; Kato, K; Harada, J; Izumoto, H; Wu, D; Sakuragi, H; Ietsugu, H; Sugawara, Y

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) built for high organic content piggery wastewater treatment in a cold region. The system consists of four vertical and one horizontal flow subsurface CWs. The wetland was built in 2009 and water quality was monitored from the outset. Average purification efficiency of this system was 95±5, 91±7, 89±8, 70±10, 84±15, 90±6, 99±2, and 93±16% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-N (NH4-N), total phosphorus (TP), total coliform (T. Coliform), and suspended solids (SS), respectively during August 2010-December 2013. Pollutant removal rate was 15±18 g m(-2) d(-1), 49±52 g m(-2) d(-1), 6±4 g m(-2) d(-1), 7±5 g m(-2) d(-1), and 1±1 g m(-2) d(-1) for BOD5, COD, TN, NH4-N, and TP, respectively. The removal efficiency of BOD5, COD, NH4-N, and SS improved yearly since the start of operation. With respect to removal of TN and TP, efficiency improved in the first three years but slightly declined in the fourth year. The system performed well during both warm and cold periods, but was more efficient in the warm period. The nitrate increase may be attributed to a low C/N ratio, due to limited availability of carbon required for denitrification.

  17. Heavy metals adsorption by novel EDTA-modified chitosan-silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Eveliina; Warchoł, Jolanta K; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-06-01

    Novel adsorbents were synthesized by functionalizing chitosan-silica hybrid materials with (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA ligands. The synthesized adsorbents were found to combine the advantages of both silica gel (high surface area, porosity, rigid structure) and chitosan (surface functionality). The Adsorption potential of hybrid materials was investigated using Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as target metals by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. The kinetic results revealed that the pore diffusion process played a key role in adsorption kinetics, which might be attributed to the porous structure of synthesized adsorbents. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities of the hybrid materials for the metal ions ranged from 0.25 to 0.63 mmol/g under the studied experimental conditions. The adsorbent with the highest chitosan content showed the best adsorption efficiency. Bi-Langmuir and Sips isotherm model fitting to experimental data suggested the surface heterogeneity of the prepared adsorbents. In multimetal solutions, the hybrid adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Pb(II). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  19. Recent progress in supercapacitors: from materials design to system construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2013-10-04

    Supercapacitors are currently attracting intensive attention because they can provide energy density by orders of magnitude higher than dielectric capacitors, greater power density, and longer cycling ability than batteries. The main challenge for supercapacitors is to develop them with high energy density that is close to that of a current rechargeable battery, while maintaining their inherent characteristics of high power and long cycling life. Consequently, much research has been devoted to enhance the performance of supercapacitors by either maximizing the specific capacitance and/or increasing the cell voltage. The latest advances in the exploration and development of new supercapacitor systems and related electrode materials are highlighted. Also, the prospects and challenges in practical application are analyzed, aiming to give deep insights into the material science and electrochemical fields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Automotive and Construction Equipment for Arctic Use, Materials Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    followed. Nitrile rubber ( NBR ) is one of the most common materials used in seal manufacture. It is a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile and is... rubber and other elastomers, and many plastics. This problem is exacerbated, especially in equipment with diesel engines, because the engines run...their original condition in a short time on removal of the stress. The group includes natural rubbers as well as synthetic polymers. Many of these

  1. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Kim, Eun Ka; Hong, Gye Won; Herr, Young Hoi; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Myeong Han; Baik, Sang Youl; Choo, Yong Sun; Baik, Seung Je

    1989-02-01

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  2. Tritium interactions with steel and construction materials in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1990-11-01

    The literature on the interactions of tritium and tritiated water with metals, glasses, ceramics, concrete, paints, polymers and other organic materials is reviewed in this report Some of the processes affecting the amount of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and the conversion of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and conversion of elemental tritium (T 2 ) to tritiated water (HTO), are also briefly outlined. Tritium permeation in steels is fairly well understood, but effects of surface preparation and coatings on sorption are not yet clear. Permeation of T 2 into other metals with cleaned surfaces has been studied thoroughly at high temperature, and the effect of surface oxidation has also been explored. The room-temperature permeation rates of low-permeability metals with cleaned surfaces are much faster than indicated by high-temperature results, because of grain-boundary diffusion. Elastomers have been studied to a certain extent, but some mechanisms of interaction with tritium gas and sorbed tritium are unclear. Ceramics have some of the lowest sorption and permeation rates, but ceramic coatings on stainless steels do not lower permeation or tritium as effectively as coatings obtained by oxidation of the steel, probably because of cracking caused by differences in thermal expansion coefficient. Studies on concrete are in their early stages; they show that sorption of tritiated water on concrete is a major concern in cleanup of releases of elemental tritium into air in tritium handling facilities. Some of the codes for modelling releases and sorption of T 2 and HTO contain unproven assumptions about sorption and T 2 → HTO conversion. Several experimental programs will be required in order to clear up ambiguities in previous work and to determine parameters for materials which have not yet been investigated. (146 refs., tab.)

  3. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  4. Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ding; Liu, Min; Lin, Min; Bu, Xinyuan; Luo, Xintao; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2014-10-28

    Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSe(x)Te(1-x), and Cd(y)Hg(1-y)Te. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.

  5. Elaboration of construction materials from mineral residues, properties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction in 1887 of the leaching process of metals, using the sodium cyanides revolutionized the techniques for the obtaining of gold and silver. Starting from then it is a method used in the entire world for the recovery of these and other metals. The mining activity generates the accustomed to residuals known popularly like 'jales' (voice derived nahuatl of the xalli that means sand). An important case, is it related with those 'jales' whose pyre content (FeS 2 ) it is high and wherefore they are subject to chemical reactions, caused by the intemperateness in 'jales'. Before this panorama, it is important to process the 'jales' to use them for the construction. (Author)

  6. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Papale, F.; Bollino, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line.

  7. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Papale, F.; Bollino, F.; Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line

  8. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  9. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  10. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  11. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  12. Measurements of the radioactivity of power plant by-products processed into construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, S.A.; Dudelewski, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of the recycling of residual products comprising, inter alia, fly ash and slags accuring from the combustion of black and brown coal in modern coal dust boilers in the power industry has been topical for a number of years. Numerous discussions and articles in technical periodicals and the daily press have revolved around the problem of the radioactivity of construction materials or construction elements obtained from fly ash or slags of power plant. In Poland, this was a forbidden subject until the publication in 1980 by the Warsaw institute of construction technology of standard no. 234 entitled: 'Recommendations for establishing the natural radioactivity of products processed into construction materials'. (orig.) [de

  13. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  14. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Oliver [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Geography and Geoecology, Adenauerring 20, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bayer, Peter, E-mail: bayer@erdw.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Geological Institute, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Juraske, Ronnie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Verones, Francesca [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hellweg, Stefanie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  15. Transuranic Hybrid Materials: Crystallographic and Computational Metrics of Supramolecular Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surbella, Robert G. [Department; Ducati, Lucas C. [Department; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Autschbach, Jochen [Department; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Cahill, Christopher L. [Department

    2017-07-26

    A family of twelve supramolecular [AnO2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) containing compounds assembled via hydrogen and halogen bonds donated by substituted 4-X-pyridinium cations (X = H, Cl, Br, I) is reported. These materials were prepared from a room-temperature synthesis wherein crystallization of unhydrolyzed and valence pure [An(VI)O2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) tectons are the norm. We present a hierarchy of assembly criteria based on crystallographic observations, and subsequently quantify the strengths of the non-covalent interactions using Kohn-Sham density functional calculations. We provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) of the actinyl tetrahalide dianions and reconcile crystallographically observed structural motifs and non-covalent interaction (NCI) acceptor-donor pairings. Our findings indicate that the average electrostatic potential across the halogen ligands (the acceptors) changes by only ~2 kJ mol-1 across the AnO22+ series, indicating the magnitude of the potential is independent of the metal center. The role of the cation is therefore critical in directing structural motifs and dictating the resulting hydrogen and halogen bond strengths, the former being stronger due to the positive charge centralized on the pyridyl nitrogen N-H+. Subsequent analyses using the Quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) approaches support this conclusion and highlight the structure directing role of the cations. Whereas one can infer that the 2 Columbic attraction is the driver for assembly, the contribution of the non-covalent interaction is to direct the molecular-level arrangement (or disposition) of the tectons.

  16. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) steam electrolysers. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to evaluate the stability of the mentioned materials. It was found that stainless steels were the least resistant...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis...

  17. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  18. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK WOOD (EBONY AS A CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to determine physical and mechanical properties of Ebony wood as a construction material. The physical and mechanical properties test is conducted based on ASTM D 143-94 code. The mean value of moisture content and specific gravity of Ebony wood is obtained 12,90% and 0,92 gr.cm-3 respectively. Meanwhile MOE, bending strength, compressive strength parallel to grain, shear strength, and tensile strength parallel to grain are 180.425,87 kg.cm-2; 1656,22 kg.cm-2; 861,55 kg.cm-2; 119,61 kg.cm-2; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm-2 respectively. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that Ebony wood is classified to Strength Class I due to PKKI 1961, so it can be recommended for use in heavy construction such as bridge and building structures   Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan sifat fisis dan mekanis kayu  Ebony sebagai material konstruksi. Pengujian sifat fisis dan mekanis dilakukan berdasarkan standar ASTM D 143-94. -3Nilai kadar air rata-rata kayu Ebony diperoleh sebesar 12,90% dan berat jenis 0,92 gr.cm . Sementara nilai rata-rata MOE, kuat lentur, kuat tekan sejajar serat, kuat geser, dan kuat tarik -2 -2 -2sejajar serat berturut-turut adalah 180.425,87 kg.cm ; 1656,22 kg.cm ; 861,55 kg.cm ; -2 -2119,61 kg.cm ; dan 2.319,03 kg.cm . Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa kayu Ebony tergolong kelas kuat I menurut PKKI 1961, sehingga dapat direkomendasikan untuk digunakan pada konstruksi-konstruksi berat seperti jembatan dan struktur bangunan.   REFERENCES Aghayere A & Jason V. 2007. Structural Wood Design: A Practice-Oriented Approach Using the ASD Method. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey Boen T. 2009. Constructing Seismic Resistant Masonry Houses in Indonesia. United Nation. Chauf KA. 2005. Karakteristik Mekanik Kayu Kamper sebagai Bahan Konstruksi. Majalah Ilmiah MEKTEK . Vol 7 : 41-47. Dolan JD. 2004. Timber Structures. Pp 628-669 in Wai FC & Eric ML (Eds Handbook of Structural Engineering – 2nd

  19. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction.; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-30

    The structure of steel-concrete hybrid structure which is recently attracting attention is outlined quoting some examples. The effects of steel-concrete hybrid structure are classified according to the characteristics. The Normandie Bridge completed in January this year near the mouth of the Seine River in France is a cable stayed bridge with the world largest span, and it has a hybrid structure of ingeniously combined steel and concrete. The Dole Bridge in France is a hybrid bridge with 7 continuous spans having steel corrugated sheets in the web. Hybrid structure has come to be applied to many structures other than the superstructure works of bridges. The substructures of bridges are applied to immersed tunnels, and the usefulness has come to be recognized widely. The features of hybrid structure can contribute well to the reinforcement of existing structures. In addition, adoption of hybrid structure has been studied as the best method for repairing and reinforcing structures damaged by earthquakes. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Cyclodextrin-Modified inorganic materials for the construction of nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrone, Giovanna; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio

    2017-10-15

    Inorganic nanoparticles, such as gold, silver, quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles, offer a promising way to develop multifunctional nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Such nanoparticles have the potential to combine in a single, stable construct various functionalities, simultaneously providing imaging abilities, thermal therapies and the ability to deliver drugs in a targeted fashion. An approach for providing drug loading abilities to these inorganic nanoparticles consists in the modification of their surface with a coating of cyclodextrins, and thereby endowing the nanoparticles with the potential of functioning as drug nanocarriers. This review presents the advances carried out in the preparation of cyclodextrin-contained gold, silver, quantum dot and magnetic nanoparticles as well as their applications as drug nanocarriers. The nanoparticle surface can be modified incorporating cyclodextrin moieties, (i) in situ during the synthesis of the nanoparticles, either using the cyclodextrin as reducing agent or as stabilizer; or (ii) in a post-synthetic stage. The cyclodextrin coating contributes to provide biocompatibility to the nanoparticles and to reduce their cytotoxicity. Cyclodextrin-modified nanoparticles display a multivalent presentation of quasi-hydrophobic cavities that enables, not only drug loading in a non-covalent manner, but also the non-covalent assembly of targeting motifs and optical probes. This paper also provides an overview of some of the reported applications including the in vitro studies and, to a lesser extent, in vivo studies on the drug-loaded nanoparticles behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hybrid-Plus in lightweight construction? Metal-plastic composites; Hybrid-Plus in Struktur-Leichtbauweise? Metall-Kunststoffverbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, P [Rehau AG und Co., Rehau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    New dimensions in lightweight structures construction are expected from an advanced technology that produces one hundred percent positively bonded plastic-metal bonds with highly interesting features. The example of a car boot cover is presented to illustrate the technology. (orig.)

  2. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  3. Removal of corrosion products of construction materials in heat carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A review of reported data has been made on the removal of structural material corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent of power reactors. The corrosion rate, and at the same time, removal of corrosion products into the heat-carrying agent (water) decreases with time. Thus, for example, the corrosion rate of carbon steel in boiling water at 250 deg C and O 2 concentration of 0.1 mg/1 after 3000 hr is 0.083 g/m 2 . day; after 9000 hr the corrosion rate has been reduced 2.5 times. Under static conditions the transfer rate of corrosion products into water has been smaller than in the stream and also depends on time. The corrosion rate of carbon steel under nuclear plant operating conditions is almost an order higher over that of steel Kh18N10T

  4. Amorphous Mn oxide-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Kim, Nam Dong; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Park, Junsu; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-07-01

    A supercapacitor has the advantages of both the conventional capacitors and the rechargeable batteries. Mn oxide is generally recognized one of the potential materials that can be used for a supercapacitor, but its low conductivity is a limiting factor for electrode materials. In this study, a hybrid of amorphous Mn oxide (AMO) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2/77 K sorption techniques, and electrochemical analyses. The findings indicate that the electrochemical activities of Mn oxide were facilitated when it was in the hybrid state because OMC acted as a pathway for both the electrolyte ions and the electrons due to the characteristics of the ordered mesoporous structure. The ordered mesoporous structure of OMC was well maintained even after hybridization with amorphous Mn oxide. The electrochemical-activity tests revealed that the AMO/OMC hybrid had a higher specific capacitance and conductivity than pure Mn oxide. In the case where the Mn/C weight ratio was 0.75, the composite showed a high capacitance of 153 F/g, which was much higher than that for pure Mn oxide, due to the structural effects of OMC.

  5. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan

    2017-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan [Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu (Malaysia)

    2017-04-15

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  7. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on novel hybrid materials made of carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuentas-Gallegos, Ana Karina; Martinez-Rosales, Rosa; Rincon, Marina E. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, C.P. 62580 Temixco, Mor (Mexico); Baibarac, Mihaela; Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We have characterized symmetric solid-state supercapacitors in swagelok cells using film electrodes made of novel hybrid materials based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and phosphomolybdate polyanion (Cs-PMo12) with PVA as binder. These hybrid materials were carried out by Cs-PMo12 adhesion onto previously functionalized CNT, in order to disperse both components at a molecular level and use Cs-PMo12 as energy density enhancer in supercapacitor cells. Our results show high capacitance values (up to 285 F/g at I = 200 mA/g) due to the contribution of Cs-PMo12, which was revealed on the higher energy density values compared to pure CNT electrodes. Additionally, good stability was observed during 500 charge-discharge cycles for most hybrid electrodes. These preliminary results show a new approach to enhance energy density of double layer supercapacitor cells through the introduction of Cs-PMo12, whereas from a material science point of view these materials are innovative, and open the way to search for diverse applications aside from supercapacitors (sensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, etc.). (author)

  8. Graphene-based hybrid structures combined with functional materials of ferroelectrics and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wenjing; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-06-21

    Fundamental studies and applications of 2-dimensional (2D) graphene may be deepened and broadened via combining graphene sheets with various functional materials, which have been extended from the traditional insulator of SiO2 to a versatile range of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals, as well as organic compounds. Among them, ferroelectric materials have received much attention due to their unique ferroelectric polarization. As a result, many attractive characteristics can be shown in graphene/ferroelectric hybrid systems. On the other hand, graphene can be integrated with conventional semiconductors and some newly-discovered 2D layered materials to form distinct Schottky junctions, yielding fascinating behaviours and exhibiting the potential for various applications in future functional devices. This review article is an attempt to illustrate the most recent progress in the fabrication, operation principle, characterization, and promising applications of graphene-based hybrid structures combined with various functional materials, ranging from ferroelectrics to semiconductors. We focus on mechanically exfoliated and chemical-vapor-deposited graphene sheets integrated in numerous advanced devices. Some typical hybrid structures have been highlighted, aiming at potential applications in non-volatile memories, transparent flexible electrodes, solar cells, photodetectors, and so on.

  9. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors, such as material qualities, construction types and soil types. In our work, we consider a broad range of parameter values in the modeling of leaching and fate. This allows distinguishing between the impacts of various road constructions, as well as sites with different soil properties. The findings of this study promote the quantitative consideration of environmental impacts of long-term leaching in Life Cycle Assessment, complementing site-specific risk

  10. A new porous hybrid material derived from silica fume and alginate for sustainable pollutants reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Alessandra; Vassura, Ivano; Venturini, Elisa; Monai, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Federici, Stefania; Zacco, Annalisa; Treccani, Laura; Bontempi, Elza

    2018-03-01

    In this work a new mesoporous adsorbent material obtained from a natural, high abundant raw material and a high volume industrial by-product is presented. The material is consolidated by the gelling properties of alginate and by decomposition of sodium-bicarbonate controlled porosity at low temperatures (70-80°C) at different scale lengths. The structural, thermal, and morphological characterization shows that the material is a mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid. The material is tested as adsorbent, showing high performances. Methylene blue, used as model pollutant, can be adsorbed and removed from aqueous solutions even at a high concentration with efficiency up to 94%. By coating the material with a 100 nm thin film of titania, good photodegradation performance (more than 20%) can be imparted. Based on embodied energy and carbon footprint of its primary production, the sustainability of the new obtained material is evaluated and quantified in respect to activated carbon as well. It is shown that the new proposed material has an embodied energy lower than one order of magnitude in respect to the one of activated carbon, which represents the gold standards. The versatility of the new material is also demonstrated in terms of its design and manufacturing possibilities. In addition, this material can be printed in 3D. Finally, preliminary results about its ability to capture diesel exhaust particulate matter are reported. The sample exposed to diesel contains a large amount of carbon in its surface. At the best of our knowledge this is the first time that hybrid porous materials are proposed as a new class of sustainable materials, produced to reduce pollutants in the wastewaters and in the atmosphere.

  11. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, R.; Ferreira, V.M.; Machado, L.M.; Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  13. Novel Graphene-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures Constructed via Sulfur Modified Graphene: Preparation and Characterization by Surface and Electrochemical Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervedani, Reza Karimi; Amini, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl4 as Au precursor. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. - Highlights: • A new hybrid of GNs-AuNPs is synthesized by using sulfur-modified graphene. • Stability of the hybrid is exceptionally improved in comparison with previous works. • Aminothiophenol mediated fabrication and stabilization of GNs-AuNPs on GCE electrode. • High electrocatalytic activity was observed for O 2 reduction by hybrid. • Activity of the hybrid was originated from synergistic effect and surface roughness. - Abstract: A novel and uniform graphene nanosheet-gold nanoparticles (GNs-AuNPs) hybrid has been fabricated from sulfur-modified graphene nanosheets (S-GNs) impregnated with HAuCl 4 as Au precursor. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the GNs-AuNPs hybrids were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface Raman spectroscopy (SRS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of the XRD and HRTEM demonstrated well dispersed Au nanoparticles on GNs with an average particle size of less than 10 nm and a narrow size distribution of 6 to 8 nm. A film of GNs-AuNPs hybrid was constructed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) through layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of 4-aminothiphenol (ATP) on GCE, and then, transferring the hybrid to the sulfur function of ATP to form GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs modified surface. Application of the GNs-AuNPs hybrid in electrochemical biosensing was demonstrated by immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model on the surface of GCE-ATP-GNs-AuNPs, and then, using it for sensing of glucose. The biosensor exhibited a wide linear response

  14. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  15. COMPATIBILITY OF NAPLS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH MATERIALS UED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural integrity of well construction, sampling, and remediation materials may be compromised at many hazardous sites by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and their dissolved constituents. A literature review of compatibility theory and qualitative field experiences are provid...

  16. Construction Time of Three Wall Types Made of Locally Sourced Materials: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Drozd; Agnieszka Leśniak; Sebastian Zaworski

    2018-01-01

    Similarly to any other industry, the construction sector puts emphasis on innovativeness, unconventional thinking, and alternative ideas. At present, when sustainable development, ecology, and awareness of people’s impact on the environment grow in importance, low impact buildings can become an innovative alternative construction technology for the highly industrialized construction sector. The paper presents a comparative study of three walls made of available materials used locally, which c...

  17. High photoresponse of individual WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Georgies Alene; Järvinen, Topias; Lorite, Gabriela S.; Mohl, Melinda; Pitkänen, Olli; Dombovari, Aron; Tóth, Geza; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lei, Sidong; Talapatra, Saikat; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    van der Waals solids have been recognized as highly photosensitive materials that compete conventional Si and compound semiconductor based devices. While 2-dimensional nanosheets of single and multiple layers and 1-dimensional nanowires of molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides have been studied, their nanostructured derivatives with complex morphologies are not explored yet. Here, we report on the electrical and photosensitive properties of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials we developed lately. We probe individual hybrid nanostructured particles along the structure using focused ion beam deposited Pt contacts. Further, we use conductive atomic force microscopy to analyze electrical behavior across the nanostructure in the transverse direction. The electrical measurements are complemented by in situ laser beam illumination to explore the photoresponse of the nanohybrids in the visible optical spectrum. Photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜0.4 AW-1 are demonstrated outperforming graphene as well as most of the other transition metal dichalcogenide based devices.

  18. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Construction and commissioning of workrooms for handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinhold, G.; Jost, E.; Koenig, W.

    1976-03-01

    The requirements prescribed for planning, design and construction of type II and III workrooms for handling of unsealed sources are outlined. The 'Guide Concerning Construction and Equipment of Rooms for Handling of Radioactive Materials' is explained and supplemented in part. Furthermore, problems of radiation protection organization and measuring techniques are discussed. (author)

  20. Enhancing the piezoelectric properties of flexible hybrid AlN materials using semi-crystalline parylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Mathewson, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Flexible piezoelectric materials are desired for numerous applications including biomedical, wearable, and flexible electronics. However, most flexible piezoelectric materials are not compatible with CMOS fabrication technology, which is desired for most MEMS applications. This paper reports on the development of a hybrid flexible piezoelectric material consisting of aluminium nitride (AlN) and a semi-crystalline polymer substrate. Various types of semi-crystalline parylene and polyimide materials were investigated as the polymer substrate. The crystallinity and surfaces of the polymer substrates were modified by micro-roughening and annealing in order to determine the effects on the AlN quality. The AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric properties decreased when the polymer surfaces were treated with O2 plasma. However, increasing the crystallinity of the parylene substrate prior to deposition of AlN caused enhanced c-axis (002) AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric response of the AlN. Piezoelectric properties of 200 °C annealed parylene-N substrate resulted in an AlN d 33 value of 4.87 pm V-1 compared to 2.17 pm V-1 for AlN on polyimide and 4.0 pm V-1 for unannealed AlN/parylene-N. The electrical response measurements to an applied force demonstrated that the parylene/AlN hybrid material had higher V pp (0.918 V) than commercial flexible piezoelectric material (PVDF) (V pp 0.36 V). The results in this paper demonstrate that the piezoelectric properties of a flexible AlN hybrid material can be enhanced by increasing the crystallinity of the polymer substrate, and the enhanced properties can function better than previous flexible piezoelectrics.

  1. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  2. Challenges of UK/Irish Contractors regarding Material Management and Logistics in Confined Site Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, John P; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Von Meding, Jason; Konanahalli, Ashwini; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Tijani, Iyabo K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the various managerial issues encountered by UK/Irish contractors in the management of materials in confined urban construction sites. Through extensive literature review, detailed interviews, case studies, cognitive mapping, causal loop diagrams, questionnaire survey and documenting severity indices, a comprehensive insight into the materials management concerns within a confined construction site environment is envisaged and portrayed. The leading issues...

  3. The removal efficiency of constructed wetlands filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate for the rural landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hailing; Duan, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhenqing; Yue, Bo

    2017-07-01

    The removal efficiencies of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs, down-flow (F1) and up-flow (F2)) filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate for the rural landfill leachate treatment were investigated. The adsorption experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of zeolite and slag as the wetland substrate. The effects of distance variations along the longitudinal profile of wetland bed on pollutant removal were assessed by sampling at four locations (inlet, outlet, 0.55 m, and 1.10 m from the inlet). During the operation time, the influent and effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total nitrogen (TN), heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were measured. The results showed that the constructed wetlands were capable of removing COD, 20.5-48.2% (F1) and 18.6-61.2% (F2); NH 3 -N, 84.0-99.9% (F1) and 93.5-99.2% (F2); TN, 80.3-92.1% (F1) and 80.3-91.2% (F2); and heavy metals, about 90% (F1 and F2). The zeolite-slag hybrid substrate performed excellent removal efficiency for the nitrogen and heavy metals. The inlet area was the most active region of leachate removal. The up-flow constructed wetland (F2) has a higher removal efficiency for the PAH compounds. The significant removal efficiency illustrated that the rural landfill leachate can be treated using the horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland filled with the zeolite-slag hybrid substrate.

  4. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Herrera-Melián

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF. The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day. The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch, feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent and the number of stages (1 vs. 2 on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required.

  5. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  6. Original Conductive Nano-Co3O4 Investigated as Electrode Material for Hybrid Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Godillot, Gérôme; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Delmas, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt oxides have been extensively used as conductive additives for Ni-MH batteries. We report in this paper the performances of an original nanometric cobalt oxide, close to Co3O4, as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. This spinel type phase contains hydrogen, lithium, cobalt vacancies, and especially Co4þ ions within the structure, leading to a high electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements show interesting capacitance (320 F/g in 8M-KO...

  7. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  8. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis for new multifunctional materials: A few examples of phosphates and phosphonate-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.rueff@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Poienar, Maria [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Plautius Andronescu Str Nr. 1, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Guesdon, Anne; Martin, Christine; Maignan, Antoine [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Jaffrès, Paul-Alain [Université de Brest, Université Européenne de Bretagne, CNRS UMR 6521, CEMCA, SFR 148 ScInBios, 6 Avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest (France)

    2016-04-15

    Novel physical or chemical properties are expected in a great variety of materials, in connection with the dimensionality of their structures and/or with their nanostructures, hierarchical superstructures etc. In the search of new advanced materials, the hydrothermal technique plays a crucial role, mimicking the nature able to produce fractal, hyperbranched, urchin-like or snow flake structures. In this short review including new results, this will be illustrated by examples selected in two types of materials, phosphates and phosphonates, prepared by this method. The importance of the synthesis parameters will be highlighted for a magnetic iron based phosphates and for hybrids containing phosphonates organic building units crystallizing in different structural types. - Graphical abstract: Phosphate dendrite like and phosphonate platelet crystals.

  10. Grindability determination of torrefied biomass materials using the Hybrid Work index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essendelft, D.T.; Zhou, X.; Kang, B.S.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The grindability of torrefied biomass materials is a difficult parameter to evaluate due to its inhomogeneous character and non-uniform morphology. However, it is necessary to develop a grinding test that is representative of the wide ranging character of biomass and torrefied biomass materials. Previous research has shown that Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) can be linearly correlated to thermally driven weight loss in biomass. In particular, the RIM equipment was found to supply the right energy level to physically break down structurally deficient biomass materials while leaving the un-touched material relatively intact [1–3]. However, the RIM procedure was not designed to extract the comminution energy. Alternatively, the Bond Work Index (BWI) procedure was developed to accurately assess the grinding energy of brittle materials [4,5]. However, the milling energy is too low to be effective for biomass comminution. In this research, the BWI procedure was utilized with the ball–mill approach in the RIM test to evaluate torrefied biomass materials. The hybridized procedure has been shown to be both highly correlated to energy consumption and sensitive to degree of torrefaction. The proposed Hybrid Work Index (HWI) is certainly useful for assessing torrefaction in a laboratory environment, but it may also be correlated to grinding energy at industrial scales.

  11. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material and investigation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-03-14

    In the present work, the preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material in which tetrakis(p-aminophenylporphyrin) is covalently linked to a Lindqvist structure of polyoxometalate, is reported. This new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided spectral data of the synthesis of this compound. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the porphyrin on the redox process of the polyoxometalate. The catalytic activity of this hybrid material was investigated in the alkene epoxidation with NaIO(4).

  13. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  14. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UO_2, 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% NpO_2, and 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO_2, UO_2, NpO_2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion–fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library

  15. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  16. Facile and low energy consumption synthesis of microencapsulated phase change materials with hybrid shell for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Lijie; Song, Guolin; Tang, Guoyi

    2017-12-01

    We designed a photocurable pickering emulsion polymerization to create microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCM) with polymer-silica hybrid shell. The emulsion was stabilized by modified SiO2 particles without any surfactant or dispersant. The polymerization process can be carried out at ambient temperature only for 5 min ultraviolet radiation, which is a low-energy procedure. The resultant capsules were shown a good core-shell structure and uniform in size. The surface of the microcapsules was covered by SiO2 particles. According to the DSC and TGA examinations, the microcapsules has good thermal energy storage-release performance, enhanced thermal reliability and thermal stability. When ratio of MMA/n-octadecane was 1.5/1.5. The encapsulation efficiency of the microcapsules reached 62.55%, accompanied with 122.31 J/g melting enthalpy. The work is virtually applicable to the construction of a wide variety of organic-inorganic hybrid shell MicroPCM. Furthermore, with the application of this method, exciting opportunities may arise for realizing rapid, continuous and large-scale industrial preparation of MicroPCM.

  17. Quality control of three main materials for civil construction of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng

    2011-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear power plant is a systematic engineering. To ensure quality and safety of nuclear power plants, each work from design to operation can have certain impact on the quality and safety of the project. The quality of each related work shall be controlled. Starting from the quality control over raw materials for the civil construction of nuclear power plant, this article mainly analyzes how to control the quality and manage the three main materials of steel, concrete and modular parts in the civil construction. (author)

  18. Automated Laser Ultrasonic Testing (ALUT) of Hybrid Arc Welds for Pipeline Construction, #272

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    One challenge in developing new gas reserves is the high cost of pipeline construction. Welding costs are a major component of overall construction costs. Industry continues to seek advanced pipeline welding technologies to improve productivity and s...

  19. Synthesis of NiMn-LDH Nanosheet@Ni3S2 Nanorod Hybrid Structures for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Yingxi; Lou, Gaobo; Wu, Yatao; Zhu, Xinqiang; Chen, Hao; Shen, Zhehong; Fu, Shenyuan; Bao, Binfu; Wu, Limin

    2018-03-27

    One of the key challenges for pseudocapacitive electrode materials with highly effective capacitance output and future practical applications is how to rationally construct hierarchical and ordered hybrid nanoarchitecture through the simple process. Herein, we design and synthesize a novel NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheet@Ni 3 S 2 nanorod hybrid array supported on porous nickel foam via a one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefited from the ultrathin and rough nature, the well-defined porous structure of the hybrid array, as well as the synergetic effect between NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheets and Ni 3 S 2 nanorods, the as-fabricated hybrid array-based electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2703 F g -1 at 3 A g -1 . Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor with this hybrid array as a positive electrode and wood-derived activated carbon as a negative electrode demonstrates high energy density (57 Wh Kg -1 at 738 W Kg -1 ) and very good electrochemical cycling stability.

  20. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector......The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...

  1. Optimal behavior of responsive residential demand considering hybrid phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Kheradmand, M.; Javadi, S.; Azenha, M.; Aguiar, J.L.B. de; Castro-Gomes, J.; Siano, P.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An operational model of HEM system incorporating with a hybrid PCM is proposed in this paper. • Incorporation of hybrid PCM mortar had a complementary effect on the proposed HEM system. • The proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. • The customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model. - Abstract: Due to communication and technology developments, residential consumers are enabled to participate in Demand Response Programs (DRPs), control their consumption and decrease their cost by using Household Energy Management (HEM) systems. On the other hand, capability of energy storage systems to improve the energy efficiency causes that employing Phase Change Materials (PCM) as thermal storage systems to be widely addressed in the building applications. In this paper, an operational model of HEM system considering the incorporation of more than one type of PCM in plastering mortars (hybrid PCM) is proposed not only to minimize the customer’s cost in different DRPs but also to guaranty the habitants’ satisfaction. Moreover, the proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. Different case studies indicate that implementation of hybrid PCM in the buildings can meaningfully affect the operational pattern of HEM systems in different DRPs. The results reveal that the customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model.

  2. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira, E-mail: bia_ms_@hotmail.com [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  3. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  4. Estimating construction and demolition debris generation using a materials flow analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, K M; Townsend, T G

    2010-11-01

    The magnitude and composition of a region's construction and demolition (C&D) debris should be understood when developing rules, policies and strategies for managing this segment of the solid waste stream. In the US, several national estimates have been conducted using a weight-per-construction-area approximation; national estimates using alternative procedures such as those used for other segments of the solid waste stream have not been reported for C&D debris. This paper presents an evaluation of a materials flow analysis (MFA) approach for estimating C&D debris generation and composition for a large region (the US). The consumption of construction materials in the US and typical waste factors used for construction materials purchasing were used to estimate the mass of solid waste generated as a result of construction activities. Debris from demolition activities was predicted from various historical construction materials consumption data and estimates of average service lives of the materials. The MFA approach estimated that approximately 610-78 × 10(6)Mg of C&D debris was generated in 2002. This predicted mass exceeds previous estimates using other C&D debris predictive methodologies and reflects the large waste stream that exists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Case Study: LCA Methodology Applied to Materials Management in a Brazilian Residential Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Lassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is increasingly concerned with improving the social, economic, and environmental indicators of sustainability. More than ever, the growing demand for construction materials reflects increased consumption of raw materials and energy, particularly during the phases of extraction, processing, and transportation of materials. This work aims to help decision-makers and to promote life cycle thinking in the construction industry. For this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was chosen to analyze the environmental impacts of building materials used in the construction of a residence project in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LCA methodology, based on ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 guidelines, is applied with available databases and the SimaPro program. As a result, this work shows that there is a substantial waste of nonrenewable energy, increasing global warming and harm to human health in this type of construction. This study also points out that, for this type of Brazilian construction, ceramic materials account for a high percentage of the mass of a total building and are thus responsible for the majority of environmental impacts.

  6. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction.

  7. Evaluation on construction quality of pit filler material of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Shimbo, Hiroshi; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    The pit filler material of the underground cavern-type radioactive waste disposal facility, which is poured directly around the radioactive waste packages where high temperature environment is assumed by their decay heat, is concerned to be adversely affected on the filling behavior and its hardened properties. There also are specific issues that required quality of construction must be achieved by unmanned construction with remote operation, because the pit filler construction shall be done under radiation environment. In this paper, the mix proportion of filler material is deliberated with filling experiments simulating high temperature environment, and also the effect of temperature on hardened properties are confirmed with high temperature curing test. Subsequently, the feasibility of unmanned construction method of filler material by pumping, and by movable bucket, are comparatively discussed through a real size demonstration. (author)

  8. Understanding supercapacitors based on nano-hybrid materials with interfacial conjugation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The recent fast development of supercapacitors, also known scientifically as electrochemical capacitors, has benefited significantly from synthesis, characterisations and electrochemistry of nanoma-terials. Herein, the principle of supercapacitors is explained in terms of performance characteristics and charge storage mechanisms, i.e. double layer (or interfacial) capacitance and pseudo-capacitance. The semiconductor band model is applied to qualitatively account for the pseudo-capacitance in association with rectangular cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and linear galvanostatic charging and discharging plots (GCDs), aiming to differentiate supercapacitors from rechargeable batteries. The invalidity of using peak shaped CVs and non-linear GCDs for capacitance measurement is highlighted. A selective review is given to the nano-hybrid materials between carbon nanotubes and redox active materials such as electronically conducting polymers and transition metal oxides. A new concept,“interfacial conjugation”, is introduced to reflect the capacitance enhancement resulting from π-π stacking interactions at the interface between two materials with highly conjugated chemical bonds. The prospects of carbon nanotubes and graphenes for supercapacitor applications are briefly compared and discussed. Hopefully, this article can help readers to understand supercapacitors and nano-hybrid materials so that further developments in materials design and synthesis, and device engineering can be more efficient and objective.

  9. WET-WEATHER POLLUTION PREVENTION THROUGH MATERIALS SUBSTITUTION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL CONSTRUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A literature review of urban stormwater runoff and building/construction materials has shown that many materials such as galvanized metal, concrete, asphalt, and wood products, have the potential to release pollutants into urban stormwater runoff and snowmelt. However, much of th...

  10. Importance of material and friction characterisation for FE-aided process design of hybrid bevel gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Matthias, T.

    2017-10-01

    Solid-forming components are often used in areas where they are subjected to very high loads. For most solid components locally divergent and sometimes contradictory requirements exist. Despite these contradictory requirements, almost exclusively monomaterials are nowadays used for the production of solid components. These components often reach their material-specific limits because of increasing demands on the products. Thus a significant increase in product quality and profitability would result from combining different materials in order to create tailored properties. In the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1153 "Tailored Forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, this topic is investigated. The primary objective of the CRC 1153 is to develop and investigate new tailored manufacturing processes to produce reliable hybrid solid semi-finished components. In contrast to existing production processes of hybrid solid components, semi-finished workpieces in the CRC 1153 are joined before the forming phase. Thus, it will be possible to produce complex and highly stressable solid components made of different metals, which cannot be produced yet with the current used technologies. In this work the material and friction characteristics are investigated and the forming tool for the production of hybrid bevel gears made of different steel alloys (C22 and 41Cr4) is designed by numerical simulations. For this purpose, flow curves of both materials are determined by means of upsetting tests at process-related forming temperatures and strain rates. The temperature range for the forming process of the semi-finished product is determined by comparing the respective flow curves regarding similar flow stresses. Furthermore, the friction between the tool and the joining materials is investigated by means of ring upsetting tests at a process-relevant temperature. Finally, a stress analysis of the forming tools is carried out.

  11. The possibility of using materials based on secondary gravel in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galitskova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By now, the wear and tear of housing stock is more than 50%. Each year the number of old and dilapidated housing is growing, but it is gradually replaced by modern buildings. However, wastes accumulated from dismantling of buildings and constructions, are underutilized and, usually are just stored at landfills, or used for temporary roads construction. The purpose of this research is to define construction wastes characteristics and to explore possibilities for recycling of wastes from construction materials production. The paper also analyzes housing stock condition and basic requirements to building materials used in construction; and demonstrates results building materials based on secondary gravel investigation. While working with materials based on waste requirements the authors conducted laboratory research. Thus, the paper presents the analysis of laboratory tests results that made it possible to draw conclusions about the possible use of building materials based on secondary gravel and about their conformity to specified requirements. The researchers also developed proposals and recommendations to improve the competitiveness of such materials.

  12. Development of apparatus and procedures for evaluating radon-resistant construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, T.D.; Greenfield, M.B.; MacKenzie, J.; Meijer, R.J. de

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory facilities and apparatus have been constructed to measure radon exhalation from, and radon permeability through, various construction materials. This phase of the project has focused on development of test apparatus and evaluation of instrumentation. Results indicate significant spatial variability in the radon permeability of polyethylene, even when all test samples were selected from the same roll of material, and when no visible differentiation could be made regarding sample quality. Implications for code enforcement are described, and recommendations are offered for refinement of equipment and the measurement process, prioritization of future materials testing, and specific building code provisions, based on our results

  13. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  14. 48 CFR 52.225-12 - Notice of Buy American Act Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirement-Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. 52.225-12 Section 52.225-12 Federal Acquisition...—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements. As prescribed in 25.1102(d)(1), insert the following provision: Notice of Buy American Act Requirement—Construction Materials Under Trade Agreements (FEB 2009) (a...

  15. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon

    2018-01-01

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas. PMID:29364861

  16. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE, designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  17. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-01-24

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  18. Optimum design of brake friction material using hybrid entropy-GRA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Kevlar and natural fibres on the performance of brake friction materials was evaluated. Four friction material specimens were developed by varying the proportion of Kevlar and natural fibres. Two developed composite contained 5-10 wt.% of Kevlar fibre while in the other two the Kevlar fibre was replaced with same amount of natural fibre. SAE J661 protocol was used for the assessment of the tribological properties on a Chase testing machine. Result shows that the specimens containing Kevlar fibres shows higher friction and wear performance, whereas Kevlar replacement with natural fibre resulted in improved fade, recovery and friction fluctuations. Further hybrid entropy-GRA (grey relation analysis approach was applied to select the optimal friction materials using various performance defining attributes (PDA including friction, wear, fade, recovery, friction fluctuations and cost. The friction materials with 10 wt% of natural fibre exhibited the best overall quality.

  19. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Wang, Peng; Dua, Rubal; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl

  20. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature

  1. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  2. Construction of gateway-compatible yeast two-hybrid vectors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... vectors pBTM116GW and pVP16GW by introducing the gateway cassette ... Key words: Yeast two-hybrid, gateway cloning technology, protein interaction. .... cycling parameters were as follows: an initial denaturation step at.

  3. Waste-efficient materials procurement for construction projects: A structural equation modelling of critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O

    2018-05-01

    Albeit the understanding that construction waste is caused by activities ranging from all stages of project delivery process, research efforts have been concentrated on design and construction stages, while the possibility of reducing waste through materials procurement process is widely neglected. This study aims at exploring and confirming strategies for achieving waste-efficient materials procurement in construction activities. The study employs sequential exploratory mixed method approach as its methodological framework, using focus group discussion, statistical analysis and structural equation modelling. The study suggests that for materials procurement to enhance waste minimisation in construction projects, the procurement process would be characterised by four features. These include suppliers' commitment to low waste measures, low waste purchase management, effective materials delivery management and waste-efficient Bill of Quantity, all of which have significant impacts on waste minimisation. This implies that commitment of materials suppliers to such measures as take back scheme and flexibility in supplying small materials quantity, among others, are expected of materials procurement. While low waste purchase management stipulates the need for such measures as reduced packaging and consideration of pre-assembled/pre-cut materials, efficient delivery management entails effective delivery and storage system as well as adequate protection of materials during the delivery process, among others. Waste-efficient specification and bill of quantity, on the other hand, requires accurate materials take-off and ordering of materials based on accurately prepared design documents and bill of quantity. Findings of this study could assist in understanding a set of measures that should be taken during materials procurement process, thereby corroborating waste management practices at other stages of project delivery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  5. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  6. Nitrogen doped graphene - Silver nanowire hybrids: An excellent anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Elizabeth, Indu; S, Gopukumar; Thomas, Sabu; M. S, Kala; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-01-01

    We present an in-situ polyol assisted synthesis approach for the preparation of silver nanowires (AgNW) over the nitrogen doped graphene (NG) sheets and has been tested as a viable LIBs anode material for the first time. The use of NG serves as nucleation sites, thereby facilitating the growth of AgNWs. The specific material design of the as-prepared NG-AgNW hybrids involves some advantages, including a continuous AgNW-graphene conducting network. Since AgNWs are electrically conductive, it provides an electrical contact with NG sheets which can effectively help the charge transport process and limit the variations in volume during the lithiation/de-lithiation processes. Apart from this, the insertion of metallic Ag nanowires into a percolated NG network increases the interlayer distance of NG sheets and prevent its restacking. Moreover, the more porous nature of the hybrid structure accommodating the large volume changes of AgNWs. As an anode material for LIBs, the NG-AgNW hybrid displays a remarkable initial discharge capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 and attains a stable capacity of 724 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The electrode exhibits a stable reversible capacity of 714, 634, 550 and 464 mA h g-1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Ag-1 respectively. The reversible capacity (710 mAh g-1) at 0.1 Ag-1 is recovered after the cycling at various current densities confirming outstanding rate performance of the material. In addition, the coulombic efficiency, the NG-AgNW anode retains nearly 99% after the second cycle, further indicating its excellent reversibility. The hybrid material exhibits better cycling stability, greater rate capability, capacity retention and superior reversible capacity than that of bare AgNW and NG sheets. Our smart design will pave way for the development of efficient electrode materials for high capacity and long cycle life LIBs.

  7. Three-Dimensional (3D Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fafenrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a three-dimensional (3D printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid (PLA printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  8. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  9. Pickering emulsion: A novel template for microencapsulated phase change materials with polymer–silica hybrid shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Dezhong; Ma, Li; Liu, Jinjie; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-01

    MePCMs (microencapsulated phase change materials) with covalently bonded SiO 2 /polymer hybrid as shell were fabricated via Pickering emulsion polymerization stabilized solely by organically-modified SiO 2 particles. Morphology and core–shell structure of these microcapsules were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties of microencapsulated 1-dodecanol were determined using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis). The results indicate that mass ratio of St (styrene)/DVB (divinylbenzene)/dodecanol has great effect on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulation efficiency and durability of resultant MePCMs. When ratio of St/DVB/dodecanol was 5/1/12, dodecanol content of as much as 62.8% is obtained and the utility efficiency of dodecanol reaches 94.2%. The prepared MePCMs present good durability and thermal reliability. 2.2% of core material leached away the microcapsule after suspended in water for 10 days and 5.8% of core material leached after 2000 accelerated thermal cycling. Our study demonstrated that Pickering emulsion polymerization is a simple and robust method for the preparation of MePCMs with polymer–inorganic hybrids as shell. - Highlights: • We fabricated MePCM via surfactant-free Pickering emulsion polymerization. • The shell of MePCM was composed of PS/SiO 2 organic–inorganic hybrids. • The phase change enthalpy of MePCM is 125.0 J g −1 and the utility efficiency of 1-dodecanol reached 94.2%. • Only 2.2% and 5.8% of core material lost after durability test and 2000 accelerated thermal cycling respectively

  10. Construction de savoirs professionnels dans une formation hybride : étude d’un carnet de bord en ligne collaboratif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha TALI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se focalise sur la co-construction de savoirs professionnels, la nature de ces savoirs et les processus sous-jacents à cette construction dans un contexte de formation hybride à l’Université. Nous analysons les écrits dans le carnet de bord collaboratif en ligne d’un groupe d’enseignants interagissant et échangeant leurs expériences. L’analyse longitudinale montre une diversification des savoirs co-construits et mis en œuvre par les apprenants. Les interactions relevées indiquent : l’importance des échanges socio-affectifs; un étayage entre pairs visant l’enrôlement et le contrôle de la frustration; et de nombreux exemples pouvant servir à l’apprentissage vicariant.

  11. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  12. Luminescent hybrid materials functionalized with lanthanide ethylenodiaminotetraacetate complexes containing β-diketonate as antenna ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Franklin P.; Costa, Israel F.; Espínola, José Geraldo P.; Faustino, Wagner M.; Moura, Jandeilson L. [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F.; Paolini, Tiago B. [Departamento de Química Fundamental-Instituto de Química da Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felinto, Maria Cláudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas energéticas e Nucleares-IPEN, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teotonio, Ercules E.S., E-mail: teotonioees@quimica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Three organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on silica gel functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS), [3-(2-aminoetilamino)-propil]-trimetoxissilano (DAPTS) and 3-[2-(2-aminoetilamino)etilamino] propiltrimetoxysilane (TAPTS) and subsequently modified with EDTA derivative were prepared by nonhomogeneous route and were then characterized. The resulting materials named SilXN-EDTA (X=1 for APTS, 2 for DAPTS and 3 for TAPTS) were used to obtain new lanthanide Ln{sup 3+}-β-diketonate (Ln{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) complexes covalently linked to the functionalized silica gel surfaces (named SilXN-EDTALn-dik, dik=tta, dbm, bzac and acac). The photophysical properties of the new luminescent materials were investigated and compared with those with similar system presenting water molecules coordinated to the lanthanide ions, SilXN-EDTALn-H{sub 2}O. The SilXN-EDTAEu-dik and SilXN-EDTATb-dik systems displayed characteristic red and green luminescence when excited by UV radiation. Furthermore, the quantitative results showed that the emission quantum efficiency (η), experimental intensity parameters Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 4}, and Einstein's emission coefficient (A{sub 0J}) of the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik materials were largely dependent on the ligands. Based on the luminescence data, the most efficient intramolecular energy transfer processes were found to the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik (dik: tta and dbm) and SilXN-EDTATb-acac materials, which exhibited more pure emission colors. These materials are promising red and green phosphors, respectively. - Highlights: • New highly luminescent hybrid materials containing lanthanide-EDTA complexes. • The effect of three silylanting agent on the adsorption and luminescent properties has been studied. • The luminescence sensitizing by different β-diketonate ligands have been investigated.

  13. Fabrication of Porous Ceramic-Geopolymer Based Material to Improve Water Absorption and Retention in Construction Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, N. H.; Ibrahim, W. M. A. W.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Sandu, A. V.; Tahir, M. F. M.

    2017-06-01

    Porous ceramic nowadays has been investigated for a variety of its application such as filters, lightweight structural component and others due to their specific properties such as high surface area, stability and permeability. Besides, it has the properties of low thermal conductivity. Various formation techniques making these porous ceramic properties can be tailored or further fine-tuned to obtain the optimum characteristic. Porous materials also one of the good candidate for absorption properties. Conventional construction materials are not design to have good water absorption and retention that lead to the poor performance on these criteria. Temperature is a major driving force for moisture movement and influences sorption characteristics of many constructions materials. The effect of elevated temperatures on the water absorption coefficient and retention remain as critical issue that need to be investigated. Therefore, this paper will review the process parameters in fabricating porous ceramic for absorption properties.

  14. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  15. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu; Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  16. Hybrid structure in civil engineering construction. Composite types of steel and concrete; Doboku bun`ya ni okeru fukugo kozo. Kozai to concrete no ittai keishiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [JR Railway Technical Research Inst. Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-30

    In connection with hybrid structures in civil engineering construction, classification and application of composite types of steel and concrete are discussed. H steel embedded beam is a composite beam in which the H shape steel of the main beam is connected to rolled or welded H shape steel using cross beams. Composite structure columns are grouped into the composite column and the steel pipe concrete column. SRC piers are often adopted from the viewpoints of constraints for execution of works and vibration proof. Steel and concrete hybrid structure is a kind of structural system in which various kinds of materials such as steel, RC, or PC members are connected. The cable stayed bridge utilizes characteristics of steel and concrete effectively. For the piers of municipal expressway viaducts, there are executed cases of mixed structures which have RC, SRC columns for T shape piers and S structure for the bridges. SRC structure and composite columns are adopted often for structures of subway stations. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Challenges of UK/Irish Contractors regarding Material Management and Logistics in Confined Site Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spillane, John P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the various managerial issues encountered by UK/Irish contractors in the management of materials in confined urban construction sites. Through extensive literature review, detailed interviews, case studies, cognitive mapping, causal loop diagrams, questionnaire survey and documenting severity indices, a comprehensive insight into the materials management concerns within a confined construction site environment is envisaged and portrayed. The leading issues highlighted are: that contractors’ material spatial requirements exceed available space, it is difficult to coordinate the storage of materials in line with the programme, location of the site entrance makes delivery of materials particularly difficult, it is difficult to store materials on-site due to the lack of space, and difficult to coordinate the storage requirements of the various sub-contractors. With the continued development of confined urban centres and the increasing high cost of materials, any marginal savings made on-site would translate into significant monetary savings at project completion. Such savings would give developers a distinct competitive advantage in this challenging economic climate. As on-site management professionals successfully identify, acknowledge and counteract the numerous issues illustrated, the successful management of materials on a confined urban construction site becomes attainable.

  18. Fluidized bed combustion bottom ash: A better and alternative geo-material resource for construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A K; Paramkusam, Bala Ramudu; Sinha, O P

    2018-04-01

    Though the majority of research on fly ash has proved its worth as a construction material, the utility of bottom ash is yet questionable due to its generation during the pulverized combustion process. The bottom ash produced during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) process is attracting more attention due to the novelty of coal combustion technology. But, to establish its suitability as construction material, it is necessary to characterize it thoroughly with respect to the geotechnical as well as mineralogical points of view. For fulfilling these objectives, the present study mainly aims at characterizing the FBC bottom ash and its comparison with pulverized coal combustion (PCC) bottom ash, collected from the same origin of coal. Suitability of FBC bottom ash as a dike filter material in contrast to PCC bottom ash in replacing traditional filter material such as sand was also studied. The suitability criteria for utilization of both bottom ash and river sand as filter material on pond ash as a base material were evaluated, and both river sand and FBC bottom ash were found to be satisfactory. The study shows that FBC bottom ash is a better geo-material than PCC bottom ash, and it could be highly recommended as an alternative suitable filter material for constructing ash dikes in place of conventional sand.

  19. Characterizing material properties of cement-stabilized rammed earth to construct sustainable insulated walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of local materials can reduce the hauling of construction materials over long distances, thus reducing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with transporting such materials. Use of locally available soils (earth for construction of walls has been used in many parts of the world. Owing to the thermal mass of these walls and the potential to have insulation embedded in the wall section has brought this construction material/technology at the forefront in recent years. However, the mechanical properties of the rammed earth and the parameters required for design of steel reinforced walls are not fully understood. In this paper, the author presents a case study where full-scale walls were constructed using rammed earth to understand the effect of two different types of shear detailing on the structural performance of the walls. The mechanical properties of the material essential for design such as compressive strength of the material including effect of coring on the strength, pull out strength of different rebar diameters, flexural performance and out-of-plane bending on walls was studied. These results are presented in this case study.

  20. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent advances in organic one-dimensional composite materials: design, construction, and photonic elements for information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongli; Zhang, Chuang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2013-07-19

    Many recent activities in the use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photonic elements for optical information processing are explained by huge advantages that photonic circuits possess over traditional silicon-based electronic ones in bandwidth, heat dissipation, and resistance to electromagnetic wave interference. Organic materials are a promising candidate to support these optical-related applications, as they combine the properties of plastics with broad spectral tunability, high optical cross-section, easy fabrication, as well as low cost. Their outstanding compatibility allows organic composite structures which are made of two or more kinds of materials combined together, showing great superiority to single-component materials due to the introduced interactions among multiple constituents, such as energy transfer, electron transfer, exciton coupling, etc. The easy processability of organic 1D crystalline heterostructures enables a fine topological control of both composition and geometry, which offsets the intrinsic deficiencies of individual material. At the same time, the strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton-exciton interaction impart the excellent confinement of photons in organic microstructures, thus light can be manipulated according to our intention to realize specific functions. These collective properties indicate a potential utility of organic heterogeneous material for miniaturized photonic circuitry. Herein, focus is given on recent advances of 1D organic crystalline heterostructures, with special emphasis on the novel design, controllable construction, diverse performance, as well as wide applications in isolated photonic elements for integration. It is proposed that the highly coupled, hybrid optical networks would be an important material basis towards the creation of on-chip optical information processing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Waste glass as eco-friendly replacement material in construction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gayatri; Sharma, Anu

    2018-05-01

    Atpresent time the biggest issue is increasing urban population, industrialization and development all over the world. The quantity of the raw materials of construction products like cement, concrete etc is gradually depleting. This is important because if we don't find the alternative material to accomplish need of this industry, with every year it will put pressure on natural resources which are limited in quantity. This major issue can be solved by partial replacing with waste glass of different construction products. This paper gives an overview of the current growth and recycling situation of waste glass and point out the direction for the proper use of waste glass as replacement of construction material. These will not only help in the reuse of waste glass but also create eco-friendly environment.

  3. Development of construction materials like concrete from lunar soils without water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Frantziskonis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. A unique approach is attempted that utilizes factors such as initial vacuum and then cyclic loading to enhance the mechanical properties of dry materials similar to those available on the moon. The application of such factors is expected to allow reorientation, and coming together, of particles of the materials toward the maximum theoretical density. If such a density can provide deformation and strength properties for even a limited type of construction, the approach can have significant application potential, although other factors such as heat and chemicals may be needed for specific construction objectives.

  4. Structural effect of monomer type on properties of copolyimides and copolyimide-silica hybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Canan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of two different diamine monomers, containing phosphine oxide, on thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of copolyimides and their hybrid materials was investigated. Gas separation properties of the synthesized copolyimides were also analysed. Two different diamine monomers with phosphine oxide were bis(3-aminophenyl phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO and bis(3-aminophenoxy-4-phenyl phenylphosphine oxide (m-BAPPO. In the synthesis of copolyimides 3,3’-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS was also used as the diamine, as well as 2,2’-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA. Copolyimide films were prepared by thermal imidization. Hybrid materials containing 5 % SiO2 were synthesised further by sol-gel technique. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR confirmed the expected structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA demonstrated that m-BAPPO based copolyimides had lower glass transition temperatures (Tg than BAPPO based copolyimides. m-BAPPO containing copolyimide without silica shifted the thermal decomposition temperature to a higher value. The moduli and strength values of BAPPO diamine containing copolyimide and its hybrid were higher than those of m-BAPPO containing materials. The contact angle measurements showed the hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis exhibited the silica particles dispersion in the copolyimides. These copolyimides may be used in the coating industry. The CO2 permeability and the permselectivity were the highest among the other values in this study, when m-BAPPO containing copolyimide in the absence of silica was used. The gas permeabilities obtained from this work were in this decreasing order: PCO2 > PO2 > PN2.

  5. Donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Stergiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor–acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor–acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  6. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Unravelling the High-Pressure Behaviour of Dye-Zeolite L Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gigli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of chromophores nanoconfined in porous materials such as zeolite L has led to technologically relevant host-guest systems exploited in solar energy harvesting, photonics, nanodiagnostics and information technology. The response of these hybrid materials to compression, which would be crucial to enhance their application range, has never been explored to date. By a joint high-pressure in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics approach, herein we unravel the high-pressure behaviour of hybrid composites of zeolite L with fluorenone dye. High-pressure experiments were performed up to 6 GPa using non-penetrating pressure transmitting media to study the effect of dye loading on the structural properties of the materials under compression. Computational modelling provided molecular-level insight on the response to compression of the confined dye assemblies, evidencing a pressure-induced strengthening of the interaction between the fluorenone carbonyl group and zeolite L potassium cations. Our results reveal an impressive stability of the fluorenone-zeolite L composites at GPa pressures. The remarkable resilience of the supramolecular organization of dye molecules hyperconfined in zeolite L channels may open the way to the realization of optical devices able to maintain their functionality under extreme conditions.

  9. Application of RFID combined with blockchain technology in logistics of construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, almost none of the fields of human activity can do without supply chain management. In addition, implementation of one in construction companies contributes to major economic benefits. The article considers the application feasibility of blockchain in logistics of construction materials through the usage of RFID technology. An example of introduction to the process of manufacturing and delivery of ready-mixed concrete is given. The main advantages, shortcomings, perspectives, as well as difficulties arising in the implementation of blockchain technology in the construction industry are described. Special attention is paid to the applicability of these technologies.

  10. Drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials: The Ghanaian quantity surveyors perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kissi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has in recent times attained much acceptance as a result of its positive impact on the environment, social and economic issues. Nevertheless, in developing countries, the price of sustainable construction materials are too high. The aim of the study was to examine drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials. Through an in-depth review of literature as well as an interview survey, questionnaire was designed and administered to practicing quantity surveyors. Data generated from the survey was analysed using Principal Component Analysis which resulted four main drivers. These included: awareness challenge (AC, sustainability measurement tools challenge (SMTC, economic challenge (EC, and information challenge (IC. The study offers useful lessons on sustainable practices that pricing experts in the construction industry can draw on when pricing.The need for this study cannot be doubted since the consciousness of such challenges will help in resolving issues associated with pricing of sustainable construction materials. Keywords: Drivers, Militating, Pricing, Sustainable construction materials, Ghanaian

  11. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  12. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  13. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  14. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  15. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  16. Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials: Synthesis and in vitro delivery of diclofenac and biocompatibility with periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, José A. [Departamento de Química, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Gutiérrez, Sandra J., E-mail: s.gutierrez@javeriana.edu.co [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Villamil, Jean C. [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Agudelo, Natalia A. [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Pérez, León D., E-mail: ldperezp@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Macromoléculas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26–85, edificio 451 of. 449, Bogotá D.C. Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) based hybrid materials containing hydrophilic domains composed of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The hybrid materials were obtained by RAFT copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and MPS using a pre-formed dixanthate-end-functionalized PCL as macro-chain transfer agent, followed by a post-reaction crosslinking step. The composition of the samples was determined by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallinity of PCL decreases in the presence of the hydrophilic domains. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the samples present an interconnected porous structure on the swelling. Compared to PCL, the hybrid materials presented low water contact angle values and higher elastic modulus. These materials showed controlled release of diclofenac, and biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials • Moderated hydrophilic materials with high swelling resistance • Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were biocompatible.

  17. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  18. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, M; Zuleeg, S; Vonbank, R; Schmid, P; Hean, S; Lamani, X; Bester, K; Boller, M

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades' render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol 1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 microg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time of rainfall and the complexity of the drainage network. Beside the amounts used, the impact of construction materials containing hazardous additives on water quality is related clearly to the age of the buildings and the separated sewer network. The development of improved products regarding release of hazardous additives is the most efficient way of reducing the pollutant load from construction materials in storm water runoff.

  19. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel

  20. Assembly of three organic–inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yu, Kai, E-mail: hlyukai188@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhou, Bai-Bin, E-mail: zhou_bai_bin@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4′-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV–vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metal–organic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1–3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: • Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. • Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. • 3 shows unusual layers based on

  1. A framework of analysis for field experiments with alternative materials in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, D; Jullien, A

    2009-01-01

    In France, a wide variety of alternative materials is produced or exists in the form of stockpiles built up over time. Such materials are distributed over various regions of the territory depending on local industrial development and urbanisation trends. The use of alternative materials at a national scale implies sharing local knowledge and experience. Building a national database on alternative materials for road construction is useful in gathering and sharing information. An analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) is essential to improve knowledge on alternative material use in road construction. Back analysis of field studies has to be conducted in accordance with a single common framework. This could enable drawing comparisons between alternative materials and between road applications. A framework for the identification and classification of data used in back analyses is proposed. Since the road structure is an open system, this framework has been based on a stress-response approach at both the material and structural levels and includes a description of external factors applying during the road service life. The proposal has been shaped from a review of the essential characteristics of road materials and structures, as well as from the state of knowledge specific to alternative material characterisation.

  2. Microbial biotechnology approaches to mitigating the deterioration of construction and heritage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junier, Pilar; Joseph, Edith

    2017-09-01

    Microorganisms are the main engines of elemental cycling in this planet and therefore have a profound impact on both organic and mineral substrates. As such, past and present human-made structures and cultural heritage can be negatively affected by microbial activity. Processes such as bioweathering (rocks and minerals), biodeterioration (organic substrates) or biocorrosion (metals) participate to the degradation or structural damage of construction and heritage materials. This structural damage can cause major economic losses (e.g. replacement of cast-iron pipes in water distribution networks), and in the case of heritage materials, the entire loss of invaluable objects or monuments. Even though one can regard the influence of microbial activity on construction and heritage materials as negative, remarkably, the same metabolic pathways involved in degradation can be exploited to increase the stability of these materials. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Computer modelling of structures with account of the construction stages and the time dependent material properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traykov Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies are performed on computer models taking into account the stages of construction and time dependent material properties defined in two forms. A 2D model of three storey two spans frame is created. The first form deals with material defined in the usual design practice way - without taking into account the time dependent properties of the concrete. The second form creep and shrinkage of the concrete are taken into account. Displacements and internal forces in specific elements and sections are reported. The influence of the time dependent material properties on the displacement and the internal forces in the main structural elements is tracked down. The results corresponding to the two forms of material definition are compared together as well as with the results obtained by the usual design calculations. Conclusions on the influence of the concrete creep and shrinkage during the construction towards structural behaviour are made.

  4. Weight and cost analysis of large wind turbine rotors constructed from conventional materials and from advanced composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Holten, Th

    1982-07-01

    Cost calculations and cost analyses of the blades and the (teetering) hubs of large wind turbines. The blades are of different shapes, construction and materials (aluminium, steel and glass reinforced plastics). Teetering hubs are heavy and complicated steel constructions, necessary to minimize material fatigue. In large wind turbines with a diameter of 60 to 100 m or even more the rotor mass (hubs and blades together) may vary from 46,000 to 216,000 kg. Costs are estimated to be DFL. 16/kg, both for teetering hubs and/or blades made of glass reinforced plastics. Due to lack of experience and of exact knowledge of the loads appearing during operation under field conditions the uncertainty factor may be 10% to 15%.

  5. Advanced FRP for flooring in buildings: a low carbon material application in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yijian

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) are building materials that permit both the improvement of long-term building performance and the simplification of the construction process, thanks to their high specific strength, low thermal conductivity, good environmental resistance, and ability to be formed into complex shapes. FRP materials are well-suited to fulfilling many building functions. By integrating traditionally separate building systems and layers into single function-integrated components, a...

  6. Construct validation of the hybrid model of posttraumatic stress disorder: Distinctiveness of the new symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Madison W; Dieujuste, Nathalie; Kramer, Lindsay B; Lee, Daniel J; Weathers, Frank W

    2018-03-01

    Despite the factor analytic support for the seven-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little research has examined the degree to which newly established symptom clusters (i.e., negative affect, anhedonia, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal, externalizing behavior) functionally and meaningfully differ in their associations with other clinical phenomena. The aim of the current study was to examine the degree to which newly established PTSD symptom clusters differentially relate to co-occurring psychopathology and related clinical phenomena through Wald testing using latent variable modeling. Participants were 535 trauma-exposed undergraduates who completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2013) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991). As expected and in line with results from previous studies, significant heterogeneity emerged for dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal, and externalizing behavior. However, there was less evidence for the distinctiveness of negative affect and anhedonia. Results indicate that only some of the newly established symptom clusters significantly differ in their associations with related clinical phenomena and that the hybrid model might not provide a meaningful framework for understanding which PTSD symptoms relate to associated features. Limitations include a non-clinical sample and reliance on retrospective self-report assessment measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  10. Development and material properties of new hybrid plywood from oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Bhat, A.H.; Jawaid, M.; Nik Fuad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of wood as a raw material has forced wood-based industries to find alternative local raw materials. Currently, oil palm biomass is undergoing research and development (R and D) and appears to be the most viable alternative. This work examines the conversion of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) into new plywood and analyses its properties. We prepared five-ply veneer hybrid plywood (alternating layers of oil palm trunk veneer and empty fruit bunch mat) with different spread levels (300 g/m 2 and 500 g/m 2 ) of resins (phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde). We then studied the mechanical and physical properties of the plywood. The results show that hybridisation of EFB with OPT improves some properties of plywood, such as bending strength, screw withdrawal and shear strength. The thermal properties of the plywood panels were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The panels glued with phenol formaldehyde with a spread level of 500 g/m 2 showed better thermal stability than the other panels. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the fibre matrix bonding and surface morphology of the plywood at different glue spread levels of the resins. The fibre-matrix bonding showed good improvement for the hybrid panel glued with 500 g/m 2 phenol formaldehyde.

  11. Exploring the Importance of Employing Bio and Nano-Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Naguib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued and increasing use of ordinary building materials to house the ever-growing world population ensures growing contributions of carbon (C to the active carbon cycle through carbon dioxide (C02 emissions from combustion and chemical reactions in the raw material to the atmosphere. To minimize this, materials should be conserved, reduce their unnecessary use, produce them more benignly and make them last longer, recycle and reuse materials. Thus, paper will focus on exploring alternative building materials and systems that can be developed in order to balance atmospheric carbon dioxide.  It also presents the Bio-inspired architecture approach that embraces the eco-friendly practices of using Biomaterials and Nano-materials for sustainable dwelling construction through a number of examples that shows how a building can be strongly related to its site.

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  13. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  14. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The paper is focused on selection of a proper material for construction elements of water electrolysers, which make use of a 85% phosphoric acid as an electrolyte at temperature of 150 8C and which might be loaded with anodic polarization up to 2.5 V versus a saturated Ag/AgCl electrode (SSCE...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country... another country, has been substantially transformed in a Free Trade Agreement country into a new and... Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. 252.225-7045 Section 252.225-7045 Federal...

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety systems, such as emergency lighting, fire alarm, and audio evacuation systems, that are discrete... 50 percent of the cost of all its components. Components of foreign origin of the same class or kind... description of the foreign and domestic construction materials; (B) Unit of measure; (C) Quantity; (D) Price...

  17. the suitability of lime rice husk ash cement as construction material

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. ... It was therefore concluded that high percentage contents of silica, ... the Lime Rice Husk Ash cement when used as a construction material would depend ... thermal treatment of the silica in the husk .... test specimen in their moulds were stored in a.

  18. Stimulating the use of secondary materials in the construction industry: The role of certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user

  19. Stimulating The Use Of Secondary Materials In The Construction Industry: The Role Of Certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user

  20. Determining the Supply of Material Resources for High-Rise Construction: Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Vasiliev, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a multi-criteria approach to determining the supply of material resources for high-rise construction under certain and uncertain conditions, which enables integrating a number of existing models into a fairly compact generalised economic and mathematical model developed for two extreme scenarios.