WorldWideScience

Sample records for hybrid material based

  1. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

  2. Tough hybrid ceramic-based material with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a tough and strong hybrid ceramic material consisting of platelet-like zirconium compounds and metal. A mixture of boron carbide and excess zirconium powder was heated to 1900 °C using a liquid-phase reaction sintering technique to produce a platelet-like ZrB 2 -based hybrid ceramic bonded by a thin zirconium layer. The platelet-like ZrB 2 grains were randomly present in the as-sintered hybrid ceramic. Relative to non-hybrid ceramics, the fracture toughness and flexural strength of the hybrid ceramic increased by approximately 2-fold.

  3. Development of bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teodoro

    2016-07-13

    Jul 13, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Development of bio-hybrid material based on. Salmonella Typhimurium and layered double hydroxides. Slah Hidouri .... the LDH with co-precipitation synthesis method was successfully done according the study given by Hidouri et al. (2011), Abdelkader et al. (2011), Hidouri et ...

  4. Silane-based hybrid materials for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Jansen, J.A.; Holder, S.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the preparation of different hybrid silane materials is presented and their possible use in biomedical applications is discussed. The first example describes the development of biocompatible coatings based on sol-gel silicates, which can be used as a protective coating for implantable

  5. Two new inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fields such as catalysis, pharmacology, medicine, nan- otechnology, and molecular ... such POM-based hybrid materials: (a) organic ligands graft onto POMs directly; .... average value of 6.028, close to the ideal value of 6 for MoVI. The bond ...

  6. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  7. Novel hybrid materials based on the vanadium oxide nanobelts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabrodina, G.S., E-mail: kudgs@mail.ru [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Makarov, S.G.; Kremlev, K.V. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yunin, P.A.; Gusev, S.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603087 (Russian Federation); Kaverin, B.S.; Kaverina, L.B. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ketkov, S.Yu. [G.A. Razuvaev Institute of Organometallic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flat and curved vanadium oxide nanobelts have been synthesized. • Hybrid material was prepared via decoration of flexible nanobelts with zinc phthalocyanine. • Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures were carried out. - Abstract: Novel hybrid materials based on zinc phthalocyanine and nanostructured vanadium oxides have attracted extensive attention for the development of academic research and innovative industrial applications such as flexible electronics, optical sensors and heterogeneous catalysts. Vanadium oxides nanobelts were synthesized via a hydrothermal treatment V{sub 2}O{sub 5}·nH{sub 2}O gel with surfactants (TBAB, CTAB) used as structure-directing agents, where CTAB – cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, TBAB – tetrabutylammonium bromide. Hybrid materials were prepared decoration of (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flexible nanobelts with cationic zinc phthalocyanine by the ion-exchange route. Investigations of the thermal stability, morphologies and structures of the (CTA){sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (TBA){sub 0.16}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanobelts and zinc phthalocyanine exchange product were carried out. The hybrid materials based on the nanostructured vanadium oxide and zinc phthalocyanine were tested as photocatalysts for oxidation of citronellol and 2-mercaptoethanol by dioxygen.

  8. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preparation of silica-based hybrid materials by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Margaca, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcao, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation is well known to promote the crosslinking of polymer chains. The method is now used by the authors to prepare hybrid materials from a mixture of polymer and metallic alkoxides of silicium and zirconium that are usually obtained via the sol-gel process. Macroscopically homogeneous and transparent hybrid materials have been obtained by γ-irradiation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr). The influence of several parameters has been studied. The dose rate was found to have no significant impact in the prepared material. The polymer molecular weight was also observed not to play any special role. It was found that all irradiated samples consist of a polymer gel matrix. In the case where both alkoxides are present there are inorganic oxide regions linked to the PDMS network. However when one of the alkoxides is absent there is no formation of inorganic oxide regions linked to the polymer matrix, there being only a few individual derived molecules of the other alkoxide linked to the polymer

  10. Bioinspired Nanocellulose Based Hybrid Materials With Novel Interfacial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keten, Sinan

    This talk will overview a simulation-based approach to enhancing the mechanical properties of nanocomposites by utilizing cellulose - the most abundant and renewable structural biopolymer found on our planet. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit outstanding mechanical properties exceeding that of Kevlar, serving as reinforcing domains in nature's toughest hierarchical nanocomposites such as wood. Yet, weak interfaces at the surfaces of CNCs have so far made it impossible to scale these inherent properties to macroscopic systems. In this work, I will discuss how surface functionalization of CNCs influences their properties in their self-assembled films and nanocomposites with engineered polymer matrices . Specifically, the role of ion exchange based surface modifications and polymer conjugation will be discussed, where atomistic and coarse-grained simulations will reveal new insights into how superior mechanical properties can potentially be attained by hybrid constructs.

  11. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ducnghia264@fpt.vn

    2009-09-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  12. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials based on polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Nghia; Ngo Trinh Tung

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid material is one of the most promising materials classed in the 21st century because of its unique properties and its advanced applications. In this work, hybrid materials based on polypyrrole (Ppy) and silver nanoparicles were prepared and characterized. The preparation of the hybrid material was performed by the chemical polymerization method. The structure, electrical and thermal properties of Ppy/Ag hybrid materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TGA and the conventional four probe method. The results showed that the Ag particles of 4-8 nm were agglomerated during the in-situ polymerization of PPy and formed some clusters with the diameter of 25 -150 nm. By the addition of Ag particles, the electrical conductivity of Ppy increased with increasing Ag concentration. The thermal stability of Ppy was significantly improved by modification with Ag particles.

  13. Hybrid silica luminescent materials based on lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid crystal with polarized emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanova, N.M., E-mail: natsel@mail.ru [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Vandyukov, A.E.; Gubaidullin, A.T. [A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry of the Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Acad. Arbuzov Str., Kazan 420088 (Russian Federation); Galyametdinov, Y.G. [Kazan National Research Technological University, 68 Karl Marx Str., Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    This paper represents the template method for synthesis of hybrid silica films based on Ln-containing lyotropic liquid crystal and characterized by efficient luminescence. Luminescence films were prepared in situ by the sol–gel processes. Lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) mesophases C{sub 12}H{sub 25}O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 10}H/Ln(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O containing Ln (III) ions (Dy, Tb, Eu) were used as template. Polarized optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR-spectroscopy were used for characterization of liquid crystal mesophases and hybrid films. The morphology of composite films was studied by the atomic force microscopy method (AFM). The optical properties of the resulting materials were evaluated. It was found that hybrid silica films demonstrate significant increase of their lifetime in comparison with an LLC system. New effects of linearly polarized emission revealed for Ln-containing hybrid silica films. Polarization in lanthanide-containing hybrid composites indicates that silica precursor causes orientation of emitting ions. - Highlights: • We suggest a new simple approach for creating luminescence hybrid silica films. • Ln-containing hybrid silica films demonstrate yellow, green and red emissions. • Tb(III)-containing hybrid film have a high lifetime. • We report effects of linearly polarized emission in hybrid film.

  14. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, M.S.; Viti, L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus–based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  15. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: michel.gruselle@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2017-04-15

    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  16. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  17. Advanced Asymmetrical Supercapacitors Based on Graphene Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Chen, Zhuo; Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Supercapacitors operating in aqueous solutions are low cost energy storage devices with high cycling stability and fast charging and discharging capabilities, but have suffered from low energy densities. Here, we grow Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and RuO2 nanoparticles on high quality graphene sheets to maximize the specific capacitances of these materials. We then pair up a Ni(OH)2/graphene electrode with a RuO2/graphene electrode to afford a high performance asymmetrical supercapacitor with high ener...

  18. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  19. Electrochemical supercapacitors based on novel hybrid materials made of carbon nanotubes and polyoxometalates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuentas-Gallegos, Ana Karina; Martinez-Rosales, Rosa; Rincon, Marina E. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, C.P. 62580 Temixco, Mor (Mexico); Baibarac, Mihaela; Gomez-Romero, Pedro [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We have characterized symmetric solid-state supercapacitors in swagelok cells using film electrodes made of novel hybrid materials based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and phosphomolybdate polyanion (Cs-PMo12) with PVA as binder. These hybrid materials were carried out by Cs-PMo12 adhesion onto previously functionalized CNT, in order to disperse both components at a molecular level and use Cs-PMo12 as energy density enhancer in supercapacitor cells. Our results show high capacitance values (up to 285 F/g at I = 200 mA/g) due to the contribution of Cs-PMo12, which was revealed on the higher energy density values compared to pure CNT electrodes. Additionally, good stability was observed during 500 charge-discharge cycles for most hybrid electrodes. These preliminary results show a new approach to enhance energy density of double layer supercapacitor cells through the introduction of Cs-PMo12, whereas from a material science point of view these materials are innovative, and open the way to search for diverse applications aside from supercapacitors (sensors, catalysts, photovoltaic cells, etc.). (author)

  20. Graphene-based hybrid structures combined with functional materials of ferroelectrics and semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wenjing; Hao, Jianhua

    2014-06-21

    Fundamental studies and applications of 2-dimensional (2D) graphene may be deepened and broadened via combining graphene sheets with various functional materials, which have been extended from the traditional insulator of SiO2 to a versatile range of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals, as well as organic compounds. Among them, ferroelectric materials have received much attention due to their unique ferroelectric polarization. As a result, many attractive characteristics can be shown in graphene/ferroelectric hybrid systems. On the other hand, graphene can be integrated with conventional semiconductors and some newly-discovered 2D layered materials to form distinct Schottky junctions, yielding fascinating behaviours and exhibiting the potential for various applications in future functional devices. This review article is an attempt to illustrate the most recent progress in the fabrication, operation principle, characterization, and promising applications of graphene-based hybrid structures combined with various functional materials, ranging from ferroelectrics to semiconductors. We focus on mechanically exfoliated and chemical-vapor-deposited graphene sheets integrated in numerous advanced devices. Some typical hybrid structures have been highlighted, aiming at potential applications in non-volatile memories, transparent flexible electrodes, solar cells, photodetectors, and so on.

  1. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrid materials facilitating photo-induced electron-transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Stergiou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene research and in particular the topic of chemical functionalization of graphene has exploded in the last decade. The main aim is to increase the solubility and thereby enhance the processability of the material, which is otherwise insoluble and inapplicable for technological applications when stacked in the form of graphite. To this end, initially, graphite was oxidized under harsh conditions to yield exfoliated graphene oxide sheets that are soluble in aqueous media and amenable to chemical modifications due to the presence of carboxylic acid groups at the edges of the lattice. However, it was obvious that the high-defect framework of graphene oxide cannot be readily utilized in applications that are governed by charge-transfer processes, for example, in solar cells. Alternatively, exfoliated graphene has been applied toward the realization of some donor–acceptor hybrid materials with photo- and/or electro-active components. The main body of research regarding obtaining donor–acceptor hybrid materials based on graphene to facilitate charge-transfer phenomena, which is reviewed here, concerns the incorporation of porphyrins and phthalocyanines onto graphene sheets. Through illustrative schemes, the preparation and most importantly the photophysical properties of such graphene-based ensembles will be described. Important parameters, such as the generation of the charge-separated state upon photoexcitation of the organic electron donor, the lifetimes of the charge-separation and charge-recombination as well as the incident-photon-to-current efficiency value for some donor–acceptor graphene-based hybrids, will be discussed.

  3. Luminescent hybrid materials based on (8-hydroxyquinoline)-substituted metal-organic complexes and lead-borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Olga B.; Anurova, Maria O.; Akkuzina, Alina A.; Saifutyarov, Rasim R.; Ermolaeva, Ekaterina V.; Avetisov, Roman I.; Khomyakov, Andrew V.; Taydakov, Ilya V.; Avetissov, Igor Ch.

    2017-07-01

    Novel luminescent organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on 8-hydroxyquinoline metal complexes (Liq, Kq, Naq, Rbq, Mgq2, Srq2, Znq2, Scq3, Alq3, Gaq3, and Inq3) have been synthesized by a high temperature exchange reaction with 80PbF2-20B2O3 inorganic low-melting glass. The mechanical and optical properties, transmission spectra, emission an excitation photoluminescence, and luminescence kinetic of hybrid materials were studied. All hybrid materials showed a wide luminescence band in the range 400-700 nm.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis for new multifunctional materials: A few examples of phosphates and phosphonate-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.rueff@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Poienar, Maria [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Plautius Andronescu Str Nr. 1, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Guesdon, Anne; Martin, Christine; Maignan, Antoine [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Jaffrès, Paul-Alain [Université de Brest, Université Européenne de Bretagne, CNRS UMR 6521, CEMCA, SFR 148 ScInBios, 6 Avenue Victor Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest (France)

    2016-04-15

    Novel physical or chemical properties are expected in a great variety of materials, in connection with the dimensionality of their structures and/or with their nanostructures, hierarchical superstructures etc. In the search of new advanced materials, the hydrothermal technique plays a crucial role, mimicking the nature able to produce fractal, hyperbranched, urchin-like or snow flake structures. In this short review including new results, this will be illustrated by examples selected in two types of materials, phosphates and phosphonates, prepared by this method. The importance of the synthesis parameters will be highlighted for a magnetic iron based phosphates and for hybrids containing phosphonates organic building units crystallizing in different structural types. - Graphical abstract: Phosphate dendrite like and phosphonate platelet crystals.

  5. Hybrid Materials Based on Magnetic Layered Double Hydroxides: A Molecular Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Gonzalo; Martí-Gastaldo, Carlos; Ribera, Antonio; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-06-16

    Design of functional hybrids lies at the very core of synthetic chemistry as it has enabled the development of an unlimited number of solids displaying unprecedented or even improved properties built upon the association at the molecular level of quite disparate components by chemical design. Multifunctional hybrids are a particularly appealing case among hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Here, chemical knowledge is used to deploy molecular components bearing different functionalities within a single solid so that these properties can coexist or event interact leading to unprecedented phenomena. From a molecular perspective, this can be done either by controlled assembly of organic/inorganic molecular tectons into an extended architecture of hybrid nature or by intercalation of organic moieties within the empty channels or interlamellar space offered by inorganic solids with three-dimensional (MOFs, zeolites, and mesoporous hosts) or layered structures (phosphates, silicates, metal dichalcogenides, or anionic clays). This Account specifically illustrates the use of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the preparation of magnetic hybrids, in line with the development of soft inorganic chemistry processes (also called "Chimie Douce"), which has significantly contributed to boost the preparation hybrid materials based on solid-state hosts and subsequent development of applications. Several features sustain the importance of LDHs in this context. Their magnetism can be manipulated at a molecular level by adequate choice of constituting metals and interlayer separation for tuning the nature and extent of magnetic interactions across and between planes. They display unparalleled versatility in accommodating a broad range of anionic species in their interlamellar space that encompasses not only simple anions but chemical systems of increasing dimensionality and functionalities. Their swelling characteristics allow for their exfoliation in organic solvents with high

  6. Differently-catalyzed silica-based precursors as functional additives for the epoxy-based hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Zhigunov, Alexander; Serkis, Magdalena; Pavlova, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2 September (2016), s. 434-446 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid material * solvent-free sol-gel process * silica-based precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  7. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  9. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  10. Improved selectivity towards NO₂ of phthalocyanine-based chemosensors by means of original indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Pauly, A; Dubois, M; Rodriguez-Mendez, M L; Ndiaye, A L; Varenne, C; Guérin, K

    2014-09-01

    A new and original gas sensor-system dedicated to the selective monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in air and in the presence of ozone, has been successfully achieved. Because of its high sensitivity and its partial selectivity towards oxidizing pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone), copper phthalocyanine-based chemoresistors are relevant. The selectivity towards nitrogen dioxide results from the implementation of a high efficient and selective ozone filter upstream the sensing device. Thus, a powdered indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material has been developed and investigated for such an application. If nanocarbonaceous material acts as a highly permeable matrix with a high specific surface area, immobilized indigo nanoparticles are involved into an ozonolysis reaction with ozone leading to the selective removal of this analytes from air sample. The filtering yields towards each gas have been experimentally quantified and establish the complete removal of ozone while having the concentration of nitrogen dioxide unchanged. Long-term gas exposures reveal the higher durability of hybrid material as compared to nanocarbons and indigo separately. Synthesis, characterizations by many complementary techniques and tests of hybrid filters are detailed. Results on sensor-system including CuPc-based chemoresistors and indigo/carbon nanotubes hybrid material as in-line filter are illustrated. Sensing performances will be especially discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding supercapacitors based on nano-hybrid materials with interfacial conjugation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The recent fast development of supercapacitors, also known scientifically as electrochemical capacitors, has benefited significantly from synthesis, characterisations and electrochemistry of nanoma-terials. Herein, the principle of supercapacitors is explained in terms of performance characteristics and charge storage mechanisms, i.e. double layer (or interfacial) capacitance and pseudo-capacitance. The semiconductor band model is applied to qualitatively account for the pseudo-capacitance in association with rectangular cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and linear galvanostatic charging and discharging plots (GCDs), aiming to differentiate supercapacitors from rechargeable batteries. The invalidity of using peak shaped CVs and non-linear GCDs for capacitance measurement is highlighted. A selective review is given to the nano-hybrid materials between carbon nanotubes and redox active materials such as electronically conducting polymers and transition metal oxides. A new concept,“interfacial conjugation”, is introduced to reflect the capacitance enhancement resulting from π-π stacking interactions at the interface between two materials with highly conjugated chemical bonds. The prospects of carbon nanotubes and graphenes for supercapacitor applications are briefly compared and discussed. Hopefully, this article can help readers to understand supercapacitors and nano-hybrid materials so that further developments in materials design and synthesis, and device engineering can be more efficient and objective.

  12. One-pot synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials based on ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Garza-Navarro, M.A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66450 Nuevo León (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, 66600 Nuevo León (Mexico); Lucio-Porto, Raúl [Université de Nantes, CNRS, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); and others

    2013-09-16

    A novel one-pot synthetic procedure to obtain magnetic hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM), based on magnetic spinel-metal-oxide (SMO) nanoparticles stabilized in ovoid-like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethylammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, is reported. The HNM were synthesized from the controlled hydrolysis of inorganic salts of Fe (II) and Fe (III) into aqueous dissolutions of CMC and CTAB. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and static magnetic measurements. The experimental evidence suggests that, due to the competition between CTAB molecules and SMO nanoparticles to occupy CMC intermolecular sites nearby to its carboxylate functional groups, the size of both, SMO nanoparticles and ovoid-like CMC/CTAB templates can be tuned, varying the CTAB:SMO weight ratio. Moreover, it was found that the magnetic response of the HNM depends on the confinement degree of the SMO nanoparticles into the CMC/CTAB template. Hence, their magnetic characteristics can be adjusted controlling the size of the template, the quantity and distribution of the SMO nanoparticles within the template and their size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The synthesis of magnetic hybrid materials is reported. • The hybrid materials were synthesized following a novel one-pot procedure. • The magnetic nanoparticles were stabilized in ovoid-like templates. • The size of the templates was tuned adjusting nanoparticles weight content. • The magnetic properties of hybrid materials depend on the size of the template.

  13. The effect of fibre layering pattern in resisting bending loads of natural fibre-based hybrid composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh Muhamad Shahirul Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fibre layering pattern and hybridization on the flexural properties of composite hybrid laminates between natural fibres of basalt, jute and flax with synthetic fibre of E-glass reinforced epoxy have been investigated experimentally. Results showed that the effect fibre layering pattern was highly significant on the flexural strength and modulus, which were strongly dependent on the hybrid configuration between sandwich-like (SL and intercalation (IC sequence of fibre layers. In addition, specific modulus based on the variation densities of the hybrid laminates was used to discover the best combination either basalt, jute or flax with E-glass exhibits superior properties concerning on the strength to weight-ratio. Generally, SL sequence of glass/basalt exhibited superior strength and stiffness compared with glass/jute and glass/flax in resisting bending loads. In terms of hybridization effect, glass/jute was found to be the best combination with E-glass compared to the rest of natural fibres investigated in the present study. Hence, the proper stacking sequences and material selection are among predominant factors that influence on mechanical properties and very crucial in designing composite hybrid system to meet the desired requirements.

  14. Highly efficient solid-state neutron scintillators based on hybrid sol-gel nanocomposite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesanli, Banu; Hong, Kunlun; Meyer, Kent; Im, Hee-Jung; Dai, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    This research highlights opportunities in the formulation of neutron scintillators that not only have high scintillation efficiencies but also can be readily cast into two-dimensional detectors. Series of transparent, crack-free monoliths were prepared from hybrid polystyrene-silica nanocomposites in the presence of arene-containing alkoxide precursor through room temperature sol-gel processing. The monoliths also contain lithium-6 salicylate as a target material for neutron-capture reactions and amphiphilic scintillator solution as a fluorescent sensitizer. Polystyrene was functionalized by trimethoxysilyl group in order to enable the covalent incorporation of aromatic functional groups into the inorganic sol-gel matrices for minimizing macroscopic phase segregation and facilitating lithium-6 doping in the sol-gel samples. Neutron and alpha responses of these hybrid polystyrene-silica monoliths were explored

  15. Organic-inorganic hybrid polyionic liquid based polyoxometalate as nano porous material for selective oxidation of sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Shahebrahimi, Shabnam

    2017-07-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid nano porous materials based on poly(ionic liquid)-polyoxometalate (PIL-POM) were reported. These hybrid materials were synthesized by the reaction of 4-vinyl pyridine with 1,3-propanesultone, followed by the polymerization and also sulfonate-functionalized cross-linked poly(4-vinylpyridine) and combining these polymers with H5PMo10V2O40 (PMo10V2). Activity of prepared PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids were investigated as catalysts for oxidation of sulfides with H2O2 as oxidant. For understanding catalytic activities of the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids in oxidation of sulfides, effect of catalyst composition, substrate, and reaction conditions were studied. The results show that the PIL-PMo10V2 hybrids are active as selective heterogeneous catalysts for oxidation of sulfides and can be recovered and reused. The catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, TGA-DSC, XRD, SEM/EDX, BET, CV and zeta potential measurement. Also, average molecular weight of prepared catalysts were measured.

  16. Effect of natural extracts pH on morphological characteristics of hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenic, L.; Vulcu, A.; Chiorean, I.; Crisan, M.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Dreve, S.; David, L.; Tudoran, L. B.; Kacso, I.; Bratu, I.; Neamtu, C.; Voica, C.

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the pH influence on the morphology of some new hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles and natural extracts from fruits of Romanian native plants of Adoxaceae family (Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.). It is well known that the natural plants extracts are beneficial for humans thanks to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The biological activity of these berries is mainly due to their high content of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. The nanoparticles facilitate the penetration of substances in skin, enhancing their antimitotic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. We have chosen the optimal method to get these materials in which gold nanoparticles of 10-80 nm were obtained. We characterized them by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, by TEM and DSC. Creams prepared with the hybrid materials have been tested on psoriatic lesions and the medical results emphasized a remarkable improvement in this diseases.

  17. Cloth-based hybridization array system for expanded identification of the animal species origin of derived materials in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johanna; Armour, Jennifer; Blais, Burton W

    2007-12-01

    A cloth-based hybridization array system (CHAS) previously developed for the detection of animal species for which prohibited materials have been specified (cattle, sheep, goat, elk, and deer) has been expanded to include the detection of animal species for which there are no prohibitions (pig and horse) in Canadian and American animal feeds. Animal species were identified by amplification of mitochondrial DNA sequences by PCR and subsequent hybridization of the amplicons with an array of species-specific oligonucleotide capture probes immobilized on a polyester cloth support, followed by an immunoenzymatic assay of the bound PCR products. The CHAS permitted sensitive and specific detection of meat meals from different animal species blended in a grain-based feed and should provide a useful adjunct to microscopic examination for the identification of prohibited materials in animal feeds.

  18. Assembly of three organic–inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yu, Kai, E-mail: hlyukai188@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhou, Bai-Bin, E-mail: zhou_bai_bin@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4′-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV–vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metal–organic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1–3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: • Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. • Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. • 3 shows unusual layers based on

  19. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Sano, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a broad spectrum of areas in both hybrid materials and hierarchical composites, including recent development of processing technologies, structural designs, modern computer simulation techniques, and the relationships between the processing-structure-property-performance. Each topic is introduced at length with numerous  and detailed examples and over 150 illustrations.   In addition, the authors present a method of categorizing these materials, so that representative examples of all material classes are discussed.

  20. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-01

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  1. Hybrid attribute-based recommender system for learning material using genetic algorithm and a multidimensional information model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salehi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the explosion of learning materials in the web-based educational systems has caused difficulty of locating appropriate learning materials to learners. A personalized recommendation is an enabling mechanism to overcome information overload occurred in the new learning environments and deliver suitable materials to learners. Since users express their opinions based on some specific attributes of items, this paper proposes a hybrid recommender system for learning materials based on their attributes to improve the accuracy and quality of recommendation. The presented system has two main modules: explicit attribute-based recommender and implicit attribute-based recommender. In the first module, weights of implicit or latent attributes of materials for learner are considered as chromosomes in genetic algorithm then this algorithm optimizes the weights according to historical rating. Then, recommendation is generated by Nearest Neighborhood Algorithm (NNA using the optimized weight vectors implicit attributes that represent the opinions of learners. In the second, preference matrix (PM is introduced that can model the interests of learner based on explicit attributes of learning materials in a multidimensional information model. Then, a new similarity measure between PMs is introduced and recommendations are generated by NNA. The experimental results show that our proposed method outperforms current algorithms on accuracy measures and can alleviate some problems such as cold-start and sparsity.

  2. Embodied energy of construction materials: integrating human and capital energy into an IO-based hybrid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Manish K; Culp, Charles H; Fernandez-Solis, Jose L

    2015-02-03

    Buildings alone consume approximately 40% of the annual global energy and contribute indirectly to the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon. The total life cycle energy use of a building is composed of embodied and operating energy. Embodied energy includes all energy required to manufacture and transport building materials, and construct, maintain, and demolish a building. For a systemic energy and carbon assessment of buildings, it is critical to use a whole life cycle approach, which takes into account the embodied as well as operating energy. Whereas the calculation of a building's operating energy is straightforward, there is a lack of a complete embodied energy calculation method. Although an input-output-based (IO-based) hybrid method could provide a complete and consistent embodied energy calculation, there are unresolved issues, such as an overdependence on price data and exclusion of the energy of human labor and capital inputs. This paper proposes a method for calculating and integrating the energy of labor and capital input into an IO-based hybrid method. The results demonstrate that the IO-based hybrid method can provide relatively complete results. Also, to avoid errors, the total amount of human and capital energy should not be excluded from the calculation.

  3. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization

  4. A fast hybrid methodology based on machine learning, quantum methods, and experimental measurements for evaluating material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Sun; Haverty, Michael; Simka, Harsono; Shankar, Sadasivan; Rajan, Krishna

    2017-09-01

    We present a hybrid approach based on both machine learning and targeted ab-initio calculations to determine adhesion energies between dissimilar materials. The goals of this approach are to complement experimental and/or all ab-initio computational efforts, to identify promising materials rapidly and identify in a quantitative manner the relative contributions of the different material attributes affecting adhesion. Applications of the methodology to predict bulk modulus, yield strength, adhesion and wetting properties of copper (Cu) with other materials including metals, nitrides and oxides is discussed in this paper. In the machine learning component of this methodology, the parameters that were chosen can be roughly divided into four types: atomic and crystalline parameters (which are related to specific elements such as electronegativities, electron densities in Wigner-Seitz cells); bulk material properties (e.g. melting point), mechanical properties (e.g. modulus) and those representing atomic characteristics in ab-initio formalisms (e.g. pseudopotentials). The atomic parameters are defined over one dataset to determine property correlation with published experimental data. We then develop a semi-empirical model across multiple datasets to predict adhesion in material interfaces outside the original datasets. Since adhesion is between two materials, we appropriately use parameters which indicate differences between the elements that comprise the materials. These semi-empirical predictions agree reasonably with the trend in chemical work of adhesion predicted using ab-initio techniques and are used for fast materials screening. For the screened candidates, the ab-initio modeling component provides fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions at the interface, and explains the wetting thermodynamics of thin Cu layers on various substrates. Comparison against ultra-high vacuum (UHV) experiments for well-characterized Cu/Ta and Cu/α-Al2O3 interfaces is

  5. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  6. Self-organization of a tetrasubstituted tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in a silica based hybrid organic-inorganic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Geneviève; Corriu, Robert J P; Lerouge, Frédéric; Bellec, Nathalie; Lorcy, Dominique; Nobili, Maurizio

    2004-02-21

    A hybrid organic inorganic nanostructured material containing a TTF core substituted by four arms exhibited a high level of both condensation at silicon (96%) and self-organization as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and an unprecedented birefringent behaviour.

  7. Synthesis and characterizations of anion exchange organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaoling; Wu Cuiming; Xu Tongwen; Gong Ming; Xu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    A series of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO)-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials for anion exchange were prepared through sol-gel process of polymer precursors PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 . PPO-Si(OCH 3 ) 3 were obtained from the reaction of bromomethylated PPO with 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (A1110). These polymer precursors then underwent hydrolysis and condensation with additional A1110 to generate hybrid materials. The reaction to produce polymer precursors was identified by FTIR; while FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM, as well as conventional ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements were conducted for the structures and properties of the prepared hybrids. TGA results show that this series of hybrid materials possess high thermal stability; XRD and SEM indicate that the prepared hybrid materials are amorphous and the inorganic and organic contents show good compatibility if the ratio between them is proper. The IEC values of the hybrid materials due to the amine groups range from 1.13 mmol/gBPPO (material i) to 4.80 mmol/gBPPO (material iv)

  8. Novel kaolin/polysiloxane based organic-inorganic hybrid materials: Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Glaydson Simões; Lima, Eder Cláudio; Sampaio, Carlos Hoffmann; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cazacliu, Bogdan Grigore; Dotto, Guillherme Luiz; Hidalgo, Gelsa Edith Navarro

    2018-04-01

    New hybrid materials using kaolin and the organosilicas methyl-polysiloxane (MK), methyl-phenyl-polysiloxane (H44), tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) and 3-amino-propyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) were obtained by sol-gel process. These materials presented specific surfaces areas (SBET) in the range of 20-530 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed remarkable differences between the kaolin and hybrid structures. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the hybrid materials presented higher thermal stability when compared with their precursors. The electronic properties of the materials were also studied by Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Absorption (DRUV) and Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DR), where a new absorption band was observed located around 400-660 nm. In addition, these materials exhibit a decrease in DR from 30% to 70% in the blue-cyan green region and are significantly more transparent in the UV region than the kaolin, which could be useful for photocatalysis applications. These results show that the electronic structure of the final material was changed, indicating a significant interaction between the kaolin and the respective silica derivative. These findings support the main idea of the hybridization afforded by pyrolysis between kaolin and organosilica precursors. In addition, as a proof of concept, these hybrid materials were successfully employed as photocatalyst in the photoreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).

  9. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  10. Advances in Hybrid Polymer-Based Materials for Sustained Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia N. M. Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomaterials composed of organic pristine components has been successfully described in several purposes, such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. Drug delivery systems (DDS have shown several advantages over traditional drug therapy, such as greater therapeutic efficacy, prolonged delivery profile, and reduced drug toxicity, as evidenced by in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials. Despite that, there is no perfect delivery carrier, and issues such as undesirable viscosity and physicochemical stability or inability to efficiently encapsulate hydrophilic/hydrophobic molecules still persist, limiting DDS applications. To overcome that, biohybrid systems, originating from the synergistic assembly of polymers and other organic materials such as proteins and lipids, have recently been described, yielding molecularly planned biohybrid systems that are able to optimize structures to easily interact with the targets. This work revised the biohybrid DDS clarifying their advantages, limitations, and future perspectives in an attempt to contribute to further research of innovative and safe biohybrid polymer-based system as biomaterials for the sustained release of active molecules.

  11. Dendrimer based hybrid materials : coexistence of amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donners, J.J.J.M.; Heywood, B.R.; Meijer, E.W.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The crystn. of inorg. materials using polymers as templates is an interesting method to prep. composite materials with unique properties. Poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers are well-defined and highly-branched macromols. with regular and easily modifiable surfaces. Polyhedral aggregates from

  12. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  13. Highly efficient hybrid photovoltaics based on hyperbranched three-dimensional TiO2 electron transporting materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-03-23

    A 3D hyperbranched TiO2 electron transporting material is demonstrated, which exhibits superior carrier transport and lifetime, as well as excellent infiltration, leading to highly efficient mesostructured hybrid solar cells, such as lead-halide perovskites (15.5%) and dye-sensitized solar cells (11.2%).

  14. Silver Nanoparticles Influence on Photocatalytic Activity of Hybrid Materials Based on TiO2 P25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkouani Kodom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study consists in the obtaining of a hybrid material film, obtained using TiO2 P25 and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The film manufacturing process involved realization of physical mixtures of TiO2 P25 and AgNPs dispersions. The size distribution of the AgNPs proved to be a key factor determining the photodegradation activity of the materials measured using methyl orange. The best result was 33% degradation of methyl orange (MO after 150 min. The second approach was the generation of AgNPs on the surface of TiO2 P25. The obtained hybrid material presents photocatalytic activity of 45% MO degradation after 150 min. The developed materials were characterized by UV-VIS, SEM, and DLS analyses.

  15. Two inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalate anions and methylene blue: Preparations, crystal structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Shanshan; Zhang Yaobin; Liu Bin; Li Zuoxi; Hu Huaiming; Xue Ganglin; Fu Feng; Wang Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    Two novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on an organic dye cation methylene blue (MB) and Lindqvist-type POM polyanions, [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 Mo 6 O 19 2DMF (1) and [C 22 H 18 N 3 S] 2 W 6 O 19 2DMF (2) were synthesized under ambient conditions and characterized by CV, IR spectroscopy, solid diffuse reflectance spectrum, UV-vis spectra in DMF solution, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic data reveal that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural and both crystallize in the triclinic space group P1-bar . Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations and near distance interactions among organic dye cations, Lindqvist-type POM polyanions and DMF molecules. The solid diffuse reflectance spectra and UV-vis spectra in DMF solution appear new absorption bands ascribed to the charge-transfer transition between the cationic MB donor and the POM acceptors. Studies of the photoluminescent properties show that the formation of 1 and 2 lead to the fluorescence quenching of starting materials. -- Graphical abstract: Their crystal structures present that the layers of organic molecules and inorganic anions array alternatively, and there exist strong π...π stacking interactions between dimeric MB cations. Display Omitted

  16. Highly luminescent hybrid materials based on smectites with polyethylene glycol modified with rhodamine fluorophore

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sas, S.; Danko, M.; Bizovská, V.; Lang, Kamil; Bujdák, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 138, MAR (2017), s. 25-33 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Luminescent polymers * Rhodamine B * Molecular aggregation * Fluorescence * Optical materials Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 3.101, year: 2016

  17. Encapsulated Vanadium-Based Hybrids in Amorphous N-Doped Carbon Matrix as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Balogun, Muhammad-Sadeeq; Luo, Lei; Luo, Yang; Qiu, Weitao; Song, Shuqin; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Yexiang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, researchers have made significant advancement in employing transition metal compound hybrids as anode material for lithium-ion batteries and developing simple preparation of these hybrids. To this end, this study reports a facile and scalable method for fabricating a vanadium oxide-nitride composite encapsulated in amorphous carbon matrix by simply mixing ammonium metavanadate and melamine as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. By tuning the annealing temperature of the mixture, different hybrids of vanadium oxide-nitride compounds are synthesized. The electrode material prepared at 700 °C, i.e., VM-700, exhibits excellent cyclic stability retaining 92% of its reversible capacity after 200 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 and attractive rate performance (220 mAh g -1 ) under the current density of up to 2 A g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties can be attributed to the synergistic effect from heterojunction form by the vanadium compound hybrids, the improved ability of the excellent conductive carbon for electron transfer, and restraining the expansion and aggregation of vanadium oxide-nitride in cycling. These interesting findings will provide a reference for the preparation of transition metal oxide and nitride composites as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  19. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells; Architectures hybrides auto-assemblees a base de systemes polyconjugues et de nanocristaux de semi-conducteurs pour le photovoltaique plastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-15

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  20. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on MCM-41 and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana M. Alahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the covalent attachment of three different calix[4]arenes (calix[4]arene (C4, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (C4S, and p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (PC4 to MCM-41, using a three-step modification process. 3-Chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (ClPTS was first attached to the mesoporous silica surface and subsequently converted to amides via the reaction with toluene diisocyanate (TDI. Finally, calix[4]arene derivatives attached to the isocyanate ending remained available on toluene di-iso-cyanate. Changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous silica caused by the chemical modification were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA, and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verify that the calix[4]arene derivatives are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by the X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis. These materials were then used to evaluate the sorption properties of some organotins compounds (Tributyltin (TBT, Triphenyltin (TPT, and Dibutyltin (DBT.

  1. Structural versus electrical properties of an organic-inorganic hybrid material based on sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rached, Asma; Guionneau, Philippe; Lebraud, Eric; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    A new organo-sulfate compound is obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature and is characterized by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) at variable temperatures. The benzylammonium monohydrogenosulfate of formula C6H5CH2NH3+. HSO4-, denoted (BAS), crystallizes in the monoclinic system P21/c space group with the following parameters at room temperature: a=5.623(5)Å, b=20.239(5) Å, c=8.188(5)Å, β=94.104(5)°. The crystal structure consists of infinite parallel two-dimensional planes built by HSO4- anions and C6H5CH2NH3+ cations interconnected by strong O-H….. O and N-H….. O hydrogen bonds. A phase transition is detected at 350 K by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and confirmed by powder XRD. Conductivity measurements using the impedance spectroscopy technique allow to determine the conductivity relaxation parameters associated with the H+ conduction from an analysis of the M"/M"max spectrum measured in a wide temperature range. Transport properties of this material appear to be due to an H+ ion hopping mechanism.

  2. An overview on cellulose-based material in tailoring bio-hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for water treatment and renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan; M Zain, M F; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Jeffery Minggu, Lorna; Awang, Nor Asikin; W Salleh, W N

    2017-10-01

    A combination between the nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials promotes a new functionality of cellulose towards the development of new bio-hybrid materials for various applications especially in water treatment and renewable energy. The excellent compatibility and association between nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials was induced by bio-combability and high hydrophilicity of the cellulose components. The electron rich hydroxyl group of celluloses helps to promote superior interaction with photocatalyst. The formation of bio-hybrid nanostructured are attaining huge interest nowadays due to the synergistic properties of individual cellulose-based material and photocatalyst nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review we introduce some cellulose-based material and discusses its compatibility with nanostructured photocatalyst in terms of physical and chemical properties. In addition, we gather information and evidence on the fabrication techniques of cellulose-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalyst and its recent application in the field of water treatment and renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multifunctional zirconium oxide doped chitosan based hybrid nanocomposites as bone tissue engineering materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Arundhati; Jana, Piyali; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Mitra, Tapas; Banerjee, Sovan Lal; Gnanamani, Arumugam; Das, Manas; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2016-10-20

    This paper reports the development of multifunctional zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped nancomposites having chitosan (CTS), organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP). Formation of these nanocomposites was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed uniform distribution of OMMT and nano-HAP-ZrO2 into CTS matrix. Powder XRD study and TEM study revealed that OMMT has partially exfoliated into the polymer matrix. Enhanced mechanical properties in comparison to the reported literature were obtained after the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticle into the nanocomposites. In rheological measurements, CMZH I-III exhibited greater storage modulus (G') than loss modulus (G″). TGA results showed that these nanocomposites are thermally more stable compare to pure CTS film. Strong antibacterial zone of inhibition and the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of these nanocomposites against bacterial strains proved that these materials have the ability to prevent bacterial infection in orthopedic implants. Compatibility of these nanocomposites with pH and blood of human body was established. It was observed from the swelling study that the swelling percentage was increased with decreasing the hydrophobic OMMT content. Human osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferations were observed on the nanocomposites and cytocompatibility of these nanocomposites was also established. Moreover, addition of 5wt% OMMT and 5wt% nano-HAP-ZrO2 into 90wt% CTS matrix provides maximum tensile strength, storage modulus, aqueous swelling and cytocompatibility along with strong antibacterial effect, pH and erythrocyte compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  5. Exceptionally strong, stiff and hard hybrid material based on an elastomer and isotropically shaped ceramic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopanos, Prokopios; Schneider, Gerold A; Dreyer, Axel; Handge, Ulrich A; Filiz, Volkan; Feld, Artur; Yilmaz, Ezgi D; Krekeler, Tobias; Ritter, Martin; Weller, Horst; Abetz, Volker

    2017-08-04

    In this work the fabrication of hard, stiff and strong nanocomposites based on polybutadiene and iron oxide nanoparticles is presented. The nanocomposites are fabricated via a general concept for mechanically superior nanocomposites not based on the brick and mortar structure, thus on globular nanoparticles with nanosized organic shells. For the fabrication of the composites oleic acid functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are decorated via ligand exchange with an α,ω-polybutadiene dicarboxylic acid. The functionalized particles were processed at 145 °C. Since polybutadiene contains double bonds the nanocomposites obtained a crosslinked structure which was enhanced by the presence of oxygen or sulfur. It was found that the crosslinking and filler percolation yields high elastic moduli of approximately 12-20 GPa and hardness of 15-18 GPa, although the polymer volume fraction is up to 40%. We attribute our results to a catalytically enhanced crosslinking reaction of the polymer chains induced by oxygen or sulfur and to the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

  6. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  7. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting; Liu, Xiuyu; Ma, Houyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ranged from 0.5 μg L −1 to 30 μg L −1 . The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) for Pb 2+ and 0.1 μg L −1 (S/N = 3) for Cd 2+ in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions in real electroplating effluent samples containing lots of surface active impurities

  8. Ultrasensitive and simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions based on three-dimensional graphene-carbon nanotubes hybrid electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hui; Chen, Ting [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Xiuyu [Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250114 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional graphene-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared. • Graphene-MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was used to detect heavy metal ions for the first time. • The proposed sensor was certified capable for real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: A green and facile method was developed to prepare a novel hybrid nanocomposite that consisted of one-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and two-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The as-prepared three-dimensional GO–MWCNTs hybrid nanocomposites exhibit excellent water-solubility owing to the high hydrophilicity of GO components; meanwhile, a certain amount of MWCNTs loaded on the surface of GO sheets through π–π interaction seem to be “dissolved” in water. Moreover, the graphene(G)-MWCNTs nanocomposites with excellent conductivity were obtained conveniently by the direct electrochemical reduction of GO–MWCNTs nanocomposites. Seeing that there is a good synergistic effect between MWCNTs and graphene components in enhancing preconcentration efficiency of metal ions and accelerating electron transfer rate at G-MWCNTs/electrolyte interface, the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites possess fast, simultaneous and sensitive detection performance for trace amounts of heavy metal ions. The electrochemical results demonstrate that the G-MWCNTs nanocomposites can act as a kind of practical sensing material to simultaneously determine Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ions in terms of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The linear calibration plots for Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} ranged from 0.5 μg L{sup −1} to 30 μg L{sup −1}. The detection limits were determined to be 0.2 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Pb{sup 2+} and 0.1 μg L{sup −1} (S/N = 3) for Cd{sup 2+} in the case of a deposition time of 180 s. It is worth mentioning that the G-MWCNTs modified electrodes were successfully applied to the simultaneous detection of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions in real electroplating

  9. Hybrid Materials for Molecular Sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Klein, Lisa; Aparicio, Mario; Jitianu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid microporous organosilica membranes for molecular separations made by acid-catalyzed solgel synthesis from bridged silsesquioxane precursors have demonstrated good performance in terms of flux and selectivity and remarkable hydrothermal stability in various pervaporation and gas separation

  10. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Feng, Zhaobin; Xie, Xiaoe; Wen, Xing

    2016-04-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with nano silver grain coated with polypyrrole. When evaluated as anode material, the silver grain and polypyrrole layer not only suppress the dissolution of discharge product, but also helps to uniform electrodeposition due to substrate effect and its good conductivity, thus shows better cycling performance than bare ZnO electrode does.

  11. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  12. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?

  13. Nanostructured hybrid materials from aqueous polymer dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; De Vita, Cinzia

    2004-05-20

    Organic-inorganic (O-I) hybrids with well-defined morphology and structure controlled at the nanometric scale represent a very interesting class of materials both for their use as biomimetic composites and because of their potential use in a wide range of technologically advanced as well as more conventional application fields. Their unique features can be exploited or their role envisaged as components of electronic and optoelectronic devices, in controlled release and bioencapsulation, as active substrates for chromatographic separation and catalysis, as nanofillers for composite films in packaging and coating, in nanowriting and nanolithography, etc. A synergistic combination or totally new properties with respect to the two components of the hybrid can arise from nanostructuration, achieved by surface modification of nanostructures, self-assembling or simply heterophase dispersion. In fact, owing to the extremely large total surface area associated with the resulting morphologies, the interfacial interactions can deeply modify the bulk properties of each component. A wide range of starting materials and of production processes have been studied in recent years for the controlled synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures, from nanoparticle or lamellar dispersions to mesoporous materials obtained from templating nanoparticle dispersions in a continuous, e.g. ceramic precursor, matrix. This review is aimed at giving some basic definitions of what is intended as a hybrid (O-I) material and what are the main synthetic routes available. The various methods for preparing hybrid nanostructures and, among them, inorganic-organic or O-I core-shell nanoparticles, are critically analyzed and classified based on the reaction medium (aqueous, non-aqueous), and on the role it plays in directing the final morphology. Particular attention is devoted to aqueous systems and water-borne dispersions which, in addition to being environmentally more acceptable or even a

  14. New hybrid materials based on poly(ethyleneoxide-grafted polysilazane by hydrosilylation and their anti-fouling activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Dieu Hang Nguyen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop new coating materials based on poly(ethyleneoxide (PEO, which was grafted onto polysilazane (PSZ by hydrosilylation. Three types of PEO with different molecular weights (350, 750, 2000 g/mol were studied. The kinetics and yields of this reaction have been surveyed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The PEO grafting-density onto PSZ by hydrosilylation increases with a reduction of the S–H/allyl ratio and a decrease of the PEO chain-length. The PEO-graft-PSZ (PSZ-PEO hybrid coatings, which can be used to prevent the adhesion of marine bacteria on surfaces, were applied by moisture curing at room temperature. The anti-adhesion performance, and thus the anti-fouling activity, of the coatings against three marine bacteria species, Clostridium sp. SR1, Neisseria sp. LC1 and Neisseria sp. SC1, was examined. The anti-fouling activity of the coatings depends on the grafting density and the chain length of PEO. The shortest PEO(350 g/mol-graft-PSZ with the highest graft density was found to have the best anti-fouling activity. As the density of grafted PEO(750 g/mol and PEO(2000 g/mol chains onto the PSZ surface is approximately equal, the relative effectiveness of these two types of PEO is controlled by the length of the PEO chain. The PEO(2000 g/mol-graft-PSZ coatings are more efficient than the PEO(750 g/mol-graft-PSZ coatings for the bacterial anti-adhesion.

  15. Influence of vermiculite on performance of flyash-based fibre-reinforced hybrid composites as friction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satapathy, Bhabani K.; Patnaik, Amar; Dadkar, Nandan; Kolluri, Dilip K.; Tomar, Bharat S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Study successfully demonstrates the possibility of designing fibre reinforced friction materials with vermiculite-flyash combination. → Vermiculite has caused an increase in the post-braking onset of degradation temperature. → Fade behaviour was found to be optimally dependent on the flyash-vermiculite combination whereas recovery remained broadly unaffected. → Vermiculite caused reduction in the maximum disc temperature rise and enhanced the frictional amplitude, i.e. μ max -μ min . → Static-friction, fade and recovery acted as major determinants for the overall friction performance whereas wear remained thermally activated. -- Abstract: Flyash-based fibre-reinforced hybrid phenolic composites filled with vermiculite were fabricated and characterized for their physical, thermal, mechanical and tribological performance. The performance were evaluated in terms of their friction-fade, friction-recovery, maximum disc temperature rise and wear behaviour on a Krauss friction tester conforming to the Regulation-90 as per the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) norms. The fade behaviour has been observed to be optimally dependent on the flyash-vermiculite combination whereas the recovery remained broadly unaffected at ∼112 ± 14%. Addition of vermiculite has contributed to the reduction in the maximum disc temperature rise whereas it enhanced the frictional amplitude, i.e. μ max -μ min . The wear behaviour remains closely related to the trend observed in fade. The addition of vermiculite has caused an increase in the post-braking onset of degradation temperature of the surface composition as compared to the pre-braking composition. The analyses of friction and wear performance of the composites were carried out and major factors influencing the tribo-performance were identified. Worn surface morphology investigation using scanning electron microscope has revealed that the addition of vermiculite alters the compositional interactions at the

  16. Synthesis of hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials based on CdS nanocrystals for energy conversion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laera, A. M.; Resta, V.; Ferrara, M. C.; Schioppa, M.; Piscopiello, E.; Tapfer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion is strongly related to the development of new materials with enhanced functional properties. In this context, a wide variety of inorganic, organic, or hybrid nanostructured materials have been investigated. In particular, in hybrid organic–inorganic nanocomposites are combined the convenient properties of organic polymers, such as easy manipulation and mechanical flexibility, and the unique size-dependent properties of nanocrystals (NCs). However, applications of hybrid nanocomposites in photovoltaic devices require a homogeneous and highly dense dispersion of NCs in polymer in order to guarantee not only an efficient charge separation, but also an efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. In previous works, we demonstrated that cadmium thiolate complexes are suitable precursors for the in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS. Here, we show that the soluble [Cd(SBz) 2 ] 2 ·(1-methyl imidazole) complex can be efficiently annealed in a conjugated polymer obtaining a nanocomposite with a regular and compact network of NCs. The proposed synthetic strategies require annealing temperatures well below 200 °C and short time for the thermal treatment, i.e., less than 30 min. We also show that the same complex can be used to synthesize CdS NCs in mesoporous TiO 2 . The adsorption of cadmium thiolate molecule in TiO 2 matrix can be obtained by using chemical bath deposition technique and subsequent thermal annealing. The use of NCs, quantum dots, as sensitizers of TiO 2 matrices represents a very promising alternative to common dye-sensitized solar cells and an interesting solution for heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  17. Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic-organic hybrid material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuian, B.; Winfield, R.J.; O'Brien, S.; Crean, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Two-photon polymerisation of photo-sensitive materials allows the fabrication of three dimensional micro- and nano-structures for photonic, electronic and micro-system applications. However the usable process window and the applicability of this fabrication technique is significantly determined by the properties of the photo-sensitive material employed. In this study investigation of a custom inorganic-organic hybrid system, cross-linked by a two-photon induced process, is described. The material was produced by sol-gel synthesis using a silicon alkoxide species that also possessed methacrylate functionality. Stabilized zirconium alkoxide precursors were added to the precursor solution in order to reduce drying times and impart enhanced mechanical stability to deposited films. This enabled dry films to be used in the polymerisation process. A structural, optical and mechanical analysis of the optimised sol-gel material is presented. A Ti:sapphire laser with 80 MHz repetition rate, 100 fs pulse duration and 795 nm is used. The influence of both material system and laser processing parameters including: laser power, photo-initiator concentration and zirconium loading, on achievable micro-structure and size is presented

  18. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Detection Of Cracks In Composite Materials Using Hybrid Non-Destructive Testing Method Based On Vibro-Thermography And Time-Frequency Analysis Of Ultrasonic Excitation Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopowicz Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the publication is to determine the possibility of diagnosing damage in composite materials using vibrio-thermography and frequency analysis and time-frequency of excitation signal. In order to verify the proposed method experiments were performed on a sample of the composite made in the technology of pressing prepregs. Analysis of the recorded signals and the thermograms were performed in MatLab environment. Hybrid non-destructive testing method based on thermogram and appropriate signal processing algorithm clearly showed damage in the sample composite material.

  20. Hybrid materials for optics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Benedicte; Innocenzi, Plinio

    2011-02-01

    The interest in organic-inorganic hybrids as materials for optics and photonics started more than 25 years ago and since then has known a continuous and strong growth. The high versatility of sol-gel processing offers a wide range of possibilities to design tailor-made materials in terms of structure, texture, functionality, properties and shape modelling. From the first hybrid material with optical functional properties that has been obtained by incorporation of an organic dye in a silica matrix, the research in the field has quickly evolved towards more sophisticated systems, such as multifunctional and/or multicomponent materials, nanoscale and self-assembled hybrids and devices for integrated optics. In the present critical review, we have focused our attention on three main research areas: passive and active optical hybrid sol-gel materials, and integrated optics. This is far from exhaustive but enough to give an overview of the huge potential of these materials in photonics and optics (254 references).

  1. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David

    2015-09-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization mechanisms using conventional (various amines) as well as some recently developed initiators (hexamethyldisilazane, N-heterocyclic persistent carbenes, etc.) is presented, and their benefits and drawbacks for preparation of polypeptides with well-defined chain lengths and chain-end functionality are discussed. Recent examples from literature are used to illustrate different possibilities for synthesis of pure polypeptide materials with different molecular architectures bearing various functional groups, which are introduced either by modification of amino acids, before they are transformed into corresponding Ncarboxyanhydrides, or by post-polymerization modifications using protective groups and/or orthogonal functional groups. Different approaches for preparation of polypeptide-based hybrid materials are discussed as well using examples from recent literature. Syntheses of simple block copolymers or copolymers with more complex molecular architectures (graft and star copolymers) as well as modifications of nanoparticles and other surfaces with polypeptides are described.

  2. Development of novel hybrid materials based on poly(2-aminophenyl disulfide)/silica gel: Preparation, characterization and electrochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyakhou, S.; Belmokhtar, A.; Zehhaf, A.; Benyoucef, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrochloric acid functionalized silica gel (SiO2) has been successfully used for the grafting of poly(2-Aminophenyl disulfide) (poly(2APhS)) moieties through in-situ polymerization in the presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (APS) as oxidant. The organic-inorganic hybrid (poly(2APhS)/SiO2 with different amounts of SiO2: 0.5 g, 1.5 g and 2 g) were thoroughly characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) measurements. The results confirm the successful formation of the poly(2APhS)/SiO2 composite. The surface morphology of the samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained images show the formation of poly(2APhS) on surface of silica gel. Although the incorporation of SiO2 nanoparticles reduces the electric conductivity of the poly(2APhS), the resulting samples still keep high conductivities, ranging between 8.2 × 10-4 to 1.1 × 10-6 S cm-1. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry. The comparison between the different samples shows that the electrochemical activity is significantly depending on the amount of added SiO2. There is a clear and good electroactivity for poly(2APhS)/SiO2 with amounts of SiO2: 0.5 g and 1.5 g, respectively, compared to that observed in materials nanocomposite with amounts of SiO2: 2.0 g. However, that effect may be explained by a decrease of polymer in surface area with increase amount of SiO2 nanoparticle.

  3. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  4. Nonlinear optical switching of PDA/Ag hybrid materials based on temperature- and pH-responsive threading and dethreading of cyclodextrin polypseudorotaxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Jinan; Wen, Xiaolei; Leng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology in Anhui Province, Anhui (China)

    2012-11-15

    We developed a novel temperature and pH dual-responsive supramolecular system in which the aggregation and disaggregation of polydiacetylene/silver (PDA/Ag) hybrid nanocrystals can be mediated by environmentally responsive threading and dethreading processes of polypseudorotaxane. The PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals provide a nonlinear optical (NLO) property. The host-guest interaction between poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and cyclodextrin (CD) cavities on the surface of the hybrid nanocrystals causes the PDA/Ag hybrid nanocrystals to be sufficiently close to each other for providing an enhanced surface plasmon resonance and a corresponding NLO effect. NLO switching of the colloidal materials can be easily realized by varying temperature and pH. The facile preparation procedures and their response to the surrounding media render these novel hybrid colloidal materials potential candidates for applications in sensors, catalysis and optical/electronic devices. (orig.)

  5. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua

    2013-03-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, to large industrial scale power and energy management. Owing to their capability to deliver high power performance and extremely long cycle life, electrochemical capacitors (ECs), one of the key EES systems, have attracted increasing attention in the recent years since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review article describes the most recent progress in the development of nanostructured electrode materials for EC technology, with a particular focus on hybrid nanostructured materials that combine carbon based materials with pseudocapacitive metal oxides or conducting polymers for achieving high-performance ECs. This review starts with an overview of EES technologies and the comparison between various EES systems, followed by a brief description of energy storage mechanisms for different types of EC materials. This review emphasizes the exciting development of both hybrid nanomaterials and novel support structures for effective electrochemical utilization and high mass loading of active electrode materials, both of which have brought the energy density of ECs closer to that of batteries while still maintaining their characteristic high power density. Last, future research directions and the remaining challenges toward the rational design and synthesis of hybrid nanostructured electrode materials for next-generation ECs are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi; Zhang, Xueyi; Lee, Jong Suk; Tsapatsis, Michael; Nair, Sankar

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered

  7. Hybrid nanostructured materials with tunable magnetic characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martínez, Nubia E.; Garza-Navarro, M. A., E-mail: marco.garzanr@uanl.edu.mx; García-Gutiérrez, Domingo; González-González, Virgilio A.; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Ortiz-Méndez, U. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the development of hybrid nanostructured materials (HNM) based on spinel-metal-oxide nanoparticles (SMON) stabilized in carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)/cetyltrimethyl-ammonium-bromide (CTAB) templates, with tunable magnetic characteristics. These HNM were synthesized using a one-pot chemical approach to obtain CMC/CTAB templates with controllable size and morphology, where the SMON could be densely arranged. The synthesized HNM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and its related techniques, such as bright field (BF) and Z-contrast (HAADF-STEM) imaging, and selected area electron diffraction, as well as static magnetic measuring. Experimental evidence suggests that the morphology and size of the CMC/CTAB templates are highly dependent on the weight ratio of CTAB:SMON, as well as the hydration days of the CMC that is used for the synthesis of the HNM. Controlling these parameters allows modifying the density of the SMON arrangement in the CMC/CTAB templates. Moreover, magnetic features such as remanence, coercivity, and blocking/de-blocking processes of the particles’ magnetic moments are highly dependent on the interactions among the SMON assembled in the templates. Hence, the magnetic characteristics of HNM can be modulated or tuned by controlling the manner the SMON are arranged within the CMC/CTAB templates.

  8. A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole hybrid composite evaluated as anode material for zinc-based secondary cell

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhang Huang; Zhanhong Yang; Zhaobin Feng; Xiaoe Xie; Xing Wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel ZnO@Ag@Polypyrrole nano-hybrid composite has been synthesized with a one-step approach, in which silver-ammonia complex ion serves as oxidant to polymerize the pyrrole monomer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) show the existence of metallic silver and polypyrrole. The structure of nano-hybrid composites are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which demonstrates that the surface of ZnO is decorated with n...

  9. Tuning of the Seebeck Coefficient and the Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Hybrid Materials Based on Polypyrrole and Bismuth Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnida, Katarzyna E; Pilarczyk, Kacper; Knutelski, Marcin; Marzec, Mateusz; Gajewska, Marta; Kosonowski, Artur; Chlebda, Damian; Lis, Bartłomiej; Przybylski, Marek

    2018-04-06

    The growing demand for clean energy catalyzes the development of new devices capable of generating electricity from renewable energy resources. One of the possible approaches focuses on the use of thermoelectric materials (TE), which may utilize waste heat, water, and solar thermal energy to generate electrical power. An improvement of the performance of such devices may be achieved through the development of composites made of an organic matrix filled with nanostructured thermoelectric materials working in a synergetic way. The first step towards such designs requires a better understanding of the fundamental interactions between available materials. In this paper, this matter is investigated and the questions regarding the change of electrical and thermal properties of nanocomposites based on low-conductive polypyrrole enriched with bismuth nanowires of well-defined geometry and morphology is answered. It is clearly demonstrated that the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient may be tuned either simultaneously or separately within particular Bi NWs content ranges, and that both parameters may be increased at the same time. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  11. A two-dimensional magnetic hybrid material based on intercalation of a cationic Prussian blue analog in montmorillonite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gournis, Dimitrios; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Maccallini, Enrico; Rudolf, Petra; Karakassides, Michael A.; Karamanis, Dimitrios T.; Sage, Marie-Helene; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Colomer, Jean-Francois; Papavasileiou, Konstantinos D.; Melissas, Vasilios S.; Gangas, Nicolaos H.

    2010-01-01

    A highly ordered two-dimensional hybrid magnetic nanocomposite has been prepared by synthesizing and intercalating a new cationic aluminum-hydroxy ferric ferrocyanide compound into a cation-adsorbing nanoclay (montmorillonite). Chemical and structural properties were investigated by X-ray

  12. Efficient luminescent materials based on the incorporation of a Eu(III)tris-(bipyridine-carboxylate) complex in mesoporous hybrid silicate hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, M.B.S. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Queiroz, T.B. de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Eckert, H. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Camargo, A.S.S. de, E-mail: andreasc@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    The study of the photoluminescent characteristics of host–guest systems based on highly emissive trivalent rare earth complexes such as Eu{sup 3+} – tris-bipyridine-carboxylate, immobilized in solid state host matrices, is motivated by their potential applications in optoelectronic devices and bioanalytical systems. Besides offering the possibility of designing a favorable environment to improve the photophysical properties of the guest molecules, encapsulation in porous solids also serves to protect such molecules, prevents leakage (especially critical for bio-applications) and ultimately leads to more robust and versatile materials. Among the most interesting possible host matrices are mesoporous silica and hybrids (organo-silicates) in the form of powders (MCM-41 like) and transparent bulk or film xerogels. In this work we report the synthesis of highly efficient red emitting materials based on the wet impregnation of such host matrices with the new complex Eu[4-(4′-tert-butyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine-6-carboxyl]{sub 3} (“[{sup t}Bu–COO]{sub 3}Eu”) whose synthesis and photophysical characterization was recently reported. Prior to the incorporation, the host matrices were thoroughly characterized by solid state {sup 29}Si and {sup 1}H NMR, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Incorporation and retention of the complex molecules are found to be significantly higher in the phenyl-modified hybrid samples than in the regular mesoporous silica, suggesting efficient immobilization of the complex by π–π interactions. Long excited state lifetimes (up to 1.7 ms comparable to 1.8 ms for the complex in solution), and high quantum yields (up to 65%, versus 85% for the complex in solution) were measured for the bulk xerogel materials, suggesting the potential use of thin films for lighting and bioanalytical applications. - Highlights: • New Eu(III) complex in mesoporous hybrid matrices leads to highly

  13. Efficient luminescent materials based on the incorporation of a Eu(III)tris-(bipyridine-carboxylate) complex in mesoporous hybrid silicate hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, M.B.S.; Queiroz, T.B. de; Eckert, H.; Camargo, A.S.S. de

    2016-01-01

    The study of the photoluminescent characteristics of host–guest systems based on highly emissive trivalent rare earth complexes such as Eu 3+ – tris-bipyridine-carboxylate, immobilized in solid state host matrices, is motivated by their potential applications in optoelectronic devices and bioanalytical systems. Besides offering the possibility of designing a favorable environment to improve the photophysical properties of the guest molecules, encapsulation in porous solids also serves to protect such molecules, prevents leakage (especially critical for bio-applications) and ultimately leads to more robust and versatile materials. Among the most interesting possible host matrices are mesoporous silica and hybrids (organo-silicates) in the form of powders (MCM-41 like) and transparent bulk or film xerogels. In this work we report the synthesis of highly efficient red emitting materials based on the wet impregnation of such host matrices with the new complex Eu[4-(4′-tert-butyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine-6-carboxyl] 3 (“[ t Bu–COO] 3 Eu”) whose synthesis and photophysical characterization was recently reported. Prior to the incorporation, the host matrices were thoroughly characterized by solid state 29 Si and 1 H NMR, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Incorporation and retention of the complex molecules are found to be significantly higher in the phenyl-modified hybrid samples than in the regular mesoporous silica, suggesting efficient immobilization of the complex by π–π interactions. Long excited state lifetimes (up to 1.7 ms comparable to 1.8 ms for the complex in solution), and high quantum yields (up to 65%, versus 85% for the complex in solution) were measured for the bulk xerogel materials, suggesting the potential use of thin films for lighting and bioanalytical applications. - Highlights: • New Eu(III) complex in mesoporous hybrid matrices leads to highly emissive material • Matrix

  14. Facile Synthesis and High performance of a New Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Material for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2015-06-26

    Perovskite solar cells are very promising for practical applications owing to their rapidly rising power conversion efficiency and low cost of solution-based processing. 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9’-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) is most widely used as hole transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells. However, the tedious synthesis and high cost of Spiro-OMeTAD inhibit its commercial-scale application in the photovoltaic industry. In this article, we report a carbazole-based compound (R01) as a new HTM in efficient perovskite solar cells. R01 is synthesized via a facile route consisting of only two steps from inexpensive commercially available materials. Furthermore, R01 exhibits higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with R01 produce a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, comparable to that obtained in devices using Spiro-OMeTAD in this study. Our findings underscore R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, and its facile synthesis and low cost may facilitate the large-scale applications of perovskite solar cells.

  15. Facile Synthesis and High performance of a New Carbazole-Based Hole Transporting Material for Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong; Sheikh, Arif D.; Feng, Quanyou; Li, Feng; Chen, Yin; Yu, Weili; Alarousu, Erkki; Ma, Chun; Haque, Mohammed; Shi, Dong; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman; Wu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells are very promising for practical applications owing to their rapidly rising power conversion efficiency and low cost of solution-based processing. 2,2’,7,7’-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine) 9,9’-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) is most widely used as hole transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells. However, the tedious synthesis and high cost of Spiro-OMeTAD inhibit its commercial-scale application in the photovoltaic industry. In this article, we report a carbazole-based compound (R01) as a new HTM in efficient perovskite solar cells. R01 is synthesized via a facile route consisting of only two steps from inexpensive commercially available materials. Furthermore, R01 exhibits higher hole mobility and conductivity than the state-of-the-art Spiro-OMeTAD. Perovskite solar cells fabricated with R01 produce a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, comparable to that obtained in devices using Spiro-OMeTAD in this study. Our findings underscore R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, and its facile synthesis and low cost may facilitate the large-scale applications of perovskite solar cells.

  16. Mechanical Performance of Natural / Natural Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composite Materials Using Finite Element Method Based Micromechanics and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Muhammad Ziaur

    2017-01-01

    A micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element (RVE) of a unidirectional flax/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composite is performed using finite element analysis (FEA). To do so, first effective mechanical properties of flax fiber and jute fiber are evaluated numerically and then used in evaluating the effective properties of ax/jute/epoxy hybrid composite. Mechanics of Structure Genome (MSG), a new homogenization tool developed in Purdue University, is used to calculate the hom...

  17. Photocatalytic self-cleaning poly(L-lactide) materials based on a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite or fullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virovska, Daniela [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Paneva, Dilyana, E-mail: panevad@polymer.bas.bg [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Manolova, Nevena [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rashkov, Iliya, E-mail: rashkov@polymer.bas.bg [Laboratory of Bioactive Polymers, Institute of Polymers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 103A, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Karashanova, Daniela [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., bl. 109, BG-1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-03-01

    New self-cleaning materials of polymer fibers decorated with a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite (EG) or fullerene (C{sub 60}) were obtained. The new materials were prepared by applying electrospinning in conjunction with electrospraying. Poly(L-lactide) (PLA) was selected as a biocompatible and (bio)degradable polymer carrier. PLA solution was electrospun in combination with electrospraying of a suspension that contained the ZnO/EG or ZnO/C{sub 60} hybrid. Mats with different content of EG or C{sub 60} were obtained. The new materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The photocatalytic activity of the materials was evaluated by using model dyes. The formation of a hybrid between ZnO and EG led to enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the mats at ZnO/EG weight ratios of 90/10 and 85/15. Increase in the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-containing mats was also achieved by the formation of a hybrid between ZnO and C{sub 60} at a fullerene content of 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% in respect to ZnO weight. The new materials exhibited antibacterial activity as evidenced by the performed studies against Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • New self-cleaning materials are fabricated by electrospinning/electrospraying. • PLA fibers decorated with nanosized ZnO/EG or ZnO/C{sub 60} hybrid are obtained. • Their photocatalytic activity is enhanced as compared to fibers with bare ZnO. • The new materials can be used repeatedly for degradation of MB and RR dyes. • The new self-cleaning materials exhibit antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

  18. Photocatalytic self-cleaning poly(L-lactide) materials based on a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite or fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virovska, Daniela; Paneva, Dilyana; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Karashanova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    New self-cleaning materials of polymer fibers decorated with a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite (EG) or fullerene (C_6_0) were obtained. The new materials were prepared by applying electrospinning in conjunction with electrospraying. Poly(L-lactide) (PLA) was selected as a biocompatible and (bio)degradable polymer carrier. PLA solution was electrospun in combination with electrospraying of a suspension that contained the ZnO/EG or ZnO/C_6_0 hybrid. Mats with different content of EG or C_6_0 were obtained. The new materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The photocatalytic activity of the materials was evaluated by using model dyes. The formation of a hybrid between ZnO and EG led to enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the mats at ZnO/EG weight ratios of 90/10 and 85/15. Increase in the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-containing mats was also achieved by the formation of a hybrid between ZnO and C_6_0 at a fullerene content of 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% in respect to ZnO weight. The new materials exhibited antibacterial activity as evidenced by the performed studies against Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • New self-cleaning materials are fabricated by electrospinning/electrospraying. • PLA fibers decorated with nanosized ZnO/EG or ZnO/C_6_0 hybrid are obtained. • Their photocatalytic activity is enhanced as compared to fibers with bare ZnO. • The new materials can be used repeatedly for degradation of MB and RR dyes. • The new self-cleaning materials exhibit antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

  19. Preparation and fluorescent recognition properties for fluoride of a nanostructured covalently bonded europium hybrid material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭东; 李景印; 李亚娟; 耿丽君; 甄小丽; 于涛

    2015-01-01

    A novel covalently bonded Eu3+-based silica hybrid material was designed and its spectrophotometric anion sensing prop-erty was studied. The fluorescent receptor (europium complex) was covalently grafted to the silica matrix via a sol-gel approach. FTIR, UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra were characterized, and the results revealed that the hybrid material with nanosphere structure displayed excellent photophysical property. In addition, the selective anion sensing property of the hybrid material was studied by UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results showed that the hybrid material exhibited a smart response with fluoride anions.

  20. Study of association of Eu(III) β-diketonato-1,10-phenanthroline complexes in silica-based hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadieiev, Yevhen M.; Smola, Sergii S. [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-chemical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86, Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine); Malinka, Elena V. [Odessa National Academy of Food Technology, 112, Kanatna Street, 65039 Odessa (Ukraine); Rusakova, Nataliia V., E-mail: lanthachem@ukr.net [A.V. Bogatsky Physico-chemical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 86, Lustdorfskaya doroga, 65080 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on silica and mixed-ligand complexes of Eu(III) with β-diketones and 1,10-phenanthroline with covalent and non-covalent attachment to matrix were obtained by a sol-gel route. Luminescent study of obtained systems allowed to propose spectral criteria for estimation of the uniformity of complex distribution in amorphous silica matrix. Thus, such criteria are the broadening of Eu(III) 4f-luminescence bands, emission decay and the shape of plot of the emission intensity vs. concentration of complex in the materials. Full width of {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} band at its half maximum and the ratio of the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} bands intensities were used as quantitative measures of spectral changes and the bands broadening in Eu(III) emission spectra. - Highlights: • Modification of Eu(III) β-diketonates by an anchor fragments was carried out. • The degree of association of molecules was estimated based on emission spectra. • Covalent anchoring of complexes promotes their uniform distribution in matrix. • Non-covalently grafted complexes are prone to association in amorphous silica.

  1. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Mixed bi-material electrodes based on LiMn2O4 and activated carbon for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cericola, Dario; Novak, Petr; Wokaun, Alexander; Koetz, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi-material electrodes for electrochemical hybrid devices were characterized. → Bi-material electrodes have higher specific charge than capacitor electrodes. → Bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than battery electrodes. → Bi-material systems outperform batteries and capacitors in pulsed applications. - Abstract: The performance of mixed bi-material electrodes composed of the battery material, LiMn 2 O 4 , and the electrochemical capacitor material, activated carbon, for hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices is investigated by galvanostatic charge/discharge and pulsed discharge experiments. Both, a high and a low conductivity lithium-containing electrolyte are used. The specific charge of the bi-material electrode is the linear combination of the specific charges of LiMn 2 O 4 and activated carbon according to the electrode composition at low discharge rates. Thus, the specific charge of the bi-material electrode falls between the specific charge of the activated carbon electrode and the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. The bi-material electrodes have better rate capability than the LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrode. For high current pulsed applications the bi-material electrodes typically outperform both the battery and the capacitor electrode.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  4. Ion-exchange properties of zeolite/glass hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei; Fukushima, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid materials were prepared from ground glass powder and various zeolites such as A-type, mordenite, X-type, and Y-type zeolites, and their ion removal effect was investigated. The hybrid materials of A-type, Y-type, and mordenite zeolites showed similar Sr"2"+ removal rates from aqueous solutions. The removal rate of Sr"2"+ ions increased as the amount of zeolite in the hybrid materials increased. Compared with other hybrid materials, the hybrid materials of X-type zeolite showed higher Sr"2"+ removal rates, especially for zeolite content greater than 25%. As the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased, the Sr"2"+ removal rate increased greatly, with a 100% removal rate when the content of X-type zeolite exceeded 62.5%. (author)

  5. Highly efficient orange and warm white phosphorescent OLEDs based on a host material with a carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yun; Tao, Silu; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Chuan; Wei, Huaixin; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2014-06-01

    A new carbazole-fluorenyl hybrid compound, 3,3'(2,7-di(naphthaline-2-yl)-9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(9-phenyl-9H-carbazole) (NFBC) was synthesized and characterized. The compound exhibits blue-violet emission both in solution and in film, with peaks centered at 404 and 420 nm. In addition to the application as a blue emitter, NFBC is demonstrated to be a good host for phosphorescent dopants. By doping Ir(2-phq)3 in NFBC, a highly efficient orange organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a maximum efficiency of 32 cd A(-1) (26.5 Lm W(-1)) was obtained. Unlike most phosphorescent OLEDs, the device prepared in our study shows little efficiency roll-off at high brightness and maintains current efficiencies of 31.9 and 26.8 cd A(-1) at a luminance of 1000 and 10,000 cd m(-2), respectively. By using NFBC simultaneously as a blue fluorescence emitter and as a host for a phosphorescent dopant, a warm white OLED with a maximum efficiency of 22.9 Lm W(-1) (21.9 cd A(-1)) was also obtained. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-02-13

    Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.

  7. The influence of organoclays on the morphology, phase separation and thermal properties of polycarbonate-based polyurethane hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavličević, J.; Špírková, Milena; Sinadinović-Fišer, S.; Budinski-Simendic, J.; Govedarica, O.; Janković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 151-161 ISSN 1857-5552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polycarbonate-based polyurethane * bentonite * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.310, year: 2013 http://www.mjcce.org.mk/index.php/MJCCE/article/view/144

  8. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  10. Shape-Morphing Materials from Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seog-Jin; Hauser, Adam W; Hayward, Ryan C

    2017-02-21

    The formation of well-defined and functional three-dimensional (3D) structures by buckling of thin sheets subjected to spatially nonuniform stresses is common in biological morphogenesis and has become a subject of great interest in synthetic systems, as such programmable shape-morphing materials hold promise in areas including drug delivery, biomedical devices, soft robotics, and biomimetic systems. Given their ability to undergo large changes in swelling in response to a wide variety of stimuli, hydrogels have naturally emerged as a key type of material in this field. Of particular interest are hybrid systems containing rigid inclusions that can define both the anisotropy and spatial nonuniformity of swelling as well as nanoparticulate additives that can enhance the responsiveness and functionality of the material. In this Account, we discuss recent progress in approaches to achieve well-defined shape morphing in hydrogel hybrids. First, we provide an overview of materials and methods that facilitate fabrication of such systems and outline the geometry and mechanics behind shape morphing of thin sheets. We then discuss how patterning of stiff inclusions within soft responsive hydrogels can be used to program both bending and swelling, thereby providing access to a wide array of complex 3D forms. The use of discretely patterned stiff regions to provide an effective composite response offers distinct advantages in terms of scalability and ease of fabrication compared with approaches based on smooth gradients within a single layer of responsive material. We discuss a number of recent advances wherein control of the mechanical properties and geometric characteristics of patterned stiff elements enables the formation of 3D shapes, including origami-inspired structures, concatenated helical frameworks, and surfaces with nonzero Gaussian curvature. Next, we outline how the inclusion of functional elements such as nanoparticles can enable unique pathways to programmable

  11. Hybrid nodal loop metal: Unconventional magnetoresponse and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Lu, Yunhao; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Hui Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal loop is formed by a band crossing along a one-dimensional closed manifold, with each point on the loop a linear nodal point in the transverse dimensions, and can be classified as type I or type II depending on the band dispersion. Here, we propose a class of nodal loops composed of both type-I and type-II points, which are hence termed as hybrid nodal loops. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict the realization of such loops in the existing electride material Ca2As . For a hybrid loop, the Fermi surface consists of coexisting electron and hole pockets that touch at isolated points for an extended range of Fermi energies, without the need for fine-tuning. This leads to unconventional magnetic responses, including the zero-field magnetic breakdown and the momentum-space Klein tunneling observable in the magnetic quantum oscillations, as well as the peculiar anisotropy in the cyclotron resonance.

  12. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  13. Advanced Nano hybrid Materials: Surface Modification and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.H.; Metivier, R.; Wang, Sh.; Wang, Sh.; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    The field of functional nano scale hybrid materials is one of the most promising and rapidly emerging research areas in materials chemistry. Nano scale hybrid materials can be broadly defined as synthetic materials with organic and inorganic components that are linked together by noncovalent bonds (Class I, linked by hydrogen bond, electrostatic force, or van der Waals force) or covalent bonds (Class II) at nanometer scale. The unlimited possible combinations of the distinct properties of inorganic, organic, or even bioactive components in a single material, either in molecular or nano scale dimensions, have attracted considerable attention. This approach provides an opportunity to create a vast number of novel advanced materials with well-controlled structures and multiple functions. The unique properties of advanced hybrid nano materials can be advantageous to many fields, such as optical and electronic materials, biomaterials, catalysis, sensing, coating, and energy storage. In this special issue, the breadth of papers shows that the hybrid materials is attracting attention, because of both growing fundamental interest, and a route to new materials. Two review articles and seven research papers that report new results of hybrid materials should gather widespread interest.

  14. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  15. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podust, T.V.; Kulik, T.V.; Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M.; Tóth, A.; Mikhalovska, L.; Menyhárd, A.; László, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO 2 , TiO 2 /SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 ). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S BET of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface

  16. Chitosan-nanosilica hybrid materials: Preparation and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podust, T.V., E-mail: tania_list@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Kulik, T.V., E-mail: tanyakulyk@i.ua [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Palyanytsya, B.B.; Gun’ko, V.M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, 17 General Naumov Street, Kyiv 03164 (Ukraine); Tóth, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Mikhalovska, L. [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom); Menyhárd, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Materials Science and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); László, K. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Material Science, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Hybrid chitosan-nanosilica materials were synthesized using an adsorption modification method. • The chitosan adsorption capacity is higher on the silica/titania and silica/alumina than on the fumed silica. • Nanosilicas undergo structural and textural alterations due to modification by chitosan. • The more severe chitosan thermodestruction occurs on the silica/titania and silica/alumina surfaces than on the plain silica surface. - Abstract: The research focuses on the synthesis of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on polysaccharide chitosan and nanosilicas (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}). The chitosan modified nanooxides were obtained by the equilibrium adsorption method. The chitosan adsorption capacities of silica/titania and silica/alumina are higher than of the plain silica due to the additional active sites present on the surfaces of the mixed oxides. The hybrid materials were characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry (TG/DTG) and temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometry control (TPD MS) methods. The chitosan treatment only modestly influences the surface area S{sub BET} of the nanooxides but the rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structures (aggregates and agglomerates) results in an enhancement of the mesoporosity and affects the size of the aggregates. The more severe thermodestruction of the polysaccharide desorbing from the modified mixed silicas indicates a stronger interaction between the chitosan and the mixed oxides compared to the silanol groups of the plain silica surface.

  17. Benchmarking Density Functional Theory Based Methods To Model NiOOH Material Properties: Hubbard and van der Waals Corrections vs Hybrid Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffran, Jeremie; Caspary Toroker, Maytal

    2016-08-09

    NiOOH has recently been used to catalyze water oxidation by way of electrochemical water splitting. Few experimental data are available to rationalize the successful catalytic capability of NiOOH. Thus, theory has a distinctive role for studying its properties. However, the unique layered structure of NiOOH is associated with the presence of essential dispersion forces within the lattice. Hence, the choice of an appropriate exchange-correlation functional within Density Functional Theory (DFT) is not straightforward. In this work, we will show that standard DFT is sufficient to evaluate the geometry, but DFT+U and hybrid functionals are required to calculate the oxidation states. Notably, the benefit of DFT with van der Waals correction is marginal. Furthermore, only hybrid functionals succeed in opening a bandgap, and such methods are necessary to study NiOOH electronic structure. In this work, we expect to give guidelines to theoreticians dealing with this material and to present a rational approach in the choice of the DFT method of calculation.

  18. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  19. Paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPap is quite comparable with other piezoelectric polymers. But, it is biodegradable, biocompatible, mechanically strong and thermally stable. To enhance ion migration effect in the cellulose, polypyrrole conducting polymer and ionic liquids were nanocoated on the cellulose film. This hybrid cellulose EAPap nanocomposite exhibits durable bending actuation in an ambient humidity and temperature condition. Fabrication, characteristics and performance of the cellulose EAPap and its hybrid EAPap materials are illustrated. Also, its possibility for remotely microwave-driven paper actuator is demonstrated.

  20. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  1. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  2. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  3. Polymer-Based Black Phosphorus (bP) Hybrid Materials by in Situ Radical Polymerization: An Effective Tool To Exfoliate bP and Stabilize bP Nanoflakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus (bP) has been recently investigated for next generation nanoelectronic multifunctional devices. However, the intrinsic instability of exfoliated bP (the bP nanoflakes) toward both moisture and air has so far overshadowed its practical implementation. In order to contribute to fill this gap, we report here the preparation of new hybrid polymer-based materials where bP nanoflakes (bPn) exhibit a significantly improved stability. The new materials have been prepared by different synthetic paths including: (i) the mixing of conventionally liquid-phase exfoliated bP (in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution; (ii) the direct exfoliation of bP in a polymeric solution; (iii) the in situ radical polymerization after exfoliating bP in the liquid monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA). This last methodology concerns the preparation of stable suspensions of bPn–MMA by sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of bP in the presence of MMA followed by radical polymerization. The hybrids characteristics have been compared in order to evaluate the bP dispersion and the effectiveness of the bPn interfacial interactions with polymer chains aimed at their long-term environmental stabilization. The passivation of the bPn is particularly effective when the hybrid material is prepared by in situ polymerization. By using this synthetic methodology, the nanoflakes, even if with a gradient of dispersion (size of aggregates), preserve their chemical structure from oxidation (as proved by both Raman and 31P-solid state NMR studies) and are particularly stable to air and UV light exposure. The feasibility of this approach, capable of efficiently exfoliating bP while protecting the bPn, has been then verified by using different vinyl monomers (styrene and N-vinylpyrrolidone), thus obtaining hybrids where the nanoflakes are embedded in polymer matrices with a variety of intriguing thermal, mechanical, and solubility characteristics.

  4. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan; Mitzi; Dimitrakopoulos

    1999-10-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials promise both the superior carrier mobility of inorganic semiconductors and the processability of organic materials. A thin-film field-effect transistor having an organic-inorganic hybrid material as the semiconducting channel was demonstrated. Hybrids based on the perovskite structure crystallize from solution to form oriented molecular-scale composites of alternating organic and inorganic sheets. Spin-coated thin films of the semiconducting perovskite (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)NH(3))(2)SnI(4) form the conducting channel, with field-effect mobilities of 0.6 square centimeters per volt-second and current modulation greater than 10(4). Molecular engineering of the organic and inorganic components of the hybrids is expected to further improve device performance for low-cost thin-film transistors.

  5. Paper Actuators Made with Cellulose and Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehwan; Yun, Sungryul; Mahadeva, Suresha K.; Yun, Kiju; Yang, Sang Yeol; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Recently, cellulose has been re-discovered as a smart material that can be used as sensor and actuator materials, which is termed electro-active paper (EAPap). This paper reports recent advances in paper actuators made with cellulose and hybrid materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes, conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Two distinct actuator principles in EAPap actuators are demonstrated: piezoelectric effect and ion migration effect in cellulose. Piezoelectricity of cellulose EAPa...

  6. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  7. A nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualan; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Xujie; Lu, Lude; Wang, Xin

    2010-10-01

    A flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material as a supercapacitor electrode was synthesized by an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process. This product was first prepared in an ethylene glycol medium, then treated with hot sodium hydroxide solution to obtain the reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. Sodium hydroxide also acted as a dedoping reagent for polyaniline in the composite. After redoping in an acidic solution, the thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product was obtained with unchanged morphology. The chemical structure of the materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The composite material showed better electrochemical performances than the pure individual components. A high specific capacitance of 1126 F g-1 was obtained with a retention life of 84% after 1000 cycles for supercapacitors. The energy density and power density were also better than those of pure component materials.

  8. Hybrid friction stir welding for dissimilar materials through electro-plastic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; Lan, Shuhuai; Ni, Jun

    2018-05-29

    A hybrid Friction Stir Welding approach and device for dissimilar materials joining employing Electro-Plastic Effect. The approach and device include an introduction of high density, short period current pulses into traditional friction stir welding process, which therefore can generate a localized softened zone in the workpiece during plastic stirring without significant additional temperature increase. This material softened zone is created by high density current pulses based on Electro-Plastic Effect and will move along with the friction stir welding tool. Smaller downward force, larger processing window and better joint quality for dissimilar materials are expected to be achieved through this hybrid welding technique.

  9. Hybrid materials for decontamination of potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, H.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Water is the most essential component on the earth for vital activities of all living beings. Unfortunately, due to geometrical growth of population, civilization, industrialization, agricultural activities and other geological and environmental changes quality of water from different resources is deteriorating. Water pollution has therefore become a serious issue in the present scenario, affecting all living creatures. In 2008, WHO published a third edition of the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Thousands of inorganic, organic and biological pollutants have been reported as water contaminants. Some of them have serious side effects and toxicities. Even few of them are lethal and carcinogenic. A majority of them are heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of low levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Hg, etc.), toxic elements (F) and radionuclides (U, Th, Am, Pu) in various forms from groundwater still remains a problem, both technically and economically. Depending on local geology, groundwater contains these elements in low levels (μg L -1 range), but sometimes in concentrations which are not acceptable for drinking water. Material used for the sorption of heavy metals from waters in commercial applications must be immobilized in order to meet technical demands for onsite use. Generally, packed bed columns, with a stable, porous material that has a specific grain size, are used. Moreover, tailored materials must be stable and resistant to the medium that is investigated so that there is no release of constituent components

  10. Fabrication of nanostructured graphene/polyaniline hybrid material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Hao, Q.L.; Wang, X.; Lu, L.D.; Yang, X.J. [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials, Ministry of Education

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a flexible graphene/polyaniline hybrid material was prepared using an in situ polymerization-reduction/dedoping-redoping process for use as a supercapacitor electrode. Graphene oxide and a single layer of graphite oxide were used as a substrate material for the graphene oxide-polyaniline composite using an in situ polymerization method. The composite was then treated with a hot sodium hydroxide solution in order to produce a reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline hybrid material. The sodium hydroxide was also used as a dedoping reagent for the polyaniline in the composite. A thin, uniform and flexible conducting graphene/polyaniline product with an unchanged morphology was obtained using the process. Analyses of the material demonstrated that the composite showed an improved electrochemical performance than the pure individual components, with a specific capacitance of 1126 F per g and a retention life of 84 per cent after 1000 cycles. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  12. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  13. Hybrid supercapacitor-battery materials for fast electrochemical charge storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, A.; Singh, N.; Rolland, J.; Melinte, S.; Ajayan, P. M.; Gohy, J.-F.

    2014-01-01

    High energy and high power electrochemical energy storage devices rely on different fundamental working principles - bulk vs. surface ion diffusion and electron conduction. Meeting both characteristics within a single or a pair of materials has been under intense investigations yet, severely hindered by intrinsic materials limitations. Here, we provide a solution to this issue and present an approach to design high energy and high power battery electrodes by hybridizing a nitroxide-polymer redox supercapacitor (PTMA) with a Li-ion battery material (LiFePO4). The PTMA constituent dominates the hybrid battery charge process and postpones the LiFePO4 voltage rise by virtue of its ultra-fast electrochemical response and higher working potential. We detail on a unique sequential charging mechanism in the hybrid electrode: PTMA undergoes oxidation to form high-potential redox species, which subsequently relax and charge the LiFePO4 by an internal charge transfer process. A rate capability equivalent to full battery recharge in less than 5 minutes is demonstrated. As a result of hybrid's components synergy, enhanced power and energy density as well as superior cycling stability are obtained, otherwise difficult to achieve from separate constituents. PMID:24603843

  14. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  15. Fabrication of free-standing pure carbon-based composite material with the combination of sp{sup 2}–sp{sup 3} hybridizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, M., E-mail: varga@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic); Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Vretenar, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics of the SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kotlar, M. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, FEI STU, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Skakalova, V. [Danubia NanoTech, s.r.o., Ilkovicova 3, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Physics of Nanostructured Materials, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6 16253 (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    Composite structures have been in a center of interest for many decades. Carbon–carbon composites combine different carbon-based allotropes. Combining different carbon structures each with its unique property results in a new composite material with designed properties. In this contribution we present a technological procedure for preparation of a new flexible material consisting of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). The fabrication process starts from the preparation of a paper made of SWNTs bundles followed by the CVD-growth of NCD in the interior of the SWNT paper. Keeping balance between the two competing processes during the CVD, i.e. growth of diamond particles versus etching SWNTs, is found as a key factor for the formation of a compact SWNT/NCD composite material. From a technological point of view, both processes are influenced mainly by the CVD conditions (temperature, gas composition, etc.) and/or substrate pretreatment. The essential idea of the diamond integration into the SWNT paper is demonstrated and discussed in more details. The morphology and structural aspects of the prepared composite material are further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Fabrication of free-standing pure carbon-based composite material with the combination of sp2–sp3 hybridizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, M.; Vretenar, V.; Kotlar, M.; Skakalova, V.; Kromka, A.

    2014-01-01

    Composite structures have been in a center of interest for many decades. Carbon–carbon composites combine different carbon-based allotropes. Combining different carbon structures each with its unique property results in a new composite material with designed properties. In this contribution we present a technological procedure for preparation of a new flexible material consisting of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). The fabrication process starts from the preparation of a paper made of SWNTs bundles followed by the CVD-growth of NCD in the interior of the SWNT paper. Keeping balance between the two competing processes during the CVD, i.e. growth of diamond particles versus etching SWNTs, is found as a key factor for the formation of a compact SWNT/NCD composite material. From a technological point of view, both processes are influenced mainly by the CVD conditions (temperature, gas composition, etc.) and/or substrate pretreatment. The essential idea of the diamond integration into the SWNT paper is demonstrated and discussed in more details. The morphology and structural aspects of the prepared composite material are further characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Epitaxially Grown Layered MFI–Bulk MFI Hybrid Zeolitic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2012-11-27

    The synthesis of hybrid zeolitic materials with complex micropore-mesopore structures and morphologies is an expanding area of recent interest for a number of applications. Here we report a new type of hybrid zeolite material, composed of a layered zeolite material grown epitaxially on the surface of a bulk zeolite material. Specifically, layered (2-D) MFI sheets were grown on the surface of bulk MFI crystals of different sizes (300 nm and 10 μm), thereby resulting in a hybrid material containing a unique morphology of interconnected micropores (∼0.55 nm) and mesopores (∼3 nm). The structure and morphology of this material, referred to as a "bulk MFI-layered MFI" (BMLM) material, was elucidated by a combination of XRD, TEM, HRTEM, SEM, TGA, and N2 physisorption techniques. It is conclusively shown that epitaxial growth of the 2-D layered MFI sheets occurs in at least two principal crystallographic directions of the bulk MFI crystal and possibly in the third direction as well. The BMLM material combines the properties of bulk MFI (micropore network and mechanical support) and 2-D layered MFI (large surface roughness, external surface area, and mesoporosity). As an example of the uses of the BMLM material, it was incorporated into a polyimide and fabricated into a composite membrane with enhanced permeability for CO2 and good CO2/CH4 selectivity for gas separations. SEM-EDX imaging and composition analysis showed that the polyimide and the BMLM interpenetrate into each other, thereby forming a well-adhered polymer/particle microstructure, in contrast with the defective interfacial microstructure obtained using bare MFI particles. Analysis of the gas permeation data with the modified Maxwell model also allows the estimation of the effective volume of the BMLM particles, as well as the CO2 and CH4 gas permeabilities of the interpenetrated layer at the BMLM/polyimide interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  19. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  20. Nanocomposite organomineral hybrid materials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issues of alkoxide method of sol-gel synthesis and non-hydrolytic method of sol-gel synthesis and colloidal method of sol-gel synthesis. The authors also consider an alternative approach based on the use of soluble silicates as precursors in the sol-gel technology, of nanocomposites. It was shown that nanocomposites can be produced through aerogels. The paper also analyzes the mixing technologies of nanocomposites preparation. It has been demonstrated the possibility to change the types of nano-phase which is used for obtaining nanocomposites in different approaches. Various models of packaging spherical, fibrous and layered nanoparticles, introduced into the structure of the nanocomposite, in the preparation thereof were examined.

  1. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical properties. Therefore, a detailed understanding of such organisation processes is essential for the optimisation of the performance of these materials as applied in optoelectronic devices. In order to...

  2. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  3. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  4. Graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Tae Kim, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A graphene-based hybrid plasmonic modulator is designed based on an asymmetric double-electrode plasmonic waveguide structure. The photonic device consists of a monolayer graphene, a thin metal strip, and a thin dielectric layer that is inserted between the grapheme and the metal strip. By electrically tuning the graphene’s refractive index, the propagation loss of the hybrid long-range surface plasmon polariton strip mode in the proposed graphene-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide is switchable, and hence the intensity of the guided modes is modulated. The highest modulation depth is observed at the graphene’s epsilon-near-zero region. The device characteristics are characterized over the entire C-band (1.530–1.565 μm). (paper)

  5. Characterization of ureasil-polyethylene oxide/chitosan hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Zaldivar, M.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Peniche Covas, C.; Santilli, C.V. [Universidad de la Habana, Havana (Cuba); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Siloxane-polyether hybrids are an interesting and versatile family of multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid materials, also named ureasils. Ureasils have been the object of intensive studies in the last years due to their versatility and wide range of applications. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan are biocompatible and low toxicity polymers that were used as organic phase while the inorganic phase was siloxane. Therefore, the aim of this work was the characterization of these hybrids that were prepared by the sol–gel route. Hydrochloric and acetic acids were used as catalysts. Due to the insolubility of chitosan in ethanol and organic solvents, water was used in the hydrolysis solution as the main component or alone. The obtained materials were transparent, rubbery, flexible and water-insoluble. They were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetric Analysis), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). Results showed that chitosan addition did not provoke appreciable changes in the thermal properties but modifies the polycondensation degree and the nanoscopic structure of the materials. Significant changes were not found neither by the hydrolysis solution nor by the type of acid, except in the thermal stability. It depended on the type of acid catalyst, being higher in hybrids prepared with HCl. We can conclude that these materials can be synthesized just with water as the hydrolysis solution and that any of the two acids can be used as catalyst without significantly affect its final properties. (author)

  6. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matseevich Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal. The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  7. Preparation and properties of hybrid materials for high-rise constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matseevich, Tatyana

    2018-03-01

    The theme of the research is important because it allows to use hybrid materials as finishing in the high-rise constructions. The aim of the study was the development of producing coloured hybrid materials based on liquid glass, a polyisocyanate, epoxy resin and 2.4-toluylenediisocyanate. The detailed study of the process of stress relaxation at different temperatures in the range of 20-100°C was provided. The study found that the obtained materials are subject to the simplified technology. The materials easy to turn different colors, and dyes (e.g. Sudan blue G) are the catalysts for the curing process of the polymeric precursors. The materials have improved mechanical relaxation properties, possess different color and presentable, can be easily combined with inorganic base (concrete, metal). The limit of compressive strength varies from 32 to 17.5 MPa at a temperature of 20 to 100°C. The values σ∞ are from 20.4 to 7.7 MPa within the temperature range from 20 to 100°C. The physical parameters of materials were evaluated basing on the data of stress relaxation: the initial stress σ0, which occurs at the end of the deformation to a predetermined value; quasi-equilibrium stress σ∞, which persists for a long time relaxation process. Obtained master curves provide prediction relaxation behavior for large durations of relaxation. The study obtained new results. So, the addition of epoxy resin in the composition of the precursor improves the properties of hybrid materials. By the method of IR spectroscopy identified chemical transformations in the course of obtaining the hybrid material. Evaluated mechanical performance of these materials is long-time. Applied modern physically-based memory functions, which perfectly describe the stress relaxation process.

  8. Hybrid materials of kaolinite clay with polypyrrole and polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Kerstin A; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Composites of the alumino silicate mineral kaolinite, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline have been successfully synthesised. In doing so hybrid materials have been produced in which the high surface area of the mineral is retained, whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and physical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows polypyrrole coatings to comprise of individual polymer spheres, approximately 10 to 15 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of polyaniline was observed to be approximately 5 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the kaolinite platelets in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles onto the redox active surface of the polymers has also been successful, and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterization of the hybrid materials has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  9. A biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability for bone tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Alves, Luís C. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N.10, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO — Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-01

    The increasing interest in the effect of strontium in bone tissue repair has promoted the development of bioactive materials with strontium release capability. According to literature, hybrid materials based on the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2} have been considered a plausible alternative as they present a mechanical behavior similar to the one of the human bone. The main purpose of this study was to obtain a biocompatible hybrid material with simultaneous calcium and strontium release capability. A hybrid material, in the system PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO, was prepared with the incorporation of 0.05 mol of titanium per mol of SiO{sub 2}. Calcium and strontium were added using the respective acetates as sources, following a sol–gel technique previously developed by the present authors. The obtained samples were characterized by FT-IR, solid-state NMR, and SAXS, and surface roughness was analyzed by 3D optical profilometry. In vitro studies were performed by immersion of the samples in Kokubo's SBF for different periods of time, in order to determine the bioactive potential of these hybrids. Surfaces of the immersed samples were observed by SEM, EDS and PIXE, showing the formation of calcium phosphate precipitates. Supernatants were analyzed by ICP, revealing the capability of the material to simultaneously fix phosphorus ions and to release calcium and strontium, in a concentration range within the values reported as suitable for the induction of the bone tissue repair. The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with MG63 osteoblastic cells, exhibiting an inductive effect on cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • A hybrid PDMS–SiO{sub 2}–CaO–SrO material was prepared with the incorporation of Ti. • Sr was released in concentrations suitable for the induction of bone tissue repair. • The material demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with osteoblastic cells.

  10. Supramolecular fluorene based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbel, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of noncovalent interactions in order to manipulate and control the self-assembly and morphology of electroactive fluorene-based materials. The supramolecular arrangement of p-conjugated polymers and oligomers can strongly influence their electronic and photophysical

  11. Optimization of CHA-PCFC Hybrid Material for the Removal of Radioactive Cs from Waste Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Jimin; Park, Minsung; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Chung, Dong-Yong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The liquid waste treatment processes in the normal operation of nuclear power plant are commercialized, those in the abnormal accidents have not been fully developed until now. In the present study, as a preliminary research for the development of precipitation-based treatment process specialized for the removal of Cs from waste seawater generated in the emergency case, the performance test of a hybrid material combining chabazite and potassium cobalt ferrocyanide was conducted. Also the synthesis method for the hybrid adsorbent was optimized for the best Cs removal efficiency on the actual contamination level of waste seawater. Because the temperature effect on the synthesis of PCFC was confirmed by preliminary experiments, the optimization of CHA-PCFC synthesis was also conducted. The hybrid material synthesized at 40 .deg. C showed the highest distribution coefficient of Cs in the same manner of the performance of PCFC synthesized at the lower temperature than that of conventional methods.

  12. New porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity in acetylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-10-14

    New hybrid complexes based on covalent interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatozinc(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatotin(IV) chloride, and a Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate, Mo(6)O(19)(2-), were prepared. These new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided several spectral data for synthesis of these compounds. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the polyoxometalate on the redox process of the porphyrin ring. The catalytic activity of tin(IV)porphyrin-hexamolybdate hybrid material was investigated in the acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride. The reusability of this catalyst was also investigated.

  13. Metal phosphonate hybrid mesostructures: environmentally friendly multifunctional materials for clean energy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tian-Yi; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2011-10-17

    The synthesis of porous hybrid materials has been extended to mesoporous non-silica-based organic-inorganic hybrid materials, in which mesoporous metal phosphonates represent an important family. By using organically bridged polyphosphonic acids as coupling molecules, the homogeneous incorporation of a considerable number of organic functional groups into the metal phosphonate hybrid framework has been realized. Small amounts of organic additives and the pH value of the reaction solution have a large impact on the morphology and textural properties of the resultant hybrid mesoporous metal phosphonate solids. Cationic and nonionic surfactants can be used as templates for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous metal phosphonates. The materials are used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal ions, CO₂, and aldehydes, as well as in the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also useful photocatalysts under UV and simulated solar light irradiation for organic dye degradation. Further functionalization of the synthesized mesoporous hybrids makes them oxidation and acid catalysts, both with impressive performances in the fields of sustainable energy and environment. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermochemical Storage of Middle Temperature Wasted Heat by Functionalized C/Mg(OH2 Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mastronardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the thermochemical performance implementation of Mg(OH2 as a heat storage medium, several hybrid materials have been investigated. For this study, high-performance hybrid materials have been developed by exploiting the authors’ previous findings. Expanded graphite (EG/carbon nanotubes (CNTs-Mg(OH2 hybrid materials have been prepared through Mg(OH2 deposition-precipitation over functionalized, i.e., oxidized, or un-functionalized EG or CNTs. The heat storage performances of the carbon-based hybrid materials have been investigated through a laboratory-scale experimental simulation of the heat storage/release cycles, carried out by a thermogravimetric apparatus. This study offers a critical evaluation of the thermochemical performances of developed materials through their comparison in terms of heat storage and output capacities per mass and volume unit. It was demonstrated that both EG and CNTs improves the thermochemical performances of the storage medium in terms of reaction rate and conversion with respect to pure Mg(OH2. With functionalized EG/CNTs-Mg(OH2, (i the potential heat storage and output capacities per mass unit of Mg(OH2 have been completely exploited; and (ii higher heat storage and output capacities per volume unit were obtained. That means, for technological applications, as smaller volume at equal stored/released heat.

  15. Hybrid Composite Material and Solid Particle Erosion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellaganesh, D.; Khan, M. Adam; Ashif, A. Mohamed; Ragul Selvan, T.; Nachiappan, S.; Winowlin Jappes, J. T.

    2018-04-01

    Composite is one of the predominant material for most challenging engineering components. Most of the components are in the place of automobile structure, aircraft structures, and wind turbine blade and so on. At the same all the components are indulged to mechanical loading. Recent research on composite material are machinability, wear, tear and corrosion studies. One of the major issue on recent research was solid particle air jet erosion. In this paper hybrid composite material with and without filler. The fibre are in the combination of hemp – kevlar (60:40 wt.%) as reinforcement using epoxy as a matrix. The natural material palm and coconut shell are used as filler materials in the form of crushed powder. The process parameter involved are air jet velocity, volume of erodent and angle of impingement. Experiment performed are in eight different combinations followed from 2k (k = 3) factorial design. From the investigation surface morphology was studied using electron microscope. Mass change with respect to time are used to calculate wear rate and the influence of the process parameters. While solid particle erosion the hard particle impregnates in soft matrix material. Influence of filler material has reduced the wear and compared to plain natural composite material.

  16. Membrane-based biomolecular smart materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarles, Stephen A; Leo, Donald J

    2011-01-01

    Membrane-based biomolecular materials are a new class of smart material that feature networks of artificial lipid bilayers contained within durable synthetic substrates. Bilayers contained within this modular material platform provide an environment that can be tailored to host an enormous diversity of functional biomolecules, where the functionality of the global material system depends on the type(s) and organization(s) of the biomolecules that are chosen. In this paper, we review a series of biomolecular material platforms developed recently within the Leo Group at Virginia Tech and we discuss several novel coupling mechanisms provided by these hybrid material systems. The platforms developed demonstrate that the functions of biomolecules and the properties of synthetic materials can be combined to operate in concert, and the examples provided demonstrate how the formation and properties of a lipid bilayer can respond to a variety of stimuli including mechanical forces and electric fields

  17. Biomolecular hybrid material and process for preparing same and uses for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA

    2010-11-23

    Disclosed is a composition and method for fabricating novel hybrid materials comprised of, e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs). In one method, enzyme-CNT hybrids are prepared by precipitation of enzymes which are subsequently crosslinked, yielding crosslinked enzyme clusters (CECs) on the surface of the CNTs. The CEC-enzyme-CNT hybrids exhibit high activity per unit area or mass as well as improved enzyme stability and longevity over hybrid materials known in the art. The CECs in the disclosed materials permit multilayer biocatalytic coatings to be applied to surfaces providing hybrid materials suitable for use in, e.g., biocatalytic applications and devices as described herein.

  18. Functionalised hybrid materials of conducting polymers with individual wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fern M; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas; Richardson, Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Composites of natural protein materials, such as merino wool, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) have been successfully synthesised. In doing so, hybrid materials have been produced in which the mechanical strength and flexibility of the fibers is retained whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and electrical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows PPy coatings to comprise individual polymer spheres, approximately 100 to 150 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of PAn was observed to be approximately 50 to 100 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the fibers in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to silver metal nanoparticles onto the redox active polymer surface has also been successful and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterisation of such products has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  19. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various

  20. New organic-inorganic hybrid molecular systems and highly organized materials in catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Definitions of hybrid materials are suggested, and applications of these materials are considered. Particular attention is focused on the application of hybrid materials in hydrogenation, partial oxidation, plant biomass conversion, and natural gas reforming, primarily on the use of core-shell nanoparticles and decorated metal nanoparticles in these reactions. Application prospects of various hybrid materials, particularly those of metal-organic frameworks, are discussed.

  1. Hybrid silica materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Vidal, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    The present PhD thesis entitled "Silica Hybrid Materials for detection of toxic species and clinical diagnosis" is focused on the design and synthesis of new hybrid materials, using different silica supports as inorganic scaffolds, with applications in recognition, sensing and diagnostic protocols. The first chapter of the PhD thesis is devoted to the definition and classification of hybrid materials, relying on concepts of Nanotechnology, Supramolecular and Materials Chemistry. State o...

  2. Hybridization of MOFs and COFs: A New Strategy for Construction of MOF@COF Core-Shell Hybrid Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Zhao, Meiting; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Zhicheng; Huang, Ying; Dai, Fangna; Lai, Zhuangchai; Cui, Xiaoya; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The exploration of new porous hybrid materials is of great importance because of their unique properties and promising applications in separation of materials, catalysis, etc. Herein, for the first time, by integration of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs), a new type of MOF@COF core-shell hybrid material, i.e., NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF, with high crystallinity and hierarchical pore structure, is synthesized. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NH 2 -MIL-68@TPA-COF hybrid material is used as an effective visible-light-driven photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B. The synthetic strategy in this study opens up a new avenue for the construction of other MOF-COF hybrid materials, which could have various promising applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Graphene-cobaltite-Pd hybrid materials for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Awasthi, Rahul; Singh, Ravindra Nath; Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir Kumar

    2013-12-14

    Hybrid materials comprising of Pd, MCo2O4 (where M = Mn, Co or Ni) and graphene have been prepared for use as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. Structural and electrochemical characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, chronoamperometry and cyclic, CO stripping, and linear sweep voltammetries. The study revealed that all the three hybrid materials are active for both methanol oxidation (MOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 1 M KOH. However, the Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid electrode exhibited the greatest MOR and ORR activities. This active hybrid electrode has also outstanding stability under both MOR and ORR conditions, while Pt- and other Pd-based catalysts undergo degradation under similar experimental conditions. The Pd-MnCo2O4/GNS hybrid catalyst exhibited superior ORR activity and stability compared to even Pt in alkaline solutions.

  4. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2015-05-08

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  5. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  6. Coordination-organometallic hybrid materials based on the trinuclear M(II)-Ru(II) (M=Ni and Zn) complexes: Synthesis, structural characterization, luminescence and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawal, S. B.; Lolage, S. R.; Chavan, S. S.

    2018-02-01

    A new series of trinuclear complexes of the type Ni[R-C6H4Ndbnd CH(O)C6H3Ctbnd CRu(dppe)2Cl]2 (1a-c) and Zn[Rsbnd C6H4Ndbnd CH(O)C6H3Ctbnd CRu(dppe)2Cl]2 (2a-c) have been prepared from the reaction of trans-[RuCl(dppe)2Ctbnd Csbnd C6H3(OH)(CHO)] (1) with aniline, 4-nitroaniline and 4-methoxyaniline (R1-3) in presence of nickel acetate and zinc acetate in CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) mixture. The structural properties of the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic techniques viz. FTIR, UV-Visible, 1H NMR and 31P NMR spectral studies. The crystal structure and morphology of the hybrid complexes was investigated with the help of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal properties of 1a-c and 2a-c were studied by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The electrochemical behaviour of the complexes reveals that all complexes displayed a quasireversible redox behaviour corresponding to Ru(II)/Ru(III) and Ni(II)/Ni(III) couples for 1a-c and only Ru(II)/Ru(III) couple for 2a-c. All complexes are emissive in solution at room temperature revealing the influence of substituents and solvent polarity on emission properties of the complexes.

  7. Entrapping quercetin in silica/polyethylene glycol hybrid materials: Chemical characterization and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona; Pacifico, Severina [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Sol-gel synthesis was exploited to entrap quercetin, a natural occurring antioxidant polyphenol, in silica-based hybrid materials, which differed in their polyethylene glycol (PEG) content (6, 12, 24 and 50 wt%). The materials obtained, whose nano-composite nature was ascertained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were chemically characterized by Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies. The results prove that a reaction between the polymer and the drug occurred. Bioactivity tests showed their ability to induce hydroxyapatite nucleation on the sample surfaces. The direct contact method was applied to screen the cytotoxicity of the synthetized materials towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, commonly used for in vitro biocompatibility studies, and three nervous system cell lines (neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, glioma U251, and pheochromocytoma PC12 cell lines), adopted as models in oxidative stress related studies. Using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay NIH 3T3 proliferation was assessed and the morphology was not compromised by direct exposure to the materials. Analogously, PC-12, and U-251 cell lines were not affected by new materials. SH-SY5Y appeared to be the most sensitive cell line with cytotoxic effects of 20–35%. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG quercetin organic-inorganic hybrids were synthesized via sol-gel. • The formation of apatite on materials surface after SBF proved their bioactivity. • Viability of NIH-3T3 cells was significantly increased by exposure to the hybrids. • Viability of PC-12 and U-251 cell lines was not affected by new materials. • SH-SY5Y cell proliferation was inhibited and their morphology was changed by hybrids.

  8. High photoresponse of individual WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Georgies Alene; Järvinen, Topias; Lorite, Gabriela S.; Mohl, Melinda; Pitkänen, Olli; Dombovari, Aron; Tóth, Geza; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lei, Sidong; Talapatra, Saikat; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    van der Waals solids have been recognized as highly photosensitive materials that compete conventional Si and compound semiconductor based devices. While 2-dimensional nanosheets of single and multiple layers and 1-dimensional nanowires of molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides have been studied, their nanostructured derivatives with complex morphologies are not explored yet. Here, we report on the electrical and photosensitive properties of WS2 nanowire-nanoflake hybrid materials we developed lately. We probe individual hybrid nanostructured particles along the structure using focused ion beam deposited Pt contacts. Further, we use conductive atomic force microscopy to analyze electrical behavior across the nanostructure in the transverse direction. The electrical measurements are complemented by in situ laser beam illumination to explore the photoresponse of the nanohybrids in the visible optical spectrum. Photodetectors with responsivity up to ˜0.4 AW-1 are demonstrated outperforming graphene as well as most of the other transition metal dichalcogenide based devices.

  9. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  10. Biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates that are suitable for biomedical applications is presented in this review. Since these types of biomaterials offer many significant and exciting possibilities for hard tissue regeneration, this subject belongs to a rapidly expanding area of biomedical research. Through successful combinations of the desired properties of matrix materials with those of fillers (in such systems, calcium orthophosphates might play either role), innovative bone graft biomaterials can be designed. Various types of biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates, either those already in use or being investigated for biomedical applications, are extensively discussed. Many different formulations, in terms of the material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties as well as both in vitro and in vivo characteristics, have already been proposed. Among the others, the nanostructurally controlled biocomposites, those containing nanodimensional compounds, biomimetically fabricated formulations with collagen, chitin and/or gelatin as well as various functionally graded structures seem to be the most promising candidates for clinical applications. The specific advantages of using biocomposites and hybrid biomaterials based on calcium orthophosphates in the selected applications are highlighted. As the way from the laboratory to the hospital is a long one, and the prospective biomedical candidates have to meet many different necessities, this review also examines the critical issues and scientific challenges that require further research and development. PMID:23507726

  11. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  12. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan

    2017-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  13. Hybrid-Biocomposite Material for Corrosion Prevention in Pipeline: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriani, M. J.; Nik, W. B. Wan [Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Terengganu (Malaysia)

    2017-04-15

    One of the most challenging issues in the oil and gas industry is corrosion assessment and management in subsea structures or equipment. At present, almost all steel pipelines are sensitive to corrosion in harsh working environments, particularly in salty water and sulphur ingress media. Nowadays, the most commonly practiced solution for a damaged steel pipe is to entirely remove the pipe, to remove only a localized damaged section and then replace it with a new one, or to cover it with a steel patch through welding, respectively. Numerous literatures have shown that fiber-reinforced polymer-based composites can be effectively used for steel pipe repairs. Considerable research has also been carried out on the repair of corroded and gouged pipes incorporated with hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composite wraps. Currently, further research in the field should focus on enhanced use of the lesser and highly explored hybrid-biocomposite material for the development in corrosion prevention. A hybrid-biocomposite material from renewable resource based derivatives is cost-effective, abundantly available, biodegradable, and an environmentally benign alternative for corrosion prevention. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review and to bridge the gap by developing a new hybrid-biocomposite with superhydrophobic surfaces.

  14. THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF HYBRID FLAME RETARDANTS ON PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. ALBDIRY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to comprehensively understand the polymeric composite behavior under direct fire sources. The synergistic effects of hybrid flame retardant material on inhabiting the pyrolysis of hybrid reinforced fibers, woven roving (0°- 45° carbon and kevlar (50/50 wt/wt, and an araldite resin composites were studied. The composites were synthesised and coated primarily by zinc borate (2ZnO.3B2O3.3.5H2O and modified by antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 with different amounts (10-30 wt% of flame retardant materials. In the experiments, the composite samples were exposed to a direct flame source generated by oxyacetylene flame (~3000ºC at variable exposure distances of 10-20 mm. The synergic flame retardants role of antimony trioxide and zinc borate on the composite surface noticeably improves the flame resistance of the composite which is attributed to forming a protective mass and heat barrier on the composite surface and increasing the melt viscosity.

  15. Chemical and structural changes in polyamide based organic–inorganic hybrid materials upon incorporation of SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylova, V.; Dukstienė, N.; Žalenkienė, S. [Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu st. " 1" 9" , LT-50254, Kaunas (Lithuania); Baltrusaitis, J., E-mail: job314@lehigh.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Lehigh University, B336 Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigated deposited and diffused K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} into polyamide 6 (PA 6). • AAS showed Se:S molar ratio = 1:2 within the PA. • Various decomposition products were detected within the polymer. • Measured bandgap shifted towards lower light absorption energies. - Abstract: Composite organic-inorganic functional materials are of significant importance in various applications of science and technology. In this work, physicochemical characterization of such composite materials obtained after the exposure of polyamide PA 6 to K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} precursor solution was performed. Chalcogenized polymer surface was characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and UV–vis spectroscopies while their bulk chemical analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Crystallite size was not found to change with the exposure to K{sub 2}SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6} precursor but PA 6 chain–chain separation decreased. Importantly, infrared and X-ray analyses showed chemical bonding taking place between the PA 6 and SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} ions via −NH− functional group. A distinct change in bandgap, E{sub g}, value was observed in UV–vis spectra due to the presence of SeS{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−}, SeSO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and Se{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2−} ions formed via decomposition of the precursor material in acidic medium. After extended 4 h chalcogenation a distinct absorption due to the elemental selenium was also observed as obtained from Tauc plots.

  16. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  17. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  18. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  19. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu

    2010-11-16

    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. EPR-based material modelling of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Asaad; Alani, Amir M.

    2013-04-01

    In the past few decades, as a result of the rapid developments in computational software and hardware, alternative computer aided pattern recognition approaches have been introduced to modelling many engineering problems, including constitutive modelling of materials. The main idea behind pattern recognition systems is that they learn adaptively from experience and extract various discriminants, each appropriate for its purpose. In this work an approach is presented for developing material models for soils based on evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR). EPR is a recently developed hybrid data mining technique that searches for structured mathematical equations (representing the behaviour of a system) using genetic algorithm and the least squares method. Stress-strain data from triaxial tests are used to train and develop EPR-based material models for soil. The developed models are compared with some of the well-known conventional material models and it is shown that EPR-based models can provide a better prediction for the behaviour of soils. The main benefits of using EPR-based material models are that it provides a unified approach to constitutive modelling of all materials (i.e., all aspects of material behaviour can be implemented within a unified environment of an EPR model); it does not require any arbitrary choice of constitutive (mathematical) models. In EPR-based material models there are no material parameters to be identified. As the model is trained directly from experimental data therefore, EPR-based material models are the shortest route from experimental research (data) to numerical modelling. Another advantage of EPR-based constitutive model is that as more experimental data become available, the quality of the EPR prediction can be improved by learning from the additional data, and therefore, the EPR model can become more effective and robust. The developed EPR-based material models can be incorporated in finite element (FE) analysis.

  1. Organic-inorganic hybrid material SUNCONNECT® for photonic integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Hideyuki; Oshima, Juro; Kashino, Tsubasa

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report the feature and properties about organic-inorganic hybrid material, "SUNCONNECT®" for photonic integrated circuit. "SUNCONNECT®" materials have low propagation loss at 1310nm (0.29dB/cm) and 1550nm (0.45dB/cm) respectively. In addition, the material has high thermal resistance both high temperature annealing test at 300°C and also 260°C solder heat resistance test. For actual device application, high reliability is required. 85°C /85% test was examined by using multi-mode waveguide. As a result, it indicated that variation of insertion loss property was not changed significantly after high temperature / high humidity test. For the application to photonic integrated circuit, it was demonstrated to fabricate polymer optical waveguide by using three different methods. Single-micron core pattern can be fabricated on cladding layer by using UV lithography with proximity gap exposure. Also, single-mode waveguide can be also fabricated with over cladding. On the other hands, "Mosquito method" and imprint method can be applied to fabricate polymer optical waveguide. Remarkably, these two methods can fabricate gradedindex type optical waveguide without using photo mask. In order to evaluate the optical performance, NFP's observation, measurement of insertion loss and propagation loss by cut-back methods were carried out by using each waveguide sample.

  2. Thiol-yne/thiol-epoxy hybrid crosslinked materials based on propargyl modified hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) and diglycidylether of bisphenol A resins

    OpenAIRE

    Acebo Gorostiza, Cristina; Fernández Francos, Xavier; Ramis Juan, Xavier; Serra Albet, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    A novel curing methodology based on the combination of thiol-yne and thiol-epoxy click reactions has been developed. The curing process consists of a first photoinitiated thiol-yne reaction, followed by a thermal thiol-epoxy process. As alkyne substrate a new propargyl terminated hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (PEIyne) has been synthesized from the reaction of commercial poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and glycidyl propargyl ether. The evolution of the curing of different mixtures of PEIyne and d...

  3. Fast determination of Ziziphora tenuior L. essential oil by inorganic-organic hybrid material based on ZnO nanoparticles anchored to a composite made from polythiophene and hexagonally ordered silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Abolghasemi, Mir Mahdi; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, an inorganic-organic hybrid material based on ZnO nanoparticles was anchored to a composite made from polythiophene and hexagonally ordered silica (ZnO/PT/SBA-15) for use in solid-phase fibre microextraction (SPME) of medicinal plants. A homemade SPME apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components of Ziziphora tenuior L. A simplex method was used for optimisation of five different parameters affecting the efficiency of the extraction. The main constituents extracted by ZnO/PT/SBA-15 and PDMS fibres and hydrodistillation (HD) methods, respectively, included pulegone (51.25%, 53.64% and 56.68%), limonene (6.73%, 6.58% and 8.3%), caryophyllene oxide (5.33%, 4.31% and 4.53%) and 1,8-cineole (4.21%, 3.31% and 3.18%). In comparison with the HD method, the proposed technique could equally monitor almost all the components of the sample, in an easier way, in a shorter time and requiring a much lower amount of the sample.

  4. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  5. Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials: Synthesis and in vitro delivery of diclofenac and biocompatibility with periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, José A. [Departamento de Química, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Gutiérrez, Sandra J., E-mail: s.gutierrez@javeriana.edu.co [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Villamil, Jean C. [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Agudelo, Natalia A. [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Pérez, León D., E-mail: ldperezp@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Macromoléculas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26–85, edificio 451 of. 449, Bogotá D.C. Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) based hybrid materials containing hydrophilic domains composed of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The hybrid materials were obtained by RAFT copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and MPS using a pre-formed dixanthate-end-functionalized PCL as macro-chain transfer agent, followed by a post-reaction crosslinking step. The composition of the samples was determined by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallinity of PCL decreases in the presence of the hydrophilic domains. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the samples present an interconnected porous structure on the swelling. Compared to PCL, the hybrid materials presented low water contact angle values and higher elastic modulus. These materials showed controlled release of diclofenac, and biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials • Moderated hydrophilic materials with high swelling resistance • Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were biocompatible.

  6. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  7. Nanocomposite-Based Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Phuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic devices based on nanocomposites composed of conjugated polymers and inorganic nanocrystals show promise for the fabrication of low-cost third-generation thin film photovoltaics. In theory, hybrid solar cells can combine the advantages of the two classes of materials to potentially provide high power conversion efficiencies of up to 10%; however, certain limitations on the current within a hybrid solar cell must be overcome. Current limitations arise from incompatibilities among the various intradevice interfaces and the uncontrolled aggregation of nanocrystals during the step in which the nanocrystals are mixed into the polymer matrix. Both effects can lead to charge transfer and transport inefficiencies. This paper highlights potential strategies for resolving these obstacles and presents an outlook on the future directions of this field.

  8. Optimal energy management for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, van K.; Hofman, T.; Vroemen, B.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and design of an optimal Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for a flywheel-based hybrid vehicle, that does not use any electrical motor/generator, or a battery, for its hybrid functionalities. The hybrid drive train consists of only low-cost components, such as a

  9. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  10. A new porous hybrid material derived from silica fume and alginate for sustainable pollutants reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Alessandra; Vassura, Ivano; Venturini, Elisa; Monai, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Federici, Stefania; Zacco, Annalisa; Treccani, Laura; Bontempi, Elza

    2018-03-01

    In this work a new mesoporous adsorbent material obtained from a natural, high abundant raw material and a high volume industrial by-product is presented. The material is consolidated by the gelling properties of alginate and by decomposition of sodium-bicarbonate controlled porosity at low temperatures (70-80°C) at different scale lengths. The structural, thermal, and morphological characterization shows that the material is a mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid. The material is tested as adsorbent, showing high performances. Methylene blue, used as model pollutant, can be adsorbed and removed from aqueous solutions even at a high concentration with efficiency up to 94%. By coating the material with a 100 nm thin film of titania, good photodegradation performance (more than 20%) can be imparted. Based on embodied energy and carbon footprint of its primary production, the sustainability of the new obtained material is evaluated and quantified in respect to activated carbon as well. It is shown that the new proposed material has an embodied energy lower than one order of magnitude in respect to the one of activated carbon, which represents the gold standards. The versatility of the new material is also demonstrated in terms of its design and manufacturing possibilities. In addition, this material can be printed in 3D. Finally, preliminary results about its ability to capture diesel exhaust particulate matter are reported. The sample exposed to diesel contains a large amount of carbon in its surface. At the best of our knowledge this is the first time that hybrid porous materials are proposed as a new class of sustainable materials, produced to reduce pollutants in the wastewaters and in the atmosphere.

  11. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  12. Perovskite–fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite–PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3− antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour. PMID:25953105

  13. Materials engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  14. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira, E-mail: bia_ms_@hotmail.com [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  15. Controlled release of non-steroidal antiinflammatory and anticancer drugs from hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravieri, Beatriz Bernardes; Molina, Eduardo Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Chronic inflammation is a well known risk factor for the development of human cancer, and at least one third of all human cancers have been associated with inflammation. This can lead to cellular proliferation, a process which per se increases the risk of abnormal cell formation and ultimately the development of cancer. For treating clinical conditions such as inflammation and cancer, the most common methods (e.g., oral administration, injection) can cause unwanted side effects due to drug delivery to non-target sites and the introduction of high doses of the drug to reach the desired location. An alternative to these problems is the preparation of materials that can release drugs with different activities. Thinking about it, the aim of this study was to use a class of hybrid materials based on siloxane-polyether known as ureasil for controlled release of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NAP), and anticancer, such as 5-fluorouracil (5- FU). These drugs have been incorporated in the matrix in different proportions and thereafter, were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DSC and SAXS. In addition, it has been evaluated the release kinetics of these species with different chemical structures. The results have shown that the drug molecules were homogeneously distributed in the xerogel hybrids, which contributed to the drug’s release profile fine-tuning. The chemical environment of the polyether chains was amended by incorporating the drugs. The analysis from XRD, FTIR, SAXS and DSC confirm the good solubility of the substances within hybrid matrix. This hybrid material based on polymers and inorganic compounds may have potential applications in human health. (author)

  16. Porous nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide ternary hybrid spheres as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2014-06-11

    This paper reports the first nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO) ternary hybrid sphere powders as supercapacitor electrode materials. Due to the abundant porous nanostructure, relatively high specific surface area, well-defined spherical morphology, and the synergetic effect of Ni(OH)2, MnO2, and RGO, the electrodes with the as-obtained Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO ternary hybrid spheres as active materials exhibited significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1985 F·g(-1)) and energy density (54.0 Wh·kg(-1)), based on the total mass of active materials. In addition, the Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO hybrid spheres-based asymmetric supercapacitor also showed satisfying energy density and electrochemical cycling stability.

  17. Graphene/VO2 hybrid material for high performance electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Lingjuan; Zhang, Gaini; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Chunling; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/VO 2 hybrid materials are prepared by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The prepared graphene (1.0)/VO 2 hybrid material shows a specific capacitances of 225 F g −1 in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 solution. Furthermore, an asymmetric electrochemical capacitor with graphene (1.0)/VO 2 as a positive electrode and graphene as a negative electrode is assembled, and it can work in a cell voltage of 1.7 V and show excellent capacitive property. - Highlights: • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material has been prepared by one-step hydrothermal reduction. • Graphene/VO 2 hybrid material exhibits high specific capacitance. • An asymmetric capacitor working at 1.7 V in aqueous solution is assembled based on graphene/VO 2 electrode. • The asymmetric capacitor exhibits high energy density. - Abstract: Vanadium oxides have attracted significant attention for electrochemical capacitor because of their extensive multifunctional properties. In the present work, graphene/VO 2 (RG/VO 2 ) hybrid materials with different RG amounts are prepared in a mixture of ammonium vanadate, formic acid and graphite oxide (GO) nanosheets by one-step simultaneous hydrothermal reduction technology. The hydrothermal treatment makes the reduction of GO into RG and the formation of VO 2 particles with starfruit morphology. The starfruit-like VO 2 particles are uniformly embedded in the hole constructed by RG nanosheets, which makes the electrode–electrolyte contact better. A high specific capacitance of 225 F g −1 has been achieved for RG(1.0)/VO 2 electrode with RG content of 26 wt% in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. An asymmetrical electrochemical capacitor is assembled by using RG(1.0)/VO 2 as positive electrode and RG as negative electrode, and it can be reversibly charged–discharged at a cell voltage of 1.7 V in 0.5 mol L −1 K 2 SO 4 electrolyte. The asymmetrical capacitor can deliver an energy density of 22.8 Wh kg −1 at a power density

  18. Photophysical Properties of Novel Organic, Inorganic, and Hybrid Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela Yenchi

    For the past 200 years, novel materials have driven technological progress, and going forward these advanced materials will continue to deeply impact virtually all major industrial sectors. Therefore, it is vital to perform basic and applied research on novel materials in order to develop new technologies for the future. This dissertation describes the results of photophysical studies on three novel materials with electronic and optoelectronic applications, namely organic small molecules DTDCTB with C60 and C70, colloidal indium antimonide (InSb) nanocrystals, and an organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with the composition CH3NH3PbI 3-xClx, using transient absorption (TA) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In chapter 2, we characterize the timescale and efficiency of charge separation and recombination in thin film blends comprising DTDCTB, a narrow-band gap electron donor, and either C60 or C70 as an electron acceptor. TA and time-resolved PL studies show correlated, sub-picosecond charge separation times and multiple timescales of charge recombination. Our results indicate that some donors fail to charge separate in donor-acceptor mixed films, which suggests material manipulations may improve device efficiency. Chapter 3 describes electron-hole pair dynamics in strongly quantum-confined, colloidal InSb nanocrystal quantum dots. For all samples, TA shows a bleach feature that, for several picoseconds, dramatically red-shifts prior to reaching a time-independent position. We suggest this unusual red-shift relates transient population flow through two energetically comparable conduction band states. From pump-power-dependent measurements, we also determine biexciton lifetimes. In chapter 4, we examine carrier dynamics in polycrystalline methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3-xCl x) thin films as functions of temperature and photoexcitation wavelength. At room temperature, the long-lived TA signals stand in contrast to PL dynamics, where the

  19. Rule-based energy management strategies for hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.; Serrarens, A.F.A.; Steinbuch, M.

    2007-01-01

    Int. J. of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (IJEHV), The highest control layer of a (hybrid) vehicular drive train is termed the Energy Management Strategy (EMS). In this paper an overview of different control methods is given and a new rule-based EMS is introduced based on the combination of Rule-Based

  20. The chitosan - Porphyrazine hybrid materials and their photochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełminiak-Dudkiewicz, Dorota; Ziegler-Borowska, Marta; Stolarska, Magdalena; Sobotta, Lukasz; Falkowski, Michal; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Kowalonek, Jolanta; Węgrzynowska-Drzymalska, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Halina

    2018-04-01

    Three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines differing in the size of peripheral substituents (3,5-dimethoxybenzylsulfanyl, (3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzylsulfanyl, 3,5-bis[(3,5-bis[(3,5-dimethoxybenzyloxy)benzyloxy]benzylsulfanyl) were exposed to visible and ultraviolet radiation (UV A + B + C) in order to determine their photochemical properties. The course of photochemical reactions in dimethylformamide solutions and the ability of the systems to generate singlet oxygen were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which additionally gave information on aggregation processes. The porphyrazines were found to be stable upon visible light irradiation conditions, but when exposed to high energy UV radiation, the efficient photodegradation of these macrocycles was observed. Therefore, these three magnesium sulfanyl porphyrazines were incorporated into chitosan matrix. The obtained thin films of chitosan doped with porphyrazines were subjected to polychromatic UV-radiation and studied by spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Application of chitosan as a polymer matrix for porphyrazines was found to be successful method that effectively stopped the unwelcome degradation of macrocycles, thus worth considering for their photoprotection. In addition, the surface properties of the hybrid material were determined by contact angle measurements and calculation of surface free energy. Intermolecular interactions between these novel porphyrazines and chitosan were detected. The mechanism of photochemical reactions occurring in studied systems has been discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Silicon-organic pigment material hybrids for photovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.; Weiler, U.; Jaegermann, W. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstreet 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kelting, C.; Schlettwein, D. [Institute for Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Makarov, S.; Woehrle, D. [Institute of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, University Bremen, Leobener Street NW II, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Abdallah, O.; Kunst, M. [Department Solar Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Institute, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-12-14

    Hybrid materials of silicon and organic dyes have been investigated for possible application as photovoltaic material in thin film solar cells. High conversion efficiency is expected from the combination of the advantages of organic dyes for light absorption and those of silicon for charge carrier separation and transport. Low temperature remote hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) was developed for microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) deposition using SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixtures. As model dyes zinc phthalocyanines have been evaporated from Knudsen type sources. Layers of dye on {mu}c-Si and {mu}c-Si on dye films, and composites of simultaneously and sequentially deposited Si and dye have been prepared and characterized. Raman, absorption, and photoemission spectroscopy prove the stability of the organic molecules against the rough HWCVD-Si process. Transient microwave conductivity (TRMC) indicates good electronic quality of the {mu}c-Si matrix. Energy transfer from dye to Si is indicated indirectly by luminescence and directly by photoconductivity measurements. F{sub x}ZnPc pigments with x=0,4,8,16 have been synthesized, purified and adsorbed onto H-terminated Si(1 1 1) for electronic state line up determination by photoelectron spectroscopy. For x=4 and 8 the dye frontier orbitals line up symmetrically versus the Si energy gap offering similar energetic driving forces for electron and hole injection, which is considered optimum for bulk sensitization and indicates a direction to improve the optoelectronic coupling of the organic dyes to silicon. (author)

  2. Yield performance and stability of CMS-based triticale hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Jonathan; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2015-02-01

    CMS-based triticale hybrids showed only marginal midparent heterosis for grain yield and lower dynamic yield stability compared to inbred lines. Hybrids of triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) are expected to possess outstanding yield performance and increased dynamic yield stability. The objectives of the present study were to (1) examine the optimum choice of the biometrical model to compare yield stability of hybrids versus lines, (2) investigate whether hybrids exhibit a more pronounced grain yield performance and yield stability, and (3) study optimal strategies to predict yield stability of hybrids. Thirteen female and seven male parental lines and their 91 factorial hybrids as well as 30 commercial lines were evaluated for grain yield in up to 20 environments. Hybrids were produced using a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)-inducing cytoplasm that originated from Triticumtimopheevii Zhuk. We found that the choice of the biometrical model can cause contrasting results and concluded that a group-by-environment interaction term should be added to the model when estimating stability variance of hybrids and lines. midparent heterosis for grain yield was on average 3 % with a range from -15.0 to 11.5 %. No hybrid outperformed the best inbred line. Hybrids had, on average, lower dynamic yield stability compared to the inbred lines. Grain yield performance of hybrids could be predicted based on midparent values and general combining ability (GCA)-predicted values. In contrast, stability variance of hybrids could be predicted only based on GCA-predicted values. We speculated that negative effects of the used CMS cytoplasm might be the reason for the low performance and yield stability of the hybrids. For this purpose a detailed study on the reasons for the drawback of the currently existing CMS system in triticale is urgently required comprising also the search of potentially alternative hybridization systems.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene-Based Magnetic Hybrid Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jashiela Wani Jusin; Madzlan Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based magnetic hybrid nano composite has the advantage of exhibiting better performance as platform or supporting materials to develop novel properties of composite by increasing selectivity of the targeted adsorbate. The hybrid nano material was prepared by mixing and hydrolysing iron (II) and iron (III) salt precursors in the presence of GO dispersion through coprecipitation method followed by in situ chemical reduction of GO. The effect of weight loading ratio of Fe to GO (4:1, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:4) on structural properties of the hybrid nano materials was investigated. The presence of characteristic peaks in FTIR spectra indicated that GO has been successfully oxidized from graphite while the decrease in oxygenated functional groups and peaks intensity evidenced the formation of hybrid nano materials through the subsequent reduction process. The presence of characteristic peaks in XRD pattern denoted that magnetite nanoparticles disappeared at higher loading of GO. TEM micrograph showed that the best distribution of iron oxide particles on the surface of hybrid nano material occurred when the loading ratio of Fe to GO was fixed at 2:5 to 1. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets in the hybrid materials showed less wrinkled sheet like structure compared to GO due to exfoliation and reduction process during the synthesis. The layered morphology of GO degrades at higher concentrations of iron oxide. (author)

  4. Luminescent hybrid materials functionalized with lanthanide ethylenodiaminotetraacetate complexes containing β-diketonate as antenna ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Franklin P.; Costa, Israel F.; Espínola, José Geraldo P.; Faustino, Wagner M.; Moura, Jandeilson L. [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F.; Paolini, Tiago B. [Departamento de Química Fundamental-Instituto de Química da Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felinto, Maria Cláudia F.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas energéticas e Nucleares-IPEN, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teotonio, Ercules E.S., E-mail: teotonioees@quimica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Química-Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Three organic–inorganic hybrid materials based on silica gel functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS), [3-(2-aminoetilamino)-propil]-trimetoxissilano (DAPTS) and 3-[2-(2-aminoetilamino)etilamino] propiltrimetoxysilane (TAPTS) and subsequently modified with EDTA derivative were prepared by nonhomogeneous route and were then characterized. The resulting materials named SilXN-EDTA (X=1 for APTS, 2 for DAPTS and 3 for TAPTS) were used to obtain new lanthanide Ln{sup 3+}-β-diketonate (Ln{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+}) complexes covalently linked to the functionalized silica gel surfaces (named SilXN-EDTALn-dik, dik=tta, dbm, bzac and acac). The photophysical properties of the new luminescent materials were investigated and compared with those with similar system presenting water molecules coordinated to the lanthanide ions, SilXN-EDTALn-H{sub 2}O. The SilXN-EDTAEu-dik and SilXN-EDTATb-dik systems displayed characteristic red and green luminescence when excited by UV radiation. Furthermore, the quantitative results showed that the emission quantum efficiency (η), experimental intensity parameters Ω{sub 2} and Ω{sub 4}, and Einstein's emission coefficient (A{sub 0J}) of the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik materials were largely dependent on the ligands. Based on the luminescence data, the most efficient intramolecular energy transfer processes were found to the SilXN-EDTAEu-dik (dik: tta and dbm) and SilXN-EDTATb-acac materials, which exhibited more pure emission colors. These materials are promising red and green phosphors, respectively. - Highlights: • New highly luminescent hybrid materials containing lanthanide-EDTA complexes. • The effect of three silylanting agent on the adsorption and luminescent properties has been studied. • The luminescence sensitizing by different β-diketonate ligands have been investigated.

  5. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayami Takeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite. The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials.

  6. Melt sonoquenching: an affective process to obtain new hybrid material and achieve enhanced electrochromic performances based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/2,4,5-tris(1-methyl- 4-pyridinium)-imidazolide tetrafluoroborate nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Renato S. de; Goulart, Juliana da S.; Miranda, Fabio S.; Ponzio, Eduardo A., E-mail: eaponzio@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    Hybrid electrochromic materials are a very important class of compounds, because they enable new and/or better optical and electrochemical properties to be unfolded. This paper reports the synthesis of the new V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.1.26H{sub 2}O([C{sub 3}N{sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N){sub 3}]){sub 0.07} using the combination of two traditional methods, melting quenching and sonochemistry. The new material was characterized by several methods in order to verify the physical and chemical characteristics and its possible use as an electrochromic electrode. The organic guest provokes an interlayer spacing decrease of the inorganic matrix and the electrostatic interaction between the oxo groups of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix and the pyridinium rings of the organic guest demonstrate a strong interaction. The new hybrid nanostructure presented good reversibility and cyclability during 50 cycles, electrochromic efficiency of 22 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} (410 nm) and 96 % color retention after 50 cycles of color changing. (author)'.

  7. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  8. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, J. N.; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D.; Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires

  9. Terahertz and infrared transmission of an organic/inorganic hybrid thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, J. N., E-mail: heyman@macalester.edu; Alebachew, B. A.; Kaminski, Z. S.; Nguyen, M. D. [Physics Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Coates, N. E.; Urban, J. J. [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We report terahertz and infrared transmission measurements of a high-performance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) matrix. The DC electrical conductivity of the hybrid material (41 S/cm) is approximately one hundred times that of pure PEDOT:PSS and more than 400 times that of a film of pure tellurium nanowires, while the terahertz-frequency (THz) conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and the hybrid material are comparable at f ∼ 2THz. A frequency-dependent conductivity model indicates that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in the DC charge mobility rather than in the free charge density. We suggest that the increased DC conductivity of the hybrid material results from an increase in linkage between PEDOT domains by the tellurium nanowires.

  10. Educational Process Material Base

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Ozerova; Irina Zabaturina; Vera Kuznetsova; Galina Kovaleva

    2012-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by the Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics Olga Ozerova - Head of the Department for Statistics of Education, Institute for Statistical Studies and the Economics of Knowledge, National Research University - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Email: Address: 18 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation.Irina Zabaturina - senior resea...

  11. Structural effect of monomer type on properties of copolyimides and copolyimide-silica hybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilkaya Canan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of two different diamine monomers, containing phosphine oxide, on thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of copolyimides and their hybrid materials was investigated. Gas separation properties of the synthesized copolyimides were also analysed. Two different diamine monomers with phosphine oxide were bis(3-aminophenyl phenylphosphine oxide (BAPPO and bis(3-aminophenoxy-4-phenyl phenylphosphine oxide (m-BAPPO. In the synthesis of copolyimides 3,3’-diamino-diphenyl sulfone (DDS was also used as the diamine, as well as 2,2’-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenylhexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA. Copolyimide films were prepared by thermal imidization. Hybrid materials containing 5 % SiO2 were synthesised further by sol-gel technique. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR confirmed the expected structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA demonstrated that m-BAPPO based copolyimides had lower glass transition temperatures (Tg than BAPPO based copolyimides. m-BAPPO containing copolyimide without silica shifted the thermal decomposition temperature to a higher value. The moduli and strength values of BAPPO diamine containing copolyimide and its hybrid were higher than those of m-BAPPO containing materials. The contact angle measurements showed the hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis exhibited the silica particles dispersion in the copolyimides. These copolyimides may be used in the coating industry. The CO2 permeability and the permselectivity were the highest among the other values in this study, when m-BAPPO containing copolyimide in the absence of silica was used. The gas permeabilities obtained from this work were in this decreasing order: PCO2 > PO2 > PN2.

  12. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  13. Microemulsion based hybrid biofuels using glycerol monooleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, Plaban; Konwar, Lakhya Jyoti; Deka, Dhanapati

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel quality of GMO based MHBFs. • Effect of externally added monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on fuel characteristics of MHBF. • Structural and dynamic behaviors of GMO based MHBFs. • Can offer strong candidature for future biofuel industry. - Abstract: The present investigation aims to highlighten the effect of monoglyceride surfactant (GMO) on structure and dynamic behavior and other fuel characteristics of microemulsion based hybrid biofuels (MHBFs). Fuel quality of MHBFs formulated using purified GMO (>90%), which was prepared by esterification of glycerol, was investigated in the study. Phase behaviors, droplet size distribution, number of droplets present in the system, average droplet size and average length of surface active agents were studied as a part of structural investigations of the GMO based MHBFs. Diffusion coefficient, energy barrier to droplet coalescence and rate of coalescence of droplets were also investigated for the formulated MHBFs. The number of droplets, length of surface active agent and the diffusion co-efficient were in the ranges of 1.87 × 10"2"1–5.66 × 10"2"1/m"3, 0.92–1.07 nm and 1.00 × 10"−"1"1–1.79 × 10"−"1"1 m"2/s, respectively. The rate of droplet coalescence was obtained in the range 2.77 × 10"−"4–8.78 × 10"−"4 times the collision factor. MHBFs incorporating the glycerol derived bio-based nonionic surfactant GMO exhibited viscosity of 4.12 mm"2/s (at 40 °C), gross calorific value (GCV) of 39.17 MJ/kg and pour point of −7 °C.

  14. Synergetic Hybrid Aerogels of Vanadia and Graphene as Electrode Materials of Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of synergetic hybrid aerogel materials of vanadia and graphene as electrode materials in supercapacitors was evaluated. The hybrid materials were synthesized by two methods. In Method I, premade graphene oxide (GO hydrogel was first chemically reduced by L-ascorbic acid and then soaked in vanadium triisopropoxide solution to obtain V2O5 gel in the pores of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO hydrogel. The gel was supercritically dried to obtain the hybrid aerogel. In Method II, vanadium triisopropoxide was hydrolyzed from a solution in water with GO particles uniformly dispersed to obtain the hybrid gel. The hybrid aerogel was obtained by supercritical drying of the gel followed by thermal reduction of GO. The electrode materials were prepared by mixing 80 wt % hybrid aerogel with 10 wt % carbon black and 10 wt % polyvinylidene fluoride. The hybrid materials in Method II showed higher capacitance due to better interactions between vanadia and graphene oxide particles and more uniform vanadia particle distribution.

  15. Carbon Nanofiber/3D Nanoporous Silicon Hybrids as High Capacity Lithium Storage Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeong-Il; Sohn, Myungbeom; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Cheolho; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hansu

    2016-04-21

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/3D nanoporous (3DNP) Si hybrid materials were prepared by chemical etching of melt-spun Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposites, followed by carbonization using a pitch. CNFs were successfully grown on the surface of 3DNP Si particles using residual Fe impurities after acidic etching, which acted as a catalyst for the growth of CNFs. The resulting CNF/3DNP Si hybrid materials showed an enhanced cycle performance up to 100 cycles compared to that of the pristine Si/Al-Cu-Fe alloy nanocomposite as well as that of bare 3DNP Si particles. These results indicate that CNFs and the carbon coating layer have a beneficial effect on the capacity retention characteristics of 3DNP Si particles by providing continuous electron-conduction pathways in the electrode during cycling. The approach presented here provides another way to improve the electrochemical performances of porous Si-based high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Polyphosphazine-based polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Avci, Recep; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2010-05-25

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  17. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. New MPPT algorithm based on hybrid dynamical theory

    KAUST Repository

    Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Benmansour, K.; Boucherit, M. S.; Tadjine, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on the hybrid dynamical theory. A multiceli converter has been considered as an adaptation stage for the photovoltaic chain. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid automata switching between eight different operating modes, which has been validated by simulation tests under different working conditions. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  20. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT. The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1 the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2 chord length, (3 twist angle, and (4 thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience.

  1. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  2. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-11-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  3. Three-Dimensional Printing Based Hybrid Manufacturing of Microfluidic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Hasan, Muhammad Noman; Shen, Richang; Gurkan, Umut A

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic platforms offer revolutionary and practical solutions to challenging problems in biology and medicine. Even though traditional micro/nanofabrication technologies expedited the emergence of the microfluidics field, recent advances in advanced additive manufacturing hold significant potential for single-step, stand-alone microfluidic device fabrication. One such technology, which holds a significant promise for next generation microsystem fabrication is three-dimensional (3D) printing. Presently, building 3D printed stand-alone microfluidic devices with fully embedded microchannels for applications in biology and medicine has the following challenges: (i) limitations in achievable design complexity, (ii) need for a wider variety of transparent materials, (iii) limited z-resolution, (iv) absence of extremely smooth surface finish, and (v) limitations in precision fabrication of hollow and void sections with extremely high surface area to volume ratio. We developed a new way to fabricate stand-alone microfluidic devices with integrated manifolds and embedded microchannels by utilizing a 3D printing and laser micromachined lamination based hybrid manufacturing approach. In this new fabrication method, we exploit the minimized fabrication steps enabled by 3D printing, and reduced assembly complexities facilitated by laser micromachined lamination method. The new hybrid fabrication method enables key features for advanced microfluidic system architecture: (i) increased design complexity in 3D, (ii) improved control over microflow behavior in all three directions and in multiple layers, (iii) transverse multilayer flow and precisely integrated flow distribution, and (iv) enhanced transparency for high resolution imaging and analysis. Hybrid manufacturing approaches hold great potential in advancing microfluidic device fabrication in terms of standardization, fast production, and user-independent manufacturing.

  4. Composite materials with ionic conductivity: from inorganic composites to hybrid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaroslavtsev, Andrei B [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    Information on composite materials with ionic conductivity including inorganic composites and hybrid polymeric ion exchange membranes containing inorganic or polymeric nanoparticles is generalized. The nature of the effect of increase in the ionic conductivity in this type of materials and the key approaches used for theoretical estimation of the conductivity are considered. Data on the ionic conductivity and some other important properties of composites and membrane materials are presented. Prospects for utilization of composite materials and hybrid membranes in hydrogen power engineering are briefly outlined.

  5. Development and material properties of new hybrid plywood from oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Bhat, A.H.; Jawaid, M.; Nik Fuad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Shortage of wood as a raw material has forced wood-based industries to find alternative local raw materials. Currently, oil palm biomass is undergoing research and development (R and D) and appears to be the most viable alternative. This work examines the conversion of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) into new plywood and analyses its properties. We prepared five-ply veneer hybrid plywood (alternating layers of oil palm trunk veneer and empty fruit bunch mat) with different spread levels (300 g/m 2 and 500 g/m 2 ) of resins (phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde). We then studied the mechanical and physical properties of the plywood. The results show that hybridisation of EFB with OPT improves some properties of plywood, such as bending strength, screw withdrawal and shear strength. The thermal properties of the plywood panels were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The panels glued with phenol formaldehyde with a spread level of 500 g/m 2 showed better thermal stability than the other panels. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the fibre matrix bonding and surface morphology of the plywood at different glue spread levels of the resins. The fibre-matrix bonding showed good improvement for the hybrid panel glued with 500 g/m 2 phenol formaldehyde.

  6. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  7. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  8. Strongly coupled inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-04-07

    The global shift of energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources requires more efficient and reliable electrochemical energy storage devices. In particular, the development of electric or hydrogen powered vehicles calls for much-higher-performance batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells than are currently available. In this review, we present an approach to synthesize electrochemical energy storage materials to form strongly coupled hybrids (SC-hybrids) of inorganic nanomaterials and novel graphitic nano-carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, through nucleation and growth of nanoparticles at the functional groups of oxidized graphitic nano-carbon. We show that the inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials represent a new approach to synthesize electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance than traditional counterparts made by simple physical mixtures of electrochemically active inorganic particles and conducting carbon materials. The inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials are novel due to possible chemical bonding between inorganic nanoparticles and oxidized carbon, affording enhanced charge transport and increased rate capability of electrochemical materials without sacrificing specific capacity. Nano-carbon with various degrees of oxidation provides a novel substrate for nanoparticle nucleation and growth. The interactions between inorganic precursors and oxidized-carbon substrates provide a degree of control over the morphology, size and structure of the resulting inorganic nanoparticles. This paper reviews the recent development of inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion, including the preparation and functionalization of graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes to impart oxygen containing groups and defects, and methods of synthesis of nanoparticles of various morphologies on oxidized graphene and carbon nanotubes. We then review the applications of the SC-hybrid

  9. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  10. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications.

  11. A Cost–Effective Computer-Based, Hybrid Motorised and Gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Cost–Effective Computer-Based, Hybrid Motorised and Gravity-Driven Material Handling System for the Mauritian Apparel Industry. ... Thus, many companies are investing significantly in a Research & Development department in order to design new techniques to improve worker's efficiency, and to decrease the amount ...

  12. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J. M.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Vos, P. C.; Willemink, MJ; Velthuis, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were

  13. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hybrid materials engineering in biology, chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroux, F; Rabu, P; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Taubert, A.

    The Guest Editors emphasize the rapidly growing research in advanced materials. "Telecommunication, health and environment, energy and transportation, and sustainability are just a few examples where new materials have been key for technological advancement."

  15. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  16. Activated graphene as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Meryl D; Murali, Shanthi; Quarles, Neil; Zhu, Yanwu; Potts, Jeffrey R; Zhu, Xianjun; Ha, Hyung-Wook; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2012-03-14

    Chemically activated graphene ('activated microwave expanded graphite oxide', a-MEGO) was used as a cathode material for Li-ion hybrid supercapacitors. The performance of a-MEGO was first verified with Li-ion electrolyte in a symmetrical supercapacitor cell. Hybrid supercapacitors were then constructed with a-MEGO as the cathode and with either graphite or Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) (LTO) for the anode materials. The results show that the activated graphene material works well in a symmetrical cell with the Li-ion electrolyte with specific capacitances as high as 182 F g(-1). In a full a-MEGO/graphite hybrid cell, specific capacitances as high as 266 F g(-1) for the active materials at operating potentials of 4 V yielded gravimetric energy densities for a packaged cell of 53.2 W h kg(-1).

  17. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar, E-mail: Anjon.K.Mondal@student.uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaogang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Wang, Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.wang@uts.edu.au [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-15

    Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO{sub 2} nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO{sub 2}) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g{sup −1}. Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO{sub 2} ratios. • The graphene/MnO{sub 2} hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles.

  18. Graphene/MnO2 hybrid nanosheets as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anjon Kumar; Wang, Bei; Su, Dawei; Wang, Ying; Chen, Shuangqiang; Zhang, Xiaogang; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets were prepared by incorporating graphene and MnO 2 nanosheets in ethylene glycol. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirmed nanosheet morphology of the hybrid materials. Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte. We found that the graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with a weight ratio of 1:4 (graphene:MnO 2 ) delivered the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g −1 . Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets also exhibited good capacitance retention on 2000 cycles. - Highlights: • Graphene/MnO 2 hybrid nanosheets with different ratios were fabricated. • The specific capacitance is strongly dependent on graphene/MnO 2 ratios. • The graphene/MnO 2 hybrid electrode (1:4) exhibited high specific capacitance. • The electrode retained 84% of the initial specific capacitance after 2000 cycles

  19. A versatile route to hybrid open-framework materials | Ayi | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation of the intermediate phase and its reaction with metal ions to form open framework solids has been explored and it has proven a facile route of synthesizing inorganic-organic hybrid materials with open pores. Here the amine phosphate route of templating inorganic open-framework materials has been reviewed ...

  20. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Catauro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2 hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications.

  1. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillo, Elisabetta; Illiano, Michela; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone)/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2) hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones) enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications. PMID:29039803

  2. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  3. Multidimensional materials and device architectures for future hybrid energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Dunn, Bruce; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    Electrical energy storage plays a vital role in daily life due to our dependence on numerous portable electronic devices. Moreover, with the continued miniaturization of electronics, integration of wireless devices into our homes and clothes and the widely anticipated `Internet of Things', there are intensive efforts to develop miniature yet powerful electrical energy storage devices. This review addresses the cutting edge of electrical energy storage technology, outlining approaches to overcome current limitations and providing future research directions towards the next generation of electrical energy storage devices whose characteristics represent a true hybridization of batteries and electrochemical capacitors.

  4. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  5. Performance analysis of switching based hybrid FSO/RF transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Usman, Muneer; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid free space optical (FSO)/ radio frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data rate wireless back haul.We present and analyze a switching based transmission scheme for hybrid FSO/RF system. Specifically, either FSO or RF link will be active at a certain time instance, with FSO link enjoying a higher priority. Analytical expressions have been obtained for the outage probability, average bit error rate and ergodic capacity for the resulting system. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the hybrid scheme with FSO only scenario.

  6. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  7. Hybrid structures based on montmorillonite/modified starch intercalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duchek, P.; Špírková, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 9 (2010), s. 885 ISSN 0009-2770. [International Conference on Polysaccharides-Glycoscience /6./. 29.09.2010-1.10.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic/inorganic hybrides * montmorillonite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  8. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de; Cardoso, Celso X.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization (ΑH) and activation energy (E a ) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E a ) and heat of polymerization (ΑH) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E a and ΑH. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  9. Relationships between the curing conditions and some mechanical properties of hybrid thermosetting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Newton L.; Aquino, Hermes A. de [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: nldias@dfq.feis.unesp.br; Cardoso, Celso X. [UNESP, Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2006-09-15

    The relationship between the heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) and activation energy (E{sub a}) parameters, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the ratio of epoxy resin to hardener of the thermosetting materials based on an organic-inorganic hybrid epoxy resin (OG) was investigated. Activation energy (E{sub a}) and heat of polymerization ({alpha}H) increased with an increasing OG content, up to 70 wt %. Further increase in OG content to 80 wt % reduced E{sub a} and {alpha}H. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicates that the maximum cross-link density is obtained at 83 wt % OG, whereas fracture toughness and tensile modulus mechanical properties are maximized at 70 wt % OG. (author)

  10. Organoclay hybrid materials as precursors of porous ZnO/silica-clay heterostructures for photocatalytic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Akkari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures were successfully synthesized by a facile two-step process applied to two types of clays: montmorillonite layered silicate and sepiolite microfibrous clay mineral. In the first step, intermediate silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures were prepared following a colloidal route based on the controlled hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of the starting organoclay. Later on, pre-formed ZnO nanoparticles (NP dispersed in 2-propanol were incorporated under ultrasound irradiation to the silica–organoclay hybrid heterostructures dispersed in 2-propanol, and finally, the resulting solids were calcinated to eliminate the organic matter and to produce ZnO nanoparticles (NP homogeneously assembled to the clay–SiO2 framework. In the case of montmorillonite the resulting materials were identified as delaminated clays of ZnO/SiO2-clay composition, whereas for sepiolite, the resulting heterostructure is constituted by the assembling of ZnO NP to the sepiolite–silica substrate only affecting the external surface of the clay. The structural and morphological features of the prepared heterostructures were characterized by diverse physico-chemical techniques (such as XRD, FTIR, TEM, FE-SEM. The efficiency of these new porous ZnO/SiO2-clay heterostructures as potential photocatalysts in the degradation of organic dyes and the removal of pharmaceutical drugs in water solution was tested using methylene blue and ibuprofen compounds, respectively, as model of pollutants.

  11. Crash simulation of hybrid structures considering the stress and strain rate dependent material behavior of thermoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Schöngart, M.; Weber, M.; Klein, J.

    2015-05-01

    Thermoplastic materials are more and more used as a light weight replacement for metal, especially in the automotive industry. Since these materials do not provide the mechanical properties, which are required to manufacture supporting elements like an auto body or a cross bearer, plastics are combined with metals in so called hybrid structures. Normally, the plastics components are joined to the metal structures using different technologies like welding or screwing. Very often, the hybrid structures are made of flat metal parts, which are stiffened by a reinforcement structure made of thermoplastic materials. The loads on these structures are very often impulsive, for example in the crash situation of an automobile. Due to the large stiffness variation of metal and thermoplastic materials, complex states of stress and very high local strain rates occur in the contact zone under impact conditions. Since the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials is highly dependent on these types of load, the crash failure of metal plastic hybrid parts is very complex. The problem is that the normally used strain rate dependent elastic/plastic material models are not capable to simulate the mechanical behavior of thermoplastic materials depended on the state of stress. As part of a research project, a method to simulate the mechanical behavior of hybrid structures under impact conditions is developed at the IKV. For this purpose, a specimen for the measurement of mechanical properties dependet on the state of stress and a method for the strain rate depended characterization of thermoplastic materials were developed. In the second step impact testing is performed. A hybrid structure made from a metal sheet and a reinforcement structure of a Polybutylenterephthalat Polycarbonate blend is tested under impact conditions. The measured stress and strain rate depended material data are used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the hybrid structure under highly dynamic load with

  12. Numerical simulation of the induction heating of hybrid semi-finished materials into the semi-solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. As part of the research project "Hybrid interaction during and after thixoforging of multi-material systems", which is founded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), a thixoforging process for producing hybrid components with cohesive metal-to-metal connections is developed. In this context, this paper deals with the numerical simulation of the inductive heating process of hybrid semi-finished materials, consisting of two different aluminium alloys. By reason of the skin effect that leads to inhomogeneous temperature distributions during inductive heating processes, the aluminium alloy with the higher melting point is thereby assembled in the outer side and the alloy with the lower melting point is assembled in the core of the semi-finished material. In this way, the graded heat distribution can be adapted to the used materialś flow properties that are heavily heat dependent. Without this graded heat distribution a proper forming process in the semi-solid state will not be possible. For numerically modelling the inductive heating system of the institute, a coupling of the magnetostatic and the thermal solver was realized by using Ansys Workbench. While the electromagnetic field and its associated heat production rate were solved in a frequency domain, the temperature development was solved in the time based domain. The numerical analysis showed that because of the high thermal conductivity of the aluminium, which leads to a rapid temperature equalization in the semi-finished material, the heating process has to be fast and with a high frequency for produce most heat in the outer region of the material. Finally, the obtained numerical results were validated with experimental heating tests.

  13. Hybrid heat pipe based passive cooling device for spent nuclear fuel dry storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid heat pipe was presented as a passive cooling device for dry storage cask of SNF. • A method to utilize waste heat from spent fuel was suggested using hybrid heat pipe. • CFD analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe. • Hybrid heat pipe can increase safety margin and storage capacity of the dry storage cask. - Abstract: Conventional dry storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were designed to remove decay heat through the natural convection of air, but this method has limited cooling capacity and a possible re-criticality accident in case of flooding. To enhance the safety and capacity of dry storage cask of SNF, hybrid heat pipe-based passive cooling device was suggested. Heat pipe is an excellent passive heat transfer device using the principles of both conduction and phase change of the working fluid. The heat pipe containing neutron absorber material, the so-called hybrid heat pipe, is expected to prevent the re-criticality accidents of SNF and to increase the safety margin during interim and long term storage period. Moreover, a hybrid heat pipe with thermoelectric module, a Stirling engine and a phase change material tank can be used for utilization of the waste heat as heat-transfer medium. Located at the guide tube or instrumentation tube, hybrid heat pipe can remove decay heat from inside the sealed metal cask to outside, decreasing fuel rod temperature. In this paper, a 2-step analysis was performed using computational fluid dynamics code to evaluate the heat and fluid flow inside a cask, which consisted of a single spent fuel assembly simulation and a full-scope dry cask simulation. For a normal dry storage cask, the maximum fuel temperature is 290.0 °C. With hybrid heat pipe cooling, the temperature decreased to 261.6 °C with application of one hybrid heat pipe per assembly, and to 195.1 °C with the application of five hybrid heat pipes per assembly. Therefore, a dry

  14. Transuranic Hybrid Materials: Crystallographic and Computational Metrics of Supramolecular Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surbella, Robert G. [Department; Ducati, Lucas C. [Department; Pellegrini, Kristi L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Autschbach, Jochen [Department; Schwantes, Jon M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Cahill, Christopher L. [Department

    2017-07-26

    A family of twelve supramolecular [AnO2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) containing compounds assembled via hydrogen and halogen bonds donated by substituted 4-X-pyridinium cations (X = H, Cl, Br, I) is reported. These materials were prepared from a room-temperature synthesis wherein crystallization of unhydrolyzed and valence pure [An(VI)O2Cl4]2- (An = U, Np, Pu) tectons are the norm. We present a hierarchy of assembly criteria based on crystallographic observations, and subsequently quantify the strengths of the non-covalent interactions using Kohn-Sham density functional calculations. We provide, for the first time, a detailed description of the electrostatic potentials (ESPs) of the actinyl tetrahalide dianions and reconcile crystallographically observed structural motifs and non-covalent interaction (NCI) acceptor-donor pairings. Our findings indicate that the average electrostatic potential across the halogen ligands (the acceptors) changes by only ~2 kJ mol-1 across the AnO22+ series, indicating the magnitude of the potential is independent of the metal center. The role of the cation is therefore critical in directing structural motifs and dictating the resulting hydrogen and halogen bond strengths, the former being stronger due to the positive charge centralized on the pyridyl nitrogen N-H+. Subsequent analyses using the Quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) approaches support this conclusion and highlight the structure directing role of the cations. Whereas one can infer that the 2 Columbic attraction is the driver for assembly, the contribution of the non-covalent interaction is to direct the molecular-level arrangement (or disposition) of the tectons.

  15. Studies on the removal of arsenic (III) from water by a novel hybrid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sandip; Padhi, T.; Patel, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The removal of As (III) is about 98% at pH 7 with the hybrid material (ZrO-EA). → The hybrid material exhibits specific surface area of 201.62 m 2 /g. → The adsorption of arsenic (III) from aqueous solution by the hybrid material is spontaneous. → The material could be easily regenerated with sodium hydroxide at pH 12. - Abstract: The present work provides a method for removal of the arsenic (III) from water. An ion-exchanger hybrid material zirconium (IV) oxide-ethanolamine (ZrO-EA) is synthesized and characterized which is subsequently used for the removal of selective arsenic (III) from water containing 10,50,100 mg/L of arsenic (III) solution. The probable practical application for arsenic removal from water by this material has also been studied. The various parameters affecting the removal process like initial concentration of As (III), adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, ionic strength, and pH are investigated. From the data of results, it is indicated that, the adsorbent dose of 0.7 mg/L, contact time 50 min after which the adsorption process comes to equilibrium, temperature (25 ± 2), solution pH (5-7), which are the optimum conditions for adsorption. The typical adsorption isotherms are calculated to know the suitability of the process. The column studies showed 98% recovery of arsenic from water especially at low concentration of arsenic in water samples.

  16. Hybrid Integrated Silicon Microfluidic Platform for Fluorescence Based Biodetection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Darveau

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The desideratum to develop a fully integrated Lab-on-a-chip device capable ofrapid specimen detection for high throughput in-situ biomedical diagnoses and Point-of-Care testing applications has called for the integration of some of the novel technologiessuch as the microfluidics, microphotonics, immunoproteomics and Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS. In the present work, a silicon based microfluidic device hasbeen developed for carrying out fluorescence based immunoassay. By hybrid attachment ofthe microfluidic device with a Spectrometer-on-chip, the feasibility of synthesizing anintegrated Lab-on-a-chip type device for fluorescence based biosensing has beendemonstrated. Biodetection using the microfluidic device has been carried out usingantigen sheep IgG and Alexafluor-647 tagged antibody particles and the experimentalresults prove that silicon is a compatible material for the present application given thevarious advantages it offers such as cost-effectiveness, ease of bulk microfabrication,superior surface affinity to biomolecules, ease of disposability of the device etc., and is thussuitable for fabricating Lab-on-a-chip type devices.

  17. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Acero, José F.; Martínez-Lauranchet, Jaime; Probst, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize...

  18. Novel route of synthesis for cellulose fiber-based hybrid polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, F. H.; Ilmiati, S.; Kurnia Adi, H.; Arumsari, R.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polyurethanes, obtained by the reaction of a diisocyanate compound with bifunctional or multifunctional reagent such as diols or polyols, have been studied intensively and well developed. The wide range modifier such as chemical structures and molecular weight to build polyurethanes led to designs of materials that may easily meet the functional product demand and to the extraordinary spreading of these materials in market. Properties of the obtained polymer are related to the chemical structure of polyurethane backbone. A number polyurethanes prepared from biomass-based monomers have been reported. Cellulose fiber, as a biomass material is containing abundant hydroxyl, promising material as chain extender for building hybrid polyurethanes. In previous researches, cellulose fiber was used as filler in synthesis of polyurethane composites. This paper reported a novel route of hybrid polyurethane synthesis, which a cellulose fiber was used as chain extender. The experiment performed by reacting 4,4’-Methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol with variation of molecular weight to obtained pre-polyurethane, continued by adding micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with variation of type and composition in the mixture. The experiment was evaluated by NMR, FTIR, SEM and STA measurement. NMR and FTIR confirmed the reaction of the hybrid polyurethane. STA showed hybrid polyurethane has good thermal stability. SEM showed good distribution and dispersion of sorghum-based MFC.

  19. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Near IR spectral region (1000–2500 nm) shows the elimination of water in the compound which ... 1-Butyl 3-methyl imidazolium bromide; molecular material; phosphotungstic acid; near IR. ..... attributable to the first overtone of hydroxyl groups,.

  20. Hybrid Van Der Waals Materials In Next-Generation Electronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In nature, there exists a class of materials which are inherently two-dimensional (2D). Although they form solid 3D structures, the individual atoms have strong...

  1. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar

  2. Hybrid nanostructured materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Guihua; Xie, Xing; Pan, Lijia; Bao, Zhenan; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The exciting development of advanced nanostructured materials has driven the rapid growth of research in the field of electrochemical energy storage (EES) systems which are critical to a variety of applications ranging from portable consumer

  3. Preparation and characterization of hybrid materials from natural chrysotile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldelli, M.G.; Silva, M.L.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the development of new materials from natural chrysotile. This fiber has about 40% silicon oxide in its structure with an outer layer of brucite (MgOH 2 ). With the aim of obtaining a material with a more uniform structure, acid leaching was performed to remove the outer layer of brucite, resulting in a silicon oxide hydrate. This material was used as support for the deposition of Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O. The Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O was prepared by conventional precipitation using as starting material niobium metallic. In this study, we performed the synthesis and characterization of the material SiO 2 .nH 2 O / Nb 2 O 5 .nH 2 O 1:1. Both chrysotile as niobium are widely available national resources, which confirms the economic viability of resource use. The materials studied were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG/DTG. (author)

  4. Quinoline-Based Hybrid Compounds with Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhamla Nqoro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of quinoline-based compounds for the treatment of malaria infections is hampered by drug resistance. Drug resistance has led to the combination of quinolines with other classes of antimalarials resulting in enhanced therapeutic outcomes. However, the combination of antimalarials is limited by drug-drug interactions. In order to overcome the aforementioned factors, several researchers have reported hybrid compounds prepared by reacting quinoline-based compounds with other compounds via selected functionalities. This review will focus on the currently reported quinoline-based hybrid compounds and their preclinical studies.

  5. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Pradyumna; Legedza, Stanislav; Dhar, Aditya; Salgado, Ruben; Renteria, Jacqueline; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    Li-ion batteries are crucial components for progress in mobile communications and transport technologies. However, Li-ion batteries suffer from strong self-heating, which limits their life-time and creates reliability and environmental problems. Here we show that thermal management and the reliability of Li-ion batteries can be drastically improved using hybrid phase change material with graphene fillers. Conventional thermal management of batteries relies on the latent heat stored in the phase change material as its phase changes over a small temperature range, thereby reducing the temperature rise inside the battery. Incorporation of graphene to the hydrocarbon-based phase change material allows one to increase its thermal conductivity by more than two orders of magnitude while preserving its latent heat storage ability. A combination of the sensible and latent heat storage together with the improved heat conduction outside of the battery pack leads to a significant decrease in the temperature rise inside a typical Li-ion battery pack. The described combined heat storage-heat conduction approach can lead to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion and other types of batteries.

  6. Living hybrid materials capable of energy conversion and CO2 assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Christophe F; Rooke, Joanna C; Léonard, Alexandre; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian

    2010-06-14

    This paper reviews our work on the fabrication of photobiochemical hybrid materials via immobilisation of photosynthetically active entities within silica materials, summarising the viability and productivity of these active entities post encapsulation and evaluating their efficiency as the principal component of a photobioreactor. Immobilisation of thylakoids extracted from spinach leaves as well as whole cells such as A. thaliana, Synechococcus and C. caldarium was carried out in situ using sol-gel methods. In particular, a comprehensive overview is given of the efforts to find the most biocompatible inorganic precursors that can extend the lifetime of the organisms upon encapsulation. The effect of matrix-cell interactions on cell lifetime and the photosynthetic efficiency of the resultant materials are discussed. Precursors based on alkoxides, commonly used in "Chimie Douce" to form porous silica gel, release by-products which are often cytotoxic. However by controlling the formation of gels from aqueous silica precursors and silica nanoparticles acting as "cements" one can significantly enhance the life span of the entrapped organelles and cells. Adapted characteristic techniques have shown survival times of up to 5 months with the photosynthetic production of oxygen recorded as much as 17 weeks post immobilisation. These results constitute a significant advance towards the final goal, long-lasting semi-artificial photobioreactors that can advantageously exploit solar radiation to convert polluting carbon dioxide into useful biofuels, sugars or medical metabolites.

  7. Biocompatible Polymer/Quantum Dots Hybrid Materials: Current Status and Future Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are nanometer-sized semiconductor particles with tunable fluorescent optical property that can be adjusted by their chemical composition, size, or shape. In the past 10 years, they have been demonstrated as a powerful fluorescence tool for biological and biomedical applications, such as diagnostics, biosensing and biolabeling. QDs with high fluorescence quantum yield and optical stability are usually synthesized in organic solvents. In aqueous solution, however, their metallic toxicity, non-dissolubility and photo-luminescence instability prevent the direct utility of QDs in biological media. Polymers are widely used to cover and coat QDs for fabricating biocompatible QDs. Such hybrid materials can provide solubility and robust colloidal and optical stability in water. At the same time, polymers can carry ionic or reactive functional groups for incorporation into the end-use application of QDs, such as receptor targeting and cell attachment. This review provides an overview of the recent development of methods for generating biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials with desirable properties. Polymers with different architectures, such as homo- and co-polymer, hyperbranched polymer, and polymeric nanogel, have been used to anchor and protect QDs. The resulted biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials show successful applications in the fields of bioimaging and biosensing. While considerable progress has been made in the design of biocompatible polymer/QDs materials, the research challenges and future developments in this area should affect the technologies of biomaterials and biosensors and result in even better biocompatible polymer/QDs hybrid materials.

  8. Light programmable organic transistor memory device based on hybrid dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    We have fabricated the transistor memory devices based on SiO2 and polystyrene (PS) hybrid dielectric. The trap states densities with different semiconductors have been investigated and a maximum 160V memory window between programming and erasing is realized. For DNTT based transistor, the trapped electron density is limited by the number of mobile electrons in semiconductor. The charge transport mechanism is verified by light induced Vth shift effect. Furthermore, in order to meet the low operating power requirement of portable electronic devices, we fabricated the organic memory transistor based on AlOx/self-assembly monolayer (SAM)/PS hybrid dielectric, the effective capacitance of hybrid dielectric is 210 nF cm-2 and the transistor can reach saturation state at -3V gate bias. The memory window in transfer I-V curve is around 1V under +/-5V programming and erasing bias.

  9. ZnO-based nanocrystalline powders with applications in hybrid photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damonte, L.C. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Donderis, V. [Dto. De Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Ferrari, S.; Meyer, M. [Dto. De Fisica, UNLP, IFLP-CCT-CONICET, C.C.67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Orozco, J. [Dto. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Materiales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain); Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Dto. De Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n (46071) Valencia (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development of hybrid photovoltaic cells consisting of new materials, such as devices based on the combination of a wide gap semiconductor and an organic dye (dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSC). In this paper we obtain nano-zinc oxide particles whose optical and electrical properties have been modified by the presence of small amounts of Al or In acting as dopants. The aim of this study is to improve the compatibility of each of the compounds present in the photovoltaic solar cell. The knowledge gained will provide input to guide the processes in the manufacture of hybrid solar cells. (author)

  10. A hybrid material based on [Mo6Br14]2- inorganic cluster units and [BEDO-TTF]+ organic monocationic radicals: Synthesis, structure and properties of (BEDO-TTF)2Mo6Br14(PhCN)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirakci, Kaplan; Hosoda, Hidemasa; Cordier, Stephane; Perrin, Christiane; Saito, Gunzi

    2006-01-01

    The first charge transfer salt based on non- dimerized [BEDO-TTF] + monocationic radical (BEDO-TTF=bis(ethylenedioxy)tetrathiafulvalene) associated with [Mo 6 Br 14 ] 2- cluster anions has been synthesized by conventional electro-oxidation and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-VIS-NIR absorption and magnetic susceptibility measurements. (BEDO-TTF) 2 Mo 6 Br 14 (PhCN) 4 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2 1 /n, a=10.414(4)A, b=21.711(7)A, c=15.958(5)A, β=93.65(3) o , V=3601(2)A 3 , Z=2, R 1 =0.0578, wR 2 =0.0731. The structure of this hybrid compound is built up from a [BEDO-TTF] + and PhCN (benzonitrile) organic framework in which are hosted the [Mo 6 Br 14 ] 2- inorganic cluster units. It results in non- dimerized [BEDO-TTF] + cations that exhibit a paramagnetic behavior characteristic of one unpaired electron

  11. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  13. Gas-Transport-Property Performance of Hybrid Carbon Molecular Sieve−Polymer Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Mita

    2010-10-06

    High-performance hybrid materials using carbon molecular sieve materials and 6FDA-6FpDA were produced. A detailed analysis of the effects of casting processes and the annealing temperature is reported. Two existing major obstacles, sieve agglomeration and residual stress, were addressed in this work, and subsequently a new membrane formation technique was developed to produce high-performing membranes. The successfully improved interfacial region of the hybrid membranes allows the sieves to increase the selectivity of the membranes above the neat polymer properties. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement was seen with increased sieve loading in the hybrid membranes, leading to an actual performance above the upper bound for pure polymer membranes. The membranes were also tested under a mixed-gas environment, which further demonstrated promising results. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015, India; The Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21413, P.O. Box 80203, Saudi Arabia; Institut Universitarid' Electroquímica, Departament de Química Física,Universitatd' Alacant, Apartat 99, E-03080 Alacant, ...

  15. Zeolite-derived hybrid materials with adjustable organic pillars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Opanasenko, Maksym; Shamzhy, Mariya; Yu, F.; Zhou, W.; Morris, R. E.; Čejka, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 3589-3601 ISSN 2041-6520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-17593P; GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : zeolites * inorganic aluminosilicate * nanoporous materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.668, year: 2016

  16. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  17. Probing photoinduced electron-transfer in graphene-dye hybrid materials for DSSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarracino, Paola; Gatti, Teresa; Canever, Nicolo; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Menna, Enzo; Franco, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the photophysical properties of a newly synthesized hybrid material composed of a triphenylamine dye covalently bound to reduced graphene oxide, potentially relevant as a stable photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells. The photophysical characterization has been carried out by

  18. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  19. Modification of the Interfacial Interaction between Carbon Fiber and Epoxy with Carbon Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Yu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the hybrid materials and epoxy and carbon fiber (CF composites were improved significantly as compared to the CF composites made from unmodified epoxy. The reasons could be attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between the CF and the epoxy composites for the existence of carbon nanomaterials. The microstructure and dispersion of carbon nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and optical microscopy (OM. The results showed that the dispersion of the hybrid materials in the polymer was superior to other carbon nanomaterials. The high viscosity and shear stress characterized by a rheometer and the high interfacial friction and damping behavior characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA indicated that the strong interfacial interaction was greatly improved between fibers and epoxy composites. Remarkably, the tensile tests presented that the CF composites with hybrid materials and epoxy composites have a better reinforcing and toughening effect on CF, which further verified the strong interfacial interaction between epoxy and CF for special structural hybrid materials.

  20. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.

    2017-01-01

    of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions...

  1. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst.

  2. Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Hybrid Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sideslip angle is essential for active safety control systems. This paper presents a new hybrid Kalman filter to estimate vehicle sideslip angle based on the 3-DoF nonlinear vehicle dynamic model combined with Magic Formula tire model. The hybrid Kalman filter is realized by combining square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF, which has quick convergence and numerical stability, with square-root cubature based receding horizon Kalman FIR filter (SCRHKF, which has robustness against model uncertainty and temporary noise. Moreover, SCKF and SCRHKF work in parallel, and the estimation outputs of two filters are merged by interacting multiple model (IMM approach. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the hybrid Kalman filter.

  3. A Survey on Evolutionary Algorithm Based Hybrid Intelligence in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advance in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other types of omics technologies during the past decades, a tremendous amount of data related to molecular biology has been produced. It is becoming a big challenge for the bioinformatists to analyze and interpret these data with conventional intelligent techniques, for example, support vector machines. Recently, the hybrid intelligent methods, which integrate several standard intelligent approaches, are becoming more and more popular due to their robustness and efficiency. Specifically, the hybrid intelligent approaches based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs are widely used in various fields due to the efficiency and robustness of EAs. In this review, we give an introduction about the applications of hybrid intelligent methods, in particular those based on evolutionary algorithm, in bioinformatics. In particular, we focus on their applications to three common problems that arise in bioinformatics, that is, feature selection, parameter estimation, and reconstruction of biological networks.

  4. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  5. Charge-transfer channel in quantum dot-graphene hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo; Wang, Jingang; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    The energy band theory of a classical semiconductor can qualitatively explain the charge-transfer process in low-dimensional hybrid colloidal quantum dot (QD)-graphene (GR) materials; however, the definite charge-transfer channels are not clear. Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT, we simulate the hybrid QD-GR nanostructure, and by constructing its orbital interaction diagram, we show the quantitative coupling characteristics of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of the hybrid structure. The main MOs are derived from the fragment MOs (FOs) of GR, and the Cd13Se13 QD FOs merge with the GR FOs in a certain proportion to afford the hybrid system. Upon photoexcitation, electrons in the GR FOs jump to the QD FOs, leaving holes in the GR FOs, and the definite charge-transfer channels can be found by analyzing the complex MOs coupling. The excited electrons and remaining holes can also be localized in the GR or the QD or transfer between the QD and GR with different absorption energies. The charge-transfer process for the selected excited states of the hybrid QD-GR structure are testified by the charge difference density isosurface. The natural transition orbitals, charge-transfer length analysis and 2D site representation of the transition density matrix also verify the electron-hole delocalization, localization, or coherence chacracteristics of the selected excited states. Therefore, our research enhances understanding of the coupling mechanism of low-dimensional hybrid materials and will aid in the design and manipulation of hybrid photoelectric devices for practical application in many fields.

  6. 3D Hollow Sn@Carbon-Graphene Hybrid Material as Promising Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D hollow Sn@C-graphene hybrid material (HSCG with high capacity and excellent cyclic and rate performance is fabricated by a one-pot assembly method. Due to the fast electron and ion transfer as well as the efficient carbon buffer structure, the hybrid material is promising in high-performance lithium-ion battery.

  7. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  8. Spatial modeling of the 3D morphology of hybrid polymer-ZnO solar cells, based on electron tomography data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenzel, O.; Hassfeld, H.; Thiedmann, R.; Koster, L. J. A.; Oosterhout, S. D.; van Bavel, S. S.; Wienk, M. M.; Loos, J.; Janssen, R. A. J.; Schmidt, V.

    A spatial stochastic model is developed which describes the 3D nanomorphology of composite materials, being blends of two different (organic and inorganic) solid phases. Such materials are used, for example, in photoactive layers of hybrid polymer zinc oxide solar cells. The model is based on ideas

  9. Charge transfer processes in hybrid solar cells composed of amorphous silicon and organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Sebastian; Neher, Dieter [Universitaet Potsdam, Inst. Physik u. Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, 14467 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Schulze, Tim; Korte, Lars [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Inst. fuer Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekulestrasse 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The efficiency of hybrid solar cells composed of organic materials and amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) strongly depends upon the efficiency of charge transfer processes at the inorganic-organic interface. We investigated the performance of devices comprising an ITO/a-Si:H(n-type)/a-Si:H(intrinsic)/organic/metal multilayer structure and using two different organic components: zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The results show higher power conversion- and quantum efficiencies for the P3HT based cells, compared to ZnPc. This can be explained by larger energy-level offset at the interface between the organic layer and a-Si:H, which facilitates hole transfer from occupied states in the valence band tail to the HOMO of the organic material and additionally promotes exciton splitting. The performance of the a-Si:H/P3HT cells can be further improved by treatment of the amorphous silicon surface with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and p-type doping of P3HT with F4TCNQ. The improved cells reached maximum power conversion efficiencies of 1%.

  10. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De wael, Annelies, E-mail: annelies.dewael@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Backer, Annick [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Van Aert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. - Highlights: • A hybrid method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images is introduced. • Image simulations are incorporated into a statistical framework in a reliable manner. • Limits of the existing methods for atom-counting are far exceeded. • Reliable counting results from an experimental low dose image are obtained. • Progress towards reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials is made.

  11. A hybrid agent-based approach for modeling microbiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zaiyi; Sloot, Peter M A; Tay, Joc Cing

    2008-11-21

    Models for systems biology commonly adopt Differential Equations or Agent-Based modeling approaches for simulating the processes as a whole. Models based on differential equations presuppose phenomenological intracellular behavioral mechanisms, while models based on Multi-Agent approach often use directly translated, and quantitatively less precise if-then logical rule constructs. We propose an extendible systems model based on a hybrid agent-based approach where biological cells are modeled as individuals (agents) while molecules are represented by quantities. This hybridization in entity representation entails a combined modeling strategy with agent-based behavioral rules and differential equations, thereby balancing the requirements of extendible model granularity with computational tractability. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach with models of chemotaxis involving an assay of 10(3) cells and 1.2x10(6) molecules. The model produces cell migration patterns that are comparable to laboratory observations.

  12. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  13. Aerogel Hybrid Composite Materials: Designs and Testing for Multifunctional Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    This webinar will introduce the broad spectrum of aerogel composites and their diverse performance properties such as reduced heat transfer to energy storage, and expands specifically on the aerogel/fiber laminate systems and testing methodologies. The multi-functional laminate composite system, AeroFiber, and its construction is designed by varying the type of fiber (e.g. polyester, carbon, Kevlar®, Spectra® or Innegral(TradeMark) and combinations thereof), the aerogel panel type and thickness, and overall layup configuration. The combination and design of materials may be customized and tailored to achieve a range of desired properties in the resulting laminate system. Multi-functional properties include structural strength, impact resistance, reduction in heat transfer, increased fire resistance, mechanical energy absorption, and acoustic energy dampening. Applications include aerospace, aircraft, automotive, boating, building and construction, lightweight portable structures, liquefied natural gas, cryogenics, transportation and energy, sporting equipment, and military protective gear industries.

  14. Heavy metals adsorption by novel EDTA-modified chitosan-silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo, Eveliina; Warchoł, Jolanta K; Bhatnagar, Amit; Sillanpää, Mika

    2011-06-01

    Novel adsorbents were synthesized by functionalizing chitosan-silica hybrid materials with (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA ligands. The synthesized adsorbents were found to combine the advantages of both silica gel (high surface area, porosity, rigid structure) and chitosan (surface functionality). The Adsorption potential of hybrid materials was investigated using Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) as target metals by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. The kinetic results revealed that the pore diffusion process played a key role in adsorption kinetics, which might be attributed to the porous structure of synthesized adsorbents. The obtained maximum adsorption capacities of the hybrid materials for the metal ions ranged from 0.25 to 0.63 mmol/g under the studied experimental conditions. The adsorbent with the highest chitosan content showed the best adsorption efficiency. Bi-Langmuir and Sips isotherm model fitting to experimental data suggested the surface heterogeneity of the prepared adsorbents. In multimetal solutions, the hybrid adsorbents showed the highest affinity toward Pb(II). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber based on vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qiye; Zhang Huaiwu; Yang Qinghui; Long Yang; Jing Yulan; Lin Yuan; Chen Zhi; Zhang Peixin

    2012-01-01

    A tunable hybrid metamaterial absorber (MA) in the microwave band was designed, fabricated and characterized. The hybrid MA was realized by incorporating a VO 2 film into the conventional resonant MA. By thermally triggering the insulator-metal phase transition of the VO 2 film, the impedance match condition was broken and a deep amplitude modulation of about 63.3% to the electromagnetic wave absorption was achieved. A moderate blue-shift of the resonance frequency was observed which is promising for practical applications. This VO 2 -based MA exhibits many advantages such as strong tunability, frequency agility, simple fabrication and ease of scaling to the terahertz band. (paper)

  16. MAS Based Event-Triggered Hybrid Control for Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focused on an advanced control for autonomous microgrids. In order to improve the performance regarding security and stability, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is proposed based on multi-agents structure. Moreover, corresponding to the multi-mode and the hybrid...... haracteristics of microgrids, an event-triggered hybrid control, including three kinds of switching controls, is designed to intelligently reconstruct operation mode when the security stability assessment indexes or the constraint conditions are violated. The validity of proposed control scheme is demonstrated...

  17. Solving SAT Problem Based on Hybrid Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan

    Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.

  18. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  19. DNA hybridization sensor based on pentacene thin film transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Chand, Rohit; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2011-01-15

    A DNA hybridization sensor using pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) is an excellent candidate for disposable sensor applications due to their low-cost fabrication process and fast detection. We fabricated pentacene TFTs on glass substrate for the sensing of DNA hybridization. The ss-DNA (polyA/polyT) or ds-DNA (polyA/polyT hybrid) were immobilized directly on the surface of the pentacene, producing a dramatic change in the electrical properties of the devices. The electrical characteristics of devices were studied as a function of DNA immobilization, single-stranded vs. double-stranded DNA, DNA length and concentration. The TFT device was further tested for detection of λ-phage genomic DNA using probe hybridization. Based on these results, we propose that a "label-free" detection technique for DNA hybridization is possible through direct measurement of electrical properties of DNA-immobilized pentacene TFTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  1. Up-Scaled Supercritical Flow Synthesis of Hybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus is currently under construction in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis, and the large...

  2. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Papale, F.; Bollino, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line.

  3. Biological evaluation of zirconia/PEG hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Papale, F.; Bollino, F.; Gallicchio, M.; Pacifico, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the following study has been the synthesis via sol–gel and the characterization of novel organic–inorganic hybrid materials to be used in biomedical field. The prepared materials consist of an inorganic zirconia matrix containing as organic component the polyethylene glycol (PEG), a water-soluble polymer used in medical and pharmaceutical fields. Various hybrids have been synthesized changing the molar ratio between the organic and inorganic parts. Fourier transform spectroscopy suggests that the structure of the interpenetrating network is realized by hydrogen bonds between the Zr-OH group in the sol–gel intermediate species and both the terminal alcoholic group and ethereal oxygen atoms in the repeating units of polymer The amorphous nature of the gels has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The morphology observation has been carried out by using the Scanning Electron Microscope and has confirmed that the obtained materials are nanostructurated hybrids. The bioactivity of the synthesized system has been shown by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating the human blood plasma. The potential biocompatibility of hybrids has been assessed as performing indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay towards 3T3 cell line at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PEG amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid synthesis via sol–gel • Bioactivity evaluation of materials by the formation of apatite on surface in SBF • Biocompatibility test with indirect MTT cytotoxicity assay on NHI 3T3 cell line

  4. Effect of Different Structural Materials on Neutronic Performance of a Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Tel, Eyyüp

    2003-06-01

    Selection of structural material for a fusion-fission (hybrid) reactor is very important by taking into account of neutronic performance of the blanket. Refractory metals and alloys have much higher operating temperatures and neutron wall load (NWL) capabilities than low activation materials (ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiC/SiC composites) and austenitic stainless steels. In this study, effect of primary candidate refractory alloys, namely, W-5Re, T111, TZM and Nb-1Zr on neutronic performance of the hybrid reactor was investigated. Neutron transport calculations were conducted with the help of SCALE 4.3 System by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with code XSDRNPM. Among the investigated structural materials, tantalum had the worst performance due to the fact that it has higher neutron absorption cross section than others. And W-5Re and TZM having similar results showed the best performance.

  5. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  6. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani, Narsito, Nuryono, Eko Sri Kunarti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted hybrid material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media. Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, CH3COONa 0.1 M (pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition. Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique

  7. Chitosan-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Polymer Fibers as a Scaffold Biomaterial for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintarou Yamane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An ideal scaffold material is one that closely mimics the natural environment in the tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Therefore, we have applied hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a main component of the cartilage ECM, to chitosan as a fundamental material for cartilage regeneration. To mimic the structural environment of cartilage ECM, the fundamental structure of a scaffold should be a three-dimensional (3D system with adequate mechanical strength. We structurally developed novel polymer chitosan-based HA hybrid fibers as a biomaterial to easily fabricate 3D scaffolds. This review presents the potential of a 3D fabricated scaffold based on these novel hybrid polymer fibers for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  10. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  11. Temperature effect on the physico-chemical properties of silica based bio-hybrid composite for uranium uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Archana; Melo, Jose Savio

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, silica based bio-hybrid composite has been prepared using Streptococcus lactis cells and silica nanoparticles through one step single process of spray drying. Bio-hybrids have many desired characteristics, and are thus used in a wide range of applications for example environmental cleanup which is of increasing importance. Thermogravimetric and thermodynamic analysis have been employed to understand the binding of uranium to the synthesized bio-hybrid material. Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔH 0 ) provides information regarding the inherent energy and feasibility of the sorption process. (author)

  12. Amorphous Mn oxide-ordered mesoporous carbon hybrids as a high performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Inho; Kim, Nam Dong; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Park, Junsu; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-07-01

    A supercapacitor has the advantages of both the conventional capacitors and the rechargeable batteries. Mn oxide is generally recognized one of the potential materials that can be used for a supercapacitor, but its low conductivity is a limiting factor for electrode materials. In this study, a hybrid of amorphous Mn oxide (AMO) and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2/77 K sorption techniques, and electrochemical analyses. The findings indicate that the electrochemical activities of Mn oxide were facilitated when it was in the hybrid state because OMC acted as a pathway for both the electrolyte ions and the electrons due to the characteristics of the ordered mesoporous structure. The ordered mesoporous structure of OMC was well maintained even after hybridization with amorphous Mn oxide. The electrochemical-activity tests revealed that the AMO/OMC hybrid had a higher specific capacitance and conductivity than pure Mn oxide. In the case where the Mn/C weight ratio was 0.75, the composite showed a high capacitance of 153 F/g, which was much higher than that for pure Mn oxide, due to the structural effects of OMC.

  13. Vanadium based materials as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Li, Bing; Guo, Wei; Pang, Huan; Xue, Huaiguo

    2016-10-01

    As a kind of supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors have attracted wide attention in recent years. The capacitance of the electrochemical capacitors based on pseudocapacitance arises mainly from redox reactions between electrolytes and active materials. These materials usually have several oxidation states for oxidation and reduction. Many research teams have focused on the development of an alternative material for electrochemical capacitors. Many transition metal oxides have been shown to be suitable as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors. Among them, vanadium based materials are being developed for this purpose. Vanadium based materials are known as one of the best active materials for high power/energy density electrochemical capacitors due to its outstanding specific capacitance and long cycle life, high conductivity and good electrochemical reversibility. There are different kinds of synthetic methods such as sol-gel hydrothermal/solvothermal method, template method, electrospinning method, atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition method that have been successfully applied to prepare vanadium based electrode materials. In our review, we give an overall summary and evaluation of the recent progress in the research of vanadium based materials for electrochemical capacitors that include synthesis methods, the electrochemical performances of the electrode materials and the devices.

  14. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  15. Rational design of multifunctional devices based on molybdenum disulfide and graphene hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yi Rang; Lee, Young Bum; Kim, Seong Ku; Kim, Seong Jun [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yooseok; Jeon, Cheolho [Nano-Surface Research Group, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, 302-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wooseok, E-mail: wssong@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Sung; Lee, Sun Sook; An, Ki-Seok [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jongsun, E-mail: jslim@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, Post Office Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid thin films for multifunctional applications. • Large-area, uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} was synthesized on TCVD-grown graphene. • The mobility and photocurrent of the hybrid devices were improved significantly. - Abstract: We rationally designed a new type of hybrid materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) synthesized by Mo pre-deposition followed by subsequent sulfurization process directly on thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD)-grown graphene, for applications in a multifunctional device. The synthesis of stoichiometric and uniform multilayer MoS{sub 2} and high-crystalline monolayer graphene was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To examine the electrical transport and photoelectrical properties of MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid films, field effect transistors (FETs) and visible-light photodetectors based on MoS{sub 2}-graphene were both fabricated. As a result, the extracted mobility for MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrid FETs was two times higher than that of MoS{sub 2} FETs. In addition, the MoS{sub 2}-graphene photodetectors revealed a significant photocurrent with abrupt switching behavior under periodic illumination.

  16. Keggin type inorganic-organic hybrid material containing Mn(II) monosubstituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Ketan [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India); Patel, Anjali, E-mail: aupatel_chem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A new organic-inorganic hybrid material containing Keggin type manganese substituted phosphotungstate and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized and systematically characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New hybrid material comprising Mn substituted phosphotungstate (PW{sub 11}Mn) and S-(+)-sec-butyl amine (SBA) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spectral studies reveal the attachment of SBA to the PW{sub 11}Mn without any distortion of structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized material comprises chirality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized hybrid material can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out asymmetric synthesis. -- Abstract: A new inorganic-organic POM-based hybrid material comprising Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate and enantiopure S-(+)-sec-butyl amine was synthesized in an aqueous media by simple ligand substitution method. The synthesized hybrid material was systematically characterized in solid as well as solution by various physicochemical techniques such as elemental analysis, TGA, UV-vis, FT-IR, ESR and multinuclear solution NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C). The presence of chirality in the synthesized material was confirmed by CD spectroscopy and polarimeter. The above study reveals the attachment of S-(+)-sec-butyl amine to Keggin type mono manganese substituted phosphotungstate through N {yields} Mn bond. It also indicates the retainment of Keggin unit and presence of chirality in the synthesized material. An attempt was made to use the synthesized material as a heterogeneous catalyst for carrying out aerobic asymmetric oxidation of styrene using molecular oxygen. The catalyst shows the potential of being used as a stable recyclable catalytic material after simple regeneration without significant loss in conversion.

  17. Development of a Continuum Damage Mechanics Material Model of a Graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing Kevlar(Registered Trademark) Hybrid Fabric for Simulating the Impact Response of Energy Absorbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of input properties for a continuum damage mechanics based material model, Mat 58, within LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the response of a graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) hybrid plain weave fabric. A limited set of material characterization tests were performed on the hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric. Simple finite element models were executed in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark) to simulate the material characterization tests and to verify the Mat 58 material model. Once verified, the Mat 58 model was used in finite element models of two composite energy absorbers: a conical-shaped design, designated the "conusoid," fabricated of four layers of hybrid graphite-Kevlar(Registered Trademark) fabric; and, a sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich design, designated the "sinusoid," fabricated of the same hybrid fabric face sheets with a foam core. Dynamic crush tests were performed on components of the two energy absorbers, which were designed to limit average vertical accelerations to 25- to 40-g, to minimize peak crush loads, and to generate relatively long crush stroke values under dynamic loading conditions. Finite element models of the two energy absorbers utilized the Mat 58 model that had been verified through material characterization testing. Excellent predictions of the dynamic crushing response were obtained.

  18. Extending a Hybrid Tag-Based Recommender System with Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    extension for a hybrid tag-based recommender system, which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. The semantic extension aims at discovering tag relations which are not considered in basic syntax similarity. With the goal of generating more semantically grounded recommendations......, the proposal extends a hybrid tag-based recommender system with a semantic factor, which looks for tag relations in different semantic sources. In order to evaluate the benefits acquired with the semantic extension, we have compared the new findings with results from a previous experiment involving 38 people......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. This paper proposes a semantic...

  19. Graphene-based transparent electrodes for hybrid solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eLi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based transparent and conductive films were demonstrated to be cost-effective electrodes working in organic-inorganic hybrid Schottky solar cells. Large area graphene films were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD on copper foils and transferred onto glass as transparent electrodes. The hybrid solar cell devices consist of solution processed poly (3, 4-ethlenedioxythiophene: poly (styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS which is sandwiched between silicon wafer and graphene electrode. The solar cells based on graphene electrodes, especially those doped with HNO3, has comparable performance to the reference devices using commercial indium tin oxide (ITO. Our work suggests that graphene-based transparent electrode is a promising candidate to replace ITO.

  20. Novel bioactive materials: silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reséndiz-Hernández, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel and hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite materials were synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS using also methanol (MeOH and pseudowollastonite particles. The gels obtained were dried using a novel process based on an ambient pressure drying. Hexane and hexamethyl-disilazane (HMDZ were the solvents used to chemically modify the surface. In order to assess bioactivity, aerogels, without and with pseudowollastonite particles, were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 7 and 14 days. The hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite showed a higher bioactivity than that observed for the single silica aerogel. However, as in both cases a lower bioactivity was observed, a biomimetic method was also used to improve it. In this particular method, samples of both materials were immersed in SBF for 7 days followed by their immersion in a more concentrated solution (1.5 SBF for 14 days. A thick and homogeneous bonelike apatite layer was formed on the biomimetically treated materials. Thus, bioactivity was successfully improved even on the aerogel with no pseudowollastonite particles. As expected, the hybrid silica aerogel/pseudowollastonite particles showed a higher bioactivity.Se sintetizaron aerogel de sílice y aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita por hidrólisis controlada de tetraetoxisilano (TEOS usando metanol (MeOH y partículas de pseudowollastonita. Los geles obtenidos se secaron utilizando un novedoso proceso basado en una presión de secado ambiental. Hexano y hexametil-disilazano fueron los solventes usados para modificar químicamente la superficie. Para evaluar la bioactividad, los aerogeles con y sin partículas de pseudowollastonita se sumergieron en un fluido fisiológico simulado (SBF por 7 y 14 días. El aerogel híbrido de sílice/partículas de pseudowollastonita mostró más alta bioactividad que la observada por el aerogel solo. Sin embargo, en ambos casos, se

  1. Polymer-Block-Polypeptides and Polymer-Conjugated Hybrid Materials as Stimuli-Responsive Nanocarriers for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Johnson V; Johnson, Renjith P; Heo, Min Seon; Moon, Byeong Kyu; Byeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Il

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers are a class of soft materials that includes natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and polypeptides. Recently, modern synthesis tools such as atom transfer radical polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization, ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, and various "click" chemistry strategies were simultaneously employed for the design and synthesis of nanosized drug delivery vehicles. Importantly, the research focused on the improvement of the nanocarrier targetability and the site-specific, triggered release of therapeutics with high drug loading efficiency and minimal drug leakage during the delivery to specific targets. In this context, nanocarriers responsive to common stimuli such as pH, temperature, redox potential, light, etc. have been widely used for the controlled delivery of therapeutics to pathological sites. Currently, different synthesis and self-assembly strategies improved the drug loading efficacy and targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the desired site. In particular, polypeptide-containing hybrid materials have been developed for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Therefore, stimuli-sensitive synthetic polypeptide-based materials have been extensively investigated in recent years. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of polymer-block-polypeptides and polymer-conjugated hybrid materials that have been designed and evaluated for various stimuli-responsive drug and gene delivery applications.

  2. A Hybrid Architecture for Vision-Based Obstacle Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Güzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new obstacle avoidance method using a single monocular vision camera as the only sensor which is called as Hybrid Architecture. This architecture integrates a high performance appearance-based obstacle detection method into an optical flow-based navigation system. The hybrid architecture was designed and implemented to run both methods simultaneously and is able to combine the results of each method using a novel arbitration mechanism. The proposed strategy successfully fused two different vision-based obstacle avoidance methods using this arbitration mechanism in order to permit a safer obstacle avoidance system. Accordingly, to establish the adequacy of the design of the obstacle avoidance system, a series of experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed architecture, and the results prove that its performance is somewhat better than the conventional optical flow-based architecture. Especially, the robot employing Hybrid Architecture avoids lateral obstacles in a more smooth and robust manner than when using the conventional optical flow-based technique.

  3. Enhancing the piezoelectric properties of flexible hybrid AlN materials using semi-crystalline parylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nathan; Mathewson, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Flexible piezoelectric materials are desired for numerous applications including biomedical, wearable, and flexible electronics. However, most flexible piezoelectric materials are not compatible with CMOS fabrication technology, which is desired for most MEMS applications. This paper reports on the development of a hybrid flexible piezoelectric material consisting of aluminium nitride (AlN) and a semi-crystalline polymer substrate. Various types of semi-crystalline parylene and polyimide materials were investigated as the polymer substrate. The crystallinity and surfaces of the polymer substrates were modified by micro-roughening and annealing in order to determine the effects on the AlN quality. The AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric properties decreased when the polymer surfaces were treated with O2 plasma. However, increasing the crystallinity of the parylene substrate prior to deposition of AlN caused enhanced c-axis (002) AlN crystallinity and piezoelectric response of the AlN. Piezoelectric properties of 200 °C annealed parylene-N substrate resulted in an AlN d 33 value of 4.87 pm V-1 compared to 2.17 pm V-1 for AlN on polyimide and 4.0 pm V-1 for unannealed AlN/parylene-N. The electrical response measurements to an applied force demonstrated that the parylene/AlN hybrid material had higher V pp (0.918 V) than commercial flexible piezoelectric material (PVDF) (V pp 0.36 V). The results in this paper demonstrate that the piezoelectric properties of a flexible AlN hybrid material can be enhanced by increasing the crystallinity of the polymer substrate, and the enhanced properties can function better than previous flexible piezoelectrics.

  4. A review of composite material applications in the automotive industry for the electric and hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A review is made of the state-of-the-art in regard to the use of composite materials for reducing the structural mass of automobiles. Reduction of mass provides, in addition to other engineering improvements, increased performance/range advantages that are particularly needed in the electric and hybrid vehicle field. Problems encountered include the attainment of mass production techniques and the prevention of environmental hazards.

  5. Original Conductive Nano-Co3O4 Investigated as Electrode Material for Hybrid Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Godillot, Gérôme; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Delmas, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt oxides have been extensively used as conductive additives for Ni-MH batteries. We report in this paper the performances of an original nanometric cobalt oxide, close to Co3O4, as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. This spinel type phase contains hydrogen, lithium, cobalt vacancies, and especially Co4þ ions within the structure, leading to a high electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements show interesting capacitance (320 F/g in 8M-KO...

  6. Materials compatibility considerations for a fusion-fission hybrid reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor is a fusion reactor concept that incorporates a fission-suppressed breeding blanket for the production of 233 U to be used in conventional fission power reactors. The present paper reports on compatibility considerations related to the blanket design. These considerations include solid-solid interactions and liquid metal corrosion. Potential problems are discussed relative to the reference blanket operating temperature (490 0 C) and the recycling time of breeding materials (<1 year)

  7. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  8. Plasma heating and hot ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.

    2012-01-01

    Possibilities of plasma heating and sloshing ion sustaining in mirror based hybrids are briefly reviewed. Sloshing ions, i.e. energetic ions with a velocity distribution concentrated to a certain pitch-angle, play an important role in plasma confinement and generation of fusion neutrons in mirror machines. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is first discussed as a method to generate sloshing ions. Numerical results of NBI modeling for a stellarator-mirror hybrid are analyzed. The sloshing ions could alternatively be sustained by RF heating. Fast wave heating schemes, i.e. magnetic beach, minority and second harmonic heating, are addressed and their similarities and differences are described. Characteristic features of wave propagation in mirror hybrid devices including both fundamental harmonic minority and second harmonic heating are examined. Minority heating is efficient for a wide range of minority concentration and plasma densities; it allows one to place the antenna aside from the hot ion location. A simple-design strap antenna suitable for this has good performance. However, this scenario is appropriate only for light minority ions. The second harmonic heating can be applied for the heavy ion component. Arrangements are similar for minority and second harmonic heating. The efficiency of second harmonic heating is influenced by a weaker wave damping than for minority heating. Numerical calculations show that in a hybrid reactor scaled mirror machine the deuterium sloshing ions could be heated within the minority heating scheme, while the tritium ions could be sustained by second harmonic heating.

  9. Hybrid High-Order methods for finite deformations of hyperelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mickaël; Ern, Alexandre; Pignet, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    We devise and evaluate numerically Hybrid High-Order (HHO) methods for hyperelastic materials undergoing finite deformations. The HHO methods use as discrete unknowns piecewise polynomials of order k≥1 on the mesh skeleton, together with cell-based polynomials that can be eliminated locally by static condensation. The discrete problem is written as the minimization of a broken nonlinear elastic energy where a local reconstruction of the displacement gradient is used. Two HHO methods are considered: a stabilized method where the gradient is reconstructed as a tensor-valued polynomial of order k and a stabilization is added to the discrete energy functional, and an unstabilized method which reconstructs a stable higher-order gradient and circumvents the need for stabilization. Both methods satisfy the principle of virtual work locally with equilibrated tractions. We present a numerical study of the two HHO methods on test cases with known solution and on more challenging three-dimensional test cases including finite deformations with strong shear layers and cavitating voids. We assess the computational efficiency of both methods, and we compare our results to those obtained with an industrial software using conforming finite elements and to results from the literature. The two HHO methods exhibit robust behavior in the quasi-incompressible regime.

  10. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  11. The accelerating effect of chitosan-silica hybrid dressing materials on the early phase of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Ung; Jung, Hyun-Do; Song, Eun-Ho; Choi, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha; Kim, Sukwha

    2017-10-01

    Commercialized dressing materials with or without silver have played a passive role in early-phase wound healing, protecting the skin defects from infections, absorbing exudate, and preventing dehydration. Chitosan (CTS)-based sponges have been developed in pure or hybrid forms for accelerating wound healing, but their wound-healing capabilities have not been extensively compared with widely used commercial dressing materials, providing limited information in a practical aspect. In this study, we have developed CTS-silica (CTS-Si) hybrid sponges with water absorption, flexibility, and mechanical behavior similar to those of CTS sponges. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed to compare the CTS-Si sponges with three commercial dressing materials [gauze, polyurethane (PU), and silver-containing hydrofiber (HF-Ag)] in addition to CTS sponges. Both in vitro and in vivo tests showed that CTS-Si sponges promoted fibroblast proliferation, leading to accelerated collagen synthesis, whereas the CTS sponges did not exhibit significant differences in fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis from gauze, PU, and HF-Ag sponges. In case of CTS-Si, the inflammatory cells were actively recruited to the wound by the influence of the released silicon ions from CTS-Si sponges, which, in return, led to an enhanced secretion of growth factors, particularly TGF-β during the early stage. The higher level of TGF-β likely improved the proliferation of fibroblasts, and as a result, collagen synthesis by fibroblasts became remarkably productive, thereby increasing collagen density at the wound site. Therefore, the CTS-Si hybrid sponges have considerable potential as a wound-dressing material for accelerating wound healing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1828-1839, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Grindability determination of torrefied biomass materials using the Hybrid Work index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essendelft, D.T.; Zhou, X.; Kang, B.S.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The grindability of torrefied biomass materials is a difficult parameter to evaluate due to its inhomogeneous character and non-uniform morphology. However, it is necessary to develop a grinding test that is representative of the wide ranging character of biomass and torrefied biomass materials. Previous research has shown that Resistance to Impact Milling (RIM) can be linearly correlated to thermally driven weight loss in biomass. In particular, the RIM equipment was found to supply the right energy level to physically break down structurally deficient biomass materials while leaving the un-touched material relatively intact [1–3]. However, the RIM procedure was not designed to extract the comminution energy. Alternatively, the Bond Work Index (BWI) procedure was developed to accurately assess the grinding energy of brittle materials [4,5]. However, the milling energy is too low to be effective for biomass comminution. In this research, the BWI procedure was utilized with the ball–mill approach in the RIM test to evaluate torrefied biomass materials. The hybridized procedure has been shown to be both highly correlated to energy consumption and sensitive to degree of torrefaction. The proposed Hybrid Work Index (HWI) is certainly useful for assessing torrefaction in a laboratory environment, but it may also be correlated to grinding energy at industrial scales.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material and investigation of its catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-03-14

    In the present work, the preparation of a new organic-inorganic hybrid material in which tetrakis(p-aminophenylporphyrin) is covalently linked to a Lindqvist structure of polyoxometalate, is reported. This new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid material was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided spectral data of the synthesis of this compound. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the porphyrin on the redox process of the polyoxometalate. The catalytic activity of this hybrid material was investigated in the alkene epoxidation with NaIO(4).

  14. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  15. Contributions of each isotope in structural material on radiation damage in a hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the fluids were used in the liquid first-wall, blanket and shield zones of the designed hybrid reactor system. In this study, salt-heavy metal mixtures consisting of 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UO_2, 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% NpO_2, and 93–85% Li_2_0Sn_8_0 + 5% SFG-PuO_2 and 2-10% UCO were used as fluids. In this study, the effect on the radiation damage of spent fuel-grade (SFG)-PuO_2, UO_2, NpO_2 and UCO contents was investigated in the structural material of a designed fusion–fission hybrid reactor system. In the designed hybrid reactor system were investigated the effect on the radiation damage of the selected fluid according to each isotopes of structural material in the structural material for 30 full power years (FPYs). Three-dimensional analyses were performed using the most recent MCNPX-2.7.0 Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library

  16. A Study of Hybrid Composite Hydroxyapatite (HA-Geopolymers as a Material for Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the physical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composites HA-geopolymers as a material for biomedical application. Hybrid composite HA–geopolymers were produced through alkaline activation method of metakaolin as a matrix and HA as the filler. HA was synthesized from eggshell particles by using a precipitation method. The addition of HA in metakaolin paste was varied from 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% relative the weight of metakaolin. FTIR was used to examine the absorption bands the composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to study the crystal structure of the starting and the resulting materials. Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS was used to investigate the surface morphology of the composites. The thermal properties of the samples was examined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Capacitance measurement was conducted to investigate the bioactive properties of HA. The study results suggest that hybrid composite HA-geopolymers has a potential to be applied as a biomedical such as biosensor material.

  17. Hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization and its application to hybrid rocket motors for manned lunar landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Design reliability and robustness are getting increasingly important for the general design of aerospace systems with many inherently uncertain design parameters. This paper presents a hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO method developed from probability theory and interval theory. Most of the uncertain design parameters which have sufficient information or experimental data are classified as random variables using probability theory, while the others are defined as interval variables with interval theory. Then a hybrid uncertainty analysis method based on Monte Carlo simulation and Taylor series interval analysis is developed to obtain the uncertainty propagation from the design parameters to system responses. Three design optimization strategies, including deterministic design optimization (DDO, probabilistic UDO and hybrid UDO, are applied to the conceptual design of a hybrid rocket motor (HRM used as the ascent propulsion system in Apollo lunar module. By comparison, the hybrid UDO is a feasible method and can be effectively applied to the general design of aerospace systems.

  18. Hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization and its application to hybrid rocket motors for manned lunar landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hao; Tian Hui; Cai Guobiao

    2017-01-01

    Design reliability and robustness are getting increasingly important for the general design of aerospace systems with many inherently uncertain design parameters. This paper presents a hybrid uncertainty-based design optimization (UDO) method developed from probability theory and interval theory. Most of the uncertain design parameters which have sufficient information or experimental data are classified as random variables using probability theory, while the others are defined as interval variables with interval theory. Then a hybrid uncertainty analysis method based on Monte Carlo simulation and Taylor series interval analysis is developed to obtain the uncer-tainty propagation from the design parameters to system responses. Three design optimization strategies, including deterministic design optimization (DDO), probabilistic UDO and hybrid UDO, are applied to the conceptual design of a hybrid rocket motor (HRM) used as the ascent propulsion system in Apollo lunar module. By comparison, the hybrid UDO is a feasible method and can be effectively applied to the general design of aerospace systems.

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  20. Biodegradable and adjustable sol-gel glass based hybrid scaffolds from multi-armed oligomeric building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Hendrikx, Stephan; Flath, Tobias; Kuzmenka, Dzmitry; Dörfler, Hans-Martin; Schumann, Dirk; Gressenbuch, Mathias; Schulze, F Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    Biodegradability is a crucial characteristic to improve the clinical potential of sol-gel-derived glass materials. To this end, a set of degradable organic/inorganic class II hybrids from a tetraethoxysilane(TEOS)-derived silica sol and oligovalent cross-linker oligomers containing oligo(d,l-lactide) domains was developed and characterized. A series of 18 oligomers (Mn: 1100-3200Da) with different degrees of ethoxylation and varying length of oligoester units was established and chemical composition was determined. Applicability of an established indirect rapid prototyping method enabled fabrication of a total of 85 different hybrid scaffold formulations from 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane-functionalized macromers. In vitro degradation was analyzed over 12months and a continuous linear weight loss (0.2-0.5wt%/d) combined with only moderate material swelling was detected which was controlled by oligo(lactide) content and matrix hydrophilicity. Compressive strength (2-30MPa) and compressive modulus (44-716MPa) were determined and total content, oligo(ethylene oxide) content, oligo(lactide) content and molecular weight of the oligomeric cross-linkers as well as material porosity were identified as the main factors determining hybrid mechanics. Cytocompatibility was assessed by cell culture experiments with human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC). Cell migration into the entire scaffold pore network was indicated and continuous proliferation over 14days was found. ALP activity linearly increased over 2weeks indicating osteogenic differentiation. The presented glass-based hybrid concept with precisely adjustable material properties holds promise for regenerative purposes. Adaption of degradation kinetics toward physiological relevance is still an unmet challenge of (bio-)glass engineering. We therefore present a glass-derived hybrid material with adjustable degradation. A flexible design concept based on degradable multi-armed oligomers was combined with an

  1. Knowledge-based metals & materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian metal and material industry (defined as all metal and material related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  2. A Hybrid Recommender System Based on User-Recommender Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Heng-Ru; Min, Fan; He, Xu; Xu, Yuan-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are used to make recommendations about products, information, or services for users. Most existing recommender systems implicitly assume one particular type of user behavior. However, they seldom consider user-recommender interactive scenarios in real-world environments. In this paper, we propose a hybrid recommender system based on user-recommender interaction and evaluate its performance with recall and diversity metrics. First, we define the user-recommender interaction...

  3. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  4. Surface Modifier-Free Organic-Inorganic Hybridization To Produce Optically Transparent and Highly Refractive Bulk Materials Composed of Epoxy Resins and ZrO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Kazushi; Kikuchi, Moriya; Narumi, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Seigou

    2018-04-25

    Surface modifier-free hybridization of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) with epoxy-based polymers is demonstrated for the first time to afford highly transparent and refractive bulk materials. This is achieved by a unique and versatile hybridization via the one-pot direct phase transfer of ZrO 2 NPs from water to epoxy monomers without any aggregation followed by curing with anhydride. Three types of representative epoxy monomers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexane carboxylate (CEL), and 1,3,5-tris(3-(oxiran-2-yl)propyl)-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (TEPIC), are used to produce transparent viscous dispersions. The resulting ZrO 2 NPs are thoroughly characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. The results from DLS and TEM analyses indicate nanodispersion of ZrO 2 into epoxy monomers as a continuous medium. A surface modification mechanism and the binding fashion during phase transfer are proposed based on the FT-IR and solid-state 13 C CP/MAS NMR measurements. Epoxy-based hybrid materials with high transparency and refractive index are successfully fabricated by heat curing or polymerizing a mixture of monomers containing epoxy-functionalized ZrO 2 NPs and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride in the presence of a phosphoric catalyst. The TEM and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the hybrids show a nanodispersion of ZrO 2 in the epoxy networks. The refractive index at 594 nm ( n 594 ) increases up to 1.765 for BADGE-based hybrids, 1.667 for CEL-based hybrids, and 1.693 for TEPIC-based hybrids. Their refractive indices and Abbe's numbers are quantitatively described by the Lorentz-Lorenz effective medium expansion theory. Their transmissivity is also reasonably explained using Fresnel refraction, Rayleigh scattering, and the Lambert-Beer theories. This surface modifier-free hybridization

  5. Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cell Performance with Anode Current Collector Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    collectors were studied: Au, Ni, Ag, and Pt. It was shown that the performance of the direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is dependent on the current collector materials, Ni and Pt giving the best performance, due to their catalytic activity. Gold is suggested to be the best material as an inert current collector......The influence of the current collector on the performance of a hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC), consisting of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a molten carbonate-carbon slurry in contact with the anode, has been investigated using current-voltage curves. Four different anode current...

  6. Optimal behavior of responsive residential demand considering hybrid phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-khah, M.; Kheradmand, M.; Javadi, S.; Azenha, M.; Aguiar, J.L.B. de; Castro-Gomes, J.; Siano, P.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An operational model of HEM system incorporating with a hybrid PCM is proposed in this paper. • Incorporation of hybrid PCM mortar had a complementary effect on the proposed HEM system. • The proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. • The customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model. - Abstract: Due to communication and technology developments, residential consumers are enabled to participate in Demand Response Programs (DRPs), control their consumption and decrease their cost by using Household Energy Management (HEM) systems. On the other hand, capability of energy storage systems to improve the energy efficiency causes that employing Phase Change Materials (PCM) as thermal storage systems to be widely addressed in the building applications. In this paper, an operational model of HEM system considering the incorporation of more than one type of PCM in plastering mortars (hybrid PCM) is proposed not only to minimize the customer’s cost in different DRPs but also to guaranty the habitants’ satisfaction. Moreover, the proposed model ensures the technical and economic limits of batteries and electrical appliances. Different case studies indicate that implementation of hybrid PCM in the buildings can meaningfully affect the operational pattern of HEM systems in different DRPs. The results reveal that the customer’s electricity cost can be reduced up to 48% by utilizing the proposed model.

  7. Experimental analysis of SiC-based refractory concrete in hybrid rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Raffaele; Bernhart, Gérard; Hijlkema, Jouke; Cutard, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion represents a good alternative to the more widely used liquid and solid systems. This technology combines some important specifications of the latters, as the possibility of re-ignition, thrust modulation, a higher specific impulse than solid systems, a greater simplicity and a lower cost than liquid systems. Nevertheless the highly oxidizing environment represents a major problem as regards the thermo-oxidation and ablative behavior of nozzle materials. The main goal of this research is to characterize a silicon carbide based micro-concrete with a maximum aggregates size of 800 μm, in a hybrid propulsion environment. The nozzle throat has to resist to a highly oxidizing polyethylene/nitrous oxide hybrid environment, under temperatures up to 2900 K. Three tests were performed on concrete-based nozzles in HERA Hybrid Rocket Motor (HRM) test bench at ONERA. Pressure chamber evolution and observations before and after tests are used to investigate the ablated surface at nozzle throat. Ablation behavior and crack generation are discussed and some improvements are proposed.

  8. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Importance of material and friction characterisation for FE-aided process design of hybrid bevel gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Matthias, T.

    2017-10-01

    Solid-forming components are often used in areas where they are subjected to very high loads. For most solid components locally divergent and sometimes contradictory requirements exist. Despite these contradictory requirements, almost exclusively monomaterials are nowadays used for the production of solid components. These components often reach their material-specific limits because of increasing demands on the products. Thus a significant increase in product quality and profitability would result from combining different materials in order to create tailored properties. In the Collaborative Research Center (CRC) 1153 "Tailored Forming" at the Leibniz Universität Hannover, this topic is investigated. The primary objective of the CRC 1153 is to develop and investigate new tailored manufacturing processes to produce reliable hybrid solid semi-finished components. In contrast to existing production processes of hybrid solid components, semi-finished workpieces in the CRC 1153 are joined before the forming phase. Thus, it will be possible to produce complex and highly stressable solid components made of different metals, which cannot be produced yet with the current used technologies. In this work the material and friction characteristics are investigated and the forming tool for the production of hybrid bevel gears made of different steel alloys (C22 and 41Cr4) is designed by numerical simulations. For this purpose, flow curves of both materials are determined by means of upsetting tests at process-related forming temperatures and strain rates. The temperature range for the forming process of the semi-finished product is determined by comparing the respective flow curves regarding similar flow stresses. Furthermore, the friction between the tool and the joining materials is investigated by means of ring upsetting tests at a process-relevant temperature. Finally, a stress analysis of the forming tools is carried out.

  10. Fabrication of mesoporous metal oxide coated-nanocarbon hybrid materials via a polyol-mediated self-assembly process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bingmei; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Dongniu; Yu, Huilong; Chu, Yi; Fang, Hai-Tao

    2014-11-01

    After clarifying the formation mechanism of a typical metal glycolate precipitate, Ti glycolate, in a polyol-mediated synthesis using acetone as a precipitation medium, we describe a simple template-free approach based on an ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis to fabricate mesoporous metal oxide coated-nanocarbon hybrid materials including TiO2 coated-carbon nanotube (CNT), SnO2 coated-CNT, Cu2O/CuO coated-CNT and TiO2 coated-graphene sheet (GS). In the approach, metal oxide precursors, metal glycolates, were first deposited on CNTs or GSs, and subsequently transformed to the metal oxide coatings by pyrolysis or hydrolysis. By a comparison between the characterization of two TiO2-CNT hybrid materials using carboxylated CNTs and pristine CNTs without carboxyl groups, the driving force for initiating the deposition of metal glycolates on the carboxylated CNTs is confirmed to be the hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl groups and the polymer chains in metal glycolate sols. The electrochemical performances of the mesoporous TiO2 coated-carboxylated CNTs and TiO2-pristine CNT hybrid materials were investigated. The results show that the mesoporous TiO2 coated-carboxylated CNT with a uniform core-shell nanostructure exhibits substantial improvement in the rate performance in comparison with its counterpart from 0.5 C to 100 C because of its higher electronic conductivity and shorter diffusion path for the lithium ion. At the extremely high rate of 100 C, the specific capacity of TiO2 of the former reaches 85 mA h g-1, twice as high as that of the latter.After clarifying the formation mechanism of a typical metal glycolate precipitate, Ti glycolate, in a polyol-mediated synthesis using acetone as a precipitation medium, we describe a simple template-free approach based on an ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis to fabricate mesoporous metal oxide coated-nanocarbon hybrid materials including TiO2 coated-carbon nanotube (CNT), SnO2 coated-CNT, Cu2O/CuO coated-CNT and TiO2

  11. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  12. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon

    2018-01-01

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas. PMID:29364861

  13. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE, designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  14. Soft Material-Enabled, Flexible Hybrid Electronics for Medicine, Healthcare, and Human-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Robert; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yun Soung; Lee, Hye Moon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2018-01-24

    Flexible hybrid electronics (FHE), designed in wearable and implantable configurations, have enormous applications in advanced healthcare, rapid disease diagnostics, and persistent human-machine interfaces. Soft, contoured geometries and time-dynamic deformation of the targeted tissues require high flexibility and stretchability of the integrated bioelectronics. Recent progress in developing and engineering soft materials has provided a unique opportunity to design various types of mechanically compliant and deformable systems. Here, we summarize the required properties of soft materials and their characteristics for configuring sensing and substrate components in wearable and implantable devices and systems. Details of functionality and sensitivity of the recently developed FHE are discussed with the application areas in medicine, healthcare, and machine interactions. This review concludes with a discussion on limitations of current materials, key requirements for next generation materials, and new application areas.

  15. Optimum design of brake friction material using hybrid entropy-GRA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Kevlar and natural fibres on the performance of brake friction materials was evaluated. Four friction material specimens were developed by varying the proportion of Kevlar and natural fibres. Two developed composite contained 5-10 wt.% of Kevlar fibre while in the other two the Kevlar fibre was replaced with same amount of natural fibre. SAE J661 protocol was used for the assessment of the tribological properties on a Chase testing machine. Result shows that the specimens containing Kevlar fibres shows higher friction and wear performance, whereas Kevlar replacement with natural fibre resulted in improved fade, recovery and friction fluctuations. Further hybrid entropy-GRA (grey relation analysis approach was applied to select the optimal friction materials using various performance defining attributes (PDA including friction, wear, fade, recovery, friction fluctuations and cost. The friction materials with 10 wt% of natural fibre exhibited the best overall quality.

  16. Micelle swelling agent derived cavities for increasing hydrophobic organic compound removal efficiency by mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yifeng; Li, Bin; Wang, Peng; Dua, Rubal; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous micelle@silica hybrid materials with 2D hexagonal mesostructures were synthesized as reusable sorbents for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) removal by a facile one-step aqueous solution synthesis using 3-(trimethoxysily)propyl

  17. Investigation of CO2 capture mechanisms of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials via structural characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Youngjune; Decatur, John; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) have been recently developed that comprise an oligomeric or polymeric canopy tethered to surface-modified nanoparticles via ionic or covalent bonds. It has already been shown that the tunable nature

  18. Monitoring of beer fermentation based on hybrid electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Zaborowski, Michał; Prokaryn, Piotr; Ciosek, Patrycja

    2012-10-01

    Monitoring of biotechnological processes, including fermentation is extremely important because of the rapidly occurring changes in the composition of the samples during the production. In the case of beer, the analysis of physicochemical parameters allows for the determination of the stage of fermentation process and the control of its possible perturbations. As a tool to control the beer production process a sensor array can be used, composed of potentiometric and voltammetric sensors (so-called hybrid Electronic Tongue, h-ET). The aim of this study is to apply electronic tongue system to distinguish samples obtained during alcoholic fermentation. The samples originate from batch of homemade beer fermentation and from two stages of the process: fermentation reaction and maturation of beer. The applied sensor array consists of 10 miniaturized ion-selective electrodes (potentiometric ET) and silicon based 3-electrode voltammetric transducers (voltammetric ET). The obtained results were processed using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). For potentiometric data, voltammetric data, and combined potentiometric and voltammetric data, comparison of the classification ability was conducted based on Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), sensitivity, specificity, and coefficient F calculation. It is shown, that in the contrast to the separately used techniques, the developed hybrid system allowed for a better characterization of the beer samples. Data fusion in hybrid ET enables to obtain better results both in qualitative analysis (RMSE, specificity, sensitivity) and in quantitative analysis (RMSE, R(2), a, b). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and flammability of high density polyethylene/paraffin/organophilic montmorillonite hybrids as a form stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yibing; Hu, Yuan; Song, Lei; Kong, Qinghong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yinping; Chen, Zuyao; Fan, Weicheng

    2007-01-01

    A kind of form stable phase change material (PCM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), paraffin, organophilic montmorillonite (OMT) and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) hybrids is prepared by using a twin screw extruder technique. This kind of form stable PCM is made of paraffin as a dispersed phase change material and HDPE as a supporting material. The structure of the montmorillonite (MMT) and OMT is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The analysis indicates that the MMT is a kind of lamellar structure, and the structure does not change after organic modification. However, the structure of the hybrid is evidenced by the XRD and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Its thermal stability, latent heat and flame retardant properties are given by the Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) method and cone calorimeter, respectively. Synergy is observed between the OMT and IFR. The XRD result indicates that the paraffin intercalates into the silicate layers of the OMT, thus forming a typically intercalated hybrid. The SEM investigation and DSC result show that the additives of OMT and IFR have hardly any effect on the HDPE/paraffin three dimensional netted structure and the latent heat. In TGA curves, although the onset of weight loss of flame-retardant form stable PCMs occur at a lower temperature than that of form stable PCM, flame-retardant form stable PCMs produce a large amount of char residue at 700 o C. The synergy between OMT and IFR leads to the decrease of the heat release rate (HRR), contributing to improvement of the flammability performance

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured Hybrids Based on Poly(Vinyl Alcohol/Bioactive Glass Reinforced with Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Mansur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the synthesis and characterization of novel tridimensional porous hybrids based on PVA combined with bioactive glass and reinforced by chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT for potential use in bone tissue engineering. The functionalization of CNT was performed by introducing carboxylic groups in multiwall nanotubes. This process aimed at enhancing the affinity of CNTs with the water-soluble PVA polymer derived by the hydrogen bonds formed among alcohol (PVA and carboxylic groups (CNT–COOH. In the sequence, the CNT–COOH (0.25 wt% were used as the nanostructure modifier for the hybrid system based on PVA associated with the bioactive glass (BaG. The mechanical properties of the nanostructured hybrids reinforced with CNT–COOH were evaluated by axial compression tests, and they were compared to reference hybrid. The averaged yield stresses of macroporous hybrids were (2.3 ± 0.9 and (4.4 ± 1.0 MPa for the reference and the CNT reinforced materials, respectively. Moreover, yield strain and Young's modulus were significantly enhanced by about 30% for the CNT–COOH hybrids. Hence, as far as the mechanical properties are concerned, the results have clearly showed the feasibility of utilizing these new hybrids reinforced with functionalized CNT in repairing cancellous bone tissues.

  1. Classification of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids under different water availability based on biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia D. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The eucalyptus grows rapidly and is well suitable to edaphic and bioclimatic conditions in several regions of of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Eucalyptus urograndis hybrids grown under different water availability conditions.Area of study: The study was performed in south-eastern of BrazilMaterial and Methods: We evaluated five commercial hybrids cultivated in pots with the substrate maintained at 65, 50, 35 and 20% maximum water retention capacity. The evaluation was based on the following characteristics: total height (cm, diameter (mm, number of leaves, leaf area (dm2, and dry weight (g plant-1 of leaf, stem + branches,   root, shoot and total and root/shoot ratio.Main results: All the characteristics evaluated were adversely affected by reduced availability of water in the substrate. The hybrids assessed performed differently in terms of biometric characteristics, irrespective of water availability. Water deficit resulted in a greater reduction in the dry weight production compared to number of leaves, diameter and height. Hybrids H2 and H5 have favorable traits for tolerating drought. The hybrid H2 shows a stronger slowdown in growth as soil moisture levels drop, although its growth rate is low, and H5 increases the root/shoot ratio but maintains growth in terms of height, even under drought conditions.Research highlights: The results obtained in our experiment show that productive hybrids sensitive to drought could also perform better under water deficit conditions, maintaining satisfactory growth despite significant drops in these characteristics.Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; water deficit; drought tolerance. 

  2. Nitrogen doped graphene - Silver nanowire hybrids: An excellent anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Elizabeth, Indu; S, Gopukumar; Thomas, Sabu; M. S, Kala; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-01-01

    We present an in-situ polyol assisted synthesis approach for the preparation of silver nanowires (AgNW) over the nitrogen doped graphene (NG) sheets and has been tested as a viable LIBs anode material for the first time. The use of NG serves as nucleation sites, thereby facilitating the growth of AgNWs. The specific material design of the as-prepared NG-AgNW hybrids involves some advantages, including a continuous AgNW-graphene conducting network. Since AgNWs are electrically conductive, it provides an electrical contact with NG sheets which can effectively help the charge transport process and limit the variations in volume during the lithiation/de-lithiation processes. Apart from this, the insertion of metallic Ag nanowires into a percolated NG network increases the interlayer distance of NG sheets and prevent its restacking. Moreover, the more porous nature of the hybrid structure accommodating the large volume changes of AgNWs. As an anode material for LIBs, the NG-AgNW hybrid displays a remarkable initial discharge capacity of 1215 mAh g-1 and attains a stable capacity of 724 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. The electrode exhibits a stable reversible capacity of 714, 634, 550 and 464 mA h g-1 at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Ag-1 respectively. The reversible capacity (710 mAh g-1) at 0.1 Ag-1 is recovered after the cycling at various current densities confirming outstanding rate performance of the material. In addition, the coulombic efficiency, the NG-AgNW anode retains nearly 99% after the second cycle, further indicating its excellent reversibility. The hybrid material exhibits better cycling stability, greater rate capability, capacity retention and superior reversible capacity than that of bare AgNW and NG sheets. Our smart design will pave way for the development of efficient electrode materials for high capacity and long cycle life LIBs.

  3. Three-Dimensional (3D Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Fafenrot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM is a three-dimensional (3D printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid (PLA printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  4. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  5. Pickering emulsion: A novel template for microencapsulated phase change materials with polymer–silica hybrid shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Dezhong; Ma, Li; Liu, Jinjie; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-01

    MePCMs (microencapsulated phase change materials) with covalently bonded SiO 2 /polymer hybrid as shell were fabricated via Pickering emulsion polymerization stabilized solely by organically-modified SiO 2 particles. Morphology and core–shell structure of these microcapsules were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties of microencapsulated 1-dodecanol were determined using DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis). The results indicate that mass ratio of St (styrene)/DVB (divinylbenzene)/dodecanol has great effect on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulation efficiency and durability of resultant MePCMs. When ratio of St/DVB/dodecanol was 5/1/12, dodecanol content of as much as 62.8% is obtained and the utility efficiency of dodecanol reaches 94.2%. The prepared MePCMs present good durability and thermal reliability. 2.2% of core material leached away the microcapsule after suspended in water for 10 days and 5.8% of core material leached after 2000 accelerated thermal cycling. Our study demonstrated that Pickering emulsion polymerization is a simple and robust method for the preparation of MePCMs with polymer–inorganic hybrids as shell. - Highlights: • We fabricated MePCM via surfactant-free Pickering emulsion polymerization. • The shell of MePCM was composed of PS/SiO 2 organic–inorganic hybrids. • The phase change enthalpy of MePCM is 125.0 J g −1 and the utility efficiency of 1-dodecanol reached 94.2%. • Only 2.2% and 5.8% of core material lost after durability test and 2000 accelerated thermal cycling respectively

  6. Activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor (FDS-MFX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jieqiong; Yuan, Baoxin; Zou, Jun; Wu, Yican

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary studies of the activation analysis and waste management for blanket materials of the multi-functional experimental fusion–fission hybrid reactor, i.e. Multi-Functional eXperimental Fusion Driven Subcritical system named FDS-MFX, were performed. The neutron flux of the FDS-MFX blanket was calculated using VisualBUS code and Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (HENDL) developed by FDS Team. Based on these calculated neutron fluxes, the activation properties of blanket materials were analyzed by the induced radioactivity, the decay heat and the contact dose rate for different regions of the FDS-MFX blanket. The safety and environment assessment of fusion power (SEAFP) strategy, which was developed in Europe, was applied to FDS-MFX blanket for the management of activated materials. Accordingly, the classification and management strategy of activated materials after different cooling time were proposed for FDS-MFX blanket

  7. Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.

  8. Preparation of epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Mitsukazu; Nii, Daisuke; Harada, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized via in situ polymerization using zirconium alkoxide coordinated with acid anhydride. → The half-ester compound of acid anhydride desorbed from zirconium played as curing agent of epoxy resin. → The zirconia was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale by synchronizing the epoxy curing and sol-gel reactions. → The refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content. - Abstract: Novel epoxy/zirconia hybrid materials were synthesized using a bisphenol A epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; DGEBA), zirconium(IV)-n-propoxide (ZTNP), and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) via in situ polymerization. HHPA played two roles in this system: it acted as a modifier to control the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of zirconium alkoxide and also as a curing agent - the half-ester compound of HHPA desorbed from zirconium reacted with the epoxy resin to form the epoxy network. As a result, both the sol-gel reaction and epoxy curing occurred simultaneously in a homogeneous solution, and organic-inorganic hybrid materials were readily obtained. Further, the zirconia produced by the in situ polymerization was uniformly dispersed in the epoxy matrix on the nanometer or sub-nanometer scale; thus, hybrid materials that exhibited excellent optical transparency were obtained. Furthermore, the heat resistance of the hybrid materials could be improved by hybridization with zirconia. And, the refractive indices of the hybrid materials significantly improved with an increase in the zirconia content.

  9. Advanced fluoride-based materials for energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Fluoride-Based Materials for Energy Conversion provides thorough and applied information on new fluorinated materials for chemical energy devices, exploring the electrochemical properties and behavior of fluorinated materials in lithium ion and sodium ion batteries, fluoropolymers in fuel cells, and fluorinated carbon in capacitors, while also exploring synthesis applications, and both safety and stability issues. As electronic devices, from cell phones to hybrid and electric vehicles, are increasingly common and prevalent in modern lives and require dependable, stable chemical energy devices with high-level functions are becoming increasingly important. As research and development in this area progresses rapidly, fluorine compounds play a critical role in this rapid progression. Fluorine, with its small size and the highest electronegativity, yields stable compounds under various conditions for utilization as electrodes, electrolytes, and membranes in energy devices. The book is an ideal reference f...

  10. Development of hybrid artificial intelligent based handover decision algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Aibinu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of seamless handover remains a mirage despite the plethora of existing handover algorithms. The underlying factor responsible for this has been traced to the Handover decision module in the Handover process. Hence, in this paper, the development of novel hybrid artificial intelligent handover decision algorithm has been developed. The developed model is made up of hybrid of Artificial Neural Network (ANN based prediction model and Fuzzy Logic. On accessing the network, the Received Signal Strength (RSS was acquired over a period of time to form a time series data. The data was then fed to the newly proposed k-step ahead ANN-based RSS prediction system for estimation of prediction model coefficients. The synaptic weights and adaptive coefficients of the trained ANN was then used to compute the k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction model coefficients. The predicted RSS value was later codified as Fuzzy sets and in conjunction with other measured network parameters were fed into the Fuzzy logic controller in order to finalize handover decision process. The performance of the newly developed k-step ahead ANN based RSS prediction algorithm was evaluated using simulated and real data acquired from available mobile communication networks. Results obtained in both cases shows that the proposed algorithm is capable of predicting ahead the RSS value to about ±0.0002 dB. Also, the cascaded effect of the complete handover decision module was also evaluated. Results obtained show that the newly proposed hybrid approach was able to reduce ping-pong effect associated with other handover techniques.

  11. Design and characterization of hybrid peptide sol-gel materials for the solid state induction of neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S.

    2007-12-01

    Cell-based therapeutics are a rapidly growing area of research, with considerable promise in the treatment of neurological diseases. One of the primary limitations to neuronal cell-based devices is the necessity to maintain cells in an immature or undifferentiated state in culture prior to transplantation. In many cases, the undifferentiated cell does not express the desired characteristics for implantation. Biologically functional nanomaterials provide the ability to manipulate the direct extracellular environment surrounding cells; influencing their fate and differentiation path. The ability to engineer the interface between the cells and culture materials provides a repeatable, stable means of directing cells down a specific growth path determined by endogenous signaling pathways. This materials approach to cellular engineering can limit the need for added exogenous growth factors, "feeder" layers, or animal sera, in addition to creating a homogenous cell population for transplantation. In this work, hybrid peptide ormosil materials were developed; designed to mimic the developing mammalian brain during corticogenesis. These materials have been developed to enhance the GABAergic phenotype of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells and immature immortalized neurons. The ability to develop a homogenous, directed cell population has implications in stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cell-based devices and biosensing technology.

  12. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  13. Silica- and silylated europium-based luminescent hybrids: new analysis tools for biological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Duarte, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The association of the very interesting luminescence properties of the lanthanide chelates with the physicochemical properties of inorganic matrix such as silica is a promising way to obtain new probes or luminescent markers for biology analyses. In this idea, this work focuses on the preparation of new hybrid materials based on the grafting of new europium(III) complexes on silica nanoparticles. These europium complexes were developed in our group using bifunctional ligands containing both complexing and grafting sites. Intrinsic characteristic of the ligands gives us the ability to make a covalent bond between the material surface and the complex. Two different methodologies were used; the first one is the direct grafting reaction involving the complex and silica nanoparticles (i.e. dense or meso-porous particles). The second one is the Stoeber reaction, where the SiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared in presence of the europium complex. The last methodology has an additional difficult, because of the presence of silylated europium complex, it needs a closer control of the physicochemical conditions. The new organic-inorganic hybrid materials, obtained in this work, present an interesting luminescence behavior and this one is depending on the localization of the europium complex, i.e. on the surface or within the nanoparticles. In addition, the obtained hybrids present the nano-metric dimension and the complex is not leachable. Analyses were realized to describe the luminescence properties, beyond surface and structural characteristics. Initial results show that the new hybrids are promising candidates for luminescent bio-markers, particularly for the time-resolved analysis. (author) [fr

  14. Graphene-Metal Oxide Hybrid Nanostructured Materials for Electrocatalytic Sensing and Sustainable Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    Graphene based materials have attracted tremendous attention, attributed to their unique physicochemical properties and versatile applications. In general, these materials are very promising candidates for the development of next-generation electrochemical systems for energy and environmental tec...

  15. Unravelling the High-Pressure Behaviour of Dye-Zeolite L Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gigli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of chromophores nanoconfined in porous materials such as zeolite L has led to technologically relevant host-guest systems exploited in solar energy harvesting, photonics, nanodiagnostics and information technology. The response of these hybrid materials to compression, which would be crucial to enhance their application range, has never been explored to date. By a joint high-pressure in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and ab initio molecular dynamics approach, herein we unravel the high-pressure behaviour of hybrid composites of zeolite L with fluorenone dye. High-pressure experiments were performed up to 6 GPa using non-penetrating pressure transmitting media to study the effect of dye loading on the structural properties of the materials under compression. Computational modelling provided molecular-level insight on the response to compression of the confined dye assemblies, evidencing a pressure-induced strengthening of the interaction between the fluorenone carbonyl group and zeolite L potassium cations. Our results reveal an impressive stability of the fluorenone-zeolite L composites at GPa pressures. The remarkable resilience of the supramolecular organization of dye molecules hyperconfined in zeolite L channels may open the way to the realization of optical devices able to maintain their functionality under extreme conditions.

  16. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current
    applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and
    mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make
    the material more

  17. Fluorescent silica hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes obtained by sol-gel method and high pressure processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Helena Sofia; Stefani, Valter; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Costa, Tania Maria Haas; Gallas, Marcia Russman

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sol-gel technique was used to obtain silica based hybrid materials containing benzimidazole dyes. → The sol-gel catalysts, HF and NaF, produce xerogels with different optical and textural characteristics. → High pressure technique (6.0 GPa) was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the dyes entrapped in closed pores, maintaining their optical properties. → The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. - Abstract: New silica hybrid materials were obtained by incorporation of two benzimidazole dyes in the silica network by sol-gel technique, using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as inorganic precursor. Several syntheses were performed with two catalysts (HF and NaF) producing powders and monoliths with different characteristics. The dye 2-(2'-hydroxy-5'-aminophenyl)benzimidazole was dispersed and physically adsorbed in the matrix, and the dye 2'(5'-N-(3-triethoxysilyl)propylurea-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole was silylated, becoming chemically bonded to the silica network. High pressure technique was used to produce fluorescent and transparent silica compacts with the silylated and incorporated dye, at 6.0 GPa and room temperature. The excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism of benzimidazole dyes was studied by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the monoliths, powders, and compacts. The influence of the syntheses conditions was investigated by textural analysis using nitrogen adsorption isotherms.

  18. Melanin-Based Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco d’Ischia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin biopolymers are currently the focus of growing interest for a broad range of applications at the cutting edge of biomedical research and technology. This Special Issue presents a collection of papers dealing with melanin-type materials, e.g., polydopamine, for classic and innovative applications, offering a stimulating perspective of current trends in the field. Besides basic scientists, the Special Issue is directed to researchers from industries and companies that are willing to invest in melanin research for innovative and inspiring solutions.

  19. Effects of Aromatic Ammoniums on Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide Hybrid Perovskite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of bulky ammoniums into methyl ammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskites (MAPbI3 has emerged as a promising strategy to improve the properties of these materials. In the present work, we studied the effects of several aromatic ammoniums onto the structural, electronic, and optical properties of MAPbI3. Although powder XRD data suggest that the bulky cations are not involved in the bulk phase of the MAPbI3, a surprisingly large effect of the bulky cations onto the photoluminescence properties was observed.

  20. Fabrication of lithium titanate/graphene composites with high rate capability as electrode materials for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Rong, E-mail: xuerongsmile@qq.com; Yan, Jingwang, E-mail: yanjw@dicp.ac.cn; Jiang, Liang, E-mail: jiangliang@dicp.ac.cn; Yi, Baolian, E-mail: blyi@dicp.ac.cn

    2015-06-15

    A lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12})/graphene composite (LTO/graphene) is fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. Graphite oxide is dispersed in an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and tetrabutyl titanate followed by heat treatment in H{sub 2}/Ar. The LTO/graphene composite with reduced aggregation and improved homogeneity is investigated as an anode material for electrochemical capacitors. Electron transport is improved by the conductive graphene network in the insulating Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles. The charge transfer resistance at the particle/electrolyte interface is reduced from 83.1 Ω to 55.4 Ω. The specific capacity of LTO/graphene composite is 126 mAh g{sup −1} at 20C. The energy density and power density of a hybrid electrochemical supercapacitor with a LTO/graphene negative electrode and an activated carbon positive electrode are 120.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.5 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, which is comparable to that of conventional electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The LTO/graphene composite fabricated by the one-pot sol–gel method is a promising anode material for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors. - Highlights: • A Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene composite was fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. • The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene composite showed a reduced aggregation and an improved homogeneity. • The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/graphene based hybrid supercapacitor exhibited higher energy and power densities.

  1. Fabrication of lithium titanate/graphene composites with high rate capability as electrode materials for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Rong; Yan, Jingwang; Jiang, Liang; Yi, Baolian

    2015-01-01

    A lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 )/graphene composite (LTO/graphene) is fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. Graphite oxide is dispersed in an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and tetrabutyl titanate followed by heat treatment in H 2 /Ar. The LTO/graphene composite with reduced aggregation and improved homogeneity is investigated as an anode material for electrochemical capacitors. Electron transport is improved by the conductive graphene network in the insulating Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles. The charge transfer resistance at the particle/electrolyte interface is reduced from 83.1 Ω to 55.4 Ω. The specific capacity of LTO/graphene composite is 126 mAh g −1 at 20C. The energy density and power density of a hybrid electrochemical supercapacitor with a LTO/graphene negative electrode and an activated carbon positive electrode are 120.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.5 kW kg −1 , respectively, which is comparable to that of conventional electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). The LTO/graphene composite fabricated by the one-pot sol–gel method is a promising anode material for hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors. - Highlights: • A Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene composite was fabricated with a one-pot sol–gel method. • The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene composite showed a reduced aggregation and an improved homogeneity. • The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene based hybrid supercapacitor exhibited higher energy and power densities

  2. Materiality in a practice-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object......-oriented activity, symbolization, embodiment, performance, alignment and mediation. Material artifacts both stabilize and destabilize organizational action. They may ensure coordination, communication, and control, but they may also create disturbance and conflict....

  3. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel

  4. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lu, Houbing [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei Electronic Engineering Institute, Hefei 230037 (China); Chen, Lian [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jin, Ge, E-mail: goldjin@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  6. Design of time interval generator based on hybrid counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Lu, Houbing; Chen, Lian; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Time Interval Generators (TIGs) are frequently used for the characterizations or timing operations of instruments in particle physics experiments. Though some “off-the-shelf” TIGs can be employed, the necessity of a custom test system or control system makes the TIGs, being implemented in a programmable device desirable. Nowadays, the feasibility of using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to implement particle physics instrumentation has been validated in the design of Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) for precise time measurement. The FPGA-TDC technique is based on the architectures of Tapped Delay Line (TDL), whose delay cells are down to few tens of picosecond. In this case, FPGA-based TIGs with high delay step are preferable allowing the implementation of customized particle physics instrumentations and other utilities on the same FPGA device. A hybrid counting method for designing TIGs with both high resolution and wide range is presented in this paper. The combination of two different counting methods realizing an integratable TIG is described in detail. A specially designed multiplexer for tap selection is emphatically introduced. The special structure of the multiplexer is devised for minimizing the different additional delays caused by the unpredictable routings from different taps to the output. A Kintex-7 FPGA is used for the hybrid counting-based implementation of a TIG, providing a resolution up to 11 ps and an interval range up to 8 s.

  7. A Probability-Based Hybrid User Model for Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of information communication technology, the available information or knowledge is exponentially increased, and this causes the well-known information overload phenomenon. This problem is more serious in product design corporations because over half of the valuable design time is consumed in knowledge acquisition, which highly extends the design cycle and weakens the competitiveness. Therefore, the recommender systems become very important in the domain of product domain. This research presents a probability-based hybrid user model, which is a combination of collaborative filtering and content-based filtering. This hybrid model utilizes user ratings and item topics or classes, which are available in the domain of product design, to predict the knowledge requirement. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental results shows that the proposed method gains better performance in most of the parameter settings. This work contributes a probability-based method to the community for implement recommender system when only user ratings and item topics are available.

  8. Chemical Stability of Cd(II and Cu(II Ionic Imprinted Amino-Silica Hybrid Material in Solution Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhani Buhani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stability of Cd(II and Cu(II ionic imprinted amino-silica (HAS material of (i-Cd-HAS and i-Cu-HAS derived from silica modification with active compound (3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (3-APTMS has been studied in solution media.  Stability test was performed with HNO3 0.1 M (pH 1.35 to investigate material stability at low pH condition, acetat buffer at pH 5.22 for adsorption process optimum pH condition, and in the water (pH 9.34 for base condition.  Material characteristics were carried out with infrared spectrophotometer (IR and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS.  At interaction time of 4 days in acid and neutral condition, i-Cd-HAS is more stable than i-Cu-HAS with % Si left in material 95.89 % (acid media, 43.82 % (close to neutral, and 9.39 % (base media.Keywords: chemical stability, amino-silica hybrid, ionic imprinting technique.

  9. Nanostructured carbon materials based electrothermal air pump actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Liu, Luqi; Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with common polymer nanocomposites based electrothermal actuators, our actuators exhibited better actuation performances with a low driving voltage (film actuator due to the intrinsic gas-impermeability nature of graphene platelets. In addition, the high modulus of the r-GO and GO/SWCNT films also guaranteed the large generated stress and high work density. Specifically, the generated stress and gravimetric work density of the GO/SWCNT hybrid film actuator could reach up to more than 50 MPa and 30 J kg-1, respectively, under a driving voltage of 10 V. The resulting stress value is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of natural muscles (~0.4 MPa).Actuator materials can directly convert different types of energy into mechanical energy. In this work, we designed and fabricated electrothermal air pump-type actuators by utilization of various nanostructured carbon materials, including single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (r-GO), and graphene oxide (GO)/SWCNT hybrid films as heating elements to transfer electrical stimulus into thermal energy, and finally convert it into mechanical energy. Both the actuation displacement and working temperature of the actuator films show the monotonically increasing trend with increasing driving voltage within the actuation process. Compared with

  10. Event-triggered hybrid control based on multi-Agent systems for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-xia; Liu, Bin; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focused on a multi-agent system based event-triggered hybrid control for intelligently restructuring the operating mode of an microgrid (MG) to ensure the energy supply with high security, stability and cost effectiveness. Due to the microgrid is composed of different types...... of distributed energy resources, thus it is typical hybrid dynamic network. Considering the complex hybrid behaviors, a hierarchical decentralized coordinated control scheme is firstly constructed based on multi-agent sys-tem, then, the hybrid model of the microgrid is built by using differential hybrid Petri...

  11. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  12. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  13. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...... and project based learning. Based on interviews, workshops and observations of students’ actual group practices in open, shared and flexible spaces in Aalborg University (AAU), we identify and discuss how students incorporate networked and digital technologies into their group work and into the study places...... they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  14. Hydroxyapatite-chitosan based bioactive hybrid biomaterials with improved mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, A.

    2018-03-01

    Composites consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and chitosan (CTS) have recently been intensively studied. In this work, a novel inorganic-organic (I/O) HA/CTS materials in the form of granules were prepared through a simple solution-based chemical method. During the synthesis of these hybrids, the electrostatic complexes between positively charged, protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative phosphate species (HPO42 - and H2PO4-) were formed. Our biocomposites belong to the class I of hybrids, which was confirmed by FTIR studies. XRD analysis revealed that the obtained materials consisted of hydroxyapatite as the only crystalline phase. Homogeneous dispersion of the components in HA/CTS composites was confirmed. The use of 17 wt% and 23 wt% of chitosan resulted in approximately 12-fold and 16-fold increase in the compressive strength of HA/CTS as compared to the non-modified HA material. During incubation of the studied materials in SBF, pH of the solution remained close to the physiological one. Formation of apatite layer on their surfaces indicated bioactive nature of the developed biomaterials.

  15. Hybrid perturbation methods based on statistical time series models

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Juan Félix; San-Martín, Montserrat; Pérez, Iván; López, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present a new methodology for orbit propagation, the hybrid perturbation theory, based on the combination of an integration method and a prediction technique. The former, which can be a numerical, analytical or semianalytical theory, generates an initial approximation that contains some inaccuracies derived from the fact that, in order to simplify the expressions and subsequent computations, not all the involved forces are taken into account and only low-order terms are considered, not to mention the fact that mathematical models of perturbations not always reproduce physical phenomena with absolute precision. The prediction technique, which can be based on either statistical time series models or computational intelligence methods, is aimed at modelling and reproducing missing dynamics in the previously integrated approximation. This combination results in the precision improvement of conventional numerical, analytical and semianalytical theories for determining the position and velocity of any artificial satellite or space debris object. In order to validate this methodology, we present a family of three hybrid orbit propagators formed by the combination of three different orders of approximation of an analytical theory and a statistical time series model, and analyse their capability to process the effect produced by the flattening of the Earth. The three considered analytical components are the integration of the Kepler problem, a first-order and a second-order analytical theories, whereas the prediction technique is the same in the three cases, namely an additive Holt-Winters method.

  16. Dynamic Garment Simulation based on Hybrid Bounding Volume Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dongyong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the computing speed and efficiency problem of existing dynamic clothing simulation, this paper presents a dynamic garment simulation based on a hybrid bounding volume hierarchy. It firstly uses MCASG graph theory to do the primary segmentation for a given three-dimensional human body model. And then it applies K-means cluster to do the secondary segmentation to collect the human body’s upper arms, lower arms, upper legs, lower legs, trunk, hip and woman’s chest as the elementary units of dynamic clothing simulation. According to different shapes of these elementary units, it chooses the closest and most efficient hybrid bounding box to specify these units, such as cylinder bounding box and elliptic cylinder bounding box. During the process of constructing these bounding boxes, it uses the least squares method and slices of the human body to get the related parameters. This approach makes it possible to use the least amount of bounding boxes to create close collision detection regions for the appearance of the human body. A spring-mass model based on a triangular mesh of the clothing model is finally constructed for dynamic simulation. The simulation result shows the feasibility and superiority of the method described.

  17. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  20. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  1. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  2. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders, and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before.

  3. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luís

    2015-01-01

    This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork) for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders), and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before. PMID:28787962

  4. New Cork-Based Materials and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Luís

    2015-02-10

    This review work is an update of a previous work reporting the new cork based materials and new applications of cork based materials. Cork is a material which has been used for multiple applications. The most known uses of cork are in stoppers (natural and agglomerated cork) for alcoholic beverages, classic floor covering with composite cork tiles (made by the binding of cork particles with different binders), and thermal/acoustic/vibration insulation with expanded corkboard in buildings and some other industrial fields. Many recent developments have been made leading to new cork based materials. Most of these newly developed cork materials are not yet on the market, but they represent new possibilities for engineers, architects, designers and other professionals which must be known and considered, potentially leading to their industrialization. This paper is a review covering the last five years of innovative cork materials and applications also mentioning previous work not reported before.

  5. Immobilization of carbon nanotubes on functionalized graphene film grown by chemical vapor deposition and characterization of the hybrid material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surface functionalization of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition and fabrication of a hybrid material combining multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene (CNT–G. Amine-terminated self-assembled monolayers were prepared on graphene by the UV-modification of oxidized groups introduced onto the film surface. Amine-termination led to effective interaction with functionalized CNTs to assemble a CNT–G hybrid through covalent bonding. Characterization clearly showed no defects of the graphene film after the immobilization reaction with CNT. In addition, the hybrid graphene material revealed a distinctive CNT–G structure and p–n type electrical properties. The introduction of functional groups on the graphene film surface and fabrication of CNT–G hybrids with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

  6. Native Cellulose Microfiber-Based Hybrid Piezoelectric Generator for Mechanical Energy Harvesting Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Mehebub; Mandal, Dipankar

    2016-01-27

    A flexible hybrid piezoelectric generator (HPG) based on native cellulose microfiber (NCMF) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as conducting filler is presented where the further chemical treatment of the cellulose and traditional electrical poling steps for piezoelectric voltage generation is avoided. It delivers a high electrical throughput that is an open circuit voltage of ∼30 V and power density ∼9.0 μW/cm(3) under repeated hand punching. We demonstrate to power up various portable electronic units by HPG. Because cellulose is a biocompatible material, suggesting that HPG may have greater potential in biomedical applications such as implantable power source in human body.

  7. Experimental Characterization of Aluminum-Based Hybrid Composites Obtained Through Powder Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, D. F.; Buzatu, M.; Ghica, V. G.; Petrescu, M. I.; Popescu, G.; Niculescu, F.; Iacob, G.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents some experimental results concerning fabrication through powder metallurgy (P/M) of aluminum-based hybrid composites - Al/Al2O3/Gr. In order to understand the mechanisms that occur during the P/M processes of obtaining Al/Al2O3/Gr composite, we correlated the physical characteristics with their micro-structural characteristics. The characterization was performed using analysis techniques specific for P/M process, SEM-EDS and XRD analyses. Micro-structural characterization of the composites has revealed fairly uniform distribution this resulting in good properties of the final composite material.

  8. Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoodi, M.M.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, D.; Aidy, A.; Khalina, A.; Jonoobi, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We simulate the low impact test by Abaqus Ver16R9 using the same material model. → Six different weighted criteria were discussed to nominate the best concept. → Double Hat Profile showed the best concept to fulfil the defined PDS. → Geometric parameters may overcome the weak inherent properties of bio composite. → Toughened bio-composite material may employ in structural automotive components. -- Abstract: Application of natural fibre composites is going to increase in different areas caused by environmental, technical and economic advantages. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their particular application in automotive structural components. Hybridizations with other reinforcements or matrices can improve mechanical properties of natural fibre composite. Moreover, geometric optimizations have a significant role in structural strength improvement. This study focused on selecting the best geometrical bumper beam concept to fulfill the safety parameters of the defined product design specification (PDS). The mechanical properties of developed hybrid composite material were considered in different bumper beam concepts with the same frontal curvature, thickness, and overall dimensions. The low-speed impact test was simulated under the same conditions in Abaqus V16R9 software. Six weighted criteria, which were deflection, strain energy, mass, cost, easy manufacturing, and the rib possibility were analyzed to form an evaluation matrix. Topsis method was employed to select the best concept. It is concluded that double hat profile (DHP) with defined material model can be used for bumper beam of a small car. In addition, selected concept can be strengthened by adding reinforced ribs or increasing the thickness of the bumper beam to comply with the defined PDS.

  9. Graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Ke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The graphene-based materials are promising for applications in supercapacitors and other energy storage devices due to the intriguing properties, i.e., highly tunable surface area, outstanding electrical conductivity, good chemical stability and excellent mechanical behavior. This review summarizes recent development on graphene-based materials for supercapacitor electrodes, based on their macrostructural complexity, i.e., zero-dimensional (0D (e.g. free-standing graphene dots and particles, one-dimensional (1D (e.g. fiber-type and yarn-type structures, two-dimensional (2D (e.g. graphenes and graphene-based nanocomposite films, and three-dimensional (3D (e.g. graphene foam and hydrogel-based nanocomposites. There are extensive and on-going researches on the rationalization of their structures at varying scales and dimensions, development of effective and low cost synthesis techniques, design and architecturing of graphene-based materials, as well as clarification of their electrochemical performance. It is indicated that future studies should focus on the overall device performance in energy storage devices and large-scale process in low costs for the promising applications in portable and wearable electronic, transport, electrical and hybrid vehicles.

  10. Nanoporous ceramic hybrid materials synthesized by organically modified ceramic precursor with terminal amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Nina E.; Vueva, Yuliya E.; Abdallah, Mohammed E.; Ivanova, Yordanka Y.; Dimitriev, Yanko B. [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Salvado, Isabel M.; Fernandes, Maria H. [Ceramic and Glass Engineering Department CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    Nanoporous ceramic materials was functionalized by co-condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and different 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) amounts in the presence of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20} ), who was previously dissolved in acid solution with different acid concentrations. Pluronic P123 was used as structure-directing agent and xylene as a swelling agent. Inorganic salt was introduced in order to improve structure ordering and to tailor framework porosity. The synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance ( {sup 29}Si MAS NMR and {sup 13}C CP MAS NMR), Fourier –transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis. The results from NMR and FT-IR show that the organic functional group is successfuly incorporated in the silica framework and P123 was successfully extracted. The results from all analyzes prove that the acid concentration has significant influence on the materials morphology and properties. Kay words: sol-gel, mesoporous materials, hybrid materials, as structure-directing agent.

  11. Hybrid Modeling Method for a DEP Based Particle Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new modeling approach for Dielectrophoresis (DEP based particle manipulation is presented. The proposed method fulfills missing links in finite element modeling between the multiphysic simulation and the biological behavior. This technique is amongst the first steps to develop a more complex platform covering several types of manipulations such as magnetophoresis and optics. The modeling approach is based on a hybrid interface using both ANSYS and MATLAB to link the propagation of the electrical field in the micro-channel to the particle motion. ANSYS is used to simulate the electrical propagation while MATLAB interprets the results to calculate cell displacement and send the new information to ANSYS for another turn. The beta version of the proposed technique takes into account particle shape, weight and its electrical properties. First obtained results are coherent with experimental results.

  12. Skull defect reconstruction based on a new hybrid level set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqun; Zhang, Ran; Song, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Skull defect reconstruction is an important aspect of surgical repair. Historically, a skull defect prosthesis was created by the mirroring technique, surface fitting, or formed templates. These methods are not based on the anatomy of the individual patient's skull, and therefore, the prosthesis cannot precisely correct the defect. This study presented a new hybrid level set model, taking into account both the global optimization region information and the local accuracy edge information, while avoiding re-initialization during the evolution of the level set function. Based on the new method, a skull defect was reconstructed, and the skull prosthesis was produced by rapid prototyping technology. This resulted in a skull defect prosthesis that well matched the skull defect with excellent individual adaptation.

  13. Controllable preparation of multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets on electrospun carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Feili; Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Liu, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets grown on electrospun carbon nanofiber membranes were prepared via electrospinning combined with solution co-deposition for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. - Highlights: • Ni-Co LDH@CNFhybridswerepreparedbyelectrospinningandsolutionco-deposition. • Ni-Co LDH@CNF hybrids show high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors. • This method can be extended to other bimetallic@CNF hybrids for electrode materials. - Abstract: Hybrid nanomaterials with hierarchical structures have been considered as one kind of the most promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors with high capacity and long cycle lifetime. In this work, multi-dimensional hybrid materials of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanorods/nanosheets on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by electrospinning technique combined with one-step solution co-deposition method. Carbon nanofiber membranes were obtained by electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) followed by pre-oxidation and carbonization. The successful growth of Ni-Co LDH with different morphologies on CNF membrane by using two kinds of auxiliary agents reveals the simplicity and universality of this method. The uniform and immense growth of Ni-Co LDH on CNFs significantly improves its dispersion and distribution. Meanwhile the hierarchical structure of carbon nanofiber@nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanorods/nanosheets (CNF@Ni-Co LDH NR/NS) hybrid membranes provide not only more active sites for electrochemical reaction but also more efficient pathways for electron transport. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements reveal high specific capacitances of 1378.2 F g −1 and 1195.4 F g −1 (based on Ni-Co LDH mass) at 1 A g −1 for CNF@Ni-Co LDH NR and CNF@Ni-Co LDH NS hybrid membranes, respectively. Moreover, cycling stabilities for both hybrid membranes are

  14. Polymer/silica hybrid waveguide temperature sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Donghai; Wang, Xibin; Sun, Shiqi; Jiang, Minghui; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Fei; Wu, Yuanda; Zhang, Daming

    2018-04-01

    A highly sensitive waveguide temperature sensor based on asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer was designed and experimentally demonstrated. The interferometer is based on the polymer/silica hybrid waveguide structure, and Norland Optical Adhesive 73 (NOA 73) was employed as the waveguide core to enhance the temperature sensitivity. The influence of the different length differences between the two interferometer arms on the sensitivity of the sensor was systemically studied. It is shown that the maximum temperature sensitivity of -431 pm °C-1 can be obtained in the range of 25 °C-75 °C, while the length difference is 92 μm. Moreover, the temperature sensitivity contributions from different core materials were also investigated experimentally. It is shown that the waveguide material and microstructure of the device have significant influences on the sensitivity of the waveguide temperature sensor.

  15. Low Working-Temperature Acetone Vapor Sensor Based on Zinc Nitride and Oxide Hybrid Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fengdong; Yuan, Yao; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; Yang, Minghui

    2016-06-01

    Transition-metal nitride and oxide composites are a significant class of emerging materials that have attracted great interest for their potential in combining the advantages of nitrides and oxides. Here, a novel class of gas sensing materials based on hybrid Zn3 N2 and ZnO composites is presented. The Zn3 N2 /ZnO (ZnNO) composites-based sensor exhibits selectivity and high sensitivity toward acetone vapor, and the sensitivity is dependent on the nitrogen content of the composites. The ZnNO-11.7 described herein possesses a low working temperature of 200 °C. The detection limit (0.07 ppm) is below the diabetes diagnosis threshold (1.8 ppm). In addition, the sensor shows high reproducibility and long-term stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Biodentine, Resin Modified GIC and Hybrid Composite Resin as a Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Dayalan; Shoba, Krishnamma; Aman, Shibu; Bharkavi, Srinivasan Kumar Indu; Nimmi, Vijayan; Abhilash, Radhakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    The restoration of a severely damaged tooth usually needs a post and core as a part of treatment procedure to provide a corono - radicular stabilization. Biodentine is a class of dental material which possess high mechanical properties with excellent biocompatibility and bioactive behaviour. The sealing ability coupled with optimum physical properties could make Biodentine an excellent option as a core material. The aim of the study was to determine the fracture resistance of Biodentine as a core material in comparison with resin modified glass ionomer and composite resin. Freshly extracted 30 human permanent maxillary central incisors were selected. After endodontic treatment followed by post space preparation and luting of Glass fibre post (Reforpost, Angelus), the samples were divided in to three groups based on the type of core material. The core build-up used in Group I was Biodentine (Septodont, France), Group II was Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (GC, Japan) and Group III was Hybrid Composite Resin (TeEconom plus, Ivoclar vivadent). The specimens were subjected to fracture toughness using Universal testing machine (1474, Zwick/Roell, Germany) and results were compared using One-way analysis of variance with Tukey's Post hoc test. The results showed that there was significant difference between groups in terms of fracture load. Also, composite resin exhibited highest mean fracture load (1039.9 N), whereas teeth restored with Biodentine demonstrated the lowest mean fracture load (176.66 N). Resin modified glass ionomer exhibited intermediate fracture load (612.07 N). The primary mode of failure in Group I and Group II was favourable (100%) while unfavourable fracture was seen in Group III (30%). Biodentine, does not satisfy the requirements to be used as an ideal core material. The uses of RMGIC's as a core build-up material should be limited to non-stress bearing areas. Composite resin is still the best core build-up material owing to its high fracture

  17. Analysis and design of permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing based on hybrid factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinji Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, hybrid factor is proposed for hybrid magnetic bearing. The hybrid factor is defined as the ratio of the force produced by the permanent magnet and the forces produced by the permanent magnet and current in hybrid magnetic bearing. It is deduced from a certain radial hybrid magnetic bearing using its important parameters such as the current stiffness and displacement stiffness at first and then the dynamic model of magnetically suspended rotor system is established. The relationship between structural parameters and control system parameters is analyzed based on the hybrid factor. Some influencing factors of hybrid factor in hybrid magnetic bearing, such as the size of the permanent magnet, length of air gap, and area of the stator poles, are analyzed in this article. It can be concluded that larger hybrid factor can be caused by the smaller power loss according to the definition of hybrid factor mentioned above. Meanwhile, the hybrid factor has a maximum value, which is related to control system parameters such as proportional factor expect for structural parameters. Finally, the design steps of parameters of hybrid magnetic bearing can be concluded.

  18. EFRC: Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (stimulus)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is proposing an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) on Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy that will integrate the widely complementary experimental and theoretical expertise of 23 faculty at UMass-Amherst Departments with researchers from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania State University and Konarka Technologies, Inc. Collaborative efforts with researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Bayreuth, Seoul National University and Tohoku University will complement and expand the experimental efforts in the EFRC. Our primary research aim of this EFRC is the development of hybrid polymer-based devices with efficiencies more than twice the current organic-based devices, by combining expertise in the design and synthesis of photoactive polymers, the control and guidance of polymer-based assemblies, leadership in nanostructured polymeric materials, and the theory and modeling of non-equilibrium structures. A primary goal of this EFRC is to improve the collection and conversion efficiency of a broader spectral range of solar energy using the directed self-assembly of polymer-based materials so as to optimize the design and fabrication of inexpensive devices.

  19. Leaching from denture base materials in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lygre, H.; Solheim, E.; Gjerdet, N.R. [School of Medicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)

    1995-04-01

    Specimens made from denture base materials were leached in Ringer Solution and in ethanol. The specimens comprised a heat-cured product processed in two different ways and two cold-cured materials. The organic compounds leaching from the specimens to the solutions were separated, identified, and quantified by a combined gas-chromatography and gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry technique. Additives and degradation products, possibly made by free radical reactions, were released from the denture base materials. In Ringer solution only phthalates could be quantified. In ethanol solvent, biphenyl, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, phenyl benzoate, and phenyl salicylate were quantified. In addition, copper was found in the ethanol solvent from one of the denture base materials. The amount of leachable organic compounds varies among different materials. Processing temperature influences the initial amount of leachable compounds. 36 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Potential of hybrid functionalized meso-porous materials for the separation and immobilization of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, V.

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized meso-porous materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic material in which a meso-porous metal oxide framework is functionalized with multifunctional organic molecules. These molecules may contain one or more anchor groups that form strong bonds to the pore surfaces of the metal oxide framework and free functional groups that can impart and or modify the functionality of the material such as for binding metal ions in solution. Such materials have been extensively studied over the past decade and are of particular interest in absorption applications because of the tremendous versatility in choosing the composition and architecture of the metal oxide framework and the nature of the functional organic molecule as well as the efficient mass transfer that can occur through a well-designed hierarchically porous network. A sorbent for nuclear applications would have to be highly selective for particular radio nuclides, it would need to be hydrolytically and radiolytically stable, and it would have to possess reasonable capacity and fast kinetics. The sorbent would also have to be available in a form suitable for use in a column. Finally, it would also be desirable if once saturated with radio nuclides, the sorbent could be recycled or converted directly into a ceramic or glass waste form suitable for direct repository disposal or even converted directly into a material that could be used as a transmutation target. Such a cradle-to- grave strategy could have many benefits in so far as process efficiency and the generation of secondary wastes are concerned.This paper will provide an overview of work done on all of the above mentioned aspects of the development of functionalized meso-porous adsorbent materials for the selective separation of lanthanides and actinides and discuss the prospects for future implementation of a cradle-to-grave strategy with such materials. (author)

  1. Direct catalytic transformation of carbohydrates into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hu; Govind, Khokarale Santosh; Kotni, Ramakrishna; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders; Yang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into HMF and EMF in ethanol/DMSO with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from self-assembly of corresponding basic amino acids and HPA. - Highlights: • Acid–base bifunctional nanospheres were efficient for production of EMF from sugars. • Synthesis of EMF in a high yield of 76.6% was realized from fructose. • Fructose based biopolymers could also be converted into EMF with good yields. • Ethyl glucopyranoside was produced in good yields from glucose in ethanol. - Abstract: A series of acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from the self-assembly of basic amino acids and phosphotungstic acid (HPA) with different molar ratios were employed as efficient and recyclable catalysts for synthesis of liquid biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) from various carbohydrates. A high EMF yield of 76.6%, 58.5%, 42.4%, and 36.5% could be achieved, when fructose, inulin, sorbose, and sucrose were used as starting materials, respectively. Although, the acid–base bifunctional nanocatalysts were inert for synthesis of EMF from glucose based carbohydrates, ethyl glucopyranoside in good yields could be obtained from glucose in ethanol. Moreover, the nanocatalyst functionalized with acid and basic sites was able to be reused several times with no significant loss in catalytic activity

  2. Characterization of asphalt treated base course material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Asphalt-treated bases are often used in new pavements; the materials are available and low-cost, but there is little data on how these materials perform in cold regions. : This study investigated four ATB types (hot asphalt, emulsion, foamed asphalt,...

  3. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Coacalco. Av. 16 de Septiembre 54, Col. Cabecera Municipal. C.P. 55700 (Mexico); Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G [Instituto Politecnico Nacional. ESIME-SEPI. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' Edificio 5, 30 Piso, Colonia Lindavista. Gustavo A. Madero. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Durodola, J F [School of Technology, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Beltran Fernandez, J A, E-mail: alelunaav@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: jdurodola@brookes.ac.uk

    2011-07-19

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  4. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Avilés, A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Durodola, J. F.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Beltrán Fernández, J. A.; Díaz Pineda, A.

    2011-07-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200×20×5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm × 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm × 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  5. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Durodola, J F; Beltran Fernandez, J A

    2011-01-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  6. Super-resolution nanofabrication with metal-ion doped hybrid material through an optical dual-beam approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yaoyu; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    We apply an optical dual-beam approach to a metal-ion doped hybrid material to achieve nanofeatures beyond the optical diffraction limit. By spatially inhibiting the photoreduction and the photopolymerization, we realize a nano-line, consisting of polymer matrix and in-situ generated gold nanoparticles, with a lateral size of sub 100 nm, corresponding to a factor of 7 improvement compared to the diffraction limit. With the existence of gold nanoparticles, a plasmon enhanced super-resolution fabrication mechanism in the hybrid material is observed, which benefits in a further reduction in size of the fabricated feature. The demonstrated nanofeature in hybrid materials paves the way for realizing functional nanostructures

  7. Synthesis of NiMn-LDH Nanosheet@Ni3S2 Nanorod Hybrid Structures for Supercapacitor Electrode Materials with Ultrahigh Specific Capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Yingxi; Lou, Gaobo; Wu, Yatao; Zhu, Xinqiang; Chen, Hao; Shen, Zhehong; Fu, Shenyuan; Bao, Binfu; Wu, Limin

    2018-03-27

    One of the key challenges for pseudocapacitive electrode materials with highly effective capacitance output and future practical applications is how to rationally construct hierarchical and ordered hybrid nanoarchitecture through the simple process. Herein, we design and synthesize a novel NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheet@Ni 3 S 2 nanorod hybrid array supported on porous nickel foam via a one-pot hydrothermal method. Benefited from the ultrathin and rough nature, the well-defined porous structure of the hybrid array, as well as the synergetic effect between NiMn-layered double hydroxide nanosheets and Ni 3 S 2 nanorods, the as-fabricated hybrid array-based electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2703 F g -1 at 3 A g -1 . Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor with this hybrid array as a positive electrode and wood-derived activated carbon as a negative electrode demonstrates high energy density (57 Wh Kg -1 at 738 W Kg -1 ) and very good electrochemical cycling stability.

  8. Laser-induced emission, fluorescence and Raman hybrid setup: A versatile instrument to analyze materials from cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvilay, D.; Bai, X. S.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Texier, A.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S.; Detalle, V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research project was the development of a hybrid system in laboratory coupling together three analytical techniques, namely laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Raman spectroscopy in a single instrument. The rationale for combining these three spectroscopies was to identify a material (molecular and elemental analysis) without any preliminary preparation, regardless of its organic or inorganic nature, on the surface and in depth, without any surrounding light interference thanks to time resolution. Such instrumentation would allow characterizing different materials from cultural heritage. A complete study on LIBS-LIF-Raman hybrid was carried out, from its conception to instrumental achievement, in order to elaborate a strategy of analysis according to the material and to be able to address conservation issues. From an instrumental point of view, condensing the three spectroscopies was achieved by using a single laser for excitation and two spectrometers (time-integrated and not time-integrated) for light collection. A parabolic mirror was used as collecting system, while three excitation sources directed through this optical system ensured the examination of a similar probe area. Two categories of materials were chosen to test the hybrid instrumentation on cultural heritage applications (copper corrosion products and wall paintings). Some examples are reported to illustrate the wealth of information provided by the hybrid, thus demonstrating its great potential to be used for cultural heritage issues. Finally, several considerations are outlined aimed at further improving the hybrid.

  9. Hierarchically porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen hybrid materials towards highly efficient and selective adsorption of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lala; Zhang, Xiaofei; Tang, Yusheng; Su, Kehe; Kong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchically macro/micro-porous silicon–carbon–nitrogen (Si–C–N) hybrid material was presented with novel functionalities of totally selective and highly efficient adsorption for organic dyes. The hybrid material was conveniently generated by the pyrolysis of commercial polysilazane precursors using polydivinylbenzene microspheres as sacrificial templates. Owing to the Van der Waals force between sp2-hybridized carbon domains and triphenyl structure of dyes, and electrostatic interaction between dyes and Si-C-N matrix, it exhibites high adsorption capacity and good regeneration and recycling ability for the dyes with triphenyl structure, such as methyl blue (MB), acid fuchsin (AF), basic fuchsin and malachite green. The adsorption process is determined by both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. According to the Langmuir model, the adsorption capacity is 1327.7 mg·g−1 and 1084.5 mg·g−1 for MB and AF, respectively, which is much higher than that of many other adsorbents. On the contrary, the hybrid materials do not adsorb the dyes with azo benzene structures, such as methyl orange, methyl red and congro red. Thus, the hierarchically porous Si–C–N hybrid material from a facile and low cost polymer-derived strategy provides a new perspective and possesses a significant potential in the treatment of wastewater with complex organic pollutants. PMID:25604334

  10. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal–organic materials based on K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Debao, E-mail: dbwang@qust.edu.cn; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Lei, E-mail: inorchemwl@126.com

    2016-05-15

    By using K{sub 3}[M(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·3H{sub 2}O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C_2O_4)_2(H_2O)_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 1}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O 1, [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·(L{sub 2}){sub 0.5}·H{sub 2}O 2, [{Fe(C_2O_4)_1_._5Cl_2}{sub 2}]·(H–L{sub 3}){sub 4}3, [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 4, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H{sub 2}–L{sub 5})·2H{sub 2}O 5, K[Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 6, K[Cr(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·2H{sub 2}O 7, Na[Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]·(H–L{sub 6}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O 8 (with L{sub 1}=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L{sub 2}=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L{sub 3}=2-aminobenzimidazole, L{sub 4}=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L{sub 5}=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, L{sub 6}=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup −} unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 2}]{sup -} anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 4−} unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})Cl{sub 8}]{sup 4−} units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3−} units and K{sup +} cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O–H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6–8 show 2D [KAl(C{sub 2}O

  11. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  12. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  13. Synthesis and properties of fluorescent hybrid nanocomposites based on copolyacrylates with dansyl semicarbazide units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Chibac, Andreea L.; Buruiana, Tinca; Musteata, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Our study examined a series of hybrid composites containing copolyacrylate with semicarbazide-dansyl groups prepared by conventional radical polymerization of monomers in the organic montmorillonite modified with alkyl chains of variable length or using the sol-gel technique. The structure and the chemical composition of the copolymers N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl-5- (dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-methyl metahacrylate (DnsSA-co-MMA) and N-methacryloyloxyethylcarbamoyl -5-(dimethylaminonaphtalene-1-sulfonohydrazine)-co-dodecylacrylamide (DnsSA-co-DA) as well as their nanocomposites (HC-P1, HC-P2, HC-P3, HC-P4) were confirmed by spectral analysis ( 1 H NMR, FTIR, UV/vis), thermal methods and atomic force microscopy. To quantify the effect of the inorganic component compared to pure photopolymers we evaluated the properties of hybrid composites, including dielectric characterization. Additionally, these materials have been tested in experiments of fluorescence quenching by acids (HCl, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 1-S-camphorsulfonic acid), metallic cation (Cu 2+ ) and nitrobenzene. The results suggest that such nanocomposites could find applications as fluorescence-based chemosensors in homogeneous organic solutions or thin films. - Highlights: → Dansylated hybrid composites were prepared by polymerization of monomers in organo-MMT or by sol-gel. → Quenching effects by acids, Cu 2+ and nitrobenzene in solution/film were evidenced. → A fluorescence dequenching was observed for the composite with silsesquixane units. → A reversible process occurs in the composite film exposed to nitrobenzene vapors.

  14. Design and syntheses of hybrid metal-organic materials based on K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] metallotectons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yayong; Zong, Yingxia; Ma, Haoran; Zhang, Ao; Liu, Kang; Wang, Debao; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    By using K3[M(C2O4)3]·3H2O [M(III)=Fe, Al, Cr] (C2O42-=oxalate) metallotectons as the starting material, we have synthesized eight novel complexes with formulas [{Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2}2]·(H-L1)2·H2O 1, [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]·(H2-L2)0.5·(L2)0.5·H2O 2, [{Fe(C2O4)1.5Cl2}2]·(H-L3)43, [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]·(H2-L4)2·2H2O 4, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H2-L5)·2H2O 5, K[Al(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 6, K[Cr(C2O4)3]·2H2O 7, Na[Fe(C2O4)3]·(H-L6)2·2H2O 8 (with L1=4-dimethylaminopyridine, L2=2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, L3=2-aminobenzimidazole, L4=1,4-bis-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, L5=1,4-bis((2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene, L6=2-methylbenzimidazole). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analyses. Compound 3 is a 2D H-bonded supramolecular architecture. Others are 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 1 shows a [Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2]- unit and 3D antionic H-bonded framework. Compound 2 features a [Fe(C2O4)Cl2]- anion and 1D iron-oxalate-iron chain. Compound 3 features a [Fe2(C2O4)3Cl4]4- unit. Compound 4 features distinct [Fe2(C2O4)Cl8]4- units, which are mutual linked by water molecules to generated a 2D H-bonded network. Compound 5 features infinite ladder-like chains constructed by [Al(C2O4)3]3- units and K+ cations. The 1D chains are further extended into 3D antionic H-bonded framework through O-H···O H-bonds. Compounds 6-8 show 2D [KAl(C2O4)3]2- layer, [KCr(C2O4)3]2- layer and [NaFe(C2O4)3]2- layer, respectively.

  15. Tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate: a hybrid material for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyuchul; Kim, Yongkwan; Strobel, Timothy A; Prasad, P S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Lee, Huen; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-06-11

    In this study, we demonstrate that tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride [(n-C(4)H(9))(4)NBH(4)] can be used to form a hybrid hydrogen storage material. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements verify the formation of tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate, while Raman spectroscopic and direct gas release measurements confirm the storage of molecular hydrogen within the vacant cavities. Subsequent to clathrate decomposition and the release of physically bound H(2), additional hydrogen was produced from the hybrid system via a hydrolysis reaction between the water host molecules and the incorporated BH(4)(-) anions. The additional hydrogen produced from the hydrolysis reaction resulted in a 170% increase in the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity, or 27% greater storage than fully occupied THF + H(2) hydrate. The decomposition temperature of tetra-n-butylammonium borohydride semiclathrate was measured at 5.7 degrees C, which is higher than that for pure THF hydrate (4.4 degrees C). The present results reveal that the BH(4)(-) anion is capable of stabilizing tetraalkylammonium hydrates.

  16. A finite element modeling of a multifunctional hybrid composite beam with viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The multifunctional hybrid composite structure studied here consists of a ceramic outer layer capable of withstanding high temperatures, a functionally graded ceramic layer combining shape memory alloy (SMA) properties of NiTi together with Ti2AlC (called Graded Ceramic/Metal Composite, or GCMeC), and a high temperature sensor patch, followed by a polymer matrix composite laced with vascular cooling channels all held together with various epoxies. Due to the recoverable nature of SMA and adhesive properties of Ti2AlC, the damping behavior of the GCMeC is largely viscoelastic. This paper presents a finite element formulation for this multifunctional hybrid structure with embedded viscoelastic material. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, a second order three parameter Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method is used to describe the viscoelastic behavior. Considering the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. The curve-fitting aspects of both GHM and ADF show good agreement with experimental data obtained from dynamic mechanics analysis. The performance of the finite element of the layered multifunctional beam is verified through experimental model analysis.

  17. A composite material based on recycled tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malers, L.; Plesuma, R.; Locmele, L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study is devoted to the elaboration and investigation of a composite material based on mechanically grinded recycled tires and a polymer binder. The correlation between the content of the binder, some technological parameters, and material properties of the composite was clarified. The apparent density, the compressive stress at a 10% strain, the compressive elastic modulus in static and cyclic loadings, and the insulating properties (acoustic and thermal) were the parameters of special interest of the present investigation. It is found that a purposeful variation of material composition and some technological parameters leads to multifunctional composite materials with different and predictable mechanical and insulation properties.

  18. New approaches to the development of hybrid nanocomposites: from structural materials to high-tech applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasin, V A; Antipov, Evgenii M; Karbushev, V V; Kulichikhin, Valerii G; Karpacheva, Galina P; Talroze, Raisa V; Kudryavtsev, Y V

    2013-01-01

    Current challenges in the development of various polymer nanocomposites and in the study of their properties are considered. Results of studying hybrid structural (polymer–layered silicates, polymer–nanodiamonds) and functional (based on conducting or liquid-crystalline polymers) nanomaterials are presented. Methods of modification of nanoparticles and their dispersion in a polymer matrix, and the role of interactions between a polymer matrix and fillers, as well as of nanoparticle morphology realized in the course of processing, are discussed. The bibliography includes 453 references.

  19. Inexpensive sol-gel synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2} hybrids for high performance antibacterial materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Nadir; Shao, Godlisten N. [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Haider, M. Salman [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Imran, Syed Muhammad; Park, Sung Soo; Jeon, Sun-Jeong [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Taik, E-mail: khtaik@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    This study reports an inexpensive sol-gel method to synthesize TiO{sub 2}-CNT hybrid materials. Synthesized TiO{sub 2}-CNT materials show strong antibacterial activity in the absence of light. Cheap TiO{sub 2} source TiOCl{sub 2} is used during synthesis in the absence of high temperatures, high pressures and organic solvents. TiO{sub 2}-CNT materials with 0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% of CNT were synthesized and compared for antibacterial activity, surface area, porosity, crystalline structure, chemical state, and HaCaT cell proliferation. The antibacterial strength of hybrid materials increased significantly with the increase in CNT loading amount, and the TiO{sub 2}-CNT samples with a CNT loading of 10 wt% or more nearly removed all of the E.coli bacteria. HaCaT cell proliferation studies of synthesized hybrid materials illustrated that prepared TiO{sub 2}-CNT systems exhibit minimum cytotoxicity. The characteristics of prepared materials were analyzed by means of XRD, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TEM, and nitrogen gas physisorption studies, compared and discussed. - Highlights: • An inexpensive scheme of preparing TiO{sub 2}-CNT hybrids is presented. • Significant increase in the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} in absence of light • Effects of CNT addition on the physicochemical properties of hybrids are studied. • Antibacterial activity increases with increase in CNT content. • Hybrids show no toxicity towards HaCaT skin cell line.

  20. Hybrid Fundamental Solution Based Finite Element Method: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the development of hybrid fundamental solution based finite element method (HFS-FEM and its application in engineering problems is presented in this paper. The framework and formulations of HFS-FEM for potential problem, plane elasticity, three-dimensional elasticity, thermoelasticity, anisotropic elasticity, and plane piezoelectricity are presented. In this method, two independent assumed fields (intraelement filed and auxiliary frame field are employed. The formulations for all cases are derived from the modified variational functionals and the fundamental solutions to a given problem. Generation of elemental stiffness equations from the modified variational principle is also described. Typical numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and performance of the HFS-FEM. Finally, a brief summary of the approach is provided and future trends in this field are identified.

  1. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  2. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin, Ismail Mohd; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P.P. Abdul; Deboucha, Abdel Hakeem; Razman, Mohd Azraai Mohd; Jaafar, Abdul Aziz; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture. (paper)

  3. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  4. Efficient Vaccine Distribution Based on a Hybrid Compartmental Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality that may be caused by outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, it is very important for public health agencies to make informed decisions for controlling the spread of the disease. Such decisions must incorporate various kinds of intervention strategies, such as vaccinations, school closures and border restrictions. Recently, researchers have paid increased attention to searching for effective vaccine distribution strategies for reducing the effects of pandemic outbreaks when resources are limited. Most of the existing research work has been focused on how to design an effective age-structured epidemic model and to select a suitable vaccine distribution strategy to prevent the propagation of an infectious virus. Models that evaluate age structure effects are common, but models that additionally evaluate geographical effects are less common. In this paper, we propose a new SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious šC recovered model, named the hybrid SEIR-V model (HSEIR-V, which considers not only the dynamics of infection prevalence in several age-specific host populations, but also seeks to characterize the dynamics by which a virus spreads in various geographic districts. Several vaccination strategies such as different kinds of vaccine coverage, different vaccine releasing times and different vaccine deployment methods are incorporated into the HSEIR-V compartmental model. We also design four hybrid vaccination distribution strategies (based on population size, contact pattern matrix, infection rate and infectious risk for controlling the spread of viral infections. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza epidemic, we evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed HSEIR-V model and study the effects of different types of human behaviour in responding to epidemics.

  5. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.

  6. Nanocellulose based polymer composite for acoustical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammad; Purniawan, Agung; Susanti, Diah; Priyono, Slamet; Ardhyananta, Hosta; Rahmasita, Mutia E.

    2018-04-01

    Natural fibers are biodegradable materials that are innovatively and widely used for composite reinforcement in automotive components. Nanocellulose derived from natural fibers oil palm empty bunches have properties that are remarkable for use as a composite reinforcement. However, there have not been many investigations related to the use of nanocellulose-based composites for wideband sound absorption materials. The specimens of nanocellulose-based polyester composite were prepared using a spray method. An impedance tube method was used to measure the sound absorption coefficient of this composite material. To reveal the characteristics of the nanocellulose-based polyester composite material, SEM (scanning electron microscope), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), and density tests were performed. Sound absorption test results showed the average value of sound absorption coefficient of 0.36 to 0,46 for frequency between 500 and 4000 Hz indicating that this nanocellulose-based polyester composite materials had a tendency to wideband sound absorption materials and potentially used as automotive interior materials.

  7. Structure and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL novel sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Cristina Mozzati, Maria [Department of Physics, CNISM and INSTM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo [Department of Chemistry, Section of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia and INSTM, Via Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol–gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO{sub 2} matrix, in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si–OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount. - Graphical abstract: Characterization and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL organic–inorganic hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel. FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; solid-state NMR: solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance; SQUID: superconducting quantum interference device. - Highlights: • Sol–gel synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/PCL amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • FT-IR and NMR analyses show the hydrogen bonds formation between SiO{sub 2} and PCL. • AFM and SEM analyses confirm that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL are homogenous hybrid materials. • The SQUID measures show that the simples are diamagnetic. • Diamagnetic susceptibility of SiO{sub 2}/PCL materials increases with the PCL amount.

  8. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  9. DNA based identification of medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Wang, Wei; Yasmeen, Afshan; Deng, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao; Tang, Zhuo

    2012-12-01

    Chinese patent medicines (CPM) are highly processed and easy to use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The market for CPM in China alone is tens of billions US dollars annually and some of the CPM are also used as dietary supplements for health augmentation in the western countries. But concerns continue to be raised about the legality, safety and efficacy of many popular CPM. Here we report a pioneer work of applying molecular biotechnology to the identification of CPM, particularly well refined oral liquids and injections. What's more, this PCR based method can also be developed to an easy to use and cost-effective visual chip by taking advantage of G-quadruplex based Hybridization Chain Reaction. This study demonstrates that DNA identification of specific Medicinal materials is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed CPM and will assist in monitoring their quality and legality.

  10. Mushrooms dehydration in a hybrid-solar dryer, using a phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Mahn, Andrea; Vásquez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mushroom slices were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer. • Drying and dehydrated kinetics were adjusted with models. • Effective diffusivity, were estimated considering or not shrinkage. • Paraffin wax as a phase change material was used in an accumulator of solar energy. - Abstract: Mushrooms were dehydrated in a hybrid solar dryer provided with a solar panel of a total exposed surface of 10 m 2 , electric resistances and paraffin wax as a phase change material. Mushrooms were cut in 8 mm or 12 mm slices. At the outlet of the drying chamber the air was recycled (70% or 80%) and the air temperature was adjusted to 60 °C. At the outlet of the solar panel the air temperature rose up to 30 °C above the ambient temperature, depending on solar radiation level. The effective diffusivity, estimated by the Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model, considering or not shrinkage, fluctuated between 2.5 · 10 −10 m 2 /s and 8.4 · 10 −10 m 2 /s with R 2 higher than 0.99, agreeing with values reported in literature. The empirical Page’s model resulted in a better adjustment, with R 2 above 0.998. In all runs the dehydrated mushrooms showed a notorious darkening and shrinkage. Rehydration assays at 30 °C showed that in less than 30 min rehydrated mushrooms reached a moisture content of 1.91 (dry basis). Rehydrated mushrooms had a higher hardness compared with fresh mushrooms. The Simplified Constant Diffusivity Model and the Peleg’s model adjusted to the rehydration data with RMSE values below 0.080. Thermal efficiency fluctuated between 22% and 62%, while the efficiency of the accumulator panel varied between 10% and 21%. The accumulator allowed reducing the electric energy input

  11. EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTOR ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF AEOLIAN BLADES: APPLICATION OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mili

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The great interest which the wind power brings in the development of the various economic sectors encourages to contribute in the improvement of the hydrothermal and mechanical performances of the blades of wind rotors with horizontal axis. The use of composite materials involves a profit of substantial weight, strength to the directional constraints that the blade will undergo during its work and a reduction of the aerodynamic and mechanical losses. The adoption of composite materials with unidirectional reinforcement carbon/epoxy makes it possible to get for the structure a high wear resistance and a reduction of the phenomenon of bearing pressure created around the airfoil of the blade moving relative compared to the speed of the wind. The evaluation of the behavior of such composites with [+θ/- θ]4S stacking sequence, with the combined effect of the temperature, the moisture and the tensile effort constitutes the principal axis of this contribution. In order to minimize the costs, our analysis will direct towards hybrid composite materials glass-carbon/epoxy being presented in the form of symmetrical laminates [+q/0°]2S and antisymmetric [+q/0°/90°/-q]. The results obtained showed that their use contributes to the improvement of their thermomechanical behavior by involving profits of performance, weight, cost savings and energy.

  12. Manganese Dioxide Supported on Porous Biomorphic Carbons as Hybrid Materials for Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Pardo, Antonio; Lacroix, Bertrand; Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Ramirez-Rico, Joaquin

    2016-11-16

    A facile and low-cost method has been employed to fabricate MnO 2 /C hybrid materials for use as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Biocarbon monoliths were obtained through pyrolysis of beech wood, replicating the microstructure of the cellulosic precursor, and serve as 3D porous and conductive scaffolds for the direct growth of MnO 2 nanosheets by a solution method. Evaluation of the experimental results indicates that a homogeneous and uniform composite material made of a carbon matrix exhibiting ordered hierarchical porosity and MnO 2 nanosheets with a layered nanocrystalline structure is obtained. The tuning of the MnO 2 content and crystallite size via the concentration of KMnO 4 used as impregnation solution allows to obtain composites that exhibit enhanced electrochemical behavior, achieving a capacitance of 592 F g -1 in electrodes containing 3 wt % MnO 2 with an excellent cyclic stability. The electrode materials were characterized before and after electrochemical testing.

  13. Precious-metal-base advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, T.; Carbonnaux, C.

    1993-01-01

    Precious metals constitute also the base of several advanced materials used in the industry in hundreds of metric tons. Platinum alloys have been used as structural materials for equipments in the glass industry. The essential reason for this is the excellent resistance of platinum alloys to oxidation and electrolytical corrosion in molten glasses at temperatures as high as 1200-1500 C. The major drawback is a weak creep resistance. The unique way for significant improvement of platinum base materials creep resistance is a strengthening by an oxide dispersion (ODS). In the case of CLAL's patented ''Plativer'' materials, 0.05 wt% of Y 2 O 3 is incorporated within the alloy matrix by the flame spraying process. Further improvement of platinum base materials is related, in the authors opinion, to the development of precious metals base intermetallics. Another interesting applications of precious metals are silver base electrical contacts. They are in fact silver matrix composites containing varying amounts of well-dispersed particles of constituents such as CdO, SnO 2 , Ni, WC or C. In the case of such materials, particular properties are required and tested : resistance to arc erosion, resistance to welding and contact resistance. Many other technically fascinating precious metals base materials exist: brazing alloys for assembling metals, superconductors and ceramics; dental materials including magnetic biocompatible alloys; silver composites for superconductor wire jackets. The observation of current evolution indicates very clearly that precious metals cannot be replaced by common metals because of their unique characteristics due to their atomic level properties

  14. Solution processeable organic-inorganic hybrids based on pyrene functionalized mixed cubic silsesquioxanes as emitters in OLEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2012-01-01

    Traditional materials for application in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are primarily based on small molecules and polymers, with much fewer examples of intermediate molecular weight materials. Our interest lies in this intermediate molecular weight range, specifically in hybrids based on 3-dimensional silsesquioxane (SSQ) cores that represents a new class of versatile materials for application in solution processable OLEDs. We report here various SSQ based hybrids that are easily prepared in one high-yield step from the Heck coupling of commercially available 1-bromopyrene, and 1-bromo-4-heptylbenzene with octavinyl-T8-SSQ, and a mixture of octavinyl-T8-, decavinyl-T10- and dodecavinyl-T12-SSQ. The resulting materials offer numerous advantages for OLEDs including amorphous properties, high-glass-transition temperatures (T g), low polydispersity, solubility in common solvents, and high purity via column chromatography. Solution processed OLEDs prepared from the SSQ hybrids provide sky-blue emission with external quantum efficiencies and current efficiencies of 3.64% and 9.56 cd A -1 respectively. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Lai, Yun-Jr; Yeh, Pei-Hsun; Tsai, Yu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm 2 , and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  16. Effects of electron blocking and hole trapping of the red guest emitter materials on hybrid white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Lin-Ann; Vu, Hoang-Tuan [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Juang, Fuh-Shyang, E-mail: fsjuang@seed.net.tw [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yun-Jr [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Pei-Hsun [Raystar Optronics, Inc., 5F No. 25, Keya Rd. Daya Township, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Yu-Sheng [National Formosa University, Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, Huwei, Yunlin County, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with fluorescence and phosphorescence hybrid structures are studied in this work. HWOLEDs were fabricated with blue/red emitting layers: fluorescent host material doped with sky blue material, and bipolar phosphorescent host emitting material doped with red dopant material. An electron blocking layer is applied that provides hole red guest emitter hole trapping effects, increases the charge carrier injection quantity into the emitting layers and controls the recombination zone (RZ) that helps balance the device color. Spacer layers were also inserted to expand the RZ, increase efficiency and reduce energy quenching along with roll-off effects. The resulting high efficiency warm white OLED device has the lower highest occupied molecule orbital level red guest material, current efficiency of 15.9 cd/A at current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates of (0.34, 0.39)

  17. PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO hybrid materials – Cytocompatibility and nanoscale surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S.; Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    Two PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO porous hybrid materials were prepared using the same base composition, precursors, and solvents, but following two different sol-gel procedures, based on the authors' previous works where for the first time, in this hybrid system, calcium acetate was used as calcium source. The two different procedures resulted in monolithic materials with different structures, microstructures, and surface wettability. Even though both are highly hydrophobic (contact angles of 127.2° and 150.6°), and present different filling regimes due to different surface topographies, they have demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with human osteoblastic cells, against the accepted idea that high-hydrophobic surfaces are not suitable to cell adhesion and proliferation. At the nanoscale, the existence of hydrophilic silica domains containing calcium, where water molecules are physisorbed, is assumed to support this capability, as discussed. - Highlights: • Two hybrid materials were prepared following two different sol-gel procedures. • Both are highly hydrophobic but demonstrated to be cytocompatible. • Different filling regimes were observed.

  18. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  19. Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinliang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: liyf@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 Degree-Sign C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  20. Hybrid Materials Polypyrrole-heteropolytungstate Electrosynthesis of Electrodes for Secondary Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng, S. A.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrroles doped with heterpolytungstate anion [PW12O40]3- was electrogenerated from acetonitrile solutions. It is found that the productivity of the consumed charge to produce the hybrids always keeps at high constant value of about 1.9 x 10-3 mg mC-1, whatever the studied conditions including different potentials, different concentrations of pyrrole, different concentrations of PW12O40 3- or different temperatures. The hybrid material coats the electrode as a compact, adherent, conducting and dark-blue film. The specific charges of the materials initially increase as the polymer weight increases keeping a constant value for greater weight than 0.15 mg cm-2. Consecutive charge-discharge promotes a fast initial loss of material by solubility, the specific charge of the insoluble part increases until 90 mA h g-1. Both evolution of the cyclic voltammograms and UV-vis spectroscopies indicate the presence of macroanion in solution after cycling.

    Los polipirroles dopados con anión heteropoliwolframato [PW12O40]3- (materiales híbridos han sido electrogenerados desde disoluciones de acetonitrilo. Se ha visto que la productividad de la carga consumida para producir los híbridos siempre se mantiene a valores constantes elevados alrededor de 1.9 x 10-3 mg mC-1, cualquiera que sea la condición estudiada de síntesis: diferentes potenciales, diferentes concentraciones de pirrol, diferentes concentraciones de PW12O40 3- o diferentes temperaturas. El material híbrido recubre el electrodo en forma de film azul marino, compacto, adherente y conductor. Las cargas específicas almacenadas en los materiales inicialmente aumentan a medida que el peso del polímero aumenta, manteniendo un valor constante a partir de pesos mayores que 0.15 mg cm-2. La voltamperometría cíclica y la espectroscopía UV-vis indican la presencia de un intercambio de iones entre el macroión del film y el ClO4 -1 de la solución durante los procesos de oxidaci

  1. Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using transistors based on CVD grown graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Yin; Loan, Phan Thi Kim; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Tse-Wei Wang, Jacob; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Lin, Cheng-Te; Li, Lain-Jong

    2013-03-15

    The high transconductance and low noise of graphene-based field-effect transistors based on large-area monolayer graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition are used for label-free electrical detection of DNA hybridization. The gate materials, buffer concentration and surface condition of graphene have been optimized to achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 1 pM (10(-12) M), which is more sensitive than the existing report based on few-layer graphene. The graphene films obtained using conventional PMMA-assisted transfer technique exhibits PMMA residues, which degrade the sensing performance of graphene. We have demonstrated that the sensing performance of the graphene samples prepared by gold-transfer is largely enhanced (by 125%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Student Interactions with Online Videos in a Large Hybrid Mechanics of Materials Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Benjamin; Bir, Devayan D.

    2018-01-01

    The hybrid course format has gained popularity in the engineering education community over the past few years. Although studies have examined student outcomes and attitudes toward hybrid courses, a limited number of studies have examined how students interact with online videos in hybrid courses. This study examined the video-viewing behaviors of…

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Utility of Carbon Nanotube Based Hybrid Sensors in Bioanalytical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee

    The detection of gaseous analytes and biological molecules is of prime importance in the fields of environmental pollution control, food and water - safety and analysis; and medical diagnostics. This necessitates the development of advanced and improved technology that is reliable, inexpensive and suitable for high volume production. The conventional sensors are often thin film based which lack sensitivity due to the phenomena of current shunting across the charge depleted region when an analyte binds with them. One dimensional (1-D) nanostructures provide a better alternative for sensing applications by eliminating the issue of current shunting due to their 1-D geometries and facilitating device miniaturization and low power operations. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are 1-D nanostructures that possess small size, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivity and high specific area that have resulted in their wide spread applications in sensor technology. To overcome the issue of low sensitivity of pristine CNTs and to widen their scope, hybrid devices have been fabricated that combine the synergistic properties of CNTs along with materials like metals and conducting polymers (CPs). CPs exhibit electronic, magnetic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors while retaining the processing advantages of polymers. Their high chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation and tunable charge transport properties has made them ideal for use as transducing elements in chemical sensors. In this dissertation, various CNT based hybrid devices such as CNT-conducting polymer and graphene-CNT-metal nanoparticles based sensors have been developed and demonstrated towards bioanalytical applications such as detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and saccharides. Electrochemical polymerization enabled the synthesis of CPs and metal nanoparticles in a simple, cost effective and controlled way on the surface of CNT based platforms thus resulting in

  4. Polylactide-Based bionanocomposites: A promising class of hybrid materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA) is the oldest and potentially one of the most interesting and useful biodegradable man-made polymers because of its renewable origin, controlled synthesis, good mechanical properties, and inherent biocompatibility. The blending...

  5. Textural Properties of Hybrid Biomedical Materials Made from Extracts of Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Imbibed and Deposited on Mesoporous and Microporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research group has developed a group of hybrid biomedical materials potentially useful in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations. The organic part of this type of hybrid materials consists of nanometric deposits, proceeding from the Mexican medicinal plant Tournefortia hirsutissima L., while the inorganic part is composed of a zeolite mixture that includes LTA, ZSM-5, clinoptilolite, and montmorillonite (PZX as well as a composite material, made of CaCO3 and montmorillonite (NABE. The organic part has been analyzed by GC-MS to detect the most abundant components present therein. In turn, the inorganic supports were characterized by XRD, SEM, and High Resolution Adsorption (HRADS of N2 at 76 K. Through this latter methodology, the external surface area of the hybrid materials was evaluated; besides, the most representative textural properties of each substrate such as total pore volume, pore size distribution, and, in some cases, the volume of micropores were calculated. The formation and stabilization of nanodeposits on the inorganic segments of the hybrid supports led to a partial blockage of the microporosity of the LTA and ZSM5 zeolites; this same effect occurred with the NABE and PZX substrates.

  6. A study of nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite as the positive electrode material for electrochemical hybrid capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-qiao; Zou, Ying; Xia, Yong-yao [Chemistry Department and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-01-01

    We present a new concept of the hybrid electrochemical capacitor technology in which a poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite (PTMA-AC) is used as the positive electrode material and activated carbon is used as the negative electrode material. On the positive electrode, both reversible reduction and oxidation of nitroxide polyradical and non-faradic ion sorption/de-sorption of activated carbon are involved during charge and discharge process. The capacity of the composite electrode is 30% larger than that of the pure activated carbon electrode. A hybrid capacitor fabricated by the PTMA-AC composite positive electrode and the activated carbon negative electrode shows a good cycling life, it can be charged/discharged for over 1000 cycles with slight capacity loss. The hybrid capacitor also has a good rate capability, it maintains 80% of the initial capacity even at the high discharge current of up to 20C. (author)

  7. Triarylborane-Based Materials for OLED Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsen Turkoglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary research on organic fluorescent molecules has been attracting great interest owing to their potential applications in biomedical and material sciences. In recent years, electron deficient systems have been increasingly incorporated into fluorescent materials. Triarylboranes with the empty p orbital of their boron centres are electron deficient and can be used as strong electron acceptors in conjugated organic fluorescent materials. Moreover, their applications in optoelectronic devices, energy harvesting materials and anion sensing, due to their natural Lewis acidity and remarkable solid-state fluorescence properties, have also been investigated. Furthermore, fluorescent triarylborane-based materials have been commonly utilized as emitters and electron transporters in organic light emitting diode (OLED applications. In this review, triarylborane-based small molecules and polymers will be surveyed, covering their structure-property relationships, intramolecular charge transfer properties and solid-state fluorescence quantum yields as functional emissive materials in OLEDs. Also, the importance of the boron atom in triarylborane compounds is emphasized to address the key issues of both fluorescent emitters and their host materials for the construction of high-performance OLEDs.

  8. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings based on alkoxy-terminated macromonomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddami, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Cuney, S. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]|[BSN Emballage-Centre de Recherche de Saint-Romain-en-Gier, 69700 Givors Cedex (France); Pascault, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gerard, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-01-01

    From the use of alkoxysilane-terminated macromonomers based on hydrogenated polybutadiene and polycaprolactone oligomers and by using the polyurethane chemistry, hybrid organic{emdash}inorganic materials are prepared. These ones are two-phases systems in which the continuous phase is organic reinforced by silicon rich dispersed particles. These nanosized dispersed particles are formed {ital in} {ital situ} during the hydrolysis and condensation of the sol-gel process according to the phase separation process occurring between the organic and inorganic phases. The gelation process and the final morphologies were found to be very dependent on the acid(catalyst)-to-silicon ratio, on the molar mass of the oligomers, and on the solubility parameter of the soft segment. In fact, during the synthesis, there is a competition between the gelation and the phase separation process which could be perturbated by the vitrification of the silicon-rich clusters. The final morphologies observed by TEM and SAXS are discussed on the basis of the microstructural model proposed by Wilkes and Huang. Such hybrid organic-inorganic materials are applied as coatings on glass float plates tested in a bi-axial mode. The reinforcement is discussed as a function of the morphology of the coatings. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Facile preparation of well-combined lignin-based carbon/ZnO hybrid composite with excellent photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Qiu, Xueqing; Liu, Weifeng; Yang, Dongjie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, a novel lignin-based carbon/ZnO (LC/ZnO) hybrid composite with excellent photocatalytic performance was prepared through a convenient and environment friendly method using alkali lignin (AL) as carbon source. The morphological, microstructure and optical properties of the as-prepared LC/ZnO hybrid composite was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and UV-vis. The resulting LC/ZnO hybrid is composed of highly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles embedded on a lignin-based carbon nanosheet, showing excellent photogenerated electrons and holes separation and migration efficiency. The photocatalytic activity of LC/ZnO was much higher than the pure ZnO. The LC/ZnO hybrid composite showed different photocatalytic mechanism for degradation of negative methyl orange (MO) and positive Rhodamine B (RhB). It showed that h+ was the main photocatalytic active group during the degradation of MO, ·O2- and ·OH were the photocatalytic active groups during degradation of RhB. This reported photocatalyst with selective degradation of positive and negative organic dyes may have a great application prospect for photoelectric conversion and catalytic materials. Results of this work were of practical importance for high-valued utilization of lignin for carbon materials.

  10. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  11. Piezoresistive Carbon-based Hybrid Sensor for Body-Mounted Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnykowycz, M.; Tschudin, M.; Clemens, F.

    2017-02-01

    For body-mounted sensor applications, the evolution of soft condensed matter sensor (SCMS) materials offer conformability andit enables mechanical compliance between the body surface and the sensing mechanism. A piezoresistive hybrid sensor and compliant meta-material sub-structure provided a way to engineer sensor physical designs through modification of the mechanical properties of the compliant design. A piezoresistive fiber sensor was produced by combining a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) matrix with Carbon Black (CB) particles in 1:1 mass ratio. Feedstock was extruded in monofilament fiber form (diameter of 300 microns), resulting in a highly stretchable sensor (strain sensor range up to 100%) with linear resistance signal response. The soft condensed matter sensor was integrated into a hybrid design including a 3D printed metamaterial structure combined with a soft silicone. An auxetic unit cell was chosen (with negative Poisson’s Ratio) in the design in order to combine with the soft silicon, which exhibits a high Poisson’s Ratio. The hybrid sensor design was subjected to mechanical tensile testing up to 50% strain (with gauge factor calculation for sensor performance), and then utilized for strain-based sensing applications on the body including gesture recognition and vital function monitoring including blood pulse-wave and breath monitoring. A 10 gesture Natural User Interface (NUI) test protocol was utilized to show the effectiveness of a single wrist-mounted sensor to identify discrete gestures including finger and hand motions. These hand motions were chosen specifically for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) applications. The blood pulse-wave signal was monitored with the hand at rest, in a wrist-mounted. In addition different breathing patterns were investigated, including normal breathing and coughing, using a belt and chest-mounted configuration.

  12. Acidic and catalytic properties of hierarchical zeolites and hybrid ordered mesoporous materials assembled from MFI protozeolitic units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serrano, D. P.; García, R. A.; Vicente, G.; Linares, M.; Vitvarová, Dana; Čejka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 2 (2011), s. 366-380 ISSN 0021-9517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hierarchical zeolites * hybrid zeolitic-mesostructured materials * Bronsted and Lewis acid centres Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.002, year: 2011

  13. High ion-exchange properties of hybrid materials from X-type zeolite and ground glass powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with a homogeneous distribution of micropores with a superior cation-exchange capacity. Because they have especially excellent selective exchange properties, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on treating water containing radioisotopes using the zeolites. When using artificial zeolites, they have inferior sinterability; in addition, it is quite hard for them to remove from polluted liquid since these artificial zeolites are principally synthesized as a form of powder, which is a disadvantage. In this study, hybrid materials were prepared from X-type zeolite and waste glass powder. Their ion-removal effect and mechanical strength were investigated. The zeolite and waste glass were ground in an agate mortar in several ratios. 0.5 g of the mixture was pressure-molded into pellets having a diameter of 7 mm. These pellets were slowly heated at the speed of 240°C/h to 700°C and maintained at 700°C for 2 h. The removal rate of Sr2+ ions increased as the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased; the former increased up to 100% when the content of latter exceeded 50%. The mechanical strength increased by increasing the amount of glass in the hybrid materials. This is attributed to the fact that the glass powder acts as a binder that improves the densification and consequently the mechanical strength of the hybrid materials.

  14. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang; Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Liang, Yongye; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free

  15. Survey of Materials for Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors Vol 1 Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Chemistry Materials and Life Sciences Directorate

    2007-07-03

    Materials for fusion-fission hybrid reactors fall into several broad categories, including fuels, blanket and coolant materials, cladding, structural materials, shielding, and in the specific case of inertial-confinement fusion systems, laser and optical materials. This report surveys materials in all categories of materials except for those required for lasers and optics. Preferred collants include two molten salt mixtures known as FLIBE (Li2BeF4) and FLINABE (LiNaBeF4). In the case of homogenous liquid fuels, UF4 can be dissolved in these molten salt mixtures. The transmutation of lithium in this coolant produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid species (HF and TF), which can rapidly degrade structural materials. Broad ranges of high-melting radiation-tolerant structural material have been proposed for fusion-fission reactor structures. These include a wide variety of steels and refractory alloys. Ferritic steels with oxide-dispersion strengthening and graphite have been given particular attention. Refractory metals are found in Groups IVB and VB of the periodic table, and include Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, and W, as serve as the basis of refractory alloys. Stable high-melting composites and amorphous metals may also be useful. Since amorphous metals have no lattice structure, neutron bombardment cannot dislodge atoms from lattice sites, and the materials would be immune from this specific mode of degradation. The free energy of formation of fluorides of the alloying elements found in steels and refractory alloys can be used to determine the relative stability of these materials in molten salts. The reduction of lithium transmutation products (H+ and T+) drives the electrochemical corrosion process, and liberates aggressive fluoride ions that pair with ions formed from dissolved structural materials. Corrosion can be suppressed through the use of metallic Be and Li, though the molten salt becomes laden with colloidal suspensions of Be and Li corrosion

  16. Tungsten - Yttrium Based Nuclear Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Chessa, Jack; Martinenz, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    The challenging problem currently facing the nuclear science community in this 21st century is design and development of novel structural materials, which will have an impact on the next-generation nuclear reactors. The materials available at present include reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, dispersion strengthened reduced activation ferritic steels, and vanadium- or tungsten-based alloys. These materials exhibit one or more specific problems, which are either intrinsic or caused by reactors. This work is focussed towards tungsten-yttrium (W-Y) based alloys and oxide ceramics, which can be utilized in nuclear applications. The goal is to derive a fundamental scientific understanding of W-Y-based materials. In collaboration with University of Califonia -- Davis, the project is designated to demonstrate the W-Y based alloys, ceramics and composites with enhanced physical, mechanical, thermo-chemical properties and higher radiation resistance. Efforts are focussed on understanding the microstructure, manipulating materials behavior under charged-particle and neutron irradiation, and create a knowledge database of defects, elemental diffusion/segregation, and defect trapping along grain boundaries and interfaces. Preliminary results will be discussed.

  17. Hybrid crystals of cuprates and iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dai; Cong-Cong, Le; Xian-Xin, Wu; Jiang-Ping, Hu

    2016-07-01

    We propose two possible new compounds, Ba2CuO2Fe2As2 and K2CuO2Fe2Se2, which hybridize the building blocks of two high temperature superconductors, cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds consist of square CuO2 layers and antifluorite-type Fe2 X 2 (X = As, Se) layers separated by Ba/K. The calculations of binding energies and phonon spectra indicate that they are dynamically stable, which ensures that they may be experimentally synthesized. The Fermi surfaces and electronic structures of the two compounds inherit the characteristics of both cuprates and iron-based superconductors. These compounds can be superconductors with intriguing physical properties to help to determine the pairing mechanisms of high T c superconductivity. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921300), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1190020 and 11334012), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07000000).

  18. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 ± 0.01 and 0.72 ± 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  19. Hybrid modelling framework by using mathematics-based and information-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, J; Kim, J; Elnashai, A

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics-based computational mechanics involves idealization in going from the observed behaviour of a system into mathematical equations representing the underlying mechanics of that behaviour. Idealization may lead mathematical models that exclude certain aspects of the complex behaviour that may be significant. An alternative approach is data-centric modelling that constitutes a fundamental shift from mathematical equations to data that contain the required information about the underlying mechanics. However, purely data-centric methods often fail for infrequent events and large state changes. In this article, a new hybrid modelling framework is proposed to improve accuracy in simulation of real-world systems. In the hybrid framework, a mathematical model is complemented by information-based components. The role of informational components is to model aspects which the mathematical model leaves out. The missing aspects are extracted and identified through Autoprogressive Algorithms. The proposed hybrid modelling framework has a wide range of potential applications for natural and engineered systems. The potential of the hybrid methodology is illustrated through modelling highly pinched hysteretic behaviour of beam-to-column connections in steel frames.

  20. Template-based fabrication of nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Liu Haidong; Schultz, Isabel; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, D G; Lyuksyutov, I

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication and structure characterization of ordered nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are reported. Arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes were first deposited into the pores of AAO membranes by a sol-gel technique. Co nanowires were then electrochemically deposited into the TiO 2 nanotubes to form the nanowire-nanotube hybrid arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy measurements showed a high nanowire filling factor and a clean interface between the Co nanowire and the TiO 2 nanotube. Application of these hybrids to the fabrication of ordered nanowire arrays with highly controllable geometric parameters is discussed

  1. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  2. A Novel Hybrid Mental Spelling Application Based on Eye Tracking and SSVEP-Based BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stawicki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs-based Brain-Computer interfaces (BCIs, as well as eyetracking devices, provide a pathway for re-establishing communication for people with severe disabilities. We fused these control techniques into a novel eyetracking/SSVEP hybrid system, which utilizes eye tracking for initial rough selection and the SSVEP technology for fine target activation. Based on our previous studies, only four stimuli were used for the SSVEP aspect, granting sufficient control for most BCI users. As Eye tracking data is not used for activation of letters, false positives due to inappropriate dwell times are avoided. This novel approach combines the high speed of eye tracking systems and the high classification accuracies of low target SSVEP-based BCIs, leading to an optimal combination of both methods. We evaluated accuracy and speed of the proposed hybrid system with a 30-target spelling application implementing all three control approaches (pure eye tracking, SSVEP and the hybrid system with 32 participants. Although the highest information transfer rates (ITRs were achieved with pure eye tracking, a considerable amount of subjects was not able to gain sufficient control over the stand-alone eye-tracking device or the pure SSVEP system (78.13% and 75% of the participants reached reliable control, respectively. In this respect, the proposed hybrid was most universal (over 90% of users achieved reliable control, and outperformed the pure SSVEP system in terms of speed and user friendliness. The presented hybrid system might offer communication to a wider range of users in comparison to the standard techniques.

  3. Gas diffusion electrode based on electrospun Pani/CNF nanofibers hybrid for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezarjaribi, M.; Jahanshahi, M., E-mail: mjahan@nit.ac.ir; Rahimpour, A.; Yaldagard, M.

    2014-03-01

    A novel hybrid system has been investigated b