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Sample records for hybrid latent growth

  1. First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2013-01-01

    First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent ...

  2. First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent variables in FGMs and SGMs explicitly on the basis of latent state-trait (LST) theory and discuss insights that arise from this approach. We show that FGMs imply a strict trait-like conception of the construct under study, whereas SGMs allow for both trait and state components. Based on a simulation study and empirical applications to the CES-D depression scale (Radloff, 1977) we illustrate that, as an important practical consequence, FGMs yield biased reliability estimates whenever constructs contain state components, whereas reliability estimates based on SGMs were found to be accurate. Implications of the state-trait distinction for the measurement of change via latent growth curve models are discussed.

  3. Detecting Appropriate Trajectories of Growth in Latent Growth Models: The Performance of Information-Based Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Khojasteh, Jam

    2017-01-01

    Latent growth modeling (LGM) is a popular and flexible technique that may be used when data are collected across several different measurement occasions. Modeling the appropriate growth trajectory has important implications with respect to the accurate interpretation of parameter estimates of interest in a latent growth model that may impact…

  4. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

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    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  5. Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models

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    Michael D. Coovert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred.

  6. Latent Growth Curve Models for Biomarkers of the Stress Response

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    John M. Felt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The stress response is a dynamic process that can be characterized by predictable biochemical and psychological changes. Biomarkers of the stress response are typically measured over time and require statistical methods that can model change over time. One flexible method of evaluating change over time is the latent growth curve model (LGCM. However, stress researchers seldom use the LGCM when studying biomarkers, despite their benefits. Stress researchers may be unaware of how these methods can be useful. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of LGCMs in the context of stress research. We specifically highlight the unique benefits of using these approaches.Methods: Hypothetical examples are used to describe four forms of the LGCM.Results: The following four specifications of the LGCM are described: basic LGCM, latent growth mixture model, piecewise LGCM, and LGCM for two parallel processes. The specifications of the LGCM are discussed in the context of the Trier Social Stress Test. Beyond the discussion of the four models, we present issues of modeling nonlinear patterns of change, assessing model fit, and linking specific research questions regarding biomarker research using different statistical models.Conclusions: The final sections of the paper discuss statistical software packages and more advanced modeling capabilities of LGCMs. The online Appendix contains example code with annotation from two statistical programs for the LCGM.

  7. Individuation, peers, and adolescent alcohol use: a latent growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James H; Adams, Gerald J; Getz, J Greg; McQueen, Amy

    2003-06-01

    The study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between individuation, peer alcohol use, and adolescent alcohol use among African American, Mexican American, and non-Hispanic White adolescents (N = 6,048) from 7th, 8th, and 9th grades over a 3-year period. Initial levels of peer alcohol use were significantly related to changes in adolescents' alcohol use, whereas initial adolescent alcohol use also significantly related to changes in peers' alcohol use, suggesting a bidirectional relationship. Higher levels of intergenerational individuation were related to smaller increases in adolescent alcohol use and higher levels of separation were related to larger increases in youth drinking. The findings were similar across ethnic groups. Implications for development of prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  8. Determining of migraine prognosis using latent growth mixture models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahar Tasdelen; Aynur Ozge; Hakan Kaleagasi; Semra Erdogan; Tufan Mengi

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper presents a retrospective study to classify patients into subtypes of the treatment according to baseline and longitudinally observed values considering heterogenity in migraine prognosis. In the classical prospective clinical studies,participants are classified with respect to baseline status and followed within a certain time period.However,latent growth mixture model is the most suitable method,which considers the population heterogenity and is not affected drop-outs if they are missing at random. Hence,we planned this comprehensive study to identify prognostic factors in migraine.Methods The study data have been based on a 10-year computer-based follow-up data of Mersin University Headache Outpatient Department. The developmental trajectories within subgroups were described for the severity,frequency,and duration of headache separately and the probabilities of each subgroup were estimated by using latent growth mixture models. SAS PROC TRAJ procedures,semiparametric and group-based mixture modeling approach,were applied to define the developmental trajectories.Results While the three-group model for the severity (mild,moderate,severe) and frequency (low,medium,high) of headache appeared to be appropriate,the four-group model for the duration (low,medium,high,extremely high) was more suitable. The severity of headache increased in the patients with nausea,vomiting,photophobia and phonophobia.The frequency of headache was especially related with increasing age and unilateral pain. Nausea and photophobia were also related with headache duration.Conclusions Nausea,vomiting and photophobia were the most significant factors to identify developmental trajectories.The remission time was not the same for the severity,frequency,and duration of headache.

  9. Planned missing designs to optimize the efficiency of latent growth parameter estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemtulla, M.; Jia, F.; Wu, W.; Little, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the performance of planned missing (PM) designs for correlated latent growth curve models. Using simulated data from a model where latent growth curves are fitted to two constructs over five time points, we apply three kinds of planned missingness. The first is item-level planned missingn

  10. Modeling Pacing Behavior and Test Speededness Using Latent Growth Curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Cuddy, Monica M.; Clauser, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the usefulness of latent growth curve modeling in the study of pacing behavior and test speededness. Examinee response times from a high-stakes, computerized examination, collected before and after the examination was subjected to a timing change, were analyzed using a series of latent growth curve models to detect…

  11. Piecewise Linear-Linear Latent Growth Mixture Models with Unknown Knots

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    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Latent growth curve models with piecewise functions are flexible and useful analytic models for investigating individual behaviors that exhibit distinct phases of development in observed variables. As an extension of this framework, this study considers a piecewise linear-linear latent growth mixture model (LGMM) for describing segmented change of…

  12. Longitudinal Data Analysis with Latent Growth Modeling: An Introduction and Illustration for Higher Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D.; Konold, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces latent growth modeling (LGM) as a statistical method for analyzing change over time in latent, or unobserved, variables, with particular emphasis of the application of this method in higher education research. While increasingly popular in other areas of education research and despite a wealth of publicly-available datasets…

  13. Diagnosis of Intermittent Faults in IGBTs Using the Latent Nestling Method with Hybrid Coloured Petri Nets

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    Leonardo Rodriguez-Urrego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault diagnosis application of the Latent Nestling Method to IGBTs. The paper extends the Latent Nestling Method based in Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs to hybrid systems in such a manner that IGBTs performance can be modeled. CPNs allow for an enhanced capability for synthesis and modeling in contrast to the classical phenomena of combinational state explosion when Finite State Machine methods are applied. We present an IGBT model with different fault modes including those of intermittent nature that can be used advantageously as predictive symptoms within a predictive maintenance strategy. Ageing stress tests have been experimentally applied to the IGBTs modules and intermittent faults are diagnosed as precursors of permanent failures. In addition, ageing is validated with morphological analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy and semiqualitative analysis (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry.

  14. A Hybrid Latent Class Analysis Modeling Approach to Analyze Urban Expressway Crash Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Wang, Xuesong; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2017-02-07

    Crash risk analysis is rising as a hot research topic as it could reveal the relationships between traffic flow characteristics and crash occurrence risk, which is beneficial to understand crash mechanisms which would further refine the design of Active Traffic Management System (ATMS). However, the majority of the current crash risk analysis studies have ignored the impact of geometric characteristics on crash risk estimation while recent studies proved that crash occurrence risk was affected by the various alignment features. In this study, a hybrid Latent Class Analysis (LCA) modeling approach was proposed to account for the heterogeneous effects of geometric characteristics. Crashes were first segmented into homogenous subgroups, where the optimal number of latent classes was identified based on bootstrap likelihood ratio tests. Then, separate crash risk analysis models were developed using Bayesian random parameter logistic regression technique; data from Shanghai urban expressway system were employed to conduct the empirical study. Different crash risk contributing factors were unveiled by the hybrid LCA approach and better model goodness-of-fit was obtained while comparing to an overall total crash model. Finally, benefits of the proposed hybrid LCA approach were discussed.

  15. Specification Search for Identifying the Correct Mean Trajectory in Polynomial Latent Growth Models

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    Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-Man; Yoon, Myeongsun; Willson, Victor; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the optimal strategy for model specification search under the latent growth modeling (LGM) framework, specifically on searching for the correct polynomial mean or average growth model when there is no a priori hypothesized model in the absence of theory. In this simulation study, the effectiveness of different starting…

  16. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

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    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  17. Analyzing Latent State-Trait and Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Curve Models as Multilevel Structural Equation Models

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    Christian eGeiser

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent state-trait (LST and latent growth curve (LGC models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1 a large number of time points, (2 individually-varying times of observation, (3 unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4 incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person using the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012 and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

  18. Using Bayesian statistics for modeling PTSD through Latent Growth Mixture Modeling : implementation and discussion

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    Depaoli, Sarah; van de Schoot, Rens; van Loey, Nancy; Sijbrandij, Marit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After traumatic events, such as disaster, war trauma, and injuries including burns (which is the focus here), the risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is approximately 10% (Breslau & Davis, 1992). Latent Growth Mixture Modeling can be used to classify individuals into dis

  19. An Evaluation of Latent Growth Models for Propensity Score Matched Groups

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    Leite, Walter L.; Sandbach, Robert; Jin, Rong; MacInnes, Jann W.; Jackman, M. Grace-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Because random assignment is not possible in observational studies, estimates of treatment effects might be biased due to selection on observable and unobservable variables. To strengthen causal inference in longitudinal observational studies of multiple treatments, we present 4 latent growth models for propensity score matched groups, and…

  20. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

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    Liesje Coertjens

    Full Text Available The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  1. Self-Esteem and Delinquency in South Korean Adolescents: Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…

  2. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

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    Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

  3. Modeling change in learning strategies throughout higher education: a multi-indicator latent growth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coertjens, Liesje; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven; Vanthournout, Gert; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The change in learning strategies during higher education is an important topic of research in the Student Approaches to Learning field. Although the studies on this topic are increasingly longitudinal, analyses have continued to rely primarily on traditional statistical methods. The present research is innovative in the way it uses a multi-indicator latent growth analysis in order to more accurately estimate the general and differential development in learning strategy scales. Moreover, the predictive strength of the latent growth models are estimated. The sample consists of one cohort of Flemish University College students, 245 of whom participated in the three measurement waves by filling out the processing and regulation strategies scales of the Inventory of Learning Styles--Short Versions. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that the longitudinal group is a non-random subset of students starting University College. For each scale, a multi-indicator latent growth model is estimated using Mplus 6.1. Results suggest that, on average, during higher education, students persisting in their studies in a non-delayed manner seem to shift towards high-quality learning and away from undirected and surface-oriented learning. Moreover, students from the longitudinal group are found to vary in their initial levels, while, unexpectedly, not in their change over time. Although the growth models fit the data well, significant residual variances in the latent factors remain.

  4. Measurement Equivalence of Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale Using Latent Growth Methods

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    Basokçu, T. Oguz; Ögretmen, T.

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the application of latent growth modeling, which is one of structural equation models on real data. Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), which was previously adapted into Turkish was administered to 200 preservice teachers at different time intervals for three times and study data was collected. Measurement equivalence…

  5. An Introduction to Latent Growth Models: Analysis of Repeated Measures Physical Performance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ilhyeok; Schutz, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Latent Growth Model (LGM) to researchers in exercise and sport science. Although the LGM has several merits over traditional analysis techniques in analyzing change and was first introduced almost 20 years ago, it is still underused in exercise and sport science research. This statistical model can be…

  6. Bayesian Inference for Growth Mixture Models with Latent Class Dependent Missing Data

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    Lu, Zhenqiu Laura; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lubke, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    "Growth mixture models" (GMMs) with nonignorable missing data have drawn increasing attention in research communities but have not been fully studied. The goal of this article is to propose and to evaluate a Bayesian method to estimate the GMMs with latent class dependent missing data. An extended GMM is first presented in which class…

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Fitness Performance in Youth: A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Liu, Woon Chia; Lim, Boon San Coral; Li, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Using a multilevel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) approach, this study examined longitudinal change in levels of physical fitness performance over time (i.e. four years) in young adolescents aged from 12-13 years. The sample consisted of 6622 students from 138 secondary schools in Singapore. Initial analyses found between-school variation on…

  8. Self-Esteem and Delinquency in South Korean Adolescents: Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…

  9. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day…

  10. Inflation, monetary policy and stock market conditions: quantitative evidence from a hybrid latent-variable VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Bordo, Michael D.; Dueker, Michael J.; David C. Wheelock

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the association between inflation, monetary policy and U.S. stock market conditions during the second half of the 20th century. We use a latent-variable VAR to estimate the impact of inflation and other macroeconomic shocks on a latent index of stock market conditions. Our objective is to investigate the extent to which various shocks contribute to changes in market conditions, above and beyond their direct effects on real stock prices. We find that disinflation shocks pro...

  11. An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling concepts, issues, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Terry E; Strycker, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling (LGM) for analyzing repeated measures. It presents the statistical basis for LGM and its various methodological extensions, including a number of practical examples of its use. It is designed to take advantage of the reader's familiarity with analysis of variance and structural equation modeling (SEM) in introducing LGM techniques. Sample data, syntax, input and output, are provided for EQS, Amos, LISREL, and Mplus on the book's CD. Throughout the book, the authors present a variety of LGM techniques that are useful for many different research designs, and numerous figures provide helpful diagrams of the examples.Updated throughout, the second edition features three new chapters-growth modeling with ordered categorical variables, growth mixture modeling, and pooled interrupted time series LGM approaches. Following a new organization, the book now covers the development of the LGM, followed by chapters on multiple-group is...

  12. Study on release rate of latent heat in Czochralski silicon growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bingyan; YANG Jiankun; LI Yanlin; LIU Xiaoping; WANG Minhua

    2006-01-01

    The pulling rate in czochralski silicon (CZSi) growth is important for reducing the cost of solar cell.In this paper, double-heater, heat shield and composite argon duct system were introduced in the Ф450 mm hot zone of a Czochralski furnace.The pulling rate under different thermal system was recorded in experiments.Argon flow and temperature fields were simulated by finite element method(FEM).Experimental results and numerical simulation indicate that double-heater and composite argon duct system can enhance obviously the release rate of latent heat.In Φ 200 mm Czochralski silicon (CZSi) growth, average pulling rate can increase from 0.6 mm·min-1 in the conventional hot zone to 0.8 mm·min-1 in the modified hot zone.

  13. Reading Ability Development from Kindergarten to Junior Secondary: Latent Transition Analyses with Growth Mixture Modeling

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    Yuan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the reading ability development of children in the large scale Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 data; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Pollack, & Atkins-Burnett, 2006 under the dynamic systems. To depict children's growth pattern, we extended the measurement part of latent transition analysis to the growth mixture model and found that the new model fitted the data well. Results also revealed that most of the children stayed in the same ability group with few cross-level changes in their classes. After adding the environmental factors as predictors, analyses showed that children receiving higher teachers' ratings, with higher socioeconomic status, and of above average poverty status, would have higher probability to transit into the higher ability group.

  14. Searching for causal networks involving latent variables in complex traits: Application to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in pigs.

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    Peñagaricano, F; Valente, B D; Steibel, J P; Bates, R O; Ernst, C W; Khatib, H; Rosa, G J M

    2015-10-01

    Structural equation models (SEQM) can be used to model causal relationships between multiple variables in multivariate systems. Among the strengths of SEQM is its ability to consider causal links between latent variables. The use of latent variables allows modeling complex phenomena while reducing at the same time the dimensionality of the data. One relevant aspect in the quantitative genetics context is the possibility of correlated genetic effects influencing sets of variables under study. Under this scenario, if one aims at inferring causality among latent variables, genetic covariances act as confounders if ignored. Here we describe a methodology for assessing causal networks involving latent variables underlying complex phenotypic traits. The first step of the method consists of the construction of latent variables defined on the basis of prior knowledge and biological interest. These latent variables are jointly evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The estimated factor scores are then used as phenotypes for fitting a multivariate mixed model to obtain the covariance matrix of latent variables conditional on the genetic effects. Finally, causal relationships between the adjusted latent variables are evaluated using different SEQM with alternative causal specifications. We have applied this method to a data set with pigs for which several phenotypes were recorded over time. Five different latent variables were evaluated to explore causal links between growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. The measurement model, which included 5 latent variables capturing the information conveyed by 19 different phenotypic traits, showed an acceptable fit to data (e.g., χ/df = 1.3, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.028, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.041). Causal links between latent variables were explored after removing genetic confounders. Interestingly, we found that both growth (-0.160) and carcass traits (-0.500) have a significant

  15. Structural equation modeling of latent growth curves of weight gain among treated tuberculosis patients.

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    Mahalingam Vasantha

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis still remains a major public health problem even though it is treatable and curable. Weight gain measurement during anti tuberculosis (TB treatment period is an important component to assess the progress of TB patients. In this study, Latent Growth Models (LGMs were implemented in a longitudinal design to predict the change in weight of TB patients who were given three different regimens under randomized controlled clinical trial for anti-TB treatment. Linear and Quadratic LGMs were fitted using Mplus software. The age, sex and treatment response of the TB patients were used as time invariant independent variables of the growth trajectories. The quadratic trend was found to be better in explaining the changes in weight without grouping than the quadratic model for three group comparisons. A significant increase in the change of weight over time was identified while a significant quadratic effect indicated that weights were sustained over time. The growth rate was similar in both the groups. The treatment response had significant association with the growth rate of weight scores of the patients.

  16. Factors influencing community health centers' efficiency: a latent growth curve modeling approach.

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    Marathe, Shriram; Wan, Thomas T H; Zhang, Jackie; Sherin, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    The objective of study is to examine factors affecting the variation in technical and cost efficiency of community health centers (CHCs). A panel study design was formulated to examine the relationships among the contextual, organizational structural, and performance variables. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) of technical efficiency and latent growth curve modeling of multi-wave technical and cost efficiency were performed. Regardless of the efficiency measures, CHC efficiency was influenced more by contextual factors than organizational structural factors. The study confirms the independent and additive influences of contextual and organizational predictors on efficiency. The change in CHC technical efficiency positively affects the change in CHC cost efficiency. The practical implication of this finding is that healthcare managers can simultaneously optimize both technical and cost efficiency through appropriate use of inputs to generate optimal outputs. An innovative solution is to employ decision support software to prepare an expert system to assist poorly performing CHCs to achieve better cost efficiency through optimizing technical efficiency.

  17. A Multilevel Latent Growth Modelling of the Longitudinal Changes in Motivation Regulations in Physical Education

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    Timo Jaakkola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine individual- and classroom-level differences in the longitudinal change in motivational regulations during physical education students’ transition from elementary (Grade 6 across middle school (Grades 7 to 9. A sample of 757 Finnish adolescents (M = 12.71, SD = 0.23 participated in this study. Participants of the study responded to questionnaires collected six times. A multilevel latent growth modelling approach was used to analyze the data. Results showed that motivational regulations in physical education developed at different rates during middle school. More specifically, students’: (a identified regulation increased across Grades 6 to 9; (b amotivation increased during middle school transition from Grade 6 to 7; and (c introjected regulation declined from Grade 8 to 9. Other motivational regulations remained stable across time. The changes in amotivation and introjected regulation were largely due to individual factors, whereas the changes in identified regulation were due to environmental factors.

  18. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis

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    Kanayama M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mieko Kanayama,1 Machiko Suzuki,1 Yoshikazu Yuma2 1Department of Human Health Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Human Development Education, Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Kato, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs. Keywords: burnout, collaboration, latent class growth analysis, interprofessional care, special needs schools

  19. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

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    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  20. A Latent Class Growth Analysis of School Bullying and Its Social Context: The Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…

  1. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  2. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  3. Enhancing the Psychological Well-Being of Elderly Individuals through Tai Chi Exercise: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Duncan, Terry E.; Duncan, Susan C.; McAuley, Edward; Chaumeton, Nigel R.; Harmer, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether a Tai Chi exercise program enhanced the psychological well-being of 98 elderly individuals. Analyzed repeated measures data about participants using latent growth curve analysis. Results indicate the beneficial effects of participation in the Tai Chi program. Discusses implications related to the exercise-psychological health…

  4. Applications of Latent Growth Mixture Modeling and allied methods to posttraumatic stress response data

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    Isaac R. Galatzer-Levy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific research into mental health outcomes following trauma is undergoing a revolution as scientists refocus their efforts to identify underlying dimensions of health and psychopathology. This effort is in stark contrast to the previous focus which was to characterize individuals based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM diagnostic status (Insel et al., 2010. A significant unresolved issue underlying this shift is how to characterize clinically relevant populations without reliance on the categorical definitions provided by the DSM. Classifying individuals based on their pattern of stress adaptation over time holds significant promise for capturing inherent inter-individual heterogeneity as responses including chronicity, recovery, delayed onset, and resilience can only be determined longitudinally (Galatzer-Levy & Bryant, 2013 and then characterizing these patterns for future research (Depaoli, Van de Schoot, Van Loey, & Sijbrandij, 2015. Such an approach allows for the identification of phenominologically similar patterns of response to diverse extreme environmental stressors (Bonanno, Kennedy, Galatzer-Levy, Lude, & Elfstom, 2012; Galatzer-Levy & Bonanno, 2012; Galatzer-Levy, Brown, et al., 2013; Galatzer-Levy, Burton, & Bonanno, 2012 including translational animal models of stress adaptation (Galatzer-Levy, Bonanno, Bush, & LeDoux, 2013; Galatzer-Levy, Moscarello, et al., 2014. The empirical identification of heterogeneous stress response patterns can increase the identification of mechanisms (Galatzer-Levy, Steenkamp, et al., 2014, consequences (Galatzer-Levy & Bonanno, 2014, treatment effects (Galatzer-Levy, Ankri, et al., 2013, and prediction (Galatzer-Levy, Karstoft, Statnikov, & Shalev, 2014 of individual differences in response to trauma. Method: Methodological and theoretical considerations for the application of Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM and allied methods such as Latent Class

  5. Using Bayesian statistics for modeling PTSD through Latent Growth Mixture Modeling: implementation and discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Depaoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: After traumatic events, such as disaster, war trauma, and injuries including burns (which is the focus here, the risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is approximately 10% (Breslau & Davis, 1992. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling can be used to classify individuals into distinct groups exhibiting different patterns of PTSD (Galatzer-Levy, 2015. Currently, empirical evidence points to four distinct trajectories of PTSD patterns in those who have experienced burn trauma. These trajectories are labeled as: resilient, recovery, chronic, and delayed onset trajectories (e.g., Bonanno, 2004; Bonanno, Brewin, Kaniasty, & Greca, 2010; Maercker, Gäbler, O'Neil, Schützwohl, & Müller, 2013; Pietrzak et al., 2013. The delayed onset trajectory affects only a small group of individuals, that is, about 4–5% (O'Donnell, Elliott, Lau, & Creamer, 2007. In addition to its low frequency, the later onset of this trajectory may contribute to the fact that these individuals can be easily overlooked by professionals. In this special symposium on Estimating PTSD trajectories (Van de Schoot, 2015a, we illustrate how to properly identify this small group of individuals through the Bayesian estimation framework using previous knowledge through priors (see, e.g., Depaoli & Boyajian, 2014; Van de Schoot, Broere, Perryck, Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, & Van Loey, 2015. Method: We used latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM (Van de Schoot, 2015b to estimate PTSD trajectories across 4 years that followed a traumatic burn. We demonstrate and compare results from traditional (maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation using priors (see, Depaoli, 2012, 2013. Further, we discuss where priors come from and how to define them in the estimation process. Results: We demonstrate that only the Bayesian approach results in the desired theory-driven solution of PTSD trajectories. Since the priors are chosen subjectively, we also present a sensitivity analysis of the

  6. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking.

  7. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge. PMID:28167891

  8. Construction of a System for the Strawberry Nursery Production towards Elimination of Latent Infection of Anthracnose Fungi by a Combination of PCR and Microtube Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Nagashima, Saki; Inukai, Tsuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2017-02-01

    One of the major problems in strawberry production is difficulty in diagnosis of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum or Glomerella cingulata in latent infection stage. We here developed a diagnostic tool for the latent infection consisting of initial culturing of fungi, DNA extraction, synthesis of PCR-amplified probes and microtube hybridization (MTH) using a macroarray. The initial culturing step is convenient to lure the fungi out of the plant tissues, and to extract PCR-inhibitor-free DNA directly from fungal hyphae. For specific detection of the fungi, PCR primers were designed to amplify the fungal MAT1-2 gene. The subsequent MTH step using the PCR products as probes can replace the laborious electrophoresis step providing us sequence information and high-throughput screening. Using this method, we have conducted a survey for a few thousands nursery plants every year for three consecutive years, and finally succeeded in eliminating latent infection in the third year of challenge.

  9. Recent sexual victimization and drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students: a latent growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Melissa J; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    College matriculation is a time of developmental and social change and is often a time of heavy drinking. Sexual victimization (SV) is prevalent in late adolescence and poses additional risk for problem drinking behavior. Thus, matriculating students with a SV history may be at heightened risk for maladaptive alcohol use while transitioning through the first year of college. Furthermore, victimization that has occurred close to college matriculation may confer particular risk for problem alcohol use, because the added stressor of coping with a SV while negotiating the transition into college may lead to risky drinking behavior. Therefore, examining the influence of SV timing (i.e., recency) on drinking patterns in freshman year was the aim of the present study. Matriculating undergraduates with a history of SV were assessed at six points during freshman year. Using latent growth curve modeling, we tested differences in trajectories of drinking behavior (i.e., alcohol use, binge drinking) between students who reported a recent SV and those who reported a more distal SV. Students endorsing a recent SV evidenced greater overall levels of alcohol use and higher levels of binge drinking than individuals with SV that was less recent. Moreover, the recent SV group showed significantly more variability in drinking outcomes over freshman year, with escalations mapping onto more salient periods of transition over the first college year. SV that occurs close to college entry is associated with specific and persistent risk for maladaptive drinking behavior in newly matriculated college students.

  10. School climate and bullying victimization: a latent class growth model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A; Prykanowski, Debra A; Larson, Alvin

    2014-09-01

    Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the social-ecological link between school climate factors and bullying/peer aggression. To address this gap, we examined the association between school climate factors and bullying victimization for 4,742 students in Grades 3-12 across 3 school years in a large, very diverse urban school district using latent class growth modeling. Across 3 different models (elementary, secondary, and transition to middle school), a 3-class model was identified, which included students at high-risk for bullying victimization. Results indicated that, for all students, respect for diversity and student differences (e.g., racial diversity) predicted within-class decreases in reports of bullying. High-risk elementary students reported that adult support in school was a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying, and high-risk secondary students report peer support as a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying.

  11. Determinants of rate of change in functional disability: An application of latent growth curve modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Mei; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Tu, Yu-Kang; Yu, Hsiao-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to identify disablement factors, including predisposing, intra-individual, and extra-individual factors, which predict the rate of change in general functional disability (GFD) in older adults. This study utilized the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging Survey in 1996-2007 (N=3,186). Multiple-indicator latent growth curve modeling was used to examine how 12 disablement factors predicted the rate of change in GFD. GFD trajectories were modeled using Nagi's functional limitations, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living. Greater age (B=.025), female gender (B=.114), and greater numbers of comorbidities (B=.038) were associated with faster increase in GFD. Education (B=-.005) and participation in physically active leisure time activities (B=-.031) were associated with slower increase in GFD. Our findings add to the understanding of how disablement factors contribute to the rate of change in GFD. Predisposing factors played the main role. However, the factors we found to be associated with the rate of change in GFD in older adults were slightly different from the factors reported in the literature. Decreasing the number of comorbidities and increasing the level of physically active leisure time activity should be considered priorities for preventing disability as people age.

  12. Longitudinal burnout-collaboration patterns in Japanese medical care workers at special needs schools: a latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Mieko; Suzuki, Machiko; Yuma, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools. The best model included four types of both burnout and collaboration in latent class growth analysis with intercept, slope, and quadratic terms. The four types of burnout were as follows: low stable, moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing. They were identified as involving inverse collaboration function. The results indicated that there could be dynamic burnout types, namely moderate unstable, high unstable, and high decreasing, when focusing on growth trajectories in latent class analyses. The finding that collaboration was dynamic for dynamic burnout types and stable for stable burnout types is of great interest. This was probably related to the inverse relationship between the two constructs.

  13. Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein-3 and fibulin-1C interact with the extracellular domain of the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidels Leon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The membrane-bound cell-surface precursor and soluble forms of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF contribute to many cellular developmental processes. The widespread occurrence of HB-EGF in cell and tissue types has led to observations of its role in such cellular and tissue events as tumor formation, cell migration, extracellular matrix formation, wound healing, and cell adherence. Several studies have reported the involvement of such extracellular matrix proteins as latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, TGF-β, and fibulin-1 in some of these processes. To determine whether HB-EGF interacts with extracellular matrix proteins we used the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF in a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a monkey kidney cDNA library. cDNA clones containing nucleotide sequences encoding domains of two proteins were obtained and their derived amino acid sequences were evaluated. Results From ≈ 3 × 106 screened monkey cDNA clones, cDNA clones were recovered that contained nucleotide sequences encoding domains of the monkey latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-3 (MkLTBP-3 and fibulin-1C protein. The amino acid sequence derived from the MkLTBP-3 gene shared 98.6% identity with human LTBP-3 and 86.7% identity with mouse LTBP-3 amino acid sequences. The amino acid sequence derived from the monkey fibulin-1C gene shared 97.2% identity with human fibulin-1C. Yeast two-hybrid screens indicate that LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C interact with proHB-EGF through their calcium-binding EGF-like modules. Conclusions The interactions of the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF with LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C suggest novel functions for HB-EGF between cell and tissue surfaces.

  14. Nerve growth factor antibody stimulates reactivation of ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 in latently infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J M; Garza, H H; Helmy, M F; Cook, S D; Osborne, P A; Johnson, E M; Thompson, H W; Green, L C; O'Callaghan, R J; Gebhardt, B M

    1997-06-01

    Anti-nerve growth factor (anti-NGF) antibody has been shown to induce reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. We found that systemically administered anti-NGF induces ocular shedding of HSV-1 in vivo in rabbits harboring latent virus. Rabbits in which HSV-1 latency had been established were given intravenous injections of goat anti-NGF serum daily for 10 days beginning 42 days after primary viral infection. Tears were assayed for virus for 12 days beginning on the day of the first injection. All eight rabbits given high titer anti-NGF had infectious virus in their tears at least once during the 12-day period. Fifteen of 16 eyes were positive and the average duration of viral shedding for these eyes was 4.0 days. Latently infected rabbits receiving daily injections of nonimmune goat serum or saline for 10 consecutive days were controls. Only six of the 16 (38%) eyes from rabbits receiving nonimmune goat serum shed virus. Only one of 12 eyes from untreated rabbits shed virus. Sera from control rabbits had no detectable anti-NGF activity; titers in anti-NGF-treated rabbits ranged between 1:1000 and 1:10,000. NGF deprivation may act as a neuronal stressor and may share a common second messenger pathway with heat- or cold-stress induced reactivation of latent HSV-1.

  15. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adiposity in adolescence: a latent class growth analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendzor Darla E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with obesity in cross-sectional research, although less is known about how changes in socioeconomic status influence the development of obesity. Researchers have hypothesized that upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the health effects of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage; while downward socioeconomic mobility might have a negative influence on health despite relative socioeconomic advantages at earlier stages. The purpose of the current study was to characterize trajectories of family income during childhood, and to evaluate the influence of these trajectories on adiposity at age 15. Methods Data were collected as part of the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD between 1991 and 2007 at 10 sites across the United States. A latent class growth analysis (LCGA was conducted to identify trajectories of family income from birth to 15 years of age. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to determine whether measures of adiposity differed by trajectory, while controlling for relevant covariates. Results The LCGA supported a 5-class trajectory model, which included two stable, one downward, and two upward trajectories. ANCOVAs indicated that BMI percentile, waist circumference, and skinfold thicknesses at age 15 differed significantly by trajectory, such that those who experienced downward mobility or stable low income had greater adiposity relative to the more advantaged trajectories. Conversely, upwardly mobile children and those with consistently adequate incomes had similar and more positive outcomes relative to the most disadvantaged trajectories. Conclusions Findings suggest that promoting upward socioeconomic mobility among disadvantaged families may have a positive impact on obesity-related outcomes in adolescence.

  16. Latent Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 Functionalised Electrospun Scaffolds Promote Human Cartilage Differentiation: Towards an Engineered Cartilage Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erh-Hsuin Lim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo overcome the potential drawbacks of a short half-life and dose-related adverse effects of using active transforming growth factor-beta 1 for cartilage engineering, a cell-mediated latent growth factor activation strategy was developed incorporating latent transforming growth factor-β1 (LTGF into an electrospun poly(L-lactide scaffold.MethodsThe electrospun scaffold was surface modified with NH3 plasma and biofunctionalised with LTGF to produce both random and orientated biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds. Scaffold surface chemical analysis and growth factor bioavailability assays were performed. In vitro biocompatibility and human nasal chondrocyte gene expression with these biofunctionalised electrospun scaffold templates were assessed. In vivo chondrogenic activity and chondrocyte gene expression were evaluated in athymic rats.ResultsChemical analysis demonstrated that LTGF anchored to the scaffolds was available for enzymatic, chemical and cell activation. The biofunctionalised scaffolds were non-toxic. Gene expression suggested chondrocyte re-differentiation after 14 days in culture. By 6 weeks, the implanted biofunctionalised scaffolds had induced highly passaged chondrocytes to re-express Col2A1 and produce type II collagen.ConclusionsWe have demonstrated a proof of concept for cell-mediated activation of anchored growth factors using a novel biofunctionalised scaffold in cartilage engineering. This presents a platform for development of protein delivery systems and for tissue engineering.

  17. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  18. Effects of physical education, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on adolescent aggressive behavior: A latent growth modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghyun; Chiu, Weisheng; Won, Doyeon

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal influence of physical education classes, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on aggressive behavior among South Korean adolescents. Data were drawn from the Korea Youth Panel Survey. We used latent growth curve modeling to explain the growth trajectory of adolescent aggressive behaviors and a multi-group analysis to investigate gender differences in aggressive behavior. The results indicated that adolescents' aggressive behavior significantly changed with age. There were significant gender-based differences in the level of and changes in aggressive behavior over time. Both extracurricular sports activities and leisure satisfaction had significant influences on the changes in adolescents' aggressive behavior with age, whereas physical education classes did not.

  19. Growth of hybrid open access, 2009-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid Open Access is an intermediate form of OA, where authors pay scholarly publishers to make articles freely accessible within journals, in which reading the content otherwise requires a subscription or pay-per-view. Major scholarly publishers have in recent years started providing the hybrid option for the vast majority of their journals. Since the uptake usually has been low per journal and scattered over thousands of journals, it has been very difficult to obtain an overview of how common hybrid articles are. This study, using the results of earlier studies as well as a variety of methods, measures the evolution of hybrid OA over time. The number of journals offering the hybrid option has increased from around 2,000 in 2009 to almost 10,000 in 2016. The number of individual articles has in the same period grown from an estimated 8,000 in 2009 to 45,000 in 2016. The growth in article numbers has clearly increased since 2014, after some major research funders in Europe started to introduce new centralized payment schemes for the article processing charges (APCs).

  20. Identifying Latent Trajectories of Personality Disorder Symptom Change: Growth Mixture Modeling in the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  1. Identifying latent trajectories of personality disorder symptom change: growth mixture modeling in the longitudinal study of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Michael N; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-02-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a 4-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, or paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower Negative Emotionality, and greater Positive Emotionality and Constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower Positive Emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology.

  2. The Biasing Effects of Unmodeled ARMA Time Series Processes on Latent Growth Curve Model Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen; Fan, Xitao; Witta, Lea

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness of estimated growth curve models when there is stationary autocorrelation among manifest variable errors. The results suggest that when, in practice, growth curve models are fitted to longitudinal data, alternative rival hypotheses to consider would include growth models that also specify…

  3. A site dependent top height growth model for hybrid aspen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tord Johansson

    2013-01-01

    In this study height growth models for hybrid aspen were developed using three growth equations. The mean age of the hybrid aspen was 21 years (range 15−51 years) with a mean stand density of 946 stems ha-1 (87−2374) and a mean diameter at breast height (over bark) of 19.6 cm (8.5−40.8 cm). Site index was also examined in relation to soil type. Multiple samples were collected for three types of soil: light clay, medium clay and till. Site index curves were constructed using the col-lected data and compared with published reports. A number of dynamic equations were assessed for modeling top-height growth from total age. A Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach model derived by Cieszewski (2001) performed the best. This model explained 99% of the observed variation in tree height growth and exhibited no apparent bias across the range of predicted site indices. There were no significant differences between the soil types and site indices.

  4. Longitudinal Relationships Between Productive Activities and Functional Health in Later Years: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunhee; Tang, Fengyan; Kim, Sung-Geun; Turk, Phillip

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationships between functional health in later years and three types of productive activities: volunteering, full-time, and part-time work. Using the data from five waves (2000-2008) of the Health and Retirement Study, we applied multivariate latent growth curve modeling to examine the longitudinal relationships among individuals 50 or over. Functional health was measured by limitations in activities of daily living. Individuals who volunteered, worked either full time or part time exhibited a slower decline in functional health than nonparticipants. Significant associations were also found between initial functional health and longitudinal changes in productive activity participation. This study provides additional support for the benefits of productive activities later in life; engagement in volunteering and employment are indeed associated with better functional health in middle and old age.

  5. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings.

  6. Parents and adolescents growing up in the digital age: latent growth curve analysis of proactive media monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Fraser, Ashley M; Dyer, W Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.

  7. Assessing the trend of HIV/AIDS mortality rate in Asia and North Africa: an application of latent growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayeri, F; Talebi Ghane, E; Borumandnia, N

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, HIV/AIDS has emerged as a major global health challenge. This study evaluates the change of HIV/AIDS mortality rates in Asian and North African countries from 1990 to 2010 using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. HIV/AIDS mortality rates were derived from the GBD database from 1990 to 2010, for 52 countries in Asia and North Africa. First, a Latent Growth Model was employed to assess the change in AIDS mortality rate over time in six different regions of Asia, and also the change in AIDS mortality rate over time for males and females in Asia and North Africa. Finally, Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMMs) were applied to identify distinct groups in which countries within each group have similar trends over time. Our results showed that increase in mortality rate over time for males is about three times greater than for females. The highest and lowest trend of AIDS mortality rates were observed in South-East Asia and high-income Asia-Pacific regions, respectively. The LGMM allocated most countries in the South and South-East region into two classes with the highest trend of AIDS mortality rates. Although the HIV/AIDS mortality rates are decreasing in some countries and clusters, the general trend in the Asian continent is upwards. Therefore, it is necessary to provide programmes to achieve the goal of access to HIV prevention measures, treatment, care, and support for high-risk groups, especially in countries with a higher trend of AIDS mortality rates.

  8. Does sponsorship improve outcomes above Alcoholics Anonymous attendance? A latent class growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Kaskutas, Lee; Bond, Jason; Delucchi, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    To construct Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance, sponsorship and abstinence latent class trajectories to test the added benefit of having a sponsor above the benefits of attendance in predicting abstinence over time. Prospective with 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-year follow-ups. Alcoholic-dependent individuals from two probability samples, one from representative public and private treatment programs and another from the general population (n = 495). Individuals in the low attendance class (four classes identified) were less likely than those in the high, descending and medium attendance classes to be in high (versus low) abstinence class (three classes identified). No differences were found between the other attendance classes as related to abstinence class membership. Overall, being in the high sponsor class (three classes identified) predicted better abstinence outcomes than being in either of two other classes (descending and low), independent of attendance class effects. Although declining sponsor involvement was associated with greater likelihood of high abstinence than low sponsor involvement, being in the descending sponsor class also increased the odds of being in the descending abstinence class. Any pattern of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, even if it declines or is never high for a particular 12-month period, is better than little or no attendance in terms of abstinence. Greater initial attendance carries added value. There is a benefit for maintaining a sponsor over time above that found for attendance. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Relations between the development of school investment, self-confidence, and language achievement in elementary education: A multivariate latent growth curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Stoel; T.T.D. Peetsma; J. Roeleveld

    2001-01-01

    Latent growth curve (LGC) analysis of longitudinal data for pupils' school investment, self confidence and language ability is presented. A multivariate model is tested that relates the three developmental processes to each other and to intelligence. All processes show significant differences betwee

  10. Using Data-Dependent Priors to Mitigate Small Sample Bias in Latent Growth Models: A Discussion and Illustration Using M"plus"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-effects models (MEMs) and latent growth models (LGMs) are often considered interchangeable save the discipline-specific nomenclature. Software implementations of these models, however, are not interchangeable, particularly with small sample sizes. Restricted maximum likelihood estimation that mitigates small sample bias in MEMs has not been…

  11. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  12. The Role of Peer Contacts in the Relationship between Parental Knowledge and Adolescents' Externalizing Behaviors: A Latent Growth Curve Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Ellen; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct and indirect effects (through peer contacts) of parental knowledge on adolescents' delinquent and aggressive problem behavior, using latent growth curve modeling. A sample of 457 13- to 14-year old adolescents at first measurement wave (M = 13.27; SD = 0.45 years) filled out questionnaires…

  13. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  14. A Cohort-Sequential Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis of Normative CBCL Aggressive and Delinquent Problem Behavior: Associations with Harsh Discipline and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the normative developmental trajectories of aggressive and delinquent behavior in young children. Cohort-sequential univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) analyses were employed to conceptualize and analyze intraindividual changes in children's aggressive and delinquent behavior and interindividual differences…

  15. A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence in lanthanide-based magnetic hybrid nanostructure and its demonstration for the detection of latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Praveen K; Singh, Priyam; Singh, Akhilesh K; Singh, Sunil K; Rai, Shyam B; Prakash, Rajiv

    2017-04-01

    We have synthesized a novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructure (IOHN) composed of fluoride nanophosphor (NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4) and β-diketones complex (Eu(DBM)3Phen). The Le Bail fitting of X-ray diffraction data suggests that the nanophoshor crystallizes in a hexagonal structure (P63/m space group). The TEM studies reveal that the nanophosphor and the IOHN both have average particle size of 6-8nm. The Eu(DBM)3Phen and NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4 show characteristic down-shifting (DS) and up-conversion (UC) emission, under UV and NIR excitation, respectively. The IOHN comprises an excellent dual-mode optical features (DS and UC) of both the phases. Energy transfer from Er(3+) (doped in inorganic phase) to Eu(3+) (coordinated in organic phase) clearly demonstrates for a viable coupling between both the phases. IOHN material was found to be unique for the visualization of latent fingermarks. Because of ultrafine particle size the surface to volume ratio is relatively higher which improves the attachment of particles with the fingermarks. On the other hand, the strong paramagnetic property helps to remove excess material with magnetic wand easily. These properties provide an opportunity to probe even very weak fingermarks. Notwithstanding this, the dual-mode emission is useful for the visualization of latent fingermarks on multi-color surfaces as well.

  16. Sensitivity analysis for linear structural equation models, longitudinal mediation with latent growth models and blended learning in biostatistics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Adam John

    In chapter 1, we consider the biases that may arise when an unmeasured confounder is omitted from a structural equation model (SEM) and sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for such biases. We give an analysis of which effects in an SEM are and are not biased by an unmeasured confounder. It is shown that a single unmeasured confounder will bias not just one but numerous effects in an SEM. We present sensitivity analysis techniques to correct for biases in total, direct, and indirect effects when using SEM analyses, and illustrate these techniques with a study of aging and cognitive function. In chapter 2, we consider longitudinal mediation with latent growth curves. We define the direct and indirect effects using counterfactuals and consider the assumptions needed for identifiability of those effects. We develop models with a binary treatment/exposure followed by a model where treatment/exposure changes with time allowing for treatment/exposure-mediator interaction. We thus formalize mediation analysis with latent growth curve models using counterfactuals, makes clear the assumptions and extends these methods to allow for exposure mediator interactions. We present and illustrate the techniques with a study on Multiple Sclerosis(MS) and depression. In chapter 3, we report on a pilot study in blended learning that took place during the Fall 2013 and Summer 2014 semesters here at Harvard. We blended the traditional BIO 200: Principles of Biostatistics and created ID 200: Principles of Biostatistics and epidemiology. We used materials from the edX course PH207x: Health in Numbers: Quantitative Methods in Clinical & Public Health Research and used. These materials were used as a video textbook in which students would watch a given number of these videos prior to class. Using surveys as well as exam data we informally assess these blended classes from the student's perspective as well as a comparison of these students with students in another course, BIO 201

  17. Bovine latent transforming growth factor beta 1-binding protein 2: molecular cloning, identification of tissue isoforms, and immunolocalization to elastin-associated microfibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M A; Hatzinikolas, G; Davis, E C; Baker, E; Sutherland, G R; Mecham, R P

    1995-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to fibrillin 1 (MP340), a component of elastin-associated microfibrils, were used to screen cDNA libraries made from bovine nuchal ligament mRNA. One of the selected clones (cL9; 1.2 kb) hybridized on Northern (RNA) blotting with nuchal ligament mRNA to two abundant mRNAs of 9.0 and 7.5 kb, which were clearly distinct from fibrillin mRNA (10 kb). Further library screening and later reverse transcription PCR by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique resulted in the isolation of additional overlapping cDNAs corresponding to about 6.7 kb of the mRNA. The encoded protein exhibited sequence similarity of around 80% with a recently identified human protein named latent transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1)-binding protein 2 (LTBP-2), indicating that the new protein was bovine LTBP-2. This was confirmed by the specific localization of bovine LTBP-2 cDNA probes to human chromosome 14q24.3, which is the locus of the human LTBP-2 gene. The domain structure of bovine LTBP-2 is very similar to that of the human LTBP-2, containing 20 examples of 6-cysteine epidermal growth factor-like repeats, 16 of which have the consensus sequence for calcium binding, together with 4 examples of 8-cysteine motifs characteristic of fibrillins and LTBP-1. A 4-cysteine sequence which is unique to bovine LTBP-2 and which has similarity to the 8-cysteine motifs was also present. Antibodies raised to two unique bovine LTBP-2 peptides specifically localized in tissue sections to the elastin-associated microfibrils, indicating that LTBP-2 is closely associated with these structures. Immunoblotting experiments identified putative LTBP-2 isoforms as a 260-kDa species released into the medium by cultured elastic tissue cells and as larger 290- and 310-kDa species in tissue extracts. A major proportion of tissue-derived LTBP-2 required treatment with 6 M guanidine for solubilization, indicating that the protein was strongly bound to the microfibrils. Most of

  18. Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 4 is downregulated in esophageal cancer via promoter methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Bultmann

    Full Text Available Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 4 (LTBP4 is an extracellular matrix molecule that is a member of important connective tissue networks and is needed for the correct folding and the secretion of TGF-β1. LTBP4 is downregulated in carcinomas of various tissues. Here we show that LTBP4 is also downregulated in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of LTBP4 in esophageal cancer cell lines reduced cell migration ability, whereas cell viability and cell proliferation remained unchanged. Hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the two main human LTBP4 transcriptional forms, LTBP4L and LTBP4S, was found to be involved in LTBP4 silencing. Detailed investigations of the methylation patterns of the promoter regions of LTBP4L and LTBP4S identified GATA1, SP1, E2F4 and SMAD3 as potential transcription factors involved in LTBP4 expression. In in vitro transcription factor activity studies we discovered E2F4 as novel powerful regulator for LTBP4S expression.

  19. Maternal Mortality and Female Literacy Rates in Developing Countries during 1970–2000: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The gross longitudinal relationship between female literacy and maternal mortality ratios has not been adequately investigated even though the knowledge of the relationship is crucial for designing maternal mortality reduction programs through female literacy campaigns and improvements. The objective of the study was to examine the dynamic relationship between female literacy and mortality ratios. A longitudinal study design spanning three decades, 1970–2000, was used. Country level data on 143 nations belonging to six geographical regions for the duration 1970–2000 were secured from websites hosted by global agencies such as World Bank and the United Nations were utilized. Maternal mortality ratios (1970–2000 ranged from 147 to 271 across the six regions. The longitudinal relationship between female literacy rates and maternal mortality ratios was examined using a latent growth curve approach. The study found that rates of change in female literacy and maternal mortality ratios are negatively related. Steady rates of increase in female literacy were associated with declining maternal mortality ratios as well. We find that female literacy programs are of immense value in reducing maternal mortality ratios given their ability to yield sustained reductions in mortality levels in developing countries.

  20. Latent growth curve analysis of fear during a speech task before and after treatment for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-11-01

    Models of social phobia highlight the importance of anticipatory anxiety in the experience of fear during a social situation. Anticipatory anxiety has been shown to be highly correlated with performance anxiety for a variety of social situations. A few studies show that average ratings of anxiety during the anticipation and performance phases of a social situation decline following treatment. Evidence also suggests that the point of confrontation with the feared stimulus is the peak level of fear. No study to date has evaluated the pattern of anxious responding across the anticipation, confrontation, and performance phases before and after treatment, which is the focus of the current study. Socially phobic individuals (N = 51) completed a behavioral avoidance task before and after two types of manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, and gave ratings of fear during the anticipation and performance phases. Results from latent growth curve analysis were the same for the two treatments and suggested that before treatment, anxiety sharply increased during the anticipation phase, was highly elevated at the confrontation, and gradually increased during the performance phase. After treatment, anxiety increased during the anticipation phase, although at a much slower rate than at pretreatment, peaked at confrontation, and declined during the performance phase. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences are critical to the experience of fear for public speaking and should be incorporated into exposures.

  1. Shaping the Development of Prejudice: Latent Growth Modeling of the Influence of Social Dominance Orientation on Outgroup Affect in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Christopher; Sidanius, Jim; Sheehy-Skeffington, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) has been theorized as a stable, early-emerging trait influencing outgroup evaluations, a view supported by evidence from cross-sectional and two-wave longitudinal research. Yet, the limitations of identifying causal paths with cross-sectional and two-wave designs are increasingly being acknowledged. This article presents the first use of multi-wave data to test the over-time relationship between SDO and outgroup affect among young people. We use cross-lagged and latent growth modeling (LGM) of a three-wave data set employing Norwegian adolescents (over 2 years, N = 453) and a five-wave data set with American university students (over 4 years, N = 748). Overall, SDO exhibits high temporal rank-order stability and predicts changes in outgroup affect. This research represents the strongest test to date of SDO's role as a stable trait that influences the development of prejudice, while highlighting LGM as a valuable tool for social and political psychology.

  2. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  3. Global positive expectancies in adolescence and health-related behaviours: longitudinal models of latent growth and cross-lagged effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C

    2012-01-01

    Constructs representative of global positive expectancies (GPE) such as dispositional optimism and hope have been theoretically and empirically linked to many positive mental and physical health outcomes. However such expectancies' health implications for adolescents, as well as their trajectory over time, are less well understood than for adult populations. This study tested whether GPE predict the key indicators of adolescents' future physical health status, their health-related behaviours. A prospective longitudinal study design was employed whereby a diverse population-based cohort (N = 744; mean age at baseline = 12) completed three surveys over approximately 18 months. Rigorous tests of causal predominance and reciprocal effects were conducted through latent growth and cross-panel structural equation models. Results showed GPE systematically decreased during the course of the study, yet higher initial levels of GPE predicted less alcohol drinking, healthier food choice and greater physical activity over time. GPE's protective relationships towards health protective behaviours (vs. health risk behaviours that also included tobacco smoking) appear more independent from depressive symptomatology, and the primary findings were robust across socio-demographic groups.

  4. 基于混合概率潜在语义分析模型的Web聚类%Web clustering based on hybrid probabilistic latent semantic analysis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治和; 王凌云; 党辉; 潘丽娜

    2012-01-01

    In E-commerce, in order to know more about the inherent characteristics of user access and make better marketing strategies, a Web clustering algorithm based on Hybrid Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (H-PLSA) model was proposed in this paper. The Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis ( PLSA) models were established respectively on user browsing data, page information and enhanced user transaction data by using PLSA technology. Using log-likelihood function, three PLSA models were merged to get the user clustering H-PLSA model and the page clustering H-PLSA model. Similarity calculation was based on the conditional probability among latent themes and user, page as well as site in the clustering analysis. The k-medoids algorithm based on distance was adopted in this clustering algorithm. The H-PLSA model was designed and constructed in this article, and the Web clustering algorithm was verified on this H-PLSA model. Then it is proved that the algorithm is effective.%在电子商务应用中,为了更好地了解用户的内在特征,制定有效的营销策略,提出一种基于混合概率潜在语义分析(H-PLSA)模型的Web聚类算法.利用概率潜在语义分析-(PLSA)技术分别对用户浏览数据、页面内容信息及内容增强型用户事务数据建立PLSA模型,通过对数一似然函数对三个PLSA模型进行合并得到用户聚类的H-PLSA模型和页面聚类的H-PLSA模型.聚类分析中以潜在主题与用户、页面以及站点之间的条件概率作为相似度计算依据,聚类算法采用基于距离的k-medoids算法.设计并构建了H-PLSA模型,在该模型上对Web聚类算法进行验证,表明该算法是可行的.

  5. Regulation of a metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid gene in bovine papilloma virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlakis, G N; Hamer, D H

    1983-01-01

    We have constructed bovine papilloma virus recombinants carrying a hybrid gene in which human growth hormone structural sequences are fused to the promoter and presumptive control region of the mouse metallothionein-I gene. Mouse cells transformed with the recombinants synthesize metallothionein-growth hormone hybrid mRNA with the same 5' end as metallothionein mRNA. Hybrid mRNA is inducible by cadmium but not by dexamethasone, whereas the chromosomal metallothionein genes in the same cells a...

  6. Controlled isotropic or anisotropic nanoscale growth of coordination polymers: formation of hybrid coordination polymer particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Cho, Yea Jin; Cho, Won; Oh, Moonhyun

    2013-01-22

    The ability to fabricate multicompositional hybrid materials in a precise and controlled manner is one of the primary goals of modern materials science research. In addition, an understanding of the phenomena associated with the systematic growth of one material on another can facilitate the evolution of multifunctional hybrid materials. Here, we demonstrate precise manipulation of the isotropic and/or anisotropic nanoscale growth of various coordination polymers (CPs) to obtain heterocompositional hybrid coordination polymer particles. Chemical composition analyses conducted at every growth step reveal the formation of accurately assembled hybrid nanoscale CPs, and microscopy images are used to examine the morphology of the particles and visualize the hybrid structures. The dissimilar growth behavior, that is, growth in an isotropic or anisotropic fashion, is found to be dependent on the size of the metal ions involved within the CPs.

  7. Hybrid accretionary/collisional mechanism of Paleozoic Asian continental growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Janousek, Vojtech; Pavla, Stipska; Yingde, Jiang; Alexandra, Guy; Min, Sun

    2016-04-01

    Continental crust is formed above subduction zones by well-known process of "juvenile crust growth". This new crust is in modern Earth assembled into continents by two ways: (i) short-lived collisions of continental blocks with the Eurasian continent along the "Alpine-Himalayan collisional/interior orogens" in the heart of the Pangean continental plates realm; and (ii) long lived lateral accretion of ocean-floor fragments along "circum-Pacific accretionary/peripheral orogens" at the border of the Pacific oceanic plate. This configuration has existed since the late Proterozoic, when the giant accretionary Terra Australis Orogen developed at periphery of an old Palaeo-Pacific ocean together with collisional Caledonian and Variscan orogens. At the same time, the large (ca. 9 millions km2) Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) developed in the NE part of the Pangea. This orogen reveals features of both peripheral and interior orogens, which implies that the generally accepted "peripheral-accretionary" and "interior- collisional" paradigm is not applicable here. To solve this conundrum a new model of unprecedented Phanerozoic continental growth is proposed. In this model, the CAOB precursor evolved at the interface of old exterior and young interior oceans. Subsequently, the new lithospheric domain was transferred by advancing subduction into the interior of the Pangean mostly continental realm. During this process the oceanic crust was transformed into continental crust and it was only later when this specific lithosphere was incorporated into the Asian continent. If true, this concept represents revolutionary insight into processes of crustal growth explaining the enigma of anchoring hybrid lithosphere inside a continent without its subduction or Tibetan-type thickening.

  8. The Neighbourhood Built Environment and Trajectories of Depression Symptom Episodes in Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Gariepy

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the neighbourhood built environment on trajectories of depression symptom episodes in adults from the general Canadian population.We used 10 years of data collection (2000/01-2010/11 from the Canadian National Population Health Study (n = 7114. Episodes of depression symptoms were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form. We assessed the presence of local parks, healthy food stores, fast food restaurants, health services and cultural services using geospatial data. We used latent class growth modelling to identify different trajectories of depression symptom episodes in the sample and tested for the effect of neighbourhood variables on the trajectories over time.We uncovered three distinct trajectories of depression symptom episodes: low prevalence (76.2% of the sample, moderate prevalence (19.2% and high prevalence of depression symptom episodes (2.8%. The presence of any neighbourhood service (healthy food store, fast-food restaurant, health service, except for cultural service was significantly associated with a lower probability of a depression symptom episode for those following a trajectory of low prevalence of depression symptom episodes. The presence of a local park was also a significant protective factor in trajectory groups with both low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes. Neighbourhood characteristics did not significantly affect the trajectory of high prevalence of depression symptom episodes.For individuals following a trajectory of low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes, the neighbourhood built environment was associated with a shift in the trajectory of depression symptom episodes. Future intervention studies are recommended to make policy recommendations.

  9. Improvement and decline of cognitive function in schizophrenia over one year: a longitudinal investigation using latent growth modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Eileen M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term follow-up studies of people with schizophrenia report stability of cognitive performance; less is known about any shorter-term changes in cognitive function. Methods This longitudinal study aimed to establish whether there was stability, improvement or decline in memory and executive functions over four assessments undertaken prospectively in one year. Cognitive performance was assessed during randomized controlled trials of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medication. Analyses used a latent growth modeling approach, so that individuals who missed some testing occasions could be included and trajectories of cognitive change explored despite missing data. Results Over the year there was significant decline in spatial recognition but no change in pattern recognition or motor speed. Improvement was seen in planning and spatial working memory tasks; this may reflect improved strategy use with practice. There were significant individual differences in the initial level of performance on all tasks but not in rate of change; the latter may have been due to sample size limitations. Age, sex, premorbid IQ and drug class allocation explained significant variation in level of performance but could not predict change. Patients randomized to first-generation drugs improved more quickly than other groups on the planning task. Conclusion We conclude that cognitive change is present in schizophrenia but the magnitude of change is small when compared with the large differences in cognitive function that exist between patients. Analyses that retain patients who drop out of longitudinal studies, as well as those who complete testing protocols, are important to our understanding of cognition in schizophrenia.

  10. Growth response of Larix hybrids between L. kaempferi and L. gmelinii var. japonica with altitudinal gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisanuki, Hiromitsu; Kurahashi, Akio; Takahashi, Yasuo [Tokyo Univ. Forest, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    To test the adaptability of Japanese larch, Dahurian larch and their hybrid to the environment in Hokkaido, these three materials were planted and surveyed of their survival and growth for 30 years at four elevation in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. Japanese larch showed low adaptation with high mortality affected by voles at every elevation. Dahurian larch has high vole resistance but showed high mortality caused by the infection of Armillaria root rot. Hybrid could persist through low to high elevation. Only hybrid showed enough growth at the highest elevation. Stress tolerance of hybrid was confirmed under high altitudinal condition. 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks the latent transforming growth factor-beta1-promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate wound contraction is critical for wound healing as well as for pathological contractures. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to be obligatory for normal wound healing. This study examined the effect that the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor BB-94 has when...... applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by the latent transforming-growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined...... and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-beta1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound...

  12. Ploidy and Hybridity Effects on Growth Vigor and Gene Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana Hybrids and Their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marisa; Zhang, Changqing; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    Both ploidy and hybridity affect cell size and growth vigor in plants and animals, but the relative effects of genome dosage and hybridization on biomass, fitness, and gene expression changes have not been systematically examined. Here we performed the first comparative analysis of seed, cell, and flower sizes, starch and chlorophyll content, biomass, and gene expression changes in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid hybrids and their respective parents in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes: Columbia, C24, and Landsberg erecta (Ler). Ploidy affects many morphological and fitness traits, including stomatal size, flower size, and seed weight, whereas hybridization between the ecotypes leads to altered expression of central circadian clock genes and increased starch and chlorophyll content, biomass, and seed weight. However, varying ploidy levels has subtle effects on biomass, circadian clock gene expression, and chlorophyll and starch content. Interestingly, biomass, starch content, and seed weight are significantly different between the reciprocal hybrids at all ploidy levels tested, with the lowest and highest levels found in the reciprocal triploid hybrids, suggesting parent-of-origin effects on biomass, starch content, and seed weight. These findings provide new insights into molecular events of polyploidy and heterosis, as well as complex agronomic traits that are important to biomass and seed production in hybrid and polyploid crops.

  13. The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Masyn, Katherine; Ialongo, Nick

    2011-09-01

    We examine the impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on the growth of aggressive/disruptive behavior in grades 1-3 and 6-12 through the application of a latent transition growth mixture model (LT-GMM). Both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions were designed to reduce the risk for later conduct problems by enhancing the child behavior management practices of teachers and parents, respectively. We first modeled growth trajectories in each of the two time periods with separate GMMs. We then associated latent trajectory classes of aggressive/disruptive behavior across the two time periods using a transition model for the corresponding latent class variables. Subsequently, we tested whether the interventions had direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 1-3 and 6-12. For males, both the classroom-centered and family-centered interventions had significant direct effects on trajectory class membership in grades 6-12, whereas only the classroom-centered intervention had a significant effect on class membership in grades 1-3. Significant direct effects for females were confined to grades 1-3 for the classroom-centered intervention. Further analyses revealed that both the classroom-centered and family-centered intervention males were significantly more likely than control males to transition from the high trajectory class in grades 1-3 to a low class in grades 6-12. Effects for females in classroom-centered interventions went in the hypothesized direction but did not reach significance. © Society for Prevention Research 2011

  14. Arecoline activates latent transforming growth factor β1 via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in buccal fibroblasts: Suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Wu, King-Jean; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Deng, Yi-Ting

    2017-07-15

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by the chewing of areca nut (AN). Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2) and early growth response-1 (Egr-1) are important mediators in the fibrotic response to TGFβ in several fibrotic disorders including OSF. Arecoline, a major AN alkaloid, induced the synthesis of CCN2 and Egr-1 in human buccal mucosal fibroblast (BMFs). The aims of this study were to investigate whether arecoline-induced CCN2 and Egr-1 syntheses are mediated through TGFβ1 signaling and to inspect the detailed mechanisms involved. Western blot and TGFβ1 Emax(®) ImmunoAssay were used to measure the effect of arecoline on the TGFβ signaling pathways. 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and MitoSOX™ Red were used to measure the effect of arecoline on the cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arecoline induced latent TGFβ1 activation, Smad2 phosphorylation, and mitochondrial and total cellular ROS in BMFs. TGFβ-neutralizing antibody completely inhibited the arecoline-induced synthesis of CCN2 and Egr-1. Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, completely suppressed arecoline-induced latent TGFβ1 activation and mitochondrial and total cellular ROS. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) dose-dependently inhibited arecoline-induced TGFβ1 activation and mitochondrial ROS in BMFs. Our results indicated that arecoline-induced mitochondrial ROS plays pivotal roles in the activation of latent TGFβ1 leading to the initiation of TGFβ1 signaling and subsequent increase in the synthesis of CCN2 and Egr-1. EGCG can be a useful agent in the chemoprevention and treatment of OSF. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M; Giguere, David

    2017-02-22

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages. There was no evidence that vocabulary level predicted subsequent grammar growth or that the level of grammatical development predicted subsequent vocabulary growth. We propose that a common influence of properties of input on vocabulary and grammatical development is the source of their correlated but uncoupled growth. An unanticipated across-language finding was a negative relationship between level of English skill and subsequent Spanish growth. We propose that the cultural context of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US is the reason that strong English skills jeopardize Spanish language growth, while Spanish skills do not affect English growth. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/qEHSQ0yRre0.

  16. Hybrid Thin Film Organosilica Sol-Gel Coatings To Support Neuronal Growth and Limit Astrocyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeletti, Larissa Brentano; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch; He, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated. In vitro neural cultures using PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons both reveal that, among these different types of hybrid organosilica, the introduction of aminopropyl groups drastically transforms the silica into robust neural permissive substrate, supporting neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, when this organosilica is cultured with astrocytes, a key type of glial cells responsible for glial scar response toward neural implants, such cell growth promoting effect is not observed. These findings highlight the potential of organo-group-bearing silica sol-gel to function as advanced coating materials to selectively modulate cell response and promote neural integration with implantable sensing devices.

  17. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PANGASIUS DJAMBAL BLEEKER 1846 AND PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE 1878: BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Possible use of pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture might generate potential impacts on wild populations. Therefore, rapid identification tools in the field such as growth rate are urgently needed. This study examines morphological characters and growth performance of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus and their reciprocal hybrids. A detailed morphological study analysed 32 morphometric measurements and 5 meristic counts on hybrids of Pangasius djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis and meristic counts showed that the reciprocal hybrids have intermediate characters except for gill rakers number which were lower than that of parental species. In general, the hybrids have tendency to be like P. hypophthalmus rather than P. djambal. The only typical character P. djambal appearing in hybrids is teeth shape, both vomerine and palatine. It was shown that the true hybrids have seven pelvic fin rays. Eight months of growth comparison in earthen ponds showed that the hybrids have a better performance for specific growth rate than the parental stock.

  18. Influence of growth rate and starvation on fluorescent in situ hybridization of Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oda, Y; Slagman, SJ; Meijer, WG; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC

    In situ hybridization with a fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted probe was examined using Rhodopseudomonas palustris as a model organism, which had been grown at different rates and under different conditions of growth and starvation. The specific growth rate did not affect the percentage of

  19. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on growth of fingerling hybrid striped bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in production ponds is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher DO concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis; HSB) f...

  20. Effect of Alnus glutinosa on hybrid populus growth and soil nitrogen concentration in a mixed plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey O. Dawson; Edward A. Hansen

    1983-01-01

    Height growth of hybrid Populusand soil nitrogen concentration around Alnus glutinosa stems differed significantly both spatially and with the Alnus/Populus mixture in a short-rotation intensively cultured mixed planting. Populus height growth comparable to that obtained from optimal rates of...

  1. Growth and Physiological Response of Jatropha Interspecific Hybrid (Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Handhi Putranto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid of Jatropha curcas x J. integerrima is expected to answer the low oil yield problem of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.. However, as a novel invention, research concerning on Jatropha interspecific hybrid is still limited especially in the aspect of its adaptability to unfavorable environment such as salt stress condition. It is interesting to know how Jatropha interspecific hybrid responses to salt stress condition due to the moderate salt tolerance ability of its mother plant (J. curcas L.. The objectives of this study were to compare the growth and physiological response of interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha under salt stress. Three varieties of both interspecific hybrid and non-hybrid Jatropha seedling were exposed with 3 levels of sodium chloride treatment in Hoagland media solution which are 2.0 (control, 8.0, and 16.0 dS m-1 for 7 weeks. The parameters measured include plant height, number of leaves, shoot dry weight, specific leaf area, chlorophyll content (SPAD Index, leaf water potential, and leaf solute concentration. V2 (interspecific hybrid showed the highest potential as moderate salt tolerant variety among experimental Jatropha varieties due to its increasing trend of leaf number, dry weight, and total leaf area at moderate salinity level   (8 dS m-1. KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed the best growth performance under salt stress among experimental Jatropha varieties, but its potential to be moderate salt tolerant variety was still lower than V2 variety. The solute concentration, osmotic potential, and turgor potential of both interspecific hybrid (V2 and non-hybrid variety (KUBP 35 and KUBP 40 showed an increasing pattern which could be implied as an adaptive response to salt stress. This study has showed that Jatropha interspecific hybrid might have an adaptive physiological response to salt stress and could be considered as potential moderate salt tolerant variety under salt stress.

  2. Variation in the Growth Traits and Wood Properties of Hybrid White Poplar Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huandi Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical properties of poplar clones largely determine their suitability for different applications. The main objective of this study was to investigate clonal variation in four hybrid poplar clones grown at three sites in North China and identify the superior clone. Study materials were collected from four clones of hybrid white poplar: Populus tomentosa “LM50”, used as the control; two clones (Yiyang-1 and Yiyang-2, new hybrids of (P. tomentosa × P. bolleana × P. tomentosa “Truncata”; and Yiyang-3, a new hybrid of (P. tomentosa × P. bolleana × P. tomentosa “LM50”. In total, 192 individuals from four hybrid clones were randomly chosen for sampling. The growth traits of four 7-year-old clones were examined at three sites. We also measured the wood properties of four 6-year-old clones at the Fengfeng nursery. Variation in the growth traits and the ranking of stem volumes differed among sites. Fiber traits and wood chemical components showed significant interclonal variation. With regard to the comprehensive growth rate, cellulose content, holocellulose content, and fiber traits, Yiyang-1 exhibited the best performance among the four hybrid poplar clones, indicating its utility as a raw material for pulp and papermaking.

  3. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  4. Parental involvement, child effort, and the development of immigrant boys' and girls' reading and mathematics skills: A latent difference score growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ui Jeong; Hofferth, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Gender differences in elementary school performance among immigrant children have not yet been well documented. This study examined how differences in parental involvement, child effort, and family characteristics and resources contribute to immigrant boys'-and girls' academic achievement from kindergarten through 5(th)-grade. The sample was drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort. Using a latent score growth model, this study found that parents' involvement at home benefited boys' reading and mathematics skills throughout all early elementary school years, but did not have the same benefit for girls. For both boys and girls, child effort in reading appears to be strongly linked to better reading and mathematics skills at kindergarten and to subsequent improvement between grades. The positive associations of parental involvement and child's effort with test scores were greater during earlier years than during later years for boys, whereas there was no difference in the association over time for girls.

  5. Tungsten/Platinum Hybrid Nanowire Growth via Field Emission Using Nanorobotic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports tungsten-platinum hybrid nanowire growth via field emission, based on nanorobotic manipulation within a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. A multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT was used as the emitter, and a tungsten probe was used as the anode at the counterposition, by way of nanomanipulation. By independently employing trimethylcyclopentadienyl platinum (CpPtMe3 and tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO6 as precursors, the platinum nanowire grew on the tip of the MWCNT emitter. Tungsten nanowires then grew on the tip of the platinum nanowire. The hybrid nanowire length wascontrolled by nanomanipulation. Their purity was evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Thus, it is possible to fabricate various metallic hybrid nanowires by changing the precursor materials. Hybrid nanowires have various applications in nanoelectronics, nanosensor devices, and nanomechanical systems.

  6. Chlorine adlayer-templated growth of a hybrid inorganic-organic layered structure on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeźnicka, I. I.; Horino, H.; Yagyu, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kajimoto, S.; Fukumura, H.

    2016-10-01

    Growth of a hybrid inorganic-organic layered structure on the Au(111) surface using a one-step solution growth is reported. The hybrid structure is consist of 4,4‧-bipyridine [4,4‧-BiPyH2]2 + cations, Cl anions and Au adatoms, provided from substrate by means of the adsorbate-induced surface phase transition of a surface reconstruction. Its surface and bulk structures were characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Raman spectroscopy. STM results reveal growth of the first [4,4‧-BiPyH2]2 + layer on top of the p(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})" separators=", R 30 ° chlorine overlayer formed on the Au(111) surface. These two layers are found to provide a platform for a following three-dimensional growth facilitated by hydrogen bonding, aurophilic and π-π stacking interactions.

  7. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  8. EVALUATION OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PANGASIUS DJAMBAL BLEEKER 1846 AND PANGASIANODON HYPOPHTHALMUS (SAUVAGE 1878): BIOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GROWTH ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rudhy Gustiano; Anang Hari Kristanto

    2007-01-01

    Possible use of pangasiid hybrids in aquaculture might generate potential impacts on wild populations. Therefore, rapid identification tools in the field such as growth rate are urgently needed. This study examines morphological characters and growth performance of P. djambal and P. hypophthalmus and their reciprocal hybrids. A detailed morphological study analysed 32 morphometric measurements and 5 meristic counts on hybrids of Pangasius djambal and P. hypophthalmus. Morphometric analysis an...

  9. Controllable growth and characterizations of hybrid spiral-like atomically thin molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli

    2016-10-01

    Monolayer MoS2 is an emerging two-dimensional semiconductor with wide-ranging potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we reported controlled vapor phase growth of hybrid spiral-like MoS2 crystals investigated by multiple means of X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, kelvin probe force microscopy, Raman and Photoluminescence techniques. Morphological characterizations reveal an intriguing hybrid spiral-like MoS2 feature whose lower planes are AB Bernal stacking and upper structure is spiral. We ascribe the hybrid spiral-like structure to a screw dislocation drive growth mechanism owing to lower supersaturation and layer-by-layer growth mode. In addition, the electrostatic properties of MoS2 microflakes with hybrid spiral structures are obvious inhomogeneous and dependent on morphology manifested by kelvin probe force microscopy. Our work deepens the understanding of growth mechanisms of CVD-grown MoS2, which is also adoptable to other TMDC materials.

  10. Larval and juvenile growth performance of Manila clam hybrids of two full-sib families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhongming; Yan, Xiwu; Zhao, Liqiang; Liang, Jian; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine whether growth performance could be improved by hybridizing full-sib families of Manila clam ( Ruditapes philippinarum), crosses between two full-sib families including self and reciprocal crosses were carried out. The effects of heterosis, combining ability and interaction on the growth of shell length were estimated. The results showed that the growth of hybrid larvae was intermediate between parents on days 6 and 9. Heterosis on shell length was observed, which varied at juvenile stage. The cross of ♂A × ♀B ( Hp varied between 10.41% and 68.27%) displayed larger heterosis than ♂B × ♀A ( Hp varied between 1.89% and 32.33%) did, suggesting that ♂A × ♀B was an ideal hatchery method of improving the growth performance of Manila clam. The variances of general combining ability (GCA), special combining ability (SCA) and interaction (I) were significant in shell length (P larvae and juveniles. The GCA for shell length of ♂A × ♀B was higher than that of ♂B × ♀A at both larval and juvenile stages. This confirmed that the cross between ♂A and ♀B showed great growth in shell length. In summary, the growth of Manila clam seeds could be improved by hybridizing selected parents from large numbers of full-sib families.

  11. Influence of Climate on the Growth of Hybrid Poplar in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of climate on cumulative and interannual growth patterns of 18 full-sib families of hybrid poplars (Populus × smithii Boivin derived from different geographical locations (state counties of natural stands of aspen parents (trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.. The hybrids were subsequently planted in 1982 in southern mid-Michigan at Michigan State University (MSU Sandhill Research Area. Cumulative measures of hybrid poplar productivity (diameter, height, basal area, and stem volume in 2009 (28 years since plantation establishment were related via correlation analysis to geographical distances and climatic variables (temperature and precipitation between parental county locations and between parental locations and the plantation site. Tree-ring analysis methods (dendrochronology were also used to quantify the influence of climate (i.e., mean temperature and total precipitation at monthly and 3-month seasonal scales on interannual basal area growth rates of hybrid poplars. Analyses of cumulative measures of growth indicated a maternal effect: full-sib families had higher productivity if they had a maternal parent originating from a state county that was close to or had higher temperature (annual and summer and summer precipitation than corresponding parameters of the planting site. Principal component analysis indicated that 17 of the 18 full-sib families shared a large amount of common growth variation. Dendrochronological analyses of interannual growth-climate relationships indicated that growth was mainly affected by the degree of late summer to fall moisture stress in both the current and previous growth season, and the degree of winter harshness.

  12. Sampling Weights in Latent Variable Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asparouhov, Tihomir

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews several basic statistical tools needed for modeling data with sampling weights that are implemented in Mplus Version 3. These tools are illustrated in simulation studies for several latent variable models including factor analysis with continuous and categorical indicators, latent class analysis, and growth models. The…

  13. Change in emotion regulation strategy use and its impact on adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury: a three-year longitudinal analysis using latent growth modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, David; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-08-01

    This longitudinal study examines the extent to which changes in the use of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination impact on frequency, duration, and medical severity of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents. Data from 3,143 predominantly female high school students recruited from 40 Australian secondary schools were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Significant differences in the psychological factors between the 555 participants with a history of NSSI and non-self-injurers were reported at baseline. Self-injurers experienced significantly greater accumulation of life stressors over time compared with non-self-injurers. After controlling for adverse life events, psychological distress and other emotion regulation strategies, use of cognitive reappraisal at baseline was associated with less severe NSSI presentations, and slower growth in medical severity of NSSI over time. Findings indicate that while both cohorts have similar emotion regulation trajectories, adolescents who self-injure start off at a disadvantage and have a propensity to engage in less helpful processes that tend to heighten negative emotional states. Results recommend increasing focus on improving adolescents' frequency and skills in use of cognitive reappraisal in efforts to reduce NSSI among this population.

  14. Hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth considering capillary points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕杰; 许世雄; 姚伟; 周瑜; 龙泉

    2013-01-01

    A hybrid discrete-continuum model of tumor growth in the avascular phase considering capillary points is established. The influence of the position of capillary points on tumor growth is also studied by simulation. The results of the dynamic tumor growth and the distribution of oxygen, matrix-degrading enzymes, and extracellular matrix-concentration in the microenvironment with respect to time are shown by graphs. The relationships between different oxygenated environments and the numbers of surviving, dead, proliferative, and quiescent tumor cells are also investigated.

  15. Growth and Transfer of Seamless 3D Graphene-Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Dong; Li, Yilun; Wang, Gunuk; Fan, Xiujun; Jiang, Jinlong; Li, Lei; Ji, Yongsung; Ruan, Gedeng; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    Seamlessly connected graphene and carbon nanotube hybrids (GCNTs) have great potential as carbon platform structures in electronics due to their high conductivity and high surface area. Here, we introduce a facile method for making patterned GCNTs and their intact transfer onto other substrates. The mechanism for selective growth of vertically aligned CNTs (VA-CNTs) on the patterned graphene is discussed. The complete transfer of the GCNT pattern onto other substrates is possible because of the mechanical strength of the GCNT hybrids. Electrical conductivity measurements of the transferred GCNT structures show Ohmic contact through the VA-CNTs to graphene--evidence of its integrity after the transfer process.

  16. Comparative growth and viability of hybrids between two populations of Chinese shrimp (Fennropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; YANG Cuihua

    2006-01-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis is confined to the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in China and the West Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Intra- and intercross populations were produced between Rushany (YP) and Korean (KN) populations. Seven traits were recorded. The heterosis of hybrids was computed and comparison between treatments was performed by ANOVA. At the fourth month after post-larvae, six indexes of growth trait and viability showed a range of heterosis, ranging from 0.514% to 14.950%. At the fifth month after post-larvae, six indexes of growth trait and viability ranged from -9.000% to 19.090%. The negative heterosis was observed in CL, HST and viability. The heterosis of KN♀×YP♂ tended generally to increase as the age of the Chinese shrimp increased while the heterosis of YP♀×KN♂ tended to decrease. The results indicated that the viability of reciprocal hybrids were not significantly different (P>0.05) from their parents during the experiment. The result of ANOVA indicated that the F1 hybrids were significantly different (P<0.05) in WST and TW at the fourth month. The multiple comparisons of LSD test indicated that the hybrids of YP♀×KN♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from their parents in TW. The hybrids of YP♀×KN♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from the other three combinations in WST. At the fifth months, the F1 hybrids had significant difference (P<0.05) in body weight while other traits showed no significant differences (P>0.05) from their parents. The multiple comparisons of LSD test indicated that the hybrids of KN♀×YP♂ were significantly different (P<0.05) from the KN parents in TW. The results indicate that in experimental conditions, the F1 hybrids created from two populations of Chinese shrimp showed a certain level of heterosis for growth performance and viability. The crossing scheme may improve growth performance and viability in Chinese shrimp, but the improvement may be limited because effective

  17. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  18. Hybridization between Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout alters the expression of muscle growth-related genes and their relationships with growth patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  19. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl O Ostberg

    Full Text Available Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout. Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  20. Hybridization between Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout and Rainbow Trout Alters the Expression of Muscle Growth-Related Genes and Their Relationships with Growth Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O; Chase, Dorothy M; Hauser, Lorenz

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization creates novel gene combinations that may generate important evolutionary novelty, but may also reduce existing adaptation by interrupting inherent biological processes, such as genotype-environment interactions. Hybridization often causes substantial change in patterns of gene expression, which, in turn, may cause phenotypic change. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and cutthroat trout (O. clarkii) produce viable hybrids in the wild, and introgressive hybridization with introduced rainbow trout is a major conservation concern for native cutthroat trout. The two species differ in body shape, which is likely an evolutionary adaptation to their native environments, and their hybrids tend to show intermediate morphology. The characterization of gene expression patterns may provide insights on the genetic basis of hybrid and parental morphologies, as well as on the ecological performance of hybrids in the wild. Here, we evaluated the expression of eight growth-related genes (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MRF-4, IGF-1, IGF-2, and CAST-L) and the relationship of these genes with growth traits (length, weight, and condition factor) in six line crosses: both parental species, both reciprocal F1 hybrids, and both first-generation backcrosses (F1 x rainbow trout and F1 x cutthroat trout). Four of these genes were differentially expressed among rainbow, cutthroat, and their hybrids. Transcript abundance was significantly correlated with growth traits across the parent species, but not across hybrids. Our findings suggest that rainbow and cutthroat trout exhibit differences in muscle growth regulation, that transcriptional networks may be modified by hybridization, and that hybridization disrupts intrinsic relationships between gene expression and growth patterns that may be functionally important for phenotypic adaptations.

  1. A Latent Growth Examination of Fear Development in Infancy: Contributions of Maternal Depression and the Risk for Toddler Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Bridgett, David J.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Robertson, Christopher; Iddins, Erin; Ramsay, Kristin; Schlect, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Growth modeling was used to examine the developmental trajectory of infant temperamental fear with maternal fear and depressive symptoms as predictors of infant fearfulness and change in infant fear predicting toddler anxiety symptoms. In Study 1, a sample of 158 mothers reported their own depressive symptoms and fear when their children were 4…

  2. Relation between CBM-R and CBM-mR Slopes: An Application of Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2012-01-01

    Oral reading tasks and Maze reading tasks are often used interchangeably to assess the level and rate of reading skill development. This study examined the concurrent validity of growth estimates derived from "Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading" (CBM-R) and "Maze Reading" (CBM-mR). Participants were 1,528 students…

  3. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Jizhong; Bonnin, Xavier; Wang, L.; Wang, Dezhen

    2015-08-01

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering.

  4. Simulation of hydrogen bubble growth in tungsten by a hybrid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Chaofeng, E-mail: sang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Jizhong [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bonnin, Xavier [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Villetaneuse 93430 (France); Wang, L. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-08-15

    A two dimensional hybrid code (HIIPC-MC) joining rate-theory and Monte Carlo (MC) methods is developed in this work. We evaluate the cascade-coalescence mechanism contribution to the bubble growth by MC. First, effects of the starting radius and solute deuterium concentration on the bubble growth are studied; then the impacts of the wall temperature and implantation ion flux on the bubble growth are assessed. The simulation indicates that the migration-coalescence of the bubbles and the high pressure inside the bubbles are the main driving forces for the bubble growth, and that neglect of the migration and coalescence would lead to an underestimation of the bubble growth or blistering.

  5. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Jae [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.

  6. Modeling plasma-assisted growth of graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Aarti

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical model describing the growth of graphene-CNT hybrid in a plasma medium is presented. Using the model, the growth of carbon nanotube (CNT) on a catalyst particle and thereafter the growth of the graphene on the CNT is studied under the purview of plasma sheath and number density kinetics of different plasma species. It is found that the plasma parameter such as ion density; gas ratios and process parameter such as source power affect the CNT and graphene dimensions. The variation in growth rates of graphene and CNT under different plasma power, gas ratios, and ion densities is analyzed. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that higher hydrocarbon ion densities and gas ratios of hydrocarbon to hydrogen favor the growth of taller CNTs and graphene, respectively. In addition, the CNT tip radius reduces with hydrogen ion density and higher plasma power favors graphene with lesser thickness. The present study can help in better understanding of the graphene-CNT hybrid growth in a plasma medium.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of intervention effects on temptations and stages of change for dietary fat using parallel process latent growth modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Yang, Si; Harlow, Lisa L; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O

    2016-11-25

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a 20-35 percent daily intake of fat. Resisting the temptation to eat high-fat foods, in conjunction with stage of readiness to avoid these foods, has been shown to influence healthy behavior change. Data (N = 6516) from three randomized controlled trials were pooled to examine the relationships among direct intervention effects on temptations and stage of change for limiting high-fat foods. Findings demonstrate separate simultaneous growth processes in which baseline level of temptations, but not the rate of change in temptations, was significantly related to the change in readiness to avoid high-fat foods.

  8. Effects of prey density on the growth and survival of hybrid snakehead larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenkui LIU; Qixue FAN; Bangke ZHU; Haiming DU; Xigang FENG

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prey density (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 and snakehead (Channa argus × C. maculate) larvae were investigated. The larvae were divided into three groups with different body lengths of 0.68 cm, 1.50 cm and 3.20 cm, respectively. The growth of the hybrid snake-head larvae in all three groups increased with prey growth rate (SGR) was the highest when the prey density early development stage) decreased, while no significant change was observed in those of Group Ⅱ and Group Ⅲ. The survival rates of hybrid snakehead larvae in all three groups were high (91.11%-100%) and not significantly affected by the prey densities except in Group Ⅰ with the significantly lower than the others. Body size was not sensitive to prey density. The optimum prey density was confirmed at 1 prey·mL-1 in all the treatments.

  9. Well-being, school climate, and the social identity process: a latent growth model study of bullying perpetration and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Isobel; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

    2014-09-01

    The present study concerns longitudinal research on bullying perpetration and peer victimization. A focus is on school factors of school climate (academic support, group support) and school identification (connectedness or belonging), which are conceptualized as related but distinct constructs. Analysis of change on these factors as well as individual well-being across time contributes to understanding bullying behavior. Latent growth modeling was employed to examine the predictors of anxiety, depression, 2 school climate factors and school identification in understanding change in physical and verbal bullying behavior. The sample included 492 Australian school students (means age 15 years, 53.5% male) in Grades 7 to 10 who completed measures over 3 years. Academic support and group support were the strongest predictors of change in bullying and victimization. Positive change in school identification also predicted a decrease in bullying behavior over time. An increase in depression or anxiety across time predicted an increase in rates of both bullying and victimization over time. Future research should continue to examine the complex relationship between individual-psychological and social-psychological variables in impacting on incidence of school-based bullying. On a practical note, school-based intervention programs may benefit from an approach that aims to target the school climate, social identity with the school, and promote individual psychological well-being.

  10. Depression symptoms are persistent in Type 2 diabetes: risk factors and outcomes of 5-year depression trajectories using latent class growth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, S R; Bruce, D G; Starkstein, S E; Davis, W A; Davis, T M E; Skinner, T C; Bucks, R S

    2017-08-01

    To describe the long-term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. A community-dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II was followed for 5 years. The nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire was administered annually to assess depression symptoms, and biomedical and psychosocial measures were assessed at baseline and biennially. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify classes of depression severity trajectories and associated outcomes, and logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of class membership. Three trajectories of depression symptoms were identified: continuously low depression symptoms (85.2%); gradually worsening symptoms that then began to improve (persistent depression - low-start; 7.3%); and gradually improving symptoms which later worsened (persistent depression - high-start; 7.5%). Younger age, being a woman, and a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, were associated with greater risk of persistent depression symptoms. Persistent depression was associated with consistently higher BMI over time, but not with changes in HbA1c or self-monitoring of blood glucose. A subset of individuals with Type 2 diabetes is at risk of depression symptoms that remain elevated over time. Younger, overweight individuals with a history of depression may benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow-up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  11. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of

  12. Reduced growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. Niloticus) at intermediate stocking density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yi-Bo; Yang, Yun-Xia; Cai, Fa-Sheng

    2002-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  13. REDUCED GROWTH IN HYBRID TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS×O. NILOTICUS) AT INTERMEDIATE STOCKING DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 崔奕波; 杨云霞; 蔡发盛

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia were reared at densities of 1, 5 or 10 fish per tank for four weeks. Mortality was 0 at 1 and 10 fish per tank, but was 25% at 5 fish per tank. Specific growth rate was highest at 1 fish per tank, and lowest at 5 fish per tank. The lower growth rate at the intermediate stocking density was associated with reduced feed efficiency, but there was no reduction in feed intake or digestibility. The results suggested increased metabolic cost caused by aggressive behaviour at intermediate stocking density, which can be suppressed by a further increase in density.

  14. Regulation of endocrine and paracrine sources of insulin-like growth factors and growth hormone receptor during compensatory growth in hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picha, Matthew E; Turano, Marc J; Tipsmark, Christian K;

    2008-01-01

    relieved, renders a subsequent phase of CG. The catabolic state was characterized by depressed levels of hepatic Type I and II GH receptor (Ghr1, Ghr2) and insulin-like growth factor-I (Igf-I) mRNA, along with considerable decreases in plasma IGF-I. The state of catabolism also resulted in significant......Compensatory growth (CG) is a period of growth acceleration that exceeds normal rates after animals are alleviated of certain growth-stunting conditions. In hybrid striped bass (HSB, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis), 3 weeks of complete feed restriction results in a catabolic state that, when...... declines in hepatic Igf-II mRNA and in circulating 40kDa IGF binding protein (IGFBP). Skeletal muscle expression of Ghr2 mRNA was significantly increased. Upon realimentation, specific growth rates (SGR) were significantly higher than sized-matched controls, indicating a period of CG. Hepatic Ghr1, Ghr2...

  15. Comparing growth and fine root distribution in monocultures and mixed plantations of hybrid poplar and spruce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lahcen Benomar; Annie DesRochers; Guy R.Larocque

    2013-01-01

    Disease prevention,biodiversity,productivity improvement and ecological considerations are all factors that contribute to increasing interest in mixed plantations.The objective of this study was to evaluate early growth and productivity of two hybrid poplar clones,P.balsamifera x trichocarpa (PBT) and P.maximowiczii x balsamifera (PMB),one improved family of Norway spruce (Picea glauca (PA)) and one improved family of white spruce (Picea abies (PG)) growing under different spacings in monocultures and mixed plots.The plantations were established in 2003 in Abitibi-Témiscamingue,Quebec,Canada,in a split plot design with spacing as the whole plot factor (1 × 1 m,3 × 3 m and 5 × 5 m) and mixture treatments as subplot factor (pure:PBT,PMB,PA and PG,and 1:1 mixture PBT:PA,PBT:PG,PMB:PA and PMB:PG).Results showed a beneficial effect of the hybrid poplar-spruce mixture on diameter growth for hybrid poplar clones,but not for the 5 × 5 m spacing because of the relatively young age of the plantations.Diameter growth of the spruces decreased in mixed plantings in the 1 × 1 m,while their height growth increased,resulting in similar aboveground biomass per tree across treatments.Because of the large size differences between spruces and poplars,aboveground biomass in the mixed plantings was generally less than that in pure poplar plots.Leaf nitrogen concentration for the two spruce families and hybrid poplar clone PMB was greater in mixed plots than in monocultures,while leaf nitrogen concentration of clone PBT was similar among mixture treatments.Because of its faster growth rate and greater soil resources demands,clone PMB was the only one showing an increase in leaf N with increased spacing between trees.Fine roots density was greater for both hybrid poplars than spruces.The vertical distribution of fine roots was insensitive to mixture treatment.

  16. Dynamic nanocrystal response and high temperature growth of carbon nanotube-ferroelectric hybrid nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J F; Katiyar, R S

    2014-01-21

    A long standing problem related to the capping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by inorganic materials at high temperature has been solved. In situ dynamic response of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals attached to the wings of the outer surface of PZT/CNT hybrid-nanostructure has been demonstrated under a constant-energy high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) e-beam. PZT nanocrystals revealed that the crystal orientations, positions, faces, and hopping states change with time. HRTEM study has been performed to investigate the microstructure of hybrid nanostructures and nanosize polycrystal trapped across the wings. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to investigate the local structures, defects, crystal qualities and temperature dependent growth and degradation of hybrid nanostructures. Raman spectra indicate that MWCNT and PZT/MWCNT/n-Si possess good quality of CNT before and after PZT deposition until 650 °C. The monoclinic Cc/Cm phase of PZT which is optimum in piezoelectric properties was prominent in the hybrid structure and should be useful for device applications. An unusual hexagonal faceting oscillation of the nano-crystal perimeter on a 10-30 s period is also observed.

  17. Effects of apical meristem loss on sylleptic branching and growth of hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleznik, Joseph D. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Plant Sciences Department

    2007-07-15

    The effects of apical meristem loss on the growth and development of hybrid poplar trees was investigated. This was done by clipping back either the apical meristem alone (dividing cells), or the apical meristem plus a small amount of additional stem tissue (expanding cells, <1 cm), at various times during the first growing season. Two clones (NM6-nonsylleptic habit, and DN34-slightly sylleptic habit) were tested at close spacing (0.6 m) in the nursery. Clipping generally increased the number of sylleptic branches formed. Clipping 69 days after planting resulted in the largest number of sylleptic branches while clipping 4 weeks later gave no increase in syllepsis. Clipping temporarily reduced height growth of both clones but total height at the end of the first growing season was not affected by any treatment. There were some slight differences in growth during the second growing season; despite these differences, total stem biomass and total tree biomass after 2 years were not affected by temporary loss of the apical meristem in the first growing season. Results suggest that death or removal of hybrid poplar apical meristems by tip borers or ungulates has no long-term effects on aboveground growth as measured by height or biomass. (author)

  18. Two-Year Gender Differences in Satisfaction With Appearance After Burn Injury and Prediction of Five-Year Depression: A Latent Growth Curve Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghriwati, Nour; Sutter, Megan; Pierce, Bradford S; Perrin, Paul B; Wiechman, Shelley A; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2017-05-05

    To use latent growth curve and longitudinal structural equation modeling to examine the 2-year trajectory of satisfaction with appearance in adults with burn injury, and that trajectory's effect on depression 5 years after burn injury. Data were collected at discharge after burn injury hospitalization and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years postdischarge. The Burn Model Systems (BMS) program consisted of a data center and 5 participating burn centers. The sample consisted of adults (N=720) who were hospitalized for a burn injury, enrolled in the BMS database, and completed measures at least once throughout the 5-year study duration. Not applicable. Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression). Women with burn injury reported higher levels of dissatisfaction with their appearance in comparison to their male counterparts over the 2 years after discharge. Individuals with a larger total body surface area (TBSA) affected by a burn also reported greater body dissatisfaction across the postdischarge 2-year period. Results did not support significant gender or TBSA differences in the rate of change of body dissatisfaction trajectories across these 2 years. Individuals with greater body dissatisfaction at 6 months postdischarge tended to have higher depressive symptoms at 5 years. Six month postdischarge, body dissatisfaction scores also mediated the effects of gender and TBSA on depressive symptoms 5 years later. It is recommended that individuals with heightened body image dissatisfaction after a burn, particularly women and those with larger TBSA, participate in evidence-based psychosocial interventions to improve long-term adjustment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  20. Effect of growth regulators on growth of hybrids of east hellebore (Helleborus orientalis Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of growth regulators in foliar or soil applications on the growth of Helleborus orientalis ‘Red Hybrids’. Used benzyladenine, gibberellic acid and flurprimidol varying concentrations depending on the method of application. Plant growth was assessed on the basis of plant height, number of resume buds and the number of leaves. Type of growth regulator and method of application had a significant impact on the features. It has been found that the use of BA or BA+GA3, regardless of the application method, will increase the number of resume buds and leaves and decrease the plant height. Flurprimidol in­hibits plant growth, and does not increase the number of resume buds and leaves. In the cultivation of Helleborus orientalis it is recommended to water the plants twice with a mixture of solutions of BA 500 mg·dm-3 + GA3 150 mg·dm-3 at a dose of 50 cm3 per 1 dm3 of medium.

  1. Stability Analysis of a Hybrid Cellular Automaton Model of Cell Colony Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, P

    2007-01-01

    Cell colonies of bacteria, tumour cells and fungi, under nutrient limited growth conditions, exhibit complex branched growth patterns. In order to investigate this phenomenon we present a simple hybrid cellular automaton model of cell colony growth. In the model the growth of the colony is limited by a nutrient that is consumed by the cells and which inhibits cell division if it falls below a certain threshold. Using this model we have investigated how the nutrient consumption rate of the cells affects the growth dynamics of the colony. We found that for low consumption rates the colony takes on a Eden-like morphology, while for higher consumption rates the morphology of the colony is branched with a fractal geometry. These findings are in agreement with previous results, but the simplicity of the model presented here allows for a linear stability analysis of the system. By observing that the local growth of the colony is proportional to the flux of the nutrient we derive an approximate dispersion relation fo...

  2. ALTERATIONS TO PLBS AND PLANTLETS OF HYBRID CYMBIDIUM (ORCHIDACEAE IN RESPONSE TO PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previous study examined, in detail, the morphological response of hybrid Cymbidium Twilight Moon ‘Day Light’ protocorm-like bodies (PLBs to 26 plant growth regulators (PGRs. In this study, flow cytometric analyses of the PLBs derived from several of these PGR treatments revealed changes in the ploidy of PLBs while the ploidy of plant leaves remained constant. The SPAD value of leaves of plants derived from PGR treatments changed significantly. The choice of PGR must be accompanied by careful scrutiny of the possible resulting changes to morphology and physiological parameters.

  3. Effects of growth hormone transgenesis on metabolic rate, exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance in tilapia hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Martinez, R; Morales, A

    2003-01-01

    Swimming respirometry was employed to compare inactive metabolic rate (Rr), maximum metabolic rate (Rmax), resultant aerobic scope and maximum sustainable (critical) swimming speed (Ucrit), in growth hormone transgenic (GHT) and wild-type (W) tilapia Oreochromis sp. hybrids. Although the Rr of GHT...... tilapia also exhibited the same capacity to regulate oxygen uptake during progressive hypoxia, despite the fact that the GHT fish were defending a higher demand for O2. The results indicate that ectopic expression of GH raises metabolic rate in tilapia, but the fish compensate for this metabolic load...

  4. Early growth and development of reciprocal hybrids of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Y T; Aritaki, M; Kurita, Y; Tanaka, M

    2014-05-01

    Larval growth and development of hybrid flounder were observed and compared with those of their parent species. The reciprocal hybrids of female starry flounder Platichthys stellatus and male stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus (hybrid Sb) and of female K. bicoloratus and male P. stellatus (hybrid Bs) both survived and grew to juveniles. Development was divided into nine stages (A-I). Many of the hybrids' traits were identical and intermediate to those of their parents. The position of the eye, however, was primarily sinistral in both hybrids (80% in Sb and 76% in Bs), a trait possessed by P. stellatus (80%) in the western Pacific Ocean. The daily growth rates of the larvae were similar. In the parent species, development was more rapid in P. stellatus than in K. bicoloratus whereas rate of development was intermediate in both Sb and Bs hybrids. The size at settlement [standard length (LS ) at stage H (mean ± s.d.)] was 9·82 ± 1·47 mm for the hybrid Sb and 9·99 ± 0·90 mm for the hybrid Bs, while the minimum age at metamorphosis (initial age at stage H) was 29 days after hatching (DAH) in both hybrids. In comparison, LS at settlement in parent species was 6·43 ± 0·25 mm for P. stellatus and 12·87 ± 1·29 mm for K. bicoloratus. Minimum age at metamorphosis for the parents was 23 DAH at stage G in P. stellatus and 34 DAH at stage H in K. bicoloratus. Thus, the timing of settlement of hybrids was different from that of their parent species. These traits may occur with high frequency in a natural habitat. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Growth Performance, Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Backcross and Reciprocal Hybrid Catfish Reared in Net Cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiboon Panase

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the growth performance, Length-Weight Relationship (LWR and condition factor (k-value of reciprocal backcross hybrid catfish (RCBC, Pangasianodon gigas (femalexF1 hybrid (male catfish and backcross hybrid catfish (BC, P. gigas (malexF1 hybrid (female catfish. Moreover, this study also compared the above mentioned species of catfish were compared with P. gigas and F1 hybrid P. gigas (malexP. hypophthalmus (female catfish. The fish were reared in net cages for 5 months (October, 2013-March, 2014. The results showed that, Weight Gain (WG and average daily weight gain (ADG were the highest among the P. gigas (34.45 and 0.20, respectively. The Length Gain (LG, average daily length gain (ADL and Specific Growth Rate (SGR were highest among the RCBC (10.66, 0.062 and 2.34, respectively. While the survival rate (55% was highest among the BC. The Feed Conversion Rate (FCR showed high numbers in all fish except the hybrids. On the other hand, the hybrid species showed lower results in all growth indices except for the survival rate but which had as high a tendency as the RCBC. The LWR revealed “b” values for the P. gigas, RCBC, BC and F1 hybrid that were 2.94, 3.12, 2.67 and 2.03 indicating that P. gigas and RCBC displayed isometric growth while others showed allometric growth. The k-values for each month showed significant differences (p0.05. The results from this study revealed that the RCBC is suitable for the aquaculture industry and moreover, the information collected in this study on LWR and the condition factor of each fish will be useful for fishery management.

  6. In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Zhu, Peizhi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Drought Induced Changes in Growth, Osmolyte Accumulation and Antioxidant Metabolism of Three Maize Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel A.; Ashraf, Umair; Tanveer, Mohsin; Khan, Imran; Hussain, Saddam; Shahzad, Babar; Zohaib, Ali; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Muhammad F.; Ali, Iftikhar; Wang, Long C.

    2017-01-01

    Consequences of drought stress in crop production systems are perhaps more deleterious than other abiotic stresses under changing climatic scenarios. Regulations of physio-biochemical responses of plants under drought stress can be used as markers for drought stress tolerance in selection and breeding. The present study was conducted to appraise the performance of three different maize hybrids (Dong Dan 80, Wan Dan 13, and Run Nong 35) under well-watered, low, moderate and SD conditions maintained at 100, 80, 60, and 40% of field capacity, respectively. Compared with well-watered conditions, drought stress caused oxidative stress by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which led to reduced growth and yield formation in all maize hybrids; nevertheless, negative effects of drought stress were more prominent in Run Nong 35. Drought-induced osmolyte accumulation and strong enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems prevented the severe damage in Dong Dan 80. Overall performance of all maize hybrids under drought stress was recorded as: Dong Dan 80 > Wan Dan 13 > Run Nong 35 with 6.39, 7.35, and 16.55% yield reductions. Consequently, these biochemical traits and differential physiological responses might be helpful to develop drought tolerance genotypes that can withstand water-deficit conditions with minimum yield losses. PMID:28220130

  8. Mapping growth windows in quaternary perovskite oxide systems by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahlek, Matthew; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hai-Tian; Lapano, Jason; Dedon, Liv R.; Martin, Lane W.; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Requisite to growing stoichiometric perovskite thin films of the solid-solution A'1-xAxBO3 by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy is understanding how the growth conditions interpolate between the end members A'BO3 and ABO3, which can be grown in a self-regulated fashion, but under different conditions. Using the example of La1-xSrxVO3, the two-dimensional growth parameter space that is spanned by the flux of the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide and composition, x, was mapped out. The evolution of the adsorption-controlled growth window was obtained using a combination of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, reflection high-energy electron-diffraction (RHEED), and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is found that the stoichiometric growth conditions can be mapped out quickly with a single calibration sample using RHEED. Once stoichiometric conditions have been identified, the out-of-plane lattice parameter can be utilized to precisely determine the composition x. This strategy enables the identification of growth conditions that allow the deposition of stoichiometric perovskite oxide films with random A-site cation mixing, which is relevant to a large number of perovskite materials with interesting properties, e.g., high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance, that emerge in solid solution A'1-xAxBO3.

  9. Influences of altitude on growth curves in Tibetan chicken and its hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken is a precious resource in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,China.In order to study its growth rhythm and heterosis of its hybrid,three groups comprising Tibetan chicken (T),Dwarf Recessive White (D) and Tibetan×Dwarf Recessive White (TD) were reared under the same management conditions at low and high altitudes.Body weight and shank length were measured,and growth curves were fitted using Richards model.The results showed that the model fitted well with the chickens' growth courses in weight and shank with R2 at more than 0.99.The high-altitude might retard the growth of chickens,with decreases in inflection point values,final values and maximal growth rates,and prolongation of inflection point time.The final weight,inflection point weight,and maximal growth rates of Tibetan chicken were 1008.3 g,477.9 g and 11.69 g respectively at lowaltitude,and 525.3 g,229.5 g,and 5.12 g at high-altitude.This showed a decline of 47.9%,52.0%,and 56.8% at the high-altitude;the degree of influence of altitude was less than that of Dwarf Recessive White.The TD had high heterosis in weight gain,and at high-altitude the heterosis of final weight,inflection point weight,and maximal growth rates were 59.5%,56.8% and 52.3% respectively.Therefore,the Tibetan×Dwarf Recessive White cross was good for improving the Tibetan chicken.

  10. A hybrid cellular automaton model of solid tumor growth and bioreductive drug transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Nabila; Hossain, M A; Phillips, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Bioreductive drugs are a class of hypoxia selective drugs that are designed to eradicate the hypoxic fraction of solid tumors. Their activity depends upon a number of biological and pharmacological factors and we used a mathematical modeling approach to explore the dynamics of tumor growth, infusion, and penetration of the bioreductive drug Tirapazamine (TPZ). An in-silico model is implemented to calculate the tumor mass considering oxygen and glucose as key microenvironmental parameters. The next stage of the model integrated extra cellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell adhesion, and cell movement parameters as growth constraints. The tumor microenvironments strongly influenced tumor morphology and growth rates. Once the growth model was established, a hybrid model was developed to study drug dynamics inside the hypoxic regions of tumors. The model used 10, 50 and 100 \\mu {\\rm M} as TPZ initial concentrations and determined TPZ pharmacokinetic (PK) (transport) and pharmacodynamics (cytotoxicity) properties inside hypoxic regions of solid tumor. The model results showed that diminished drug transport is a reason for TPZ failure and recommend the optimization of the drug transport properties in the emerging TPZ generations. The modeling approach used in this study is novel and can be a step to explore the behavioral dynamics of TPZ.

  11. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Abhinav, E-mail: praka019@umn.edu; Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat, E-mail: bjalan@umn.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  12. DESIGNING A FORECAST MODEL FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH OF JAPAN USING COMPETITIVE (HYBRID ANN VS MULTIPLE REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet DEMIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural network models have been already used on many different fields successfully. However, many researches show that ANN models provide better optimum results than other competitive models in most of the researches. But does it provide optimum solutions in case ANN is proposed as hybrid model? The answer of this question is given in this research by using these models on modelling a forecast for GDP growth of Japan. Multiple regression models utilized as competitive models versus hybrid ANN (ANN + multiple regression models. Results have shown that hybrid model gives better responds than multiple regression models. However, variables, which were significantly affecting GDP growth, were determined and some of the variables, which were assumed to be affecting GDP growth of Japan, were eliminated statistically.

  13. Unraveling the growth determinism of Fagus sylvatica: a hybrid data-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas; Delpierre, Nicolas; François, Christophe; Soudani, Kamel; Restoux, Gwendal; Dufrêne, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The physiological processes underlying the limitation of forest growth are still under debate. Growth has long been considered as a carbone (C) limited process (Sala et al., 2012). As a matter of facts, a recent global meta-analysis has shown good agreements between assimilated C and forest productivity (Litton et al., 2007). Consequently, a majority of the process-based productivity models considers growth as a fraction of the net primary production (NPP) (Lacointe et al., 2000; Sitch et al., 2003. However, investigations at the stand scale report conflicting results (Rocha et al., 2006, Mund et al., 2010) and are not systematically consistent with a strict C limitation of growth, thus challenging the C-centric paradigm. The mechanisms that potentially degrade the link between NPP and growth include: i) the direct effect of environmental factors on growth (Zweifel et al., 2006, Körner et al., 2003), ii) the temporal variability of the growth allocation coefficient, due either to ontogeny (Genet et al., 2009), or to the initial physiological state of the tree i.e. to the reaction to past conditions. Indeed, many dendrochronological and ecological studies have shown a correlation between growth and climatic factors of the previous years (e.g. Lebourgeois et al., 2005; Richardson et al., 2012). In this work, we used a hybrid data model approach in order to assess the determinant of Fagus sylvatica stem growth along a spatial gradient across France. Despite they could brought essential insight on tree functioning, intra-specific studies across contrasted sites are still lacking in the current debate. Standardized annual growth data series at the stand scale were calculated using circumference inventories and dendrochronological series on 17 plots of the RENECOFOR network. We used the process-based model CASTANEA, thoroughly validated in long term flux simulation across Europe (e.g. Delpierre et al. 2009), to simulate the annual NPP of the corresponding periods. We

  14. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  15. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  16. Studies on the Growth Habits and Characteristics of Two Polyploid Indica-Japonica Hybrid Rice with Powerful Heterosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao-jian; DU Chao-qun; DAI Bing-cheng; CHEN Dong-ling; CHEN Jian-guo; CAI De-tian

    2007-01-01

    Based on a series of polyploid indica-japonica hybrid plant lines obtained from a new breeding strategy of using double predominance of wide cross and polyploidization to breed super rice, two polyploid indica-japonica hybrids, PSR073 and PSR120 were studied in their growth periods to show the powerful heterosis in a larger scale and to study the characteristics of polyploid indica-japonica hybrids more elaborately. The leaf age, tiller growth, flowering habits, and agronomic traits of them were observed to analyze their growth habits and characteristics. The results showed that the.agronomic traits of PSR073 and PSR 120, such as the plant height, panicle length, grain length, grain width, and 1000-grain weight, all acquired obvious predominance of polyploidy, and that the seed setting rate was more than 83%. No significant difference was observed between the two tetraploids and common diploids in the leaf age, tiller growth, and flowering habits. It was concluded that the characteristics of the two powerful heterosis polyploid hybrids were different from those of the polyploid rice reported earlier. Wide cross and polyploidization had no negative effects on their growth habits and characteristics; on the contrary these had powerful heterosis. This had provided theoretic and practical evidences for their application to agricultural production.

  17. Growth of SrVO{sub 3} thin films by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Craig; Brahlek, Matthew; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Moyer, Jarrett A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Alipour, Hamideh M.; Grimley, Everett D.; LeBeau, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The authors report the growth of stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} thin films on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (001) substrates using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy. This growth approach employs a conventional effusion cell to supply elemental A-site Sr and the metalorganic precursor vanadium oxytriisopropoxide (VTIP) to supply vanadium. Oxygen is supplied in its molecular form through a gas inlet. An optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratio has been identified using reflection high-energy electron-diffraction, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating stoichiometric SrVO{sub 3} films with atomically flat surface morphology. Away from the optimal VTIP:Sr flux, characteristic changes in the crystalline structure and surface morphology of the films were found, enabling identification of the type of nonstoichiometry. For optimal VTIP:Sr flux ratios, high quality SrVO{sub 3} thin films were obtained with smallest deviation of the lattice parameter from the ideal value and with atomically smooth surfaces, indicative of the good cation stoichiometry achieved by this growth technique.

  18. Hybrid liposomes inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis of murine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Hideki; Komizu, Yuji; Ichihara, Hideaki; Goto, Koichi; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2013-06-01

    Antitumor effects of hybrid liposomes (HL) composed of l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene(23) dodecyl ether (C₁₂(EO)₂₃) on the metastatic growth of murine osteosarcoma (LM8) cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Remarkable inhibitory effects of HL-23 on the growth of LM8 cells were obtained through the induction of apoptotic cell death in vitro. It was also indicated that HL-23 should dramatically suppress the invasion of LM8 cells and the formation of filopodia on the cell surface in vitro. Furthermore, significantly high therapeutic effects were observed in the homograft mouse models of LM8 cells with lung metastasis after the treatment with HL-23 in vivo. That is, the histological analysis demonstrated that the primary tumor growth of LM8 cells implanted subcutaneously into the mice was inhibited along with the induction of apoptosis. In addition, it was found that HL-23 significantly decreased the lung metastasis of LM8 cells in the mouse models through the inhibition of primary tumor invasion. These results suggest that HL-23 could be a novel agent for the chemotherapy of osteosarcoma.

  19. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size.

  20. Growth and yield of corn hybrids in response to association with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniele Marini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in optimizing the positive effects of the association between Azospirillum bacteria and corn crop in order to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. This study aimed to evaluate the inoculation efficiency of an A. brasilense-based commercial product in association with different rates of nitrogen fertilization in two corn genotypes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 5 factorial randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of two corn hybrids (30F53 and CD386; with and without inoculation with a commercial product based on A. brasilense and five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1. The variables plant height, basal stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry matter, leaf nitrogen content, length and diameter of the cob, weight of 100 grains and grain yield were evaluated. Inoculation with A. brasilense provided increases of 11 and 12% in leaf area and shoot dry matter, respectively. There were differences in the response of the corn hybrids for most variables and the increase in nitrogen supply provided increments in the growth and yield of corn.

  1. Organic Gelators as Growth Control Agents for Stable and Reproducible Hybrid Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Masi, Sofia

    2017-03-03

    Low-molecular-weight organic gelators are widely used to influence the solidification of polymers, with applications ranging from packaging items, food containers to organic electronic devices, including organic photovoltaics. Here, this concept is extended to hybrid halide perovskite-based materials. In situ time-resolved grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements performed during spin coating reveal that organic gelators beneficially influence the nucleation and growth of the perovskite precursor phase. This can be exploited for the fabrication of planar n-i-p heterojunction devices with MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3+) that display a performance that not only is enhanced by ≈25% compared to solar cells where the active layer is produced without the use of a gelator but that also features a higher stability to moisture and a reduced hysteresis. Most importantly, the presented approach is straightforward and simple, and it provides a general method to render the film formation of hybrid perovskites more reliable and robust, analogous to the control that is afforded by these additives in the processing of commodity “plastics.”

  2. Microbial-enzymatic-hybrid biological fuel cell with optimized growth conditions for Shewanella oneidensis DSP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jared N; Luckarift, Heather R; Sizemore, Susan R; Farrington, Karen E; Lau, Carolin; Johnson, Glenn R; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-07-10

    In this work we present a biological fuel cell fabricated by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. This concept is devised as an extension to traditional biochemical methods by incorporating diverse biological catalysts with the aim of powering small devices. In preparing the biological fuel cell anode, novel hierarchical-structured architectures and biofilm configurations were investigated. A method for creating an artificial biofilm based on encapsulating microorganisms in a porous, thin film of silica was compared with S. oneidensis biofilms that were allowed to colonize naturally. Results indicate comparable current and power densities for artificial and natural biofilm formations, based on growth characteristics. As a result, this work describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells.

  3. The Development of Social Competence during Early Childhood: A Latent Growth Model%童年早期社会能力的发展:一个潜变量增长模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓

    2011-01-01

    对119名幼儿进行历时两年的三次追踪测试,采用潜变量增长建模,检验童年早期的社会能力是否呈线性增长,并考察气质、性别、母亲受教育程度及其交互作用对社会能力发展水平与速度的预测作用.结果发现:(1)社会能力在两年中呈线性增长,起始水平及发展速度均存在显著的个体差异;(2)女孩起始的社会能力水平高于男孩;母亲受教育程度越高,儿童起始的社会能力水平就越高;(3)气质节律性对社会能力增长速度的预测因儿童性别而异:节律性能够负向预测女孩社会能力的增长速度、正向预测男孩社会能力的增长速度.%Social competence is an important aspect of children's social adjustment, which has been recognized by a majority of developmental psychologists. Much research has been accumulated investigating the developmental dynamics of social competence. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the latent growth of social competence, particularly during early childhood. In addition, existing research on the development of social competence points to child temperament and family socioeconomic status as important predictors; however, the majority of longitudinal research has included just two time points. The present study sought to advance our current understanding of social competence by examining its growth during early childhood. A second goal was to investigate the additive and interactive effects of child temperament, gender, and maternal education on initial levels and growth in social competence.A sample of 119 preschoolers and their mothers was followed up for two years from preschool entry to the end of the second preschool year. Children's social competence was evaluated by their mothers for three times, first at three months after preschool entry, second at the end of the first preschool year, and finally, at the end of the second preschool year. Children's temperament and socio

  4. On the Fracture Toughness and Crack Growth Resistance of Bio-Inspired Thermal Spray Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Michael Murray

    the values of a real nacre. Although, the fracture toughness was primary property of this study and the values were well matched, the fracture behavior found to be somewhat different between the hybrid composite and nacre. In particular, the hybrid composite was unable to exhibit any significant toughness under slow crack growth conditions, which is the most attractive feature of nacre. This thesis focuses on first investigating the toughness in the sprayed hybrid composites by using standard resistance curve (R-curve) measurements. The study then focused on developing thermal spray modified hybrid composites with improved toughness, as well as with higher application temperatures, beyond the limitation of epoxy.

  5. Latent fingerprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  6. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... of the \\NB classifier. In theproposed model the continuous attributes are described by amixture of multivariate Gaussians, where the conditionaldependencies among the attributes are encoded using latentvariables. We present algorithms for learning both the parametersand the structure of a latent...

  7. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  8. Sífilis latente

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo, Jose David

    2012-01-01

    Trabajo leído por su autor en la Academia Nacional de Medicina, el día 20 de mayo de 1948. La sífilis Latente es aquella en que el organismo se ha defendido biológicamente sin ningún tratamiento, En la sífilis latente hay que distinguir: la latencia clínica, la latencia serológica y la latencia patológica.

  9. Growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mughini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif";} Eucalypt short-rotation woody crop (SRWC is becoming an attractive option for energy biomass in Mediterranean dry environments. The present study is aimed at assessing growth performance of selected eucalypt hybrid clones for SRWC in three Italian sites (Massama, Sardinia; Mirto, Calabria; Rome, Latium compared with Eucalyptus camaldulensis, the most commonly cultivated eucalypt species in Italy. The study identified eucalypt clones with stable and high performance between several alternatives. Results pointed out the declining growth performance observed in the second rotation compared with the first cycle. This is due to the cultivation model, age rotation and harvesting method adopted, which negatively affect the available soil nutrients’ content. The clone/site interaction as for basal area growth at the three investigated sites, suggests a significantly different clones’ performance among sites. Viglio and Velino clones showed the best overall performance and are suggested to be used over the large scale SRWC in central and southern Italy.

  10. Using latent growth curve modeling in clinical treatment research: An example comparing guided self-change and cognitive behavioral therapy treatments for bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam A. Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio experimental muestra la utilidad de los modelos multigrupo de curva de crecimiento latente por etapas en investigación clínica, concretamente en la evaluación y comparación de los efectos de tratamiento. Sesenta y dos pacientes femeninas (media de edad = 28,1; DT = 8 con bulimia nerviosa fueron asignadas al azar a: a un auto-tratamiento guiado compuesto por un manual de autocuidados más ocho sesiones quincenales de terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC, o b a 16 sesiones semanales de terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC. Ambos grupos mostraron mejorías significativas durante el tratamiento, aunque la TCC mostró mayor mejoría. Sin embargo, el tratamiento auto-guiado evidenció una mejoría más continuada después del tratamiento. Ambos programas mostraron variabilidad en la eficacia durante el tratamiento al menos en un resultado, mientras que el auto-tratamiento mostró una mayor variabilidad que la TCC durante el seguimiento en dos resultados. Los niveles de la línea de base estaban relacionados con los niveles en el seguimiento, particularmente en el tratamiento auto-guiado. Los modelos de curva latente ofrecen un análisis rico de estos datos y resuelven importantes cuestiones sobre las diferencias en la efectividad de los dos programas de tratamiento.

  11. The Growth Analysis in the Kernel Filling Process of K-Type Hybrid 901 and Its Parent Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yue-hua; LIU Ying-zhou; GAO Jun-feng

    2005-01-01

    Using Matlab software, the grain filling process of hybrid wheat 901 and its parents was fitted by Richards equation W = A/(1 +Be-kt in order to study the characteristics of grain filling of the hybrid. The active grain growth period of the hybrid was 6 d longer than that of Shaan 229, and its final grain weight (43.7 g/1000 grains) was higher than that of Shaan229 (36.3 g/1 000 grains). N values of 901 and R205 were both less than 1, and their grain growth was faster in the early filling stage, while slower in the middle-late stage. N value of Shaan 229 was >1, and its growth was slower in the early stage and faster in the middle stage. The period of early stage of 901 was shorter and of middle-late stage was longer. The situation of Shaan 229 was totally reversed. For parents, the father plant R205 was similar to hybrid wheat 901, whereas its mother plant K3314A similar to Shaan 229. It has been found that Richards equation was more suitable for fitting the grain filling process of wheat than Logistic equation.

  12. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutivelyinoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the field in the so called Văliug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the first thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the five measured traits. According to ANOVA, significant (p < 0.05 and highly significant (p< 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggestingthat nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited significant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no significance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed in a breeding program

  13. Detection of isoform-specific fibroblast growth factor receptors by whole-mount in situ hybridization in early chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Junko; Ohta, Sho; Bleyl, Steven B; Schoenwolf, Gary C

    2011-06-01

    We have developed "b" and "c" isoform-specific chicken fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 1-3 probes for in situ hybridization. We rigorously demonstrate the specificity of these probes by using both dot blot hybridization and whole-mount in situ hybridization during neurulation and early postneurulation stages, and we compare expression patterns of each of the three isoform-specific probes to one another and to generic probes to each of the three (non-isoform-specific) FGF receptors. We show that the expression pattern of each receptor is represented by the collective expression of each of its two isoforms, with the expression of each FGF receptor being most similar to that of its "c" isoform at two of the three stages studied, and that tissue and stage differences exist in the patterns of expression of the six isoforms. We demonstrate the usefulness of these probes for defining the differential tissue expression of FGF receptor 1-3 isoforms.

  14. Evaluation of relationships between growth rate, tree size, lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification in interspecific Corymbia hybrids and parental taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Healey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order for a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock to be considered sustainable, it must possess a high rate of growth to supply biomass for conversion. Despite the desirability of a fast growth rate for industrial application, it is unclear what effect growth rate has on biomass composition or saccharification. We characterized Klason lignin, glucan, and xylan content with response to growth in Corymbia interspecific F1 hybrid families (HF and parental species C. torelliana (CT and C. citriodora subspecies variegata (CCV and measured the effects on enzymatic hydrolysis from hydrothermally pretreated biomass. Analysis of biomass composition within Corymbia populations found similar amounts of Klason lignin content (19.7-21.3% among parental and hybrid populations, whereas glucan content was clearly distinguished within CCV (52% and HF148 (60% as compared to other populations (28-38%. Multiple linear regression indicates that biomass composition is significantly impacted by tree size measured at the same age, with Klason lignin content increasing with diameter breast height (DBH (+0.12% per cm DBH increase, and glucan and xylan typically decreasing per DBH cm increase (-0.7% and -0.3%, respectively. Polysaccharide content within CCV and HF-148 were not significantly affected by tree size. High-throughput enzymatic saccharification of hydrothermally pretreated biomass found significant differences among Corymbia populations for total glucose production from biomass, with parental CT and hybrids HF-148 and HF-51 generating the highest amounts of glucose (~180 mg/g biomass, respectively, with HF-51 undergoing the most efficient glucan-to-glucose conversion (74%. Based on growth rate, biomass composition, and further optimization of enzymatic saccharification yield, high production Corymbia hybrid trees are potentially suitable for fast-rotation bioenergy or biomaterial production.

  15. Influences of Root Zone Restriction and Nitrogen Nutrition on Hybrid Wheat Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGRONGIAN; SHENZHENGUO; 等

    1997-01-01

    To study the physiological effects of small root zone,plants of a hybrid wheat variety(Triticum aestivum L.cv.Meiyou 4) were grown in small pots(1 litre)or large pots(8 litre) with low nitrogen(50 mg kg-1 soil) and high nitrogen(200 mg kg-1 soil).Restricting root zone decreased dry weight of plants at the stages of stem elongation and flowering ,compared to those of control plants grown in the large pots(P<0.01).Spraying of 6-benzylaminopurine(50 μmol L01) increased dry weight of plants and chlorophyll concentration in leaves. restriction of root zone decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen,chlorophyll and soluble protein in the flag leaf and accelerated senescence of the leaves,Supply of high nitrogen delayed senescence of the flag leaf.The results suggested that the shortage of nutrients ,especially nitrogen deficiency,was the primary reason for the decreased growth of plant in the treatment of root zone restriction.

  16. Growth Mechanism and Morphology of ZnO/eosin-Y Hybrid Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAR(I) Bernabé; SINGH Krishan-Chander; MOLLAR Miguel; MOYA Mónica; RANA Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Thin hybrid films of ZnO/eosin-Y were prepared by electrodeposition at-0.8 and -0.9 V in aqueous and non-aqueous baths at temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 ℃ with dye concentrations of 100 and 400 μmol· L-1.The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX),and absorption spectroscopy.The films prepared in a non-aqueous bath were non-porous and did not adsorb dye molecules on their surface.However,the films grown in aqueous media were porous in nature and adsorbed dye during the deposition of ZnO.Preferential growth of the film along the (002) face was observed,and the highest crystallinity was achieved when the film was deposited at 60 ℃.The maximum absorption was achieved for the films grown at 60 to 70 ℃,a deposition potential of-0.9 V,and a dye concentration of 100 μmol· L-1.

  17. Hybrid triazoles: Design and synthesis as potential dual inhibitor of growth and efflux inhibition in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prasad P; Dixit, Prashant P; Thore, Shivajirao N

    2016-01-01

    Efflux inhibition is proven bacterial machinery responsible for removal of bacterial wastage including antibiotics. Recently, efflux inhibitors (EI) have been tested with encouraging results as an adjuvant therapy for treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Although, EI have emerged as innovative approach of treatment for multi drug resistant (MDR) & extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), toxicity profile limits their wider use. To address this issue, we have attempted synthesizing hybrid molecules those results by combining known EI and triazole. This synthesis was aimed to arrive at structure that possesses pharmacophore from known EI. Synthesized molecules were evaluated as growth inhibitors (GI) and Efflux inhibitor of TB initially against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155. Pharmacologically active compounds were then tested for their cytotoxicity to further narrow down search. Most active compounds 144, 145, 154 and 163 were then tested for their GEI action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Synthesized compounds were also tested for their synergistic action with first line and second line anti-TB drugs and ethidium bromide (EtBr). We arrived at compound 135 as most potent dual inhibitor of tuberculosis.

  18. Latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric; Bishai, William R; Grosset, Jacques H

    2004-06-01

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a clinical condition characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of active tuberculosis disease. It has been estimated that one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and serves as an enormous reservoir for future cases of active tuberculosis. The detection and treatment of individuals with LTBI and a high risk of progression to active tuberculosis are effective means to control the spread of tuberculosis. Furthermore, a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions that result in latent infection could provide important insights for future drug or vaccine development. This chapter reviews recent developments in the molecular genetics, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of LTBI within its historical context, including the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Current treatment recommendations are also summarized.

  19. Potentiation of latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Hall, Geoffrey

    2008-07-01

    Rats were given exposure either to an odor (almond) or a compound of odor plus taste (almond plus saline), prior to training in which the odor served as the conditioned stimulus. It was found, for both appetitive and aversive procedures, that conditioning was retarded by preexposure (a latent inhibition effect), and the extent of the retardation was greater in rats preexposed to the compound (i.e., latent inhibition to the odor was potentiated by the presence of the taste). In contrast, the presence of the taste during conditioning itself overshadowed learning about the odor. We argue that the presence of the salient taste in compound with the odor enhances the rate of associative learning, producing a rapid loss in the associability of the odor. This loss of associability will generate both overshadowing and the potentiation of latent inhibition that is observed after preexposure to the compound.

  20. Growth Mechanism of a Hybrid Structure Consisting of a Graphite Layer on Top of Vertical Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolo' Chiodarelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are both carbon-based materials with remarkable optical and electronic properties which, among others, may find applications as transparent electrodes or as interconnects in microchips, respectively. This work reports on the formation of a hybrid structure composed of a graphitic carbon layer on top of vertical CNT in a single deposition process. The mechanism of deposition is explained according to the thickness of catalyst used and the atypical growth conditions. Key factors dictating the hybrid growth are the film thickness and the time dynamic through which the catalyst film dewets and transforms into nanoparticles. The results support the similarities between chemical vapor deposition processes for graphene, graphite, and CNT.

  1. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  2. Growth of thick MgB{sub 2} films by impinging-jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamborn, D.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wilke, R.H.T.; Li, Q. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xi, X. [Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801 (United States); Snyder, D.W. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Redwing, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801 (United States)

    2008-01-18

    Thick MgB{sub 2} films are grown using a novel impinging-jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process. An increased amount of the boron source gas generates high growth rates. Superconducting properties of the thick films are comparable to previous results from other processes, which indicate that this is a promising new process for MgB{sub 2} deposition for coated conductor applications, such as wires and tapes for MRI magnets. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twenty Pinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between the black currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% for tree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families were selected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of

  4. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By using an incomplete factorial mating design between twentyPinus strobus L. female and seven P. wallichiana Jack. male trees, a number of 34 full-sib families were obtained. The objective of this experiment was to combine the fast growing of the former species with moderately to high resistance to blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fich. in Rabenh. of the latter one. The hybrid families were artificially inoculated at age two, and field planted at age four. The plantation took place within an old black current (Ribes nigrum L. heavy infected by blister rust. In order to provoke new infections, this time naturally, the pine rows were planted in between theblack currant ones. Diameters at breast height, tree height, tree growth rate volume, stem straightness and tree survivals were the traits measured at age 32 from seed. The first trial thinning was simultaneously applied with the present measurements. The average tree survival was 74.8% in hybrids, 8.3% in Pinus strobus and 27.8% in P. wallichiana. Highly significant (p < 0.01 differences were found between hybrid families for all traits except stem straightness. Genetic coefficient of variation at family level was 13.7% fortree volume growth rate and 15.9% for tree survival, but only 2.1% for tree straightness. Broad-sense family heritability estimates were 0.530 for diameter at breast height, 0.596 for stem height, and 0.564 for stem volume growth rate, 0.166 for stem straightness, and 0.539 for tree survivals. Similarly, the individual tree narrow-sense heritability estimates were 0.138 for diameter at breast height, 0.209 for stem height, 0.149 for stem volume growth rate, and 0.022 for stem straightness. If the best 5, 10 and 15 of 34 families wereselected, a genetic gain of 17.7%, 13.4% and 10.2%, respectively, may be achieved in tree survival or blister rust resistance. Similarly, if the best 5%, 10% and 15% individuals within the best hybrid families were selected, a genetic gain of 4

  5. Analysis of Upper Hybrid Wave Growth Rates From Measured Electron Distributions; An Encounter With the Source of Auroral Roar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, S. R.; Kletzing, C. A.; Labelle, J. W.; Samara, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2005-12-01

    In January of 2003, the High Bandwidth Auroral Rocket (HIBAR) passed through two regions of strong upper hybrid wave emission associated with the approximate matching of the upper hybrid frequency to twice the electron cyclotron frequency (fuh = 2 fce) (Samara 2004) These types of emission are believed to be the source of the HF auroral roar often observed by ground based receivers. The current model theorizes that the free space 0-mode waves observed on the ground are produced through mode conversion of strong emission of Z-mode, or upper hybrid waves. The relativistic electron cyclotron maser exhibits significant growth rates for the Z-mode when the local upper hybrid frequency is just below (~1%) twice the electron cyclotron frequency and with the appropriately unstable electron distribution (Yoon 1996, Yoon 1998, Yoon 2000). Though auroral roar is frequently observed from the ground, the source region has rarely been identified in-situ and even more rarely with sufficient bandwidth to analyze the underlying physical processes. Analysis of the electron distributions from HIBAR show good agreement with the theoretical distributions used by Yoon:98. HIBAR encountered three separate regions where fuh ≍ 2 fce, two of these regions include strong upper hybrid emission, while the third is void of upper hybrid wave activity. The measured particle distributions demonstrate that, in the two regions with wave emission, the relativistic electron cyclotron maser instability produces Z mode wave growth rates at least an order of magnitude greater than the electron collision frequency. In the third region without wave emission, the growth rates are much smaller in both amplitude and the extent of occurance. Samara, M., J. LaBelle, C. A. Kletzing, and S. R. Bounds, Rocket observations of structured upper hybrid wave at fuh=2fce, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22804, doi:10.1029/2004GL021043. Yoon, P. H., A. T. Weatherwax, and T. J. Rosenberg, Lower ionospheric cyclotron maser

  6. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  7. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  8. Sugarcane Aphid Population Growth, Plant Injury, and Natural Enemies on Selected Grain Sorghum Hybrids in Texas and Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Gordy, John W; Kerns, David L; Woolley, James B; Rooney, William L; Bowling, Robert D

    2017-09-06

    In response to the 2013 outbreak of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), in North America, experiments were conducted at three southern U.S. grain sorghum production locations (Corpus Christi, TX; Winnsboro, LA; Rosenberg, TX). The objectives were to authenticate yield decline on susceptible hybrids (2014 and 2015) and to measure aphid population growth and natural enemy prevalence on susceptible and resistant hybrids with similar genetic background (2014). Yield decline on susceptible hybrids (Tx 2752/Tx430 and DKS53-67) was more substantial when aphid population growth accelerated quickly and peaked above 300 aphids per leaf (50 to nearly 100% yield decline). Location and year variation in maximum aphid density and cumulative aphid-days was high, with doubling time values on the susceptible hybrids ranging between 3.9 and 7.9 d. On resistant Tx2752/Tx2783, leaf injury and yield decline were not seen or less severe than on its paired susceptible Tx2752/Tx430. Aphids declined on Tx2752/Tx2783 after initial colony establishment (Corpus Christi) or took about 60% longer to double in population size when compared with Tx2572/Tx430 (Winnsboro). The predominant natural enemy taxa were aphelinid mummies (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and sryphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), and they were more prevalent during flowering than prior to flowering. They were generally responsive to changes in aphid density of both susceptible and resistant hybrids, but variability points to need for further study. In future research, full season observations should continue as well as more detailed study of potential compatibility of sorghum resistance and biological control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Photosynthesis, water relations, and growth of two hybrid Populus genotypes during a severe drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickmann, D.I.; Liu, Zuijun; Nguyen, Phu V.; Pregitzer, K.S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA))

    1992-01-01

    During the 1988 growing season in East Lansing, Michigan, only 1.53 cm of rain fell from mid-May to mid-July, causing a severe drought. Then, a period of near record precipitation commenced; 30.4 cm of rain fell from July 19 to October 4. Growth, photosynthesis, and water relations of hybrid poplar cultivars Eugenei and Tristis, which had been established in the spring of 1987 in plastic pots buried in the ground, were measured on several sunny days during the 1988 growing season. Pots were irrigated at two different rates, and half the pots received supplemental nitrogen fertilizer. On a seasonal basis, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in both genotypes peaked in early July and declined thereafter. Stomatal conductances were low during the drought but increased substantially when the rains commenced. Whereas nitrogen level had little effect on leaf physiology, the low water treatment produced significant reductions in photosynthesis and conductance. Diurnal measurements were made on June 17 and July 12. On both days photosynthesis and conductances were higher in Tristis than in Eugenei, especially for plants in the high water treatments and on July 12, the most extreme period of the drought. Drought produced both stomatal and mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis in both clones, though these responses were more pronounced in Eugenei. This clone also showed very low water-use efficiencies in the low water treatment on July 12. Even though the physiology of Eugenei was more impacted by drought than Tristis, it still produced two to three times more biomass over the 2-year period of the study than did Tristis. 41 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Exploring the Influences of Individual Differences and School Context on Learning Mathematics in High School: A Multilevel Latent Growth Analysis of Mathematical Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benners, George Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the complex influences of individual differences and school contexts on the growth of mathematical reasoning skills in high school, with particular emphasis on differences in academic preparation, demographics (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status), and school characteristics. Students' growth of…

  11. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis

  12. An Improved FP-Growth with Hybrid MGSO-IRVM Classifier Approach used for Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Vembandasamy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and major problem of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 90- 95% of all diabetes. In the medical field a predictive data mining association algorithms is used to diagnose the disease at the earlier stage which helps the physicians in the treatment planning procedure. Recently, an improved Frequent Pattern Growth (IFP-Growth with Hybrid Enhanced Artificial Bee Colony-Advanced Kernel Support Vector Machine (EABC-AKSVM classification is introduced with the capability to reduce the number of rules in diagnosing the diabetes. However, the detection accuracy and robust is less. To resolve this problem, an Improved Frequent Pattern Growth (IFP-Growth with Hybrid Modified Glowworm Swarm Optimization-Improved Relevance Vector Machine (MGSO-IRVM Classification based Association Rule Mining (ARM system is proposed in this work to generate effective rules. The proposed work consists of two phases: In first phase, improved FP-growth is proposed to efficiently mine frequent patterns even from uncertain medical database. This is achieved by creating additional array for each item in uncertain transactional database to keep the information of its superitem sets in IFP-tree redundant node generation through this step the computational cost is greatly reduced. In next phase, Hybrid MGSO-IRVM classifier is used to generate the association rules based on the frequent item sets, which avoids rule redundancy and conflicts during the rule mining process. Experimental results show that the proposed model is suitable and alternative model for medical classification to achieve greater accuracy, and to improve medical diagnosis.

  13. Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Kiyofumi; Iehisa, Julio C M; Nishijima, Ryo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca(2+) influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.

  14. Improvement of uniformity in cultivation environment and crop growth rate by hybrid control of air flow devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAEK Min-Seon; KWON Sook-Youn; LIM Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A complete control type plant factory has high efficiency in terms of cultivation area by constructing vertical multiple layered cultivation beds. However, it has a problem of irregular crop growth due to temperature deviation at upper and lower beds and increases in energy consumption by a prolonged cultivation period. In this work, air flow rate inside a facility was improved by a hybrid control of air flow devices like air conditioning and air circulation fan with an established wireless sensor network to minimize temperature deviations between upper and lower beds and to promote crop growth. The performance of proposed system was verified with an experimental environment or Case A wherein air conditioning device was operated without a control algorithm and Case B wherein air conditioning and circulation fans were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm. After planting leafy vegetables under each experimental condition, crops were cultivated for 21 days. As a result, Case B wherein AC (air conditioning) and ACF (air-circulation fan) were alternatively operated based on the hybrid control algorithm showed that fresh mass, number of leaves, and leaf length for the crops grown were increased by 40.6%, 41.1%, and 11.1%, respectively, compared to Case A.

  15. 抑郁症患者临床症状改善情况的潜变量增长曲线模型研究%Latent growth curve modeling for improvement of clinical symptoms on depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽霞; 张岩波; 郜艳晖; 张敏; 周舒冬

    2013-01-01

    To explore the improvement of clinical symptoms after treatment on patients with depression under the latent growth curve modeling.514 patients were studied with Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression and nonlinear conditional.Latent growth curve modeling was constructed to assess the features of outcome growth trajectory and possible related influencing factors.Results indicated that the outcome measure showing nonlinear growth trajectory and rapid drop during the first follow-up period and then declining or leveling off for the rest of the observation period on symptoms of anxiety,cognitive disturbance,retardation,sleeping disorder and HAMD scores.The variances of both latent intercept and the slope growth factor were statistically significant,indicating they varied across individuals.Gender did not show significant effect on both the intercept and the slope growth factor for the six outcomes,while age had a significant positive effect on initial weight loss,sleep disorder and HAMD scores at the baseline (0.015,0.048 and 0.068,P<0.05) survey.Marriage showed significant positive effect on intercept factor of anxiety symptoms (0.563,P<0.05) but negative effect on slope growth factor (-0.244,P<0.05) while family history had significant positive effect on intercept factor regarding retardation (0.471,P<0.05).The level of received education had a significant negative effect on intercept factor of anxiety symptoms and HAMD scores (-0.424 and-0.914,P<0.05).Latent growth curve models allowed the researchers to study the overall growth trajectory as well as the captured individual differences on these trajectories over time,that also provided a powerful tool for the analysis on longitudinal data.%运用潜变量增长曲线模型探讨抑郁症患者治疗后临床症状的改善情况.对汉密顿抑郁量表的体重减轻等因子构建非线性条件增长曲线模型,探讨其轨迹的发展变化情况及可能影响因素.结果表明焦虑、

  16. Biomimetic growth of gallic acid-ZnO hybrid assemblies and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Nazmul H.; Barnaby, Stacey N. [Fordham University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Fath, Karl R. [City University of New York and Graduate Center, Department of Biology, Queens College (United States); Frayne, Stephen H.; Nakatsuka, Nako; Banerjee, Ipsita A., E-mail: banerjee@fordham.edu [Fordham University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-03-15

    In this study, we probed the biomimetic formation of gallic acid (GA)-ZnO nanoparticle hybrids. It was found that the morphologies formed were dependent upon pH values, resulting in GA-ZnO hybrids of varying shapes such as micro or nanoplates or fibers. The formed supramolecular GA-ZnO hybrids were found to be luminescent as indicated by confocal microscopy and were utilized for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye methylene blue. We also explored the bactericidal effects of the hybrids on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as well as Escherichia Coli (E. Coli). Thus, we have developed a new class of shape-controlled nanohybrid assemblies via mild, green synthetic methods that may be utilized for photocatalytic degradation for environmental remediation as well as for antibacterial applications.

  17. Photosynthesis and growth response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids exposed to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Tasneem; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Naeem, Asif; Nawaz, Rab; Ali, Shafaqat; Murtaza, Ghulam; Maqsood, Muhammad Aamer; Azhar, Muhammad; Khalid, Hinnan; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a biologically non-essential heavy metal while the cultivation of Cd-tolerant varieties/hybrids (V) seems the most promising strategy for remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. For this, 24-day-old seedlings of seven maize hybrids, DKC 65-25, DKC 61-25, DKC 919, 23-T-16, 32-B-33, 31-P-41, and Syn hybrid, were grown in hydroponic conditions for 21 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 5, 10, and 15 μM). Effects of variety, Cd, and their interaction were highly significant (p ≤ 0.05) for studied plant agronomic and physiological traits except the V × Cd interaction for leaf chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and root dry weight. The Cd accumulation in root and shoot increased gradually with increasing Cd treatments while copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) uptake was decreased in all hybrids. The reduction in root and shoot biomass and Cd uptake was lower in 32-B-33 and 23-T-16 compared to other hybrids. The highest accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Mn was observed in 32-B-33, DK C65-25, and 31-P-41, respectively. The differential uptake and accumulation of Cd by maize hybrids may be useful in selection and breeding for Cd-tolerant genotypes.

  18. Synthesis of Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures: an optical approach to reveal the growth mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encina, Ezequiel R.; Perez, Manuel A.; Coronado, Eduardo A., E-mail: coronado@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, INFIQC (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, Ag-ZnO core-shell hybrid nanostructures (HNs) have been prepared by means of a very simple chemical methodology. In addition, their morphology and extinction properties have been characterized. It was found that the HNs consist in almost spherical Ag nanoparticle cores (mean diameter 56 nm) surrounded by a thin shell formed by small ZnO nanoparticles (mean size 6 nm). The changes in the extinction spectra during the formation of the hybrid nanostructures have been rationalized using electrodynamics simulations applying Mie theory for coated spheres along with the effective medium theory to describe the dielectric constant of the shell. By assuming a formation and growth mechanism of the shell, it was found that these simulations describe not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the changes in the extinction spectra.

  19. Latent Growth Curve Modeling of Non-Injection Drug Use and Condomless Sexual Behavior from Ages 18 to 21 in Gay, Bisexual, and Other YMSM: The P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N; Bub, Kristen; Stults, Christopher B; Bates, Francesca C; Kapadia, Farzana

    2017-08-18

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a health disparity faced by sexual minority men, and is exacerbated by non-injection drug use. We sought to delineate growth in non-injection drug use and condomless sex in a sample of racially and economically diverse of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as they emerged into adulthood between the ages of 18 and 21 and who came of age in the post-HAART era. Behavioral data on drug use and condomless sex, collected via a calendar based technique over 7 waves of a cohort study of 600 YMSM, were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling to document patterns of growth in these behaviors, their associations, and the extent to which patterns and associations are moderated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Significant growth was noted in the frequencies of condomless oral and anal intercourse, alcohol to intoxication, marijuana use, and inhalant nitrate use. High levels of association were noted between all behaviors across time but associations did not differ by either race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. The link between drug use and risky sexual behavior continue to be evident in YMSM with significant increases in these behaviors demonstrated as YMSM transition between adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusions/Importance: Healthcare for a new generation of sexual minority males must address the synergy of these behaviors and also nest HIV prevention and care within a larger context of sexual minority health that acknowledges the advances made in the last three decades.

  20. Short day-mediated cessation of growth requires the downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 transcription factor in hybrid aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karlberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation. The mechanism underlying SD-mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD-mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD-mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity.

  1. Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a hybridization of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THU-HIEN TRAN; NHAT-DUC HOANG

    2017-06-01

    Estimation of the algal colonization growth on fac¸ade structure can provide useful information for the task of building maintenance. This research proposes a machine learning method based on the least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR) for modelling the growth time of the green alga Klebsormidium flaccidum on mortar surfaces. Furthermore, to identify an appropriate set of the LS-SVR hyper-parameters, the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is employed as an optimization technique. The characteristics of the mortar samples, including surface roughness, porosity, surface pH, carbonated condition and type of cement, are employed as input factors for the analysing process. This study relies on a dataset that records 539 laboratory experiments to establish a hybrid model of the LS-SVR and the FPA. The cross-validation process reveals that the proposed method can successfully capture the functional relationship between the algal colonization growth and its influencing factors with a satisfactory outcome (the coefficient of determination R 2 = 0.94 and the root meansquare error RMSE = 4.55). These facts demonstrate that the hybrid model is a promising tool for assisting the decision-making process in building maintenance planning

  2. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier), at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days), in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein (CP) concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR). CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number p...

  3. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  4. Dysfunction of mitotic cell division at shoot apices triggered severe growth abortion in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Ryusuke; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2012-06-01

    Common wheat is an allohexaploid species, derived through endoreduplication of an interspecific triploid hybrid produced from a cross between cultivated tetraploid wheat and the wild diploid relative Aegilops tauschii. Hybrid incompatibilities, including hybrid necrosis, have been observed in triploid wheat hybrids. A limited number of A. tauschii accessions show hybrid lethality in triploid hybrids crossed with tetraploid wheat as a result of developmental arrest at the early seedling stage, which is termed severe growth abortion (SGA). Despite the potential severity of this condition, the genetic mechanisms underlying SGA are not well understood. Here, we conducted comparative analyses of gene expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize developmental arrest in triploid hybrids displaying SGA. A number of defense-related genes were highly up-regulated, whereas many transcription factor genes, such as the KNOTTED1-type homeobox gene, which function in shoot apical meristem (SAM) and leaf primordia, were down-regulated in the crown tissues of SGA plants. Transcript accumulation levels of cell cycle-related genes were also markedly reduced in SGA plants, and no histone H4-expressing cells were observed in the SAM of SGA hybrid plants. Our findings demonstrate that SGA shows unique features among other types of abnormal growth phenotypes, such as type II and III necrosis.

  5. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutively inoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the fi eld in the so called Valiug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the fi rst thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the fi ve measured traits. According to ANOVA, signifi cant (p < 0.05 and highly signifi cant (p < 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly signifi cant (p< 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggesting that nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited signifi cant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no signifi cance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed

  6. Growth, straightness and survival at age 32 in a Pinus strobus x P. wallichiana F1 hybrid population (Experiment 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An interspecific factorial hybridization was made, where seven P. strobus female parent trees were mated to four P. wallichiana male trees, in order to transfer genes for resistance to blister-rust from the blue pine to the F1 hybrids. The hybrid seedlings and the open pollinated families of the two parents were three times consecutively inoculated with blister-rust. The six years old seedlings were transplanted in the fi eld in the so called Valiug Experiment 1. The experimental design consisted in 28 hybrid full-sib families and two open pollinated families of the parent species. Plantation took place in a complete randomized block design with three blocks, with 6 to 12 seedlings per linear plot and 3 x 3 m spacing. This paper is based on the measurements made at age 32, just after the fi rst thinning. Diameter at breast height, tree height, tree volume, stem straightness and tree survival were the fi ve measured traits. According to ANOVA, signifi cant (p < 0.05 and highly signifi cant (p < 0.001 differences for diameter at breast height, tree height, volume growth rate, stem straightness and tree survival were detected between hybrid families. Highly signifi cant (p< 0.01, p < 0.001 differences were found between eastern white pine female parents for survival, stem straightness and all growth traits, suggesting that nuclear additive genes are controlling the respective characters. Consequently, high survival or genetic resistance to blister-rust can be found within the P. strobus species even though it is highly susceptible to this pathogen. The P. wallichiana parents exhibited signifi cant additive effects on straightness and breast height diameter, but no signifi cance in height, volume, and tree survival. The contribution of the additive variance to the phenotypic one was 65.7% for diameter, 58.6% for height, 50.5% for volume, 70.4% for stem straightness and 73.4% for tree survival. Hence, additive variance should be employed

  7. Cultured Vestibular Ganglion Neurons Demonstrate Latent HSV1 Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehm, Pamela C.; Camarena, Vladimir; Nayak, Shruti; Gardner, James B.; Wilson, Angus; Mohr, Ian; Chao, Moses V.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Vestibular neuritis is a common cause of both acute and chronic vestibular dysfunction. Multiple pathologies have been hypothesized to be the causative agent of vestibular neuritis; however, whether herpes simplex type I (HSV1) reactivation occurs within the vestibular ganglion has not been demonstrated previously by experimental evidence. We developed an in vitro system to study HSV1 infection of vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) using a cell culture model system. Study design basic science study. Results Lytic infection of cultured rat VGNs was observed following low viral multiplicity of infection (MOI). Inclusion of acyclovir suppressed lytic replication and allowed latency to be established. Upon removal of acyclovir, latent infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for the latency-associated transcript (LAT). 29% cells in latently infected cultures were LAT positive. The lytic IPC27 transcript was not detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Reactivation of HSV1 occurred at a high frequency in latently infected cultures following treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deactylase inhibitor. Conclusions VGNs can be both lytically and latently infected with HSV1. Furthermore, latently infected VGNs can be induced to reactivate using TSA. This demonstrates that reactivation of latent HSV1 infection in the vestibular ganglion can occur in a cell culture model, and suggests that reactivation of HSV1 infection a plausible etiologic mechanism of vestibular neuritis. PMID:21898423

  8. The role of phytochrome A and gibberellins in growth under long and short day conditions: Studies in hybrid aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2000-07-01

    This thesis addresses questions concerning the regulation of growth and, specifically, the cessation of growth in response to short days in deciduous tree species. The model tree used in the studies was hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). We have exploited the possibility of transforming this species to modulate the level of expression of target genes using over-expression and antisense techniques. The target genes in the studies were the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase), the latter being a highly regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs). The photoreceptor phyA has been implicated in photoperiodic regulation of growth, while GAs may regulate the physiological response further downstream. The endogenous expression of these genes has been investigated in parallel with studies of various plants with ectopic and reduced levels of expression. The main focus has been on the early stages of induction of growth cessation and its physiological and molecular mechanisms. Studies of hybrid aspen plants with an increased or reduced expression of phyA, show this receptor to mediate the photoperiodic regulation of growth. Plants with ectopic expression could not stop growing despite drastically shortened photoperiods, while the antisense plants showed the reverse phenotype, with a higher sensitivity resulting in earlier cessation of growth. The role of GAs in growth inhibition was also addressed using plants with a reduction in GA levels. These plants showed early cessation of growth and dormancy, and thus an increased sensitivity toward daylength. Conversely, plants with increased rates of GA biosynthesis showed increased growth and stopped growing much later. Furthermore, increases in GA biosynthesis, resulting in high levels of GAs have a major impact on growth. Plants with high GA levels have increased elongation and diameter growth, due to higher rates of cell production in the

  9. Latent inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, N R; Braff, D L; Hartston, H; Perry, W; Geyer, M A

    1996-05-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) refers to the retarded acquisition of a conditioned response that occurs if the subject being tested is first preexposed to the to-be-conditioned stimulus (CS) without the paired unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Because the 'irrelevance' of the to-be-conditioned stimulus is established during non-contingent preexposure, the slowed acquisition of the CS-UCS association is thought to reflect the process of overcoming this learned irrelevance. Latent inhibition has been reported to be diminished in acutely hospitalized schizophrenia patients. If acutely hospitalized schizophrenia patients are preexposed to the CS, they learn the association as fast as, and perhaps faster than, patients who are not preexposed to the CS. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting the inability of acute schizophrenia patients to ignore irrelevant stimuli. In this study, the LI paradigm was identical to the one used in previous reports of LI deficits in schizophrenia patients (Baruch et al., 1988). Latent inhibition was observed in normal control subjects (n = 73), including individuals identified as 'psychosis-prone' based on established screening criteria, and in anxiety (n = 19) and mood disorder (n = 13) patients. Learning scores (trials to criterion) in "acutely' hospitalized as well as "chronic' hospitalized schizophrenia patients (n = 45) were significantly elevated in both preexposed and non-preexposed subjects, compared to controls. Acute schizophrenia patients exhibited intact LI. Separate cohorts of acute and chronic schizophrenia patients (n = 23) and normal controls (n = 34) exhibited intact LI when tested in a new, easier-to-acquire computerized LI paradigm. These results fail to identify specific LI deficits in schizophrenia patients, and raise the possibility that previously observed LI deficits in schizophrenia patients may reflect, at least in part, performance deficits related to learning acquisition.

  10. Hybrid C-nanotubes/Si 3D nanostructures by one-step growth in a dual-plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Francesco; Orlanducci, Silvia; Guglielmotti, Valeria; Cianchetta, Ilaria; Magni, Corrado; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Pasquali, Matteo; Tamburri, Emanuela; Matassa, Roberto; Rossi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Hybrid nanostructures consisting of Si polycrystalline nanocones, with an anemone-like termination coated with C-nanotubes bundles, have been generated on a (1 0 0) Si substrate in a dual mode microwave/radio-frequency plasma reactor. The substrate is both heated and bombarded by energetic H ions during the synthesis process. The nanocones growth is explained considering pull of the growing Si nanocrystalline phase along the lines of the electrical field, likely via a molten/recrystallization mechanism. The one-step building of the achieved complex 3D architectures is described in terms of dynamic competition between Si and C nanotubes growth under the peculiar conditions of kinetically driven processes.

  11. Short-day treatment during the growing period limits shoot growth and increases frost hardiness of hybrid aspen plants in the nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang; Jaana Luoranen; Heikki Smolander

    2007-01-01

    In Finland, under nursery conditions hybrid aspen may continue their shoot growth until early September. Thus,frost hardening is usually delayed. To solve this problem, We used a three-week period of short-day (SD) treatment between late July and mid-August. During autumn after frost exposure,frost hardiness (FH) Was assessed three times with a stem-browning test. The resuits showed that after SD treatment shoot growth ceased and FH increased when compared to untreated hybrid aspen. Furthermore,the height of SD-treated hybrid aspen varied much less than that of the control plants. We conclude that SD treatment in the nursery during the growing period can be used as a supplementary method for producing well-hardened and uniform hybrid aspen plants.

  12. Controlled growth of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid materials for flexible and transparent conductors and electron field emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Dung; Tai, Nyan-Hwa; Chen, Szu-Ying; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2012-01-21

    We report a versatile synthetic process based on rapid heating and cooling chemical vapor deposition for the growth of carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene hybrid materials where the thickness of graphene and density of CNTs are properly controlled. Graphene films are demonstrated as an efficient barrier layer for preventing poisoning of iron nanoparticles, which catalyze the growth of CNTs on copper substrates. Based on this method, the opto-electronic and field emission properties of graphene integrated with CNTs can be remarkably tailored. A graphene film exhibits a sheet resistance of 2.15 kΩ sq(-1) with a transmittance of 85.6% (at 550 nm), while a CNT-graphene hybrid film shows an improved sheet resistance of 420 Ω sq(-1) with an optical transmittance of 72.9%. Moreover, CNT-graphene films are demonstrated as effective electron field emitters with low turn-on and threshold electric fields of 2.9 and 3.3 V μm(-1), respectively. The development of CNT-graphene films with a wide range of tunable properties presented in this study shows promising applications in flexible opto-electronic, energy, and sensor devices.

  13. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.

  14. Smart designing of new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate microspheres: Bio-inspired for sequential nucleation and growth

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the p...

  15. Learning multimodal latent attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Gong, Shaogang

    2014-02-01

    The rapid development of social media sharing has created a huge demand for automatic media classification and annotation techniques. Attribute learning has emerged as a promising paradigm for bridging the semantic gap and addressing data sparsity via transferring attribute knowledge in object recognition and relatively simple action classification. In this paper, we address the task of attribute learning for understanding multimedia data with sparse and incomplete labels. In particular, we focus on videos of social group activities, which are particularly challenging and topical examples of this task because of their multimodal content and complex and unstructured nature relative to the density of annotations. To solve this problem, we 1) introduce a concept of semilatent attribute space, expressing user-defined and latent attributes in a unified framework, and 2) propose a novel scalable probabilistic topic model for learning multimodal semilatent attributes, which dramatically reduces requirements for an exhaustive accurate attribute ontology and expensive annotation effort. We show that our framework is able to exploit latent attributes to outperform contemporary approaches for addressing a variety of realistic multimedia sparse data learning tasks including: multitask learning, learning with label noise, N-shot transfer learning, and importantly zero-shot learning.

  16. Latent semantic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Nicholas E

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews latent semantic analysis (LSA), a theory of meaning as well as a method for extracting that meaning from passages of text, based on statistical computations over a collection of documents. LSA as a theory of meaning defines a latent semantic space where documents and individual words are represented as vectors. LSA as a computational technique uses linear algebra to extract dimensions that represent that space. This representation enables the computation of similarity among terms and documents, categorization of terms and documents, and summarization of large collections of documents using automated procedures that mimic the way humans perform similar cognitive tasks. We present some technical details, various illustrative examples, and discuss a number of applications from linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, education, information science, and analysis of textual data in general. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:683-692. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1254 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  18. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  19. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi; Kong, Jie; Li, Wendong; Luan, Sheng; Yang, Cuihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2008-11-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No.1 (HH1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results show that the survival rate of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) was the highest, followed by WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP(♀)×FKN(♂); the body weight of FKN(♀)sxHH1(♂) was the highest, followed by FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), WYP(♀)×WKN(♂), WYP(♀)×FKN(♂) and JK98(♀)×WKN(♂); the total length had the same ranking as the body weight. All growth traits in hybrids JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were the lowest among all combinations. F1 hybrids had significant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan’s Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of JK98(♀)×WKN(♂) were significantly different from the other combinations; HST different from the combination of FKN(♀)×WYP(♂), FKN(♀)×HH1(♂) and WYP

  20. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C, these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  1. 童年中晚期孤独感的发展轨迹:一项潜变量增长模型分析%Developmental Trajectories of Loneliness During Middle and Late Childhood:A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊升; 周颖; 李丹

    2013-01-01

    Loneliness is typically defined as the subjective experience of dissatisfaction with one's social and relational life. Children as young as preschool-age can reliability report feelings of loneliness. The experience of loneliness is associated with a wide range of socio-emotional difficulties from early childhood to adolescence. Most previous research has focused on contributing factors and mechanisms that may underlie the development of loneliness. However, much less is known about the developmental trajectories of loneliness, particularly during middle childhood. It has been postulated that loneliness arises as a result of unmet social needs (Social needs theory). From a cognitive perspective, loneliness is thought to be influenced primarily by subjective perceptions of one's personal relationships. However, children's social needs and cognitive capabilities do not remain static across development. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to examine the developmental trajectories of loneliness across middle childhood. Participants were 884 primary school students, who were followed up for three years from grade two to grade five. Assessments of children's loneliness and peer acceptance were obtained from both self-reports and peer assessments at four time points. Latent growth modeling was used to examine: (1) initial levels and change in loneliness over time; and (2) the prediction of both initial levels and growth in loneliness from child gender and peer acceptance. Among the results, children's loneliness decreased in a non-linear trajectory from grade 2 (Mean age = 8.5years, SD=3.06 months) to grade 5. As well, although boys had higher initial levels of loneliness than girls, there was no gender difference in the change of loneliness over time. Finally, results from latent growth curve modeling indicated that peer acceptance as a time-variant variable influenced children's feeling of loneliness. Peer acceptance at given testing point could reduce

  2. Reduced expression of the SHORT-ROOT gene increases the rates of growth and development in hybrid poplar and Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehua Wang

    Full Text Available SHORT-ROOT (SHR is a well characterized regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in the Arabidopsis primary root. However, much less is known about the functions of SHR in the aerial parts of the plant. In this work, we cloned SHR gene from Populus trichocarpa (PtSHR1 as an AtSHR ortholog and down-regulated its expression in hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×P. tremuloides Michx-clone T89 in order to determine its physiological functions in shoot development. Sharing a 90% similarity to AtSHR at amino acid level, PtSHR1 was able to complement the Arabidopsis shr mutant. Down regulation of PtSHR1 led to a strong enhancement of primary (height and secondary (girth growth rates in the transgenic poplars. A similar approach in Arabidopsis showed a comparable accelerated growth and development phenotype. Our results suggest that the response to SHR could be dose-dependent and that a partial down-regulation of SHR could lead to enhanced meristem activity and a coordinated acceleration of plant growth in woody species. Therefore, SHR functions in plant growth and development as a regulator of cell division and meristem activity not only in the roots but also in the shoots. Reducing SHR expression in transgenic poplar was shown to lead to significant increases in primary and secondary growth rates. Given the current interest in bioenergy crops, SHR has a broader role as a key regulator of whole plant growth and development and SHR suppression has considerable potential for accelerating biomass accumulation in a variety of species.

  3. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ×O. niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cui, Yibo; Yang, Yunxia; Cai, Fasheng

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0 29.0°C for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  4. Compensatory growth in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O.Niloticus) reared in seawater, following restricted feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; CUI Yibo; YANG Yunxia; CAI Fasheng

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid tilapia weighing 7.71 g were reared in seawater at 24.0-29.0℃ for 8 weeks. The controls were fed to satiation twice a day throughout the experiment, whereas treatment groups were fed at 0.5%, 1.5% or 3.0% body weight per day for 4 weeks, and then to satiation for the remainder of the experiment. During the first 4-week period, there was a curvilinear relationship between growth rate and ration size. Fish fed 0.5% and 1.5% rations displayed compensatory growth response of 2 weeks duration during realimentation. The weight-adjusted growth rate of fish fed at 3% ration was not significantly different from that of the controls by the end of the experiment, when none of the treatment groups had caught up in body weight with the controls. Hyperphagia was observed for the first 2 weeks of realimenatation in fish previously fed at 3% ration, but persisted for the whole realimentation period in groups previously fed at 0.5% and 1.5% rations. None of the feed restricted groups showed improved digestibility, feed efficiency, or protein and energy retention efficiency.

  5. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeuschinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; LI Wendong; LUAN Sheng; YANG Cuihua; WANG Qingyin

    2008-01-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No. 1 (HH 1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple significant difference (P<0.05) in BL, CL, HST, LL, and BW; and insignificant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan's Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of was the best combination in all growth traits. Therefore, hybridization can introduce the variation to base populations. The systematic selection program based on additive genetic performance may be more effective than crossbreeding.

  6. Growth of hydroxyapatite on the cellular membrane of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for the preparation of hybrid biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Eric Reyes, E-mail: onomaeric@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Torres, Maykel González, E-mail: mikegcu@fata.unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Muñoz, Susana Vargas, E-mail: vmsu@unam.mx [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Rosas, Efraín Rubio, E-mail: efrainrubio@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Prolongación de la 24 Sur y Ave San Claudio, Ciudad Universitaria, Col San Manuel, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to grow hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals on the cellular wall of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis using a bio-mimetic method. Several strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) gene markers to differentiate the strains and confirm the identity of the isolated species to guarantee that the selected species was not harmful to human health or the environment. Three of the analyzed strains were selected because they exhibited the best nucleation and growth of HAp on the bacterial surface. This innovative method to grow HAp crystals on a cellular membrane helps to elucidate the mechanisms by which osseous tissue is formed in nature. The optimum concentration for the simulated physiological fluid (SPF) was 1.5 ×. The hybrid materials were characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • HAp crystals are grown on the cellular wall of a GP bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. • The growing was carried out by using a bio-mimetic method. • Hybrid materials were characterized with morphological and spectroscopic techniques. • The reported method allows understanding the mechanisms to produce osseous tissue. • The membrane of Bacillus thuringiensis can grow more HAp than Bacillus halodurans.

  7. Shoot Photosynthesis and Root Growth of Hybrid and Conventional Rice Cultivars as Affected by N and K Levels in the Root Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGXIAOE; V.ROEMHELD; 等

    1997-01-01

    Root box experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of N and NK levels in the root zone on shoot photosynthesis and root growth of hybrid an cultivar of rice (Oryza sativa L.) on two paddy soils (clayey and silty).The results showed that dry matter yields in the hybrid and the cultivar were considerably increased by NK supply,bu the effect was greater for the hybrid.Supply of NK in the root zone significantly increased photosynthetic rate of the lower position leaf and the active green leaf area per plant,in which the effects were much more obvious in the hybrid rice than in the cultivar.High NK supply in the root zone stimulated the root growth,and decreased pH and increased the oxidation zone in the rhizosphere in both entries,but to a greater extent in the hybrid .The results indicated that higher NK levels were needed to maintain higher root activity and shoot photosynthetic capacity in rice,particularly in hybrid rice.

  8. Growth of hydroxyapatite on the cellular membrane of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for the preparation of hybrid biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Eric Reyes; Torres, Maykel González; Muñoz, Susana Vargas; Rosas, Efraín Rubio; Vázquez, Candelario; Talavera, Rogelio Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to grow hydroxyapatite (HAp) crystals on the cellular wall of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis using a bio-mimetic method. Several strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) gene markers to differentiate the strains and confirm the identity of the isolated species to guarantee that the selected species was not harmful to human health or the environment. Three of the analyzed strains were selected because they exhibited the best nucleation and growth of HAp on the bacterial surface. This innovative method to grow HAp crystals on a cellular membrane helps to elucidate the mechanisms by which osseous tissue is formed in nature. The optimum concentration for the simulated physiological fluid (SPF) was 1.5×. The hybrid materials were characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  9. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  10. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  11. Novel nuclear localization and potential function of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor hybrid in corneal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R and insulin receptor (INSR are highly homologous molecules, which can heterodimerize to form an IGF-1R/INSR hybrid (Hybrid-R. The presence and biological significance of the Hybrid-R in human corneal epithelium has not yet been established. In addition, while nuclear localization of IGF-1R was recently reported in cancer cells and human corneal epithelial cells, the function and profile of nuclear IGF-1R is unknown. In this study, we characterized the nuclear localization and function of the Hybrid-R and the role of IGF-1/IGF-1R and Hybrid-R signaling in the human corneal epithelium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: IGF-1-mediated signaling and cell growth were examined in a human telomerized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi cell line using co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and cell proliferation assays. The presence of Hybrid-R in hTCEpi and primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence and reciprocal immunoprecipitation of whole cell lysates. We found that IGF-1 stimulated Akt and promoted cell growth through IGF-1R activation, which was independent of the Hybrid-R. The presence of Hybrid-R, but not IGF-1R/IGF-1R, was detected in nuclear extracts. Knockdown of INSR by small interfering RNA resulted in depletion of the INSR/INSR and preferential formation of Hybrid-R. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing assay with anti-IGF-1R or anti-INSR was subsequently performed to identify potential genomic targets responsible for critical homeostatic regulatory pathways. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to previous reports on nuclear localized IGF-1R, this is the first report identifying the nuclear localization of Hybrid-R in an epithelial cell line. The identification of a nuclear Hybrid-R and novel genomic targets suggests that IGF-1R traffics to the nucleus as an IGF-1R/INSR heterotetrameric complex to regulate corneal epithelial homeostatic

  12. Influence of brick air scrubber by-product on growth and development of corn and hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carla N; Bauerle, William L; Owino, Tom O; Chastain, John P; Klaine, Stephen J

    2007-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of spent reagent from air pollution control scrubbers used at a brick manufacturing facility on emergence, growth, and physiological responses of corn and hybrid poplar plants. Scrubber by-product was obtained from General Shale Brick, Louisville, KY. Potting substrate was weighed and quantities of scrubber by-product were added to the substrate to obtain treatments of 0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% scrubber by-product (w:w) for the corn study. Each treatment mix was potted into nine replicate polyethylene pots and four corn seeds were sown per pot. The pots were randomized in a greenhouse at Clemson University and the number of seedlings emerging from each treatment, dark-adapted leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, and shoot heights were measured at the end of a 21-day growth period. Then, dry shoot biomass was determined for plants from each treatment and plant tissues were analyzed for selected constituents. For the poplar study, nine-inch cuttings of hybrid poplar clone 15-29 (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and clone OP367 (P. deltoides x P. nigra) were planted in treatments of scrubber by-product-potting soil mixes of 0% , 5% , 10% , and 25% w:w. Leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured over six weeks and cumulative leaf area, dry biomass, and nutrient content of tissues were determined upon harvest. Results of these studies indicate that percent seedling emergence for corn plants decreased with increasing scrubber by-product application rates. Application rates up to 12.5% scrubber by-product w:w had no adverse effect on corn seedling emergence. Shoot elongation, biomass production, and the status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the seedlings were also not severely impaired at applications below this level. A critical value of 58.2% w:w scrubber by-product was estimated to cause 25% inhibition of seedling emergence. Biomass production, cumulative leaf area, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of

  13. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresha K Mahadeva and Jaehwan Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO2 by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current–voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose–SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  14. Types of tree growth and fruit setting in F1 apple hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. SESTRAS

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available 1656 F1 hybrid apple seedlings, belonging to 127 combinations, have been screened according to their growing and fruit setting types, as it was phenotypically expressed. LESPINASSE (1977; 1992 amalgamated these two traits into a single one which was named ";ideotype";. The screened F1 individuals have been considered as resembling one of the following four architectural ideotypes of the trees indicated by Lespinasse: columnar, spur, standard and weeping. Different ratios of spur, standard and columnar F1 individuals were obtained depending on genitors and on the fact that a certain genitor had been used as a maternal or paternal partner in direct/reciprocal crosses. The monogenic inheritance of the columnar ideotype, proposed by Kelsey and Brown (1992; Lane (1992, does not seem to be the only genetic mechanism involved in the inheritance of this trait. Our experimental results suggest the polygenic determination of this ideotype as more probable than the monogenic one.

  15. Climate change at northern latitudes: rising atmospheric humidity decreases transpiration, N-uptake and growth rate of hybrid aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Tullus

    Full Text Available At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. We studied several growth and functional traits of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx. in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level in a free air experimental facility during three growing seasons (2008-2010 in Estonia, which represents northern temperate climate (boreo-nemoral zone. Data were collected from three humidified (H and three control (C plots, and analysed using nested linear models. Elevated air humidity significantly reduced height, stem diameter and stem volume increments and transpiration of the trees whereas these effects remained highly significant also after considering the side effects from soil-related confounders within the 2.7 ha study area. Tree leaves were smaller, lighter and had lower leaf mass per area (LMA in H plots. The magnitude and significance of the humidity treatment effect--inhibition of above-ground growth rate--was more pronounced in larger trees. The lower growth rate in the humidified plots can be partly explained by a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of NO(3 (- in soil, resulting in a significant reduction in the measured uptake of N to foliage in the H plots. The results suggest that the potential growth improvement of fast-growing trees like aspens, due to increasing temperature and atmospheric CO(2 concentration, might be smaller than expected at high latitudes if a rise in atmospheric humidity simultaneously takes place.

  16. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  17. In-situ spectroscopy and nanoscale electronics in superconductor-topological insulator hybrid devices: a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngabonziza, Prosper

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, we presented a combined thin film growth and quantum transport study on superconductor topological insulator hybrid devices. Understanding of the electronic properties of topological insulators (TIs), their preparation in high quality thin film form and their interaction with o

  18. Effects of bamboo substrate and supplemental feeding on growth and production of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis mossambicusxOrechromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keshavanath, P.; Gangadhar, B.; Ramesh, T.J.; Dam, van A.A.; Beveridge, M.C.M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton growing on artificial substrates can increase the production of herbivorous fish in aquaculture ponds. Periphyton may be an alternative or a complement for supplemental feed in fingerling production. Growth and production of hybrid red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloti

  19. Tree-based intercropping systems increase growth and nutrient status of hybrid poplar: a case study from two Northeastern American experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, David; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Tree-based intercropping is considered to be a potentially useful land use system for mitigating negative environmental impacts from intensive agriculture such as nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. Rapid early growth of trees is critical for rapidly accruing environmental benefits provided by the trees. We tested the hypothesis that intercropping increases the growth and nutrient status of young hybrid poplars (Populus spp.), compared to a harrowing alley treatment (i.e., no intercrop), in two experimental sites (St-Rémi and St-Edouard) in southern Québec, Canada. Three hybrid poplar clones (TD3230, Populus trichocarpa x deltoides; DN3308, P. deltoides x nigra; and NM3729, P. nigra x maximowiczii) were planted at St-Rémi. Clones DN3333 and DN3570 were planted at St-Edouard. At St-Rémi, intercropping comprised a 4-year succession of three crops of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). At St-Edouard, intercropping comprised a 3-year succession of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). At St-Rémi, four years after treatment began, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was 37% higher compared to that in the harrowing treatment. At St-Edouard, after the third growing season, leafless aboveground biomass of hybrid poplars in the intercropping treatment was significantly higher by 40%. Vector analysis of foliar nutrient concentrations and comparison with critical concentration values showed that N (both sites) and K (St-Edouard) were the most limiting nutrients. Hybrid poplar clones responded similarly to treatments, with no consistent differences in tree growth observed between clones. We conclude that tree-based intercropping systems may offer an effective means of improving the early growth of hybrid poplars planted to provide both environmental services and high-value timber.

  20. Fatigue Crack Growth Prediction for generalized fiber metal laminates and hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The excellent durability performance of Glare, a thin fiber metal laminate (FML) material system, is now being proven in service. This has motivated work towards the application of FMLs to thicker structures driven by damage tolerance. In order to fully characterize the crack growth life of such mat

  1. Latent catalyst; Senzaisei shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Epoxy resin, an important function material to support such main industries as electric and electronic devices, automobiles, civil engineering, and building construction, is demanded of development of single liquid type resin having excellent quick hardening performance and storage stability. This requirement comes from environmental problems with an intention of saving energies and reducing resin wastes. The Company, using freely its independent phase separation technology that controls molecular structure of catalysts, developed a latent catalyst having excellent storage stability and high-temperature quick hardening performance. Its major features may be summarized as follows: (1) excellent storage stability at room temperature keeping the product stable for 2.5 months or longer (2 days in conventional products); (2) quick hardening performance hardening the resin in seven seconds at 150 degrees C (equivalent to conventional products); and (3) excellent insulation performance of hardened resin at 140 degrees C of 7 times 10 {sup 13} (ohm) (center dot) cm (2 times 10 {sup 12} (ohm) (center dot) cm in conventional products) (translated by NEDO)

  2. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  3. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  4. Perturbed lignification impacts tree growth in hybrid poplar--a function of sink strength, vascular integrity, and photosynthetic assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather D; Samuels, A Lacey; Guy, Robert D; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2008-11-01

    The effects of reductions in cell wall lignin content, manifested by RNA interference suppression of coumaroyl 3'-hydroxylase, on plant growth, water transport, gas exchange, and photosynthesis were evaluated in hybrid poplar trees (Populus alba x grandidentata). The growth characteristics of the reduced lignin trees were significantly impaired, resulting in smaller stems and reduced root biomass when compared to wild-type trees, as well as altered leaf morphology and architecture. The severe inhibition of cell wall lignification produced trees with a collapsed xylem phenotype, resulting in compromised vascular integrity, and displayed reduced hydraulic conductivity and a greater susceptibility to wall failure and cavitation. In the reduced lignin trees, photosynthetic carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance were also greatly reduced, however, shoot xylem pressure potential and carbon isotope discrimination were higher and water-use efficiency was lower, inconsistent with water stress. Reductions in assimilation rate could not be ascribed to increased stomatal limitation. Starch and soluble sugars analysis of leaves revealed that photosynthate was accumulating to high levels, suggesting that the trees with substantially reduced cell wall lignin were not carbon limited and that reductions in sink strength were, instead, limiting photosynthesis.

  5. Multifunctional hybrid coating on titanium towards hydroxyapatite growth: Electrodeposition of tantalum and its molecular functionalization with organophosphonic acids films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, Christelle; Delhalle, Joseph [Laboratory of Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Surfaces, University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Mekhalif, Zineb [Laboratory of Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Surfaces, University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: zineb.mekhalif@fundp.ac.be

    2008-07-20

    Titanium and its alloys are base materials used in the dental and orthopaedic fields owing to suitable intrinsic properties: good biocompatibility, high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. However, the bonding between titanium and bone tissue is not always strong enough and can become a critical problem. In this context, the two main objectives of this paper are the increase of the corrosion resistance and the improvement of the hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. The surface modification considered here is achieved in three main steps and consists in the elaboration of different inorganic and organic coatings. The first step is the elaboration of electrodeposition of tantalum on the titanium oxide film of a titanium substrate. The second step is the modification of the tantalum oxide coating with organophosphonic acids. The last step is the nucleation and growth of HAP on the outermost layer of the system by immersion in a simulated body fluid. The hybrid coating tantalum oxide/organophosphonic acids/molecular layer is shown to be promising for orthopaedic implants.

  6. The Infinite Latent Events Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wingate, David; Roy, Daniel; Tenenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We present the Infinite Latent Events Model, a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian distribution over infinite dimensional Dynamic Bayesian Networks with binary state representations and noisy-OR-like transitions. The distribution can be used to learn structure in discrete timeseries data by simultaneously inferring a set of latent events, which events fired at each timestep, and how those events are causally linked. We illustrate the model on a sound factorization task, a network topology identification task, and a video game task.

  7. In Situ Growth of In2S3 Nanorods in Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Hybrid Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Leal, M.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Corona-Corona, I.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    A novel and efficient gas-liquid method for the in situ synthesis of In2S3 nanorods in a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) matrix is demonstrated. The method involves a self-contained reaction between Na2S and HCl that produces H2S, which reacts with a P3HT/InCl3 solution resulting in hybrid P3HT/In2S3 films. The Na2S solution is regenerated for further use. The method yielded results in In2S3 nanoparticles and nanorods in a P3HT matrix, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The In2S3 nanorods are 3 nm wide and ~30 nm long. The size of the nanorods is dependent on the P3HT concentration. The band gap (E g) of the resulting In2S3/P3HT is in the range of 2.97-3.71 eV, as measured by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) Charge transfer in the In2S3/P3HT was demonstrated by the presence of quenching in the fluorescence spectra of the composite. Chemical composition was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both techniques demonstrated the formation of In2S3.

  8. Nitrogen and phosphorus management strategy for better growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed Ali and Ijaz Rasool Noorka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted during autumn season, 2010 investigated the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on sunflower hybrid Hysun-33. The experiment was planned in randomized complete block design (factorial arrangement, with three replication, having net plot size of 3 x 7 m. The experiment comprised of 9 treatments, three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus, viz., 85, 135, 185 kg N ha-1, and 50, 75, 85 kg P ha-1. Nitrogen affected all estimated characters significantly, except plant population, while, phosphorus did not show significant effect on plant population and plant height. All other parameters, as leaf area plant-1, head diameter, 1000- achene weight and achene yield were affected significantly by different nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Interactive effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were significant in all these cases. The highest achene’s yield (2584 kg ha-1 was obtained with the application of 135-75 kg NP ha-1as against the lowest (1491kg ha-1 at 85-50 kg NP ha-1.

  9. Controlled release of human growth hormone fused with a human hybrid Fc fragment through a nanoporous polymer membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Jang, Do Soo; Yang, Seung Yun; Lee, Mi Nam; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Cha, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Kon; Sung, Young Chul; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2013-05-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and structural integrity of hGH. Thus, the nanoporous release device could be a potential delivery system for the long-term controlled release of therapeutic proteins fused with the hybrid Fc fragment.Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and

  10. Leptin stimulates hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor gene expression in a teleost fish, the hybrid striped bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eugene T; Douros, Jonathan D; Hurt, David A; Borski, Russell J

    2016-04-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic peptide hormone that circulates as an indicator of adiposity in mammals, and functions to maintain energy homeostasis by balancing feeding and energy expenditure. In fish, leptin tends to be predominantly expressed in the liver, another important energy storing tissue, rather than in fat depots as it is in mammals. The liver also produces the majority of circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which comprise the mitogenic component of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF endocrine growth axis. Based on similar regulatory patterns of leptin and IGFs that we have documented in previous studies on hybrid striped bass (HSB: Morone saxatilis×Morone chrysops), and considering the co-localization of these peptides in the liver, we hypothesized that leptin might regulate the endocrine growth axis in a manner that helps coordinate somatic growth with energy availability. Using a HSB hepatocyte culture system to simulate autocrine or paracrine exposure that might occur within the liver, this study examines the potential for leptin to modulate metabolism and growth through regulation of IGF gene expression directly, or indirectly through the regulation of GH receptors (GHR), which mediate GH-induced IGF expression. First, we verified that GH (50nM) has a classical stimulatory effect on IGF-1 and additionally show it stimulates IGF-2 transcription in hepatocytes. Leptin (5 and/or 50nM) directly stimulated in vitro GHR2 gene expression within 8h of exposure, and both GHR1 and GHR2 as well as IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression after 24h. Cells were then co-incubated with submaximal concentrations of leptin and GH (25nM each) to test if they had a synergistic effect on IGF gene expression, possibly through increased GH sensitivity following GHR upregulation by leptin. In combination, however, the treatments only had an additive effect on stimulating IGF-1 mRNA despite their capacity to increase GHR mRNA abundance. This suggests that leptin's stimulatory

  11. Smart designing of new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate microspheres: bio-inspired for sequential nucleation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Walid; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Ramananarivo, Hugo Ronald; Fihri, Aziz; El Achaby, Mounir; Zahouily, Mohamed; Barakat, Abdellatif; Djessas, Kamal; Clark, James; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2014-02-01

    In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the phosphate precursors. These materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX).

  12. Multilevel Latent Class Analysis: Parametric and Nonparametric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class analysis is an analytic technique often used in educational and psychological research to identify meaningful groups of individuals within a larger heterogeneous population based on a set of variables. This technique is flexible, encompassing not only a static set of variables but also longitudinal data in the form of growth mixture…

  13. Growth and carbohydrate status of coppice shoots of hybrid poplar following shoot pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaplinski, T J; Blake, T J

    1995-05-01

    Fifteen, 1-year-old Populus maximowiczii Henry x P. nigra L. 'MN9' trees were decapitated and allowed to sprout. After 8 weeks, all had 6 to 10 coppice shoots. All shoots, except the tallest (dominant) shoot, were removed from five of the trees (pruned treatment), and shoot growth, gas exchange and carbohydrate status were compared in the pruned and unpruned trees. Although photosynthetic rate of recently mature leaves of pruned trees was approximately 50% greater than that of leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, and the dry weight of leaves of pruned trees was 37% greater than that of the leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, the shoot dry matter relative growth rate did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in the uppper stem and leaves of the dominant shoot were similar in pruned and unpruned trees. However, relative to that of the dominant shoot in unpruned trees, the lower stem in pruned trees was depleted in both soluble carbohydrates and starch. Starch deposition, assessed as the quantity of (14)C-starch in tissues 24 h after a fully expanded source leaf was labeled with (14)CO(2), was 3.9 times greater in roots of pruned trees than in roots of unpruned trees. We conclude that early removal of all but the dominant shoot reduces the carbohydrate status of the roots and the lower portion of the stem by eliminating the excised shoots as a source of photosynthate.

  14. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-03-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.

  15. VACCINATION OF HYBRID STRIPED BASS: GROWTH, IMMUNE REACTION AND GENE EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Westerman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid striped bass (42.6+4.9 g wet wt; 139.3+6.1 mm length, were randomly stocked into one of 6 tanks (n=6 tank-1 of a custom designed, recirculating life support system (RLSS. Water quality was as follows: DO2 (6.50.6 mg l-1, pH (7.70.5, TAN (0.06-1.31 mg l-1, nitrite (0.06-0.60 mg l-1 and nitrate (2.0-32.1 mg l-1, salinity 5 ppt, temperature 28±1 oC. A 12:12 photophase:scotophase was used, with a 30 min. dusk-dawn dimming of lights. Fish were fed at 4% body wt d-1 as two separate feedings (08.00 and 16.00 h. Dietary crude protein and lipid levels were 40% and 10% respectively. Tanks were randomly paired and fish either left untreated, vaccinated, or sham injected. The vaccine employed was an experimental formalin killed Streptococcus iniae oil-in-water adjuvanted bacterin. Fish were weighed and measured bimonthly for 8 wk with group weights being employed to adjust feeding rates. At trial termination, all animals were weighed and measured, and their condition factor (CF and feed conversion ratios (FCR calculated. Visceral somatic (VSI and hepatosomatic (HSI indices and intraperitoneal fat (IPF and muscle ratios (MR were also assessed. Blood was taken from anaesthetized fish and hematocrit recorded. Blood was allowed to clot overnight at 5 oC after which serum protein levels were recorded and lysozyme activity measured. Livers were prepared for microarray evaluation using standard techniques using a Danio rerio genechip to assess global changes in gene expression. No differences were observed with respect to final weights, lengths, CF, FCR, or HSI although differences (P < 0.001 were determined for VSI, which was higher in control animals. Packed cell volume and serum protein levels were similar across groups (P > 0.05. Time-course of changes in serum lysozyme activity described an initial reduction in lysozyme activity followed by a rebounding in activity which peaked 25 days post-treatments. Evaluation of lysozyme activity among time

  16. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  17. A hybrid stochastic-deterministic computational model accurately describes spatial dynamics and virus diffusion in HIV-1 growth competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Taina; Gibson, Richard; Leitner, Thomas; Miller, Melanie A; Arts, Eric J; Somersalo, Erkki; Calvetti, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    We present a new hybrid stochastic-deterministic, spatially distributed computational model to simulate growth competition assays on a relatively immobile monolayer of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), commonly used for determining ex vivo fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The novel features of our approach include incorporation of viral diffusion through a deterministic diffusion model while simulating cellular dynamics via a stochastic Markov chain model. The model accounts for multiple infections of target cells, CD4-downregulation, and the delay between the infection of a cell and the production of new virus particles. The minimum threshold level of infection induced by a virus inoculum is determined via a series of dilution experiments, and is used to determine the probability of infection of a susceptible cell as a function of local virus density. We illustrate how this model can be used for estimating the distribution of cells infected by either a single virus type or two competing viruses. Our model captures experimentally observed variation in the fitness difference between two virus strains, and suggests a way to minimize variation and dual infection in experiments.

  18. Forage growth, yield and quality responses of Napier hybrid grass cultivars to three cutting intervals in the Himalayan foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesang Wangchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 x 3 factorial study was conducted in the southern foothills of Bhutan to compare 3 cultivars of Napier hybrid grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. glaucum: Pakchong-1, CO-3 and Giant Napier, at 3 cutting intervals (40, 60 and 80 days, in terms of forage growth, dry matter (DM yield and crude protein (CP concentration. The effects of cultivar x cutting interval were significant only on tiller number per plant and leaf:stem ratio (LSR. CO-3 consistently produced the highest tiller number per plant, leaves per plant and LSR, while Pakchong-1 produced the lowest. Pakchong-1 plants were taller, had bigger tillers and basal circumference and higher stem DM production than CO-3 and Giant. Leaf CP for all cultivars was about 17%, while stem CP concentration was lower for Pakchong-1 than for the other cultivars (3.6 vs. 5.3%, P<0.05. While 40-day cutting intervals produced high quality forage, yields suffered marked-ly and the best compromise between yield and quality of forage seemed to occur with 60-day cutting intervals. Pakchong-1 seems to have no marked advantages over CO-3 and Giant for livestock feed, and feeding studies would verify this. Its higher stem DM yields may be advantageous for biogas production and this aspect should be investigated.Keywords: Bhutan, CO-3, crude protein , dry matter, Giant Napier, Pakchong-1.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3142-150

  19. Hybrid simulation of nanoparticle growth and transport in a pulsed RF CCP sustained in silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Zhu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-09-01

    A pulsed RF silane plasma is studied numerically by adopting a self-consistent one-dimensional fluid/MC model. The large anions (typically Si12H25- and Si12H24-) in the discharge are the main precursors in the pathways leading to particle formation in a nucleation process. In order to study detailed growth of nanoparticles, an aerosol general dynamics equation is introduced and self-consistently coupled to the plasma fluid model, in which spatial distribution of nanoparticles, from several to tens of nm in diameter, is investigated. The numerical results show that, the ion drag force on smaller nanoparticles could to some extent exceed the electrostatic force in the plasma bulk, making the nanoparticles generally move towards the plasma boundaries. So the axial spatial distribution of nanoparticles is like a bimodal structure. With increase of the particle size, the distance between two peaks gradually becomes larger, reflecting the appearance of void in the plasma. At the same time, the presence of nanoparticles can lead to a decline of the electron density and a rise of the potential. In addition, by pulsing the RF source, size-controlled nanoparticles are expected to be extracted from the bulk plasma during the afterglow period. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275038).

  20. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  2. Smart designing of new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate microspheres: Bio-inspired for sequential nucleation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Walid [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Abdelouahdi, Karima [Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST), Division UATRS, Angle Allal Fassi/FAR, B.P. 8027, Hay Riad, 10000 Rabat (Morocco); Ramananarivo, Hugo Ronald; Fihri, Aziz; El Achaby, Mounir [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Zahouily, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Matériaux, Catalyse et Valorisation des Ressources Naturelles, URAC 24, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Hassan II, Mohammedia B.P. 146, 20650 (Morocco); Barakat, Abdellatif [SUPAGRO-INRA-CIRAD-UMR IATE 1208, Ingenierie des Agropolymères et Technologies Emergentes, 2, Place Pierre Viala-Bât 31, 34060 Montpellier cedex 1 (France); Djessas, Kamal [CNRS-PROMES Tecnosud, F-66100 Perpignan (France); Clark, James [Green Chemistry, Centre of Excellence, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Solhy, Abderrahim, E-mail: a.solhy@mascir.com [MAScIR Foundation, INANOTECH, Rabat Design, Rue Mohamed El Jazouli, Madinat El Irfane 10100 Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-02-01

    In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the phosphate precursors. These materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). - Graphical abstract: A new class of hybrid materials based on brushite{sub a}lginate and monetite{sub a}lginate were prepared for the first time by adopting a soft and clean route. Thanks to their gelling and swelling properties, alginate porous polysaccharide microspheres behave as nanoreactors for nucleating, growing and hosting of the phosphate cements such as brushite or monetite. - Highlights: • New structured hybrid materials are prepared from biopolymer and phosphates. • Evidence for a new route for the synthesis of hybrid materials alginate-brushite and alginate-monetite via ionotropic gel of alginate. • The concentration of phosphate has a role crucial for selectivity to monetite or brushite.

  3. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP, confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP, when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Methods Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617, and the other (Met library by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. Results We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. Conclusion This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in

  4. Comparative Reproductive and Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Its Hybrid Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Owodeinde, Fatai Gbolahan

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the comparative reproductive, growth performances and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus and its hybrid "heteroclarias" using ovaprim and pituitary extract of male and female C. gariepinus. The experimental broodstocks consisted of 6 female C. gariepinus (2 each were induced separately with ovaprim, male pituitary of C. gariepinus and female pituitary of C. gariepinus), 3 male C. gariepinus and 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis. 2 female C. ...

  5. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  6. BEYOND SEM: GENERAL LATENT VARIABLE MODELING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muthén, Bengt O

    2002-01-01

    This article gives an overview of statistical analysis with latent variables. Using traditional structural equation modeling as a starting point, it shows how the idea of latent variables captures a wide variety of statistical concepts...

  7. Proper elimination of latent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.

    1997-01-01

    We consider behaviors in which we distinguish two types of variables, manifest variables, the variables that are of interest to the user and latent variables, the variables that are introduced to obtain a first representation. The problem is to find a representation of the manifest behavior, that

  8. Switched Dynamical Latent Force Models for Modelling Transcriptional Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    López-Lopera, Andrés F

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop statistical approaches for transcription networks, statistical community has proposed several methods to infer activity levels of proteins, from time-series measurements of targets' expression levels. A few number of approaches have been proposed in order to outperform the representation of fast switching time instants, but computational overheads are significant due to complex inference algorithms. Using the theory related to latent force models (LFM), the development of this project provide a switched dynamical hybrid model based on Gaussian processes (GPs). To deal with discontinuities in dynamical systems (or latent driving force), an extension of the single input motif approach is introduced, that switches between different protein concentrations, and different dynamical systems. This creates a versatile representation for transcription networks that can capture discrete changes and non-linearities in the dynamics. The proposed method is evaluated on both simulated data and real data,...

  9. Resource allocation among sexual, clonal reproduction and vegetative growth of two Potamogeton species and their hybrid:Adaptability of the hybrid in relation to its parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan LIU; Xiao-Lin ZHANG; Qing-Feng WANG; Hui LIU; Guang-Xi WANG; Wei LI

    2013-01-01

    Resource allocation,as well as the tradeoffs among different reproductive components,plays an important role in the adaptability of plants to different environments.The hybrid may exhibit a higher adaptability in life history in heterogeneous environments because of the genetic variation derived from its parents.In this study,we exploited three levels of water depths and two types of sediments to investigate the resource allocation pattern of the first generation of the natural hybrid Potamogeton × intortifolius compared to its parents P.wrightii and P.perfoliatus.We also measured the ramet survivorship and the seed set of the hybrid P.× intortifolius.Our results showed that P.×intortifolius had higher ramet survival than its parents at 1.5-m water depth on clay sediment.The possible tradeoffs showed that in P.×intortifolius the tradeoff pattern between sexual and clonal reproduction was more pronounced in limiting environments.The individuals allocated more resources to sexual reproduction when the environment was limiting,which might confer a higher ability to utilize resources,to produce offspring and to found new populations.Although the seed set of P.×intortifolius was lower than its parents,it had a higher ability to increase its seed set when the environment was limiting (sandy sediment) than its parents,which might benefit its future survival.These results indicated that the F1 hybrid P.×intortifolius was more able to adapt to limiting environments than one or both of its two parental taxa.

  10. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  11. Nursery inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus viscosum and its effect on the growth and physiology of hybrid artichoke seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campanelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Most nurseries operating in Italy adopt high technologies and produce transplants that well suit and satisfy the grower’s need to produce high value crops. Mycorrhizas are discussed as a tool for improving and developing plant production in the nursery. Much research has been carried out on mycorrhizal symbiosis and we now know more about the symbiontic relationship between fungi and host plants. Plants receive numerous benefits from this symbiosis which are more macroscopic the earlier in the ontogenetic cycle this symbiosis is established. Therefore, it appears that the most effective period in which the inoculum should be made corresponds to the in-nursery growing stage. The earlier the plant is inoculated, the more evident the effect will be. In this study, several aspects related to the physiological foundations of arbuscular mycorrhiza in artichoke plants are presented. The main goal was to study the effects of mycorrhiza on the growth and physiological parameters of three hybrids of artichokes growing in the nursery. The experimental 3¥2 design included two treatments (with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and three hybrids of artichokes marketed by Nunhems (Opal F1, Madrigal F1, Concerto F1. Mycorrhizal plants have greater shoot length, leaf area, shoot and root fresh and dry mass, and root density. This also corresponded with increased photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization improves relative water content and increases proline concentration in vegetal tissue. Inoculation produced the most beneficial effect on hybrid Madrigal F1 and on hybrid Opal F1; the best mycorrhizal affinity was enhanced when compared to hybrid Concerto F1. The results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis stimulated the growth of inoculated seedlings providing a qualitatively good propagation material.

  12. Differential Gene Expression Between Hybrids and Their Parents During the Four Crucial Stages of Cotton Growth and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yun-lei; YU Shu-xun; XING Chao-zhu; FAN Shu-li; SONG Mei-zhen; YE Wu-wei

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to clarify the differential gene expression between cotton hybrids and their parents in order to better understand the molecular basis of cotton heterosis. The research focused on cotton heterotic and lower heterotic hybrids and their parents during the four crucial stages, which were analyzed using a differential display technique. The results indicated that there were both quantitative and qualitative differences in gene expression amongst them. The quantitative differences include over- and under-expression of parental genes and the dominant expression of highly-expressed parental genes in hybrids. In contrast, the qualitative differences are the following: (i) Bands were observed in both parents but not in the F1 hybrid (BPnF1); (ii) bands occurred in either of the parents but not in the F1 hybrid (UPnF1); (iii) bands presented only in the F1 hybrid but not in either of the parents (UF1nP); and (iv) bands were detected in either of the parents and the F1 hybrid (UPF1). Overall, the major differences of gene expression occurred in the qualitative level and four related differential patterns were observed. Furthermore, the amount of differential patterns during the flowering stage was relatively higher than those of other stages. At this juncture, both the amount of hybrid-specific expression patterns at flowering stage and the silenced expression patterns at boll-forming stage in highly heterotic hybrids were found higher than those in the lower heterotic ones. It was concluded that significant differences of gene expression in leaves were present between cotton hybrid and its parents during the whole growing stages. Hence, these differences might be responsible for the observed cotton heterosis.

  13. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids: one-step catalytic growth and applications for high-rate Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhu, Wancheng; Wei, Fei

    2012-12-21

    The theoretically proposed graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (G/SWCNT) hybrids by placing SWCNTs among graphene planes through covalent C-C bonding are expected to have extraordinary physical properties and promising engineering applications. However, the G/CNT hybrids that have been fabricated differ greatly from the proposed G/SWCNT hybrids because either the covalent C-C bonding is not well constructed or only multiwalled CNTs/carbon nanofibers rather than SWCNTs are available in the hybrids. Herein, a novel G/SWCNT hybrid was successfully fabricated by a facile catalytic growth on layered double hydroxide (LDH) at a high temperature over 950 °C. The thermally stable Fe nanoparticles and the uniform structure of the calcined LDH flakes are essential for the simultaneously catalytic deposition of SWCNTs and graphene. The SWCNTs and the CVD-grown graphene, as well as the robust connection between the SWCNTs and graphene, facilitated the construction of a high electrical conductive pathway. The internal spaces between the two stacked graphene layers and among SWCNTs offer room for sulfur storage. Therefore, the as obtained G/SWCNT-S cathode exhibited excellent performance in Li-S batteries with a capacity as high as 650 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles even at a high current rate of 5 C. Such a novel G/SWCNT hybrid can serve not only as a prototype to shed light on the chemical principle of G/CNT synthesis but also as a platform for their further applications in the area of nanocomposites, heterogeneous catalysis, drug delivery, electrochemical energy storage, and so on.

  14. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  15. Analysis of latent structures in linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    In chemometrics the emphasis is on latent structure models. The latent structure is the part of the data that the modeling task is based upon. This paper is addressing some fundamental issues, when latent structures are used. The paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned defining...

  16. Targeting latent TGFβ release in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ermelinda; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon; Miller, Tamari; DeJesus, Adam; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Smith, Lucas R; Barton, Elisabeth R; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-10-22

    Latent transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) binding proteins (LTBPs) bind to inactive TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. In mice, muscular dystrophy symptoms are intensified by a genetic polymorphism that changes the hinge region of LTBP, leading to increased proteolytic susceptibility and TGFβ release. We have found that the hinge region of human LTBP4 was also readily proteolysed and that proteolysis could be blocked by an antibody to the hinge region. Transgenic mice were generated to carry a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the human LTBP4 gene. These transgenic mice displayed larger myofibers, increased damage after muscle injury, and enhanced TGFβ signaling. In the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the human LTBP4 transgene exacerbated muscular dystrophy symptoms and resulted in weaker muscles with an increased inflammatory infiltrate and greater LTBP4 cleavage in vivo. Blocking LTBP4 cleavage may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce TGFβ release and activity and decrease inflammation and muscle damage in muscular dystrophy.

  17. Does domestication cause changes in growth reaction norms? A study of farmed, wild and hybrid Atlantic salmon families exposed to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available One of the most important traits linked with the successful domestication of animals is reducing their sensitivity to environmental stressors in the human controlled environment. In order to examine whether domestication selection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., over approximately ten generations, has inadvertently selected for reduced responsiveness to stress, we compared the growth reaction norms of 29 wild, hybrid and domesticated families reared together under standard hatchery conditions (control and in the presence of a stressor (reduced water level twice daily. The experiment was conducted for a 14 week period. Farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:2.93 in the control tanks, and no overlap in mean weight was displayed between families representing the three groups. Thus, the elevation of the reaction norms differed among the groups. Overall, growth was approximately 25% lower in the stressed tanksl; however, farmed salmon outgrew wild salmon 1:3.42 under these conditions. That farmed salmon maintained a relatively higher growth rate than the wild salmon in the stressed tanks demonstrates a lower responsiveness to stress in the farmed salmon. Thus, flatter reaction norm slopes were displayed in the farmed salmon, demonstrating reduced plasticity for this trait under these specific experimental conditions. For all growth measurements, hybrid salmon displayed intermediate values. Wild salmon displayed higher heritability estimates for body weight than the hybrid and farmed salmon in both environments. This suggests reduced genetic variation for body weight in the farmed contra wild salmon studied here. While these results may be linked to the specific families and stocks investigated, and verification in other stocks and traits is needed, these data are consistent with the theoretical predictions of domestication.

  18. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsak, Maksim; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied, compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its appli...

  19. Advancement of Latent Trait Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Estimation with the Multiple-Choice Test Item. American Educational Research Association Meeting, New Orleans, 1984. (Coauthorship with Paul S. Changas...Chicago, 1985. U. S. A. (Coauthorship with Paul S. Changas) (10) Expansion of the General Model for the Homogeneous Case of the Continuous Response Level...17-20. [2] Lazarsfeld , P. F. Latent structure analysis. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: a study of a science, Volume 3. McGraw-Hill, 1959, pages 476-542

  20. Growth of GaN@InGaN Core-Shell and Au-GaN Hybrid Nanostructures for Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevye Kuykendall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a method to control the bandgap energy of GaN nanowires by forming GaN@InGaN core-shell hybrid structures using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. Furthermore, we show the growth of Au nanoparticles on the surface of GaN nanowires in solution at room temperature. The work shown here is a first step toward engineering properties that are crucial for the rational design and synthesis of a new class of photocatalytic materials. The hybrid structures were characterized by various techniques, including photoluminescence (PL, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, and x-ray diffraction (XRD.

  1. Latent heat of vehicular motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Berrier, Austin; Habibi, Mohammad; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    We have used the thermodynamic concept of latent heat, where a system loses energy due to a solid-to-liquid phase transition, to study the flow of a group of vehicles moving from rest. During traffic flow, drivers keep a large distance from the car in front of them to ensure safe driving. When a group of cars comes to a stop, for example at a red light, drivers voluntarily induce a "phase transition" from this "liquid phase" to a close-packed "solid phase." This phase transition is motivated by the intuition that maximizing displacement before stopping will minimize the overall travel time. To test the effects of latent heat on flow efficiency, a drone captured the dynamics of cars flowing through an intersection on a Smart Road where the initial spacing between cars at the red light was systematically varied. By correlating the experimental results with the Optimal Velocity Model (OVM), we find that the convention of inducing phase transitions at intersections offers no benefit, as the lag time (latent heat) of resumed flow offsets the initial increase in displacement. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to maximize safety with no loss in flow efficiency.

  2. Estimating hybrid choice models with the new version of Biogeme

    OpenAIRE

    Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid choice models integrate many types of discrete choice modeling methods, including latent classes and latent variables, in order to capture concepts such as perceptions, attitudes, preferences, and motivatio (Ben-Akiva et al., 2002). Although they provide an excellent framework to capture complex behavior patterns, their use in applications remains rare in the literature due to the difficulty of estimating the models. In this talk, we provide a short introduction to hybrid choice model...

  3. EFFECT OF INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TRANSPLANTED HYBRID RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L. CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYEES A. SHAH* SANDEEP KUMAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The integrated use of organic and inorganic sources of plant nutrients can help in sustainable and environmentally sound nutrient management of soils that are low in organic matter. A study was conducted  during 2009- 10 & 2010-11, on sandy loam soils, low in organic carbon, medium in available phosphorus and potash with pH of 7.5 at Agricultural Research Farm of C.C.R.(P.G. College, Muzaffarnagar U.P. India, to investigate the comparative use of  integrated nutrient management on vegetative growth and yield of hybrid rice. The experiment was laid out with fifteen treatments in a RBD. The treatments were; Control (T1, NPK 100% RDF (T2, NPK 75% RDF (T3, NPK 50% RDF + FYM @ 10 tons  ha-1 (T4, NPK 50% RDF + FYM @15 tons ha-1 (T5, NPK 50% RDF + wheat cut straw @10 tons ha-1 (T6, NPK 50% RDF + wheat cut straw @15 tons ha-1 (T7, NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 2.5 tones ha-1 (T8, NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 5 tones ha-1 (T9, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tons ha-1 (T10, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tons ha-1 +Azotobacter (T11, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tones ha-1 +PSB @ 5Kg ha-1 (T12, NPK 50% RDF + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tones ha-1 + Azospirillum (T13, NPK 50% RDF  + Azotobacter + Azospirillum + PSB @ 5 Kg ha-1(T14, and NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @ 2.5 tones ha-1 +FYM @5 tons  ha-1 + Azotobacter+PSB @ 5Kg ha-1 (T15. The maximum grain yield (63 and 67 q per hectare during 2009 and 2010, respectively was obtained with the integration of NPK 50% RDF + Neem cake @2.5 tonnes ha-1 + FYM @5 tonnes ha-1+Azotobacter+PSB @ 5kg ha-1.

  4. Indentifying Latent Classes and Testing Their Determinants in Early Adolescents' Use of Computers and Internet for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…

  5. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A

    2010-06-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  6. Non-cytotoxic organic-inorganic hybrid bioscaffolds: An efficient bedding for rapid growth of bone-like apatite and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Lukasz, E-mail: lukasz.john@chem.uni.wroc.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Baltrukiewicz, Marta; Sobota, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Brykner, Renata; Cwynar-Zajac, Lucja [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Dziegiel, Piotr [Department of Histology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, 6a Chalubinskiego, 50-368 Wroclaw (Poland); Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 6 Swiecickiego, 61-781 Poznan (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Synthesis and characterization of organic-inorganic macroporous hybrid scaffolds were investigated. The materials were prepared by combining 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethoxyvinylsilane (TEVS) chemically modified by Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions via sol-gel route. In this study we have constructed a sugar-based cracks-free three-dimensional (3D) network with interconnected porous architecture within the range of 150-300 {mu}m and rough topography. The obtained results revealed that both topography and composition of prepared materials allow rapid growth of the bone-like apatite (HAp) layer on their surface after soaking in biological medium. Preliminary studies have shown that hybrids covered by HAp are non-cytotoxic and allow cell proliferation that make them a promising scaffolds in the field of bone regenerative medicine. The materials were mainly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived biomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3D organic-inorganic hybrid composites for bone tissue engineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sugar-templated cracks-free macroporous scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate/triethoxyvinylsilane blend doped with calcium and phosphate ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-cytotoxic bedding for fibroblasts proliferation.

  7. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes

    2004-07-01

    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Enhanced latent inhibition in high schizotypy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Kiri T.; Moran, Paula M.; Buckley, Matthew G.; Haselgrove, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Latent inhibition refers to a retardation in learning about a stimulus that has been rendered familiar by non-reinforced preexposure, relative to a non-preexposed stimulus. Latent inhibition has been shown to be inversely correlated with schizotypy, and abnormal in people with schizophrenia, but these findings are inconsistent. One potential contributing factor to this inconsistency is that many tasks that purport to measure latent inhibition are confounded by alternative effects that also re...

  9. Bayesian variable selection for latent class models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Joyee; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we develop a latent class model with class probabilities that depend on subject-specific covariates. One of our major goals is to identify important predictors of latent classes. We consider methodology that allows estimation of latent classes while allowing for variable selection uncertainty. We propose a Bayesian variable selection approach and implement a stochastic search Gibbs sampler for posterior computation to obtain model-averaged estimates of quantities of interest such as marginal inclusion probabilities of predictors. Our methods are illustrated through simulation studies and application to data on weight gain during pregnancy, where it is of interest to identify important predictors of latent weight gain classes.

  10. Selection of hybrids and edible citrus species with a high content in the diosmin functional compound. Modulating effect of plant growth regulators on contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, F R; Del Río, J A

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify species, hybrids, and cultivars of edible Citrus species with high contents of diosmin as a functional compound and also to identify the developmental progress of the fruit in which it reaches maximum levels; these findings would be useful for extraction purposes and for the modulating effect of plant growth regulators on diosmin content to increase the level of this flavone. The results obtained reveal that the highest contents of diosmin are present in immature fruits of certain varieties of citron (Buda's finger) and lemon (Meyer), whereas the contents in the edible parts of the fruits are irrelevant from a pharmacological point of view. Similarly, it is shown that it is possible to increase the content of this flavone using hormonal treatments (6-benzylaminopurine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) during the early stages of fruit growth.

  11. Polymer crystallization as a tool to pattern hybrid nanostructures: growth of 12 nm ZnO arrays in poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Reza; Huettner, Sven; Vaynzof, Yana; Ducati, Caterina; Divitini, Giorgio; Lohwasser, Ruth H; Musselman, Kevin P; Sepe, Alessandro; Scherer, Maik R J; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Steiner, Ullrich; Friend, Richard H

    2013-09-11

    Well-ordered hybrid materials with a 10 nm length scale are highly desired. We make use of the natural length scale (typically 10-15 nm) of the alternating crystalline and amorphous layers that are generally found in semicrystalline polymers to direct the growth of a semiconducting metal oxide. This approach is exemplified with the growth of ZnO within a carboxylic acid end-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT-COOH). The metal-oxide precursor vapors diffuse into the amorphous parts of the semicrystalline polymer so that sheets of ZnO up to 0.5 μm in size can be grown. This P3HT-ZnO nanostructure further functions as a donor-acceptor photovoltaic system, with length scales appropriate for charge photogeneration.

  12. Growth window and effect of substrate symmetry in hybrid molecular beam epitaxy of a Mott insulating rare earth titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Zhang, Jack Y.; Raghavan, Santosh; Kajdos, Adam P.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, 93106-5050 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The conditions for the growth of stoichiometric GdTiO{sub 3} thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are investigated. It is shown that relatively high growth temperatures (>750 Degree-Sign C) are required to obtain an MBE growth window in which only the stoichiometric film grows for a range of cation flux ratios. This growth window narrows with increasing film thickness. It is also shown that single-domain films are obtained by the growth on a symmetry-matched substrate. The influence of lattice mismatch strain on the electrical and magnetic characteristics of the GdTiO{sub 3} thin film is investigated.

  13. Performance and variability patterns in wood properties and growth traits in the parents, F1 and F2 generation hybrid clones of Populus deltoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. K. Pande; R. C. Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    The performance and variability patterns in the wood ele- ment's dimensions, specific gravity and growth parameters namely ramet height and GBH were evaluated in 16 clones of parents, F1 and F2 hy- brids of Populus deltoides Bartr. Ex Marsh. Ramet radial variations were non-significant, while inter-clonal variations due to interaction of clone/replication were significant for all the wood traits except vessel element length. Inter-clonal variations were significant only for fiber length and fiber wall thickness. Fiber length and specific gravity were significantly higher in female, while wall thickness and vessel element length were higher in male clones. Female parents (G48 and S7C8) showed higher flber length and specific gravity than of the male parent (G3), while vessel diameter and wall thickness were higher in male par- ent (G3). There is not much difference in fiber length and vessel ele- ment's dimensions among the parents, F1 and F2 generation hybrid clones. Specific gravity did not showed any trend for parents, F1 and F2 generations. Generally female clones showed higher growth rate. Broad sense heritability for wood traits ranged from 0.143 (fiber length) to 0.505 (fiber wall thickness), while for growth Waits it was 0.374 (GBH) and 0.418 (height). Genetic gain for all the wood and growth traits was positive for most of the wood waits. The highly divergent male clone (78) and female clones (S7C8, G48, W/A 49) in number of combinations could be used for developing new hybrids of desired wood traits to de- velop new clones.

  14. Two-photon polymerization of 3-D zirconium oxide hybrid scaffolds for long-term stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A; Nguyen, Alexander K; Kumar, Girish; Zheng, Jiwen; Goering, Peter L; Koroleva, Anastasia; Chichkov, Boris N; Narayan, Roger J

    2014-06-01

    Two-photon polymerization is a technique that involves simultaneous absorption of two photons from a femtosecond laser for selective polymerization of a photosensitive material. In this study, two-photon polymerization was used for layer-by-layer fabrication of 3-D scaffolds composed of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material. Four types of scaffold microarchitectures were created, which exhibit layers of parallel line features at various orientations as well as pores between the line features. Long-term cell culture studies involving human bone marrow stromal cells were conducted using these 3-D scaffolds. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were demonstrated on all of the scaffold types; tissuelike structure was shown to span the pores. This study indicates that two-photon polymerization may be used to create microstructured scaffolds out of an inorganic-organic zirconium oxide hybrid material for use in 3-D tissue culture systems.

  15. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Level on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics in Flag Leaf of Super Hybrid Rice at Late Growth Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Ji-rui; MA Guo-hui; WAN Yi-zheng; SONG Chun-fang; SUN Jian; QIN Rui-jun

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of slow-release nitrogen fertilizer at six different levels on the flag leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice,a field fertilization experiment was conducted with super hybrid rice Y Liangyou 1 as a test material.The photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR),effective quantum yield (EQY),photochemical quenching coefficient (qp),and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) of flag leaves were measured at the initial heading,full heading,10 d after full heading and 20 d after full heading stages.Results showed that the values of ETR,EQY and qp increased with rice development from initial heading to 20 d after full heading,whereas the NPQ decreased.During the measured stages,ETR,EQY and qp increased initially and then decreased as nitrogen application amount increased,but they peaked at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.The maximum ETR and EQY values appeared at the treatment of 135 kg/hm2 N.In conclusion,the optimum nitrogen amount for chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of super hybrid rice was 135-180 kg/hm2.

  16. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  17. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  18. Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis With Applications in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    One of the few books on latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA) with a comprehensive treatment of longitudinal latent class models, Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis reflects improvements in statistical computing as the most up-to-date reference for theoretical, technical, and practical issues in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Plentiful examples enable the reader to acquire a thorough conceptual and technical understanding and to apply techniques to address empirical research questions. Researchers seeking an advanced introduction to LCA and LTA and g

  19. Effects of Water Deficit and Increased Nitrogen Application in the Late Growth Stage on Physiological Characters of Anti-aging of Leaves in Different Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the effects of water and fertilizer regulation on the function of leaves in the filling stage. [Method] Six hybrid rice vari- eties including prematurely aged types and non-prematurely aged ones were selected as experimental materials. Limiting water treatment (with soil water potential of about -25 kpa) and increasing nitrogen treatment (additional 10% of granular nitrogen fertiliz- er in addition to limiting water treatment) were applied after heading to analyse the rates of aging and physiological responses of anti-aging in different hybrid rice vari- eties under water deficit and increased nitrogen conditions taking regular water and fertilizer as control. [Result] The results showed that water deficit accelerated the leaf senescence, and prematurely aged types-'Zhongyou838', 'Tianyou998' and 'Long- ping601 '-were more markedly affected by water deficit, of which the rates of chloro- phyll degradation were 6%-8% higher compared to that in another three hybrids. In- creasing nitrogen treatment raised chlorophyll content and slowed down its degrada- tion. Water deficit caused the increase of abscisic acid (ABA) content to obviously varying degrees in leaves of six hybried rice varieties. Responses of ABA content in six hybried rice varieties to increased nitrogen fertilizer were not consistent. Except in 'Zhongyou838', ABA content in the other five hybrids had varying degrees of in- crease. The responses of the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different hybried rice varieties were inconsistent. In response to increased nitrogen fertilizer in combination with water deficit, the activity of each antioxidant enzyme changed differently. Water deficit enhanced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in leaves of each hybrid rice. The correlation analysis showed that chlorophyll content was extremely signifi- cantly positively correlated to the resistance of each antioxidant enzyme; SOD activity in leaves also positively

  20. Increased abundance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I hybrid receptors in skeletal muscle of obese subjects is correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, M; Porzio, O; Lauro, D; Borboni, P; Giovannone, B; Zucaro, L; Hribal, M L; Sesti, G

    1998-08-01

    We reported that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes melitus (NIDDM) patients expression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) hybrid receptors is increased in insulin target tissues. Whether this is a defect associated with NIDDM or represents a generalized abnormality associated with insulin resistant states is still unsettled. To address this, we applied a microwell-based immunoassay to measure abundance of insulin receptors, type 1 IGF receptors, and hybrid receptors in muscle of eight normal and eight obese subjects. Maximal insulin binding to insulin receptors was lower in obese than in control subjects (B/T = 1.8 +/- 0.20 and 2.6 +/- 0.30; P < 0.03, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulinemia (r = -0.60; P < 0.01). Maximal IGF-I binding to type 1 IGF receptors was higher in obese than in controls (B/T = 1.9 +/- 0.20 and 0.86 +/- 0.10; P < 0.0001, respectively) and was negatively correlated with plasma IGF-I levels (r = -0.69; P < 0.003). Hybrid receptor abundance was higher in obese than in normal subjects (B/T = 1.21 +/- 0.14 and 0.44 +/- 0.06; P < 0.0003, respectively) and was negatively correlated with insulin binding (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I binding (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001). Increased abundance of hybrids was correlated with insulinemia (r = 0.70; P < 0.002) and body mass index (r = 0.71; P < 0.0019), whereas it was negatively correlated with in vivo insulin sensitivity measured by ITT (r = -0.67; P < 0.016). These results indicate that downregulation of insulin receptors or upregulation of type 1 IGF receptors because of changes in plasma insulin and IGF-I levels may result in modifications in hybrid receptor abundance.

  1. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  2. Identification of growth phenotype-related genes in Aspergillus oryzae by heterologous macroarray and suppression subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Levin, A.; Sagt, C.; Bartels, J.; Goosen, T.; Ram, A.; Hondel, C. van den; Punt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae requires polarized growth for colonization of solid substrates, and this growth phenotype differs from that seen in liquid medium. Various experimental approaches were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when A. oryzae is grown on wheat kernels and in a wheat-

  3. Identification of growth phenotype-related genes in Aspergillus oryzae by heterologous macroarray and suppression subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Levin, A.; Sagt, C.; Bartels, J.; Goosen, T.; Ram, A.; Hondel, C. van den; Punt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae requires polarized growth for colonization of solid substrates, and this growth phenotype differs from that seen in liquid medium. Various experimental approaches were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when A. oryzae is grown on wheat kernels and in a wheat-

  4. Identification of growth phenotype-related genes in Aspergillus oryzae by heterologous macroarray and suppression subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, R. te; Levin, A.; Sagt, C.; Bartels, J.; Goosen, T.; Ram, A.; Hondel, C. van den; Punt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae requires polarized growth for colonization of solid substrates, and this growth phenotype differs from that seen in liquid medium. Various experimental approaches were used to identify genes that are differentially expressed when A. oryzae is grown on wheat kernels and in a

  5. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity...... and independence. In music as well as language the patterns we come across become part of our mental workspace when the bottom-up sensory input raises above the background noise of core affect, and top-down trigger distinct feelings reflecting a shift of our attention. And as both low-level semantics and our...... emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent...

  6. Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Connie A

    2017-04-01

    There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy. The efficacy of LTBI treatment is well established, and the most commonly used regimen is 9 months of daily self-administered isoniazid. However, its use has been hindered by limited provider awareness of the benefits, concern about potential side effects such as hepatotoxicity, and low rates of treatment completion. There is increasing evidence that shorter rifamycin-based regimens are as effective, better tolerated, and more likely to be completed compared to isoniazid. Such regimens include four months of daily self-administered rifampin monotherapy, three months of once weekly directly observed isoniazid-rifapentine, and three months of daily self-administered isoniazid-rifampin. The success of LTBI treatment to prevent additional TB disease relies upon choosing an appropriate regimen individualized to the patient, monitoring for potential adverse clinical events, and utilizing strategies to promote adherence. Safer, more cost-effective, and more easily completed regimens are needed and should be combined with interventions to better identify, engage, and retain high-risk individuals across the cascade from diagnosis through treatment completion of LTBI.

  7. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  8. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  9. A comparative analysis of growth in maize (Zea mays L. hybrids of different genetic profiles depending on type of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szulc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of 3-year field trials (2009-2011, aiming at a comparative analysis of growth in maize cultivars of different genetic profiles depending on the type of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium dose at the cob flowering stage (BBCH 67. Investigations were conducted at the Department of Agronomy, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, in the fields of the Teaching and Experimental Station in Swadzim. A comparative analysis of maize (Zea mays L. growth was based on the assimilating area of a single plant and the following indexes: SLA (specific leaf area, LWF (leaf weight fraction, SWF (stem weight fraction, EWF (ear weight fraction, LAI (leaf area index and LAR (leaf area ratio. No significant differences were noticed between the tested types of nitrogen fertilizers in terms of values of discussed traits. These values differed significantly in relation to the treatment with no nitrogen application. It was shown that the application of magnesium had no significant effect on the analyzed growth parameters in the tested types of maize cultivars. The stay-green hybrid turned out to be a leafy cultivar, as evidenced by the greater number of leaves per ha, assimilating area of a single plant, leaf area index (LAI, leaf weight and the proportion of leaves in plant mass. Cultivar ES Paroli SG was characterized by a more efficient transport of assimilates, as determined by the value of specific leaf area (SLA.

  10. A genome-wide screen for ethylene-induced ethylene response factors (ERFs) in hybrid aspen stem identifies ERF genes that modify stem growth and wood properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, Jorma; Felten, Judith; Love, Jonathan; Gorzsás, András; Gerber, Lorenz; Lamminmäki, Airi; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Sundberg, Björn

    2013-10-01

    Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are a large family of transcription factors that mediate responses to ethylene. Ethylene affects many aspects of wood development and is involved in tension wood formation. Thus ERFs could be key players connecting ethylene action to wood development. We identified 170 gene models encoding ERFs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. The transcriptional responses of ERF genes to ethylene treatments were determined in stem tissues of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) by qPCR. Selected ethylene-responsive ERFs were overexpressed in wood-forming tissues and characterized for growth and wood chemotypes by FT-IR. Fifty ERFs in Populus showed more than five-fold increased transcript accumulation in response to ethylene treatments. Twenty-six ERFs were selected for further analyses. A majority of these were induced during tension wood formation. Overexpression of ERFs 18, 21, 30, 85 and 139 in wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen modified the wood chemotype. Moreover, overexpression of ERF139 caused a dwarf-phenotype with altered wood development, and overexpression of ERF18, 34 and 35 slightly increased stem diameter. We identified ethylene-induced ERFs that respond to tension wood formation, and modify wood formation when overexpressed. This provides support for their role in ethylene-mediated regulation of wood development.

  11. The Inorganic-organic Hybrid Junction with n-ZnO Nanorods/p-polyfluorene Structure Grown with Low-temperature Aqueous Chemical Growth Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; BIAN Jiming; SUN Yinglan; CHENG Chuanhui; SUN Jingchang; LLANG Hongwei; LUO Yingmin; DU Guotong

    2012-01-01

    The inorganic-organic hybrid junction was synthesized on ITO glass substrate,which was consisted of an n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method and a p-type polyfluorene (PF) organic film fabricated by spin-coating.The experimental results indicate that densely and uniformly distributed ZnO nanorods are successfully grown on the PF layer.The thickness of the PF layer plays a dominant role for the current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristic of the ZnO NRs/PF inorganic-organic hybrid junction device,and a p-n junction with obviously rectifying behavior is achieved with optimal PF layer thickness.The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum coveting the broad visible range was obtained from the n-ZnO nanorods/p-polyfluorene (PF) structure,which was originated from the combination of the PF-related blue emission and the ZnO-related deep level emission.

  12. Analysis of latent structures in linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    that are useful, when studying latent structures. It is shown how loading weight vectors are generated and how they can be interpreted in analyzing the latent structure. It is shown how the covariance can be used to get useful ‘apriori’ information on the modeling task. Also some simple methods are presented...... to use for deciding if single or multiple latent structures should be used. The last part is about choosing the variables that should be used in the analysis. The traditional procedures to select variables to include in the model are presented and the insufficiencies of such approaches are demonstrated...

  13. Growth, body fatty acid composition, immune response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus, fed diets containing various levels of linoleic and linolenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary linoleic (LA) and linolenic acids (LN) on growth and immunity of all-male hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus, were evaluated for 10 weeks. Fish fed 0.12% LA + 0% LN had the lowest weight gain (WG) but was not significantly different from diets containing 0.5% LA...

  14. Expected Classification Accuracy using the Latent Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanmin Guo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rudner (2001, 2005 proposed a method for evaluating classification accuracy in tests based on item response theory (IRT. In this paper, a latent distribution method is developed. For comparison, both methods are applied to a set of real data from a state test. While the latent distribution method relaxes several of the assumptions needed to apply Rudner's method, both approaches yield extremely comparable results. A simplified approach for applying Rudner's method and a short SPSS routine are presented.

  15. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  16. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  17. A Bayesian Approach to a Multiple-Group Latent Class-Profile Analysis: The Timing of Drinking Onset and Subsequent Drinking Behaviors among U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan; Anthony, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a multiple-group latent class-profile analysis (LCPA) by taking a Bayesian approach in which a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation is employed to achieve more robust estimates for latent growth patterns. This article describes and addresses a label-switching problem that involves the LCPA likelihood function, which has…

  18. Application of a Hybrid Forest Growth Model to Evaluate Climate Change Impacts on Productivity, Nutrient Cycling and Mortality in a Montane Forest Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Seely

    Full Text Available Climate change introduces considerable uncertainty in forest management planning and outcomes, potentially undermining efforts at achieving sustainable practices. Here, we describe the development and application of the FORECAST Climate model. Constructed using a hybrid simulation approach, the model includes an explicit representation of the effect of temperature and moisture availability on tree growth and survival, litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. The model also includes a representation of the impact of increasing atmospheric CO2 on water use efficiency, but no direct CO2 fertilization effect. FORECAST Climate was evaluated for its ability to reproduce the effects of historical climate on Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine growth in a montane forest in southern British Columbia, Canada, as measured using tree ring analysis. The model was subsequently used to project the long-term impacts of alternative future climate change scenarios on forest productivity in young and established stands. There was a close association between predicted sapwood production and measured tree ring chronologies, providing confidence that model is able to predict the relative impact of annual climate variability on tree productivity. Simulations of future climate change suggest a modest increase in productivity in young stands of both species related to an increase in growing season length. In contrast, results showed a negative impact on stemwood biomass production (particularly in the case of lodgepole pine for established stands due to increased moisture stress mortality.

  19. Latent trajectory studies: the basics, how to interpret the results, and what to report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens van de Schoot

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In statistics, tools have been developed to estimate individual change over time. Also, the existence of latent trajectories, where individuals are captured by trajectories that are unobserved (latent, can be evaluated (Muthén & Muthén, 2000. The method used to evaluate such trajectories is called Latent Growth Mixture Modeling (LGMM or Latent Class Growth Modeling (LCGA. The difference between the two models is whether variance within latent classes is allowed for (Jung & Wickrama, 2008. The default approach most often used when estimating such models begins with estimating a single cluster model, where only a single underlying group is presumed. Next, several additional models are estimated with an increasing number of clusters (latent groups or classes. For each of these models, the software is allowed to estimate all parameters without any restrictions. A final model is chosen based on model comparison tools, for example, using the BIC, the bootstrapped chi-square test, or the Lo-Mendell-Rubin test. Method: To ease the use of LGMM/LCGA step by step in this symposium (Van de Schoot, 2015 guidelines are presented which can be used for researchers applying the methods to longitudinal data, for example, the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after trauma (Depaoli, van de Schoot, van Loey, & Sijbrandij, 2015; Galatzer-Levy, 2015. The guidelines include how to use the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998–2012 to run the set of models needed to answer the research question: how many latent classes exist in the data? The next step described in the guidelines is how to add covariates/predictors to predict class membership using the three-step approach (Vermunt, 2010. Lastly, it described what essentials to report in the paper. Conclusions: When applying LGMM/LCGA models for the first time, the guidelines presented can be used to guide what models to run and what to report.

  20. The use of SiC/Si(111) hybrid substrate for MBE growth of GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, R. R.; Kotlyar, K. P.; Ilkiv, I. V.; Soshnikov, I. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Nikitina, E. V.; Cirlin, G. E.

    2016-08-01

    This work demonstrates the possibility of using a silicon substrate with nanoscale buffer layer of silicon carbide for growth of GaN nanowires by molecular epitaxy on. Morphological and optical properties of the grown arrays are studied. It is shown that the integral intensity of the photoluminescence of such structures is more than 2 times higher than the best NWs GaN structures without buffer layer of silicon carbide.

  1. Characterization of neuronal populations in the human trigeminal ganglion and their association with latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Flowerdew

    Full Text Available Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on staining with antibodies against the GDNF family ligand receptor Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, the antibody RT97 against 200 kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripherin. The frequencies of marker-positive neurons and their average neuronal sizes were assessed, with TrkA-positive (61.82% neurons being the most abundant, and Ret-positive (26.93% the least prevalent. Neurons positive with the antibody RT97 (1253 µm(2 were the largest, and those stained against peripherin (884 µm(2 were the smallest. Dual immunofluorescence revealed at least a 4.5% overlap for every tested marker combination, with overlap for the combinations TrkA/Ret, TrkA/RT97 and Ret/nNOS lower, and the overlap between Ret/CGRP being higher than would be expected by chance. With respect to latent HSV-1 infection, latency associated transcripts (LAT were detected using in situ hybridization (ISH in neurons expressing each of the marker proteins. In contrast to the mouse model, co-localization with neuronal markers Ret or CGRP mirrored the magnitude of these neuron populations, whereas for the other four neuronal markers fewer marker-positive cells were also LAT-ISH+. Ret and CGRP are both known to label neurons related to pain signaling.

  2. Habituation, latent inhibition, and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Wesley P; Todd, Travis P; Bucci, David J; Leaton, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    In two conditioned suppression experiments with a latent inhibition (LI) design, we measured the habituation of rats in preexposure, their LI during conditioning, and then extinction over days. In the first experiment, lick suppression, the preexposed group (PE) showed a significant initial unconditioned response (UR) to the target stimulus and significant long-term habituation (LTH) of that response over days. The significant difference between the PE and nonpreexposed (NPE) groups on the first conditioning trial was due solely to the difference in their URs to the conditioned stimulus (CS)-a habituated response (PE) and an unhabituated response (NPE). In the second experiment, bar-press suppression, little UR to the target stimulus was apparent during preexposure, and no detectable LTH. Thus, there was no difference between the PE and NPE groups on the first conditioning trial. Whether the UR to the CS confounds the interpretation of LI (Exp. 1) or not (Exp. 2) can only be known if the UR is measured. In both experiments, LI was observed in acquisition. Also in both experiments, rats that were preexposed and then conditioned to asymptote were significantly more resistant to extinction than were the rats not preexposed. This result contrasts with the consistently reported finding that preexposure either produces less resistance to extinction or has no effect on extinction. The effect of stimulus preexposure survived conditioning to asymptote and was reflected directly in extinction. These two experiments provide a cautionary procedural note for LI experiments and have shown an unexpected extinction effect that may provide new insights into the interpretation of LI.

  3. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm‑2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  4. Altering carbon allocation in hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) impacts cell wall growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Faride; Kim, Hoon; Hefer, Charles; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2016-12-20

    Galactinol synthase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) that function as transport carbohydrates in the phloem, as storage compounds in sink tissues and as soluble metabolites that combat both abiotic and biotic stress in several plant species. Hybrid poplar (Populus alba × grandidentata) overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana GolS3 (AtGolS3) gene showed clear effects on development; the extreme overexpressing lines were stunted and had cell wall traits characteristic of tension wood, whereas lines with only moderate up-regulation grew normally and had moderately altered secondary cell wall composition and ultrastructure. Stem cross-sections of the developing xylem revealed a significant increase in the number of vessels, as well as the clear presence of a G-layer in the fibres. Furthermore, AtGolS3-OE lines possessed higher cellulose and lower lignin contents, an increase in cellulose crystallinity, and significantly altered hemicellulose-derived carbohydrates, notably manifested by their mannose and xylose contents. In addition, the transgenic plants displayed elevated xylem starch content. Transcriptome interrogation of the transgenic plants showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in the synthesis of myo-inositol, along with genes involved in sucrose degradation. The results suggest that the overexpression of GolS and its product galactinol may serve as a molecular signal that initiates metabolic changes, culminating in a change in cell wall development and potentially the formation of tension wood.

  5. Effect of temperature and diet on growth and gastric emptying time of the hybrid, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × E. lanceolatus ♂

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita De

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperatures (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C and diets (commercial pellet and shrimp on the growth properties and gastric emptying time (GET of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG hybrid were analyzed over a 30 day experimental period under controlled laboratory conditions. Food consumption (FC, food conversion rate (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and GET were significantly influenced by temperature and diet type. The highest mean SGR (1.00% BM day−1, p  0.05 were observed between any of the groups at 22 and 34 °C fed on either the shrimp or the pellet diet. The lowest statistically significant (p < 0.05 FC was observed at 22 °C on both diets. The highest FCR (1.208, p < 0.05 was observed in the 22 °C + shrimp and 22 °C + pellet groups. The fastest GETs were observed at 30 °C, 12 h for fish on the shrimp diet and 13 h for fish on the pellet diet. A significant delay in gastric emptying (16 h was observed at 22 °C in the group fed the commercial pellet diet (16 h. The best growth performances and digestion rates were observed at 30 °C followed by 26, 34 and 22 °C regardless of diet. The results suggest that 26 and 30 °C are optimum water temperatures for the aquaculture of this newly developed fish species fed on either a shrimp or pellet diet.

  6. Studies on hybridization effects of different geographic populations of Chlamys farreri Ⅱ. The medium-term growth and development of Chlamys farreri populations from China and Russia and their reciprocal crosses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaolin; Chang Yaqing; Xiang Jianhai; Li Fuhua; Liu Xianjie; Brovkina Elena Pavlovna

    2003-01-01

    Based on the research of juvenile (2, 3, 4 months) growth and survival of three populations of two different geographic areas in Chlamys farreri from Russian and China and their F1 hybrids Chlamys farreri was carried out. The four determined results indicated that there existed different extent heterosis (3% ~52% ) for the growth in three types of F1 hybrids, and the offspring derived from are wet weight > shell width > shell length > shell height, Chinese cultural population could be recognized as excellent parent, and seasonal variations influence very much on the daily increment and growth rate of each trait of Chlamys farreri and it is only able to survive and could barely grow in winter (6~8 months), but grows fast in temperate season (10~12 months).

  7. The Latent Curve ARMA (P, Q) Panel Model: Longitudinal Data Analysis in Educational Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen; Fan, Xitao

    2008-01-01

    Autocorrelated residuals in longitudinal data are widely reported as common to longitudinal data. Yet few, if any, researchers modeling growth processes evaluate a priori whether their data have this feature. Sivo, Fan, and Witta (2005) found that not modeling autocorrelated residuals present in longitudinal data severely biases latent curve…

  8. Construction and Identification of a Yeast Two-Hybrid Bait Vector and Its Effect on the Growth of Yeast Cells and the Self-Activating Function of Reporter Genes for Screening of HPV18 E6-Interacting Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅泉; 李双; 刘萍; 奚玲; 王世宣; 孟玉菡; 刘杰; 杨欣慰; 卢运萍; 汪辉

    2010-01-01

    By using a yeast two-hybrid system,a yeast two-hybrid bait vector was constructed and identified for screening of the HPV18 E6-interacting proteins,and its effects on the growth of yeast cells and the activation of reporter genes were investigated.Total mRNA extracted from Hela cells was reversely transcribed into cDNA.Fragment of HPV18 E6 cDNA was amplified using RT-PCR and directly ligated to the pGBKT7 vector.The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing.Th...

  9. Latent-Trait Latent-Class Analysis of Self-Disclosure in the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Based on the literature about self-disclosure, it was hypothesized that different groups of subjects differ in their pattern of self-disclosure with respect to different areas of social interaction. An extended latent-trait latent-class model was proposed to describe these general patterns of self-disclosure. The model was used to analyze the data…

  10. A hybrid MBE-based growth method for large-area synthesis of stacked hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Joseph M; Nakhaie, Siamak; Krause, Thilo; Liu, Xianjie; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Hanke, Michael; Riechert, Henning; J Lopes, J Marcelo

    2017-02-27

    Van der Waals heterostructures combining hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene offer many potential advantages, but remain difficult to produce as continuous films over large areas. In particular, the growth of h-BN on graphene has proven to be challenging due to the inertness of the graphene surface. Here we exploit a scalable molecular beam epitaxy based method to allow both the h-BN and graphene to form in a stacked heterostructure in the favorable growth environment provided by a Ni(111) substrate. This involves first saturating a Ni film on MgO(111) with C, growing h-BN on the exposed metal surface, and precipitating the C back to the h-BN/Ni interface to form graphene. The resulting laterally continuous heterostructure is composed of a top layer of few-layer thick h-BN on an intermediate few-layer thick graphene, lying on top of Ni/MgO(111). Examinations by synchrotron-based grazing incidence diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and UV-Raman spectroscopy reveal that while the h-BN is relaxed, the lattice constant of graphene is significantly reduced, likely due to nitrogen doping. These results illustrate a different pathway for the production of h-BN/graphene heterostructures, and open a new perspective for the large-area preparation of heterosystems combining graphene and other 2D or 3D materials.

  11. Robust Latent Subspace Learning for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Teng, Shaohua; Lai, Zhihui; He, Zhaoshui; Xie, Shengli; Wong, Wai Keung

    2017-05-10

    This paper proposes a novel method, called robust latent subspace learning (RLSL), for image classification. We formulate an RLSL problem as a joint optimization problem over both the latent SL and classification model parameter predication, which simultaneously minimizes: 1) the regression loss between the learned data representation and objective outputs and 2) the reconstruction error between the learned data representation and original inputs. The latent subspace can be used as a bridge that is expected to seamlessly connect the origin visual features and their class labels and hence improve the overall prediction performance. RLSL combines feature learning with classification so that the learned data representation in the latent subspace is more discriminative for classification. To learn a robust latent subspace, we use a sparse item to compensate error, which helps suppress the interference of noise via weakening its response during regression. An efficient optimization algorithm is designed to solve the proposed optimization problem. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed RLSL method, we conduct experiments on diverse databases and encouraging recognition results are achieved compared with many state-of-the-arts methods.

  12. Simplifying the growth of hybrid single-crystals by using nanoparticle precursors: the case of AgI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biao; Wang, Ruji; Wang, Xun

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals.We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectra of AgI NPs, schematic representation of the formation process of [Ag4I8]4- in 2, UV-Vis spectra of the DTMA-Ag-I clusters, analysis of force balance of a crystal at the interface between H2O and CH2Cl2 and crystal structure depiction of 1-4. CIF files of 1-4 are also provided. CCDC reference numbers 863848, 863849, 863850 and 863851. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30139c

  13. The catalytic properties of hybrid Rubisco comprising tobacco small and sunflower large subunits mirror the kinetically equivalent source Rubiscos and can support tobacco growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert Edward; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Maliga, Pal; Whitney, Spencer Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plastomic replacement of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) with that from sunflower (Helianthus annuus; rbcL(S)) produced tobacco(Rst) transformants that produced a hybrid Rubisco consisting of sunflower large and tobacco small subunits (L(s)S(t)). The tobacco(Rst) plants required CO(2) (0.5% v/v) supplementation to grow autotrophically from seed despite the substrate saturated carboxylation rate, K(m), for CO(2) and CO(2)/O(2) selectivity of the L(s)S(t) enzyme mirroring the kinetically equivalent tobacco and sunflower Rubiscos. Consequently, at the onset of exponential growth when the source strength and leaf L(s)S(t) content were sufficient, tobacco(Rst) plants grew to maturity without CO(2) supplementation. When grown under a high pCO(2), the tobacco(Rst) seedlings grew slower than tobacco and exhibited unique growth phenotypes: Juvenile plants formed clusters of 10 to 20 structurally simple oblanceolate leaves, developed multiple apical meristems, and the mature leaves displayed marginal curling and dimpling. Depending on developmental stage, the L(s)S(t) content in tobacco(Rst) leaves was 4- to 7-fold less than tobacco, and gas exchange coupled with chlorophyll fluorescence showed that at 2 mbar pCO(2) and growth illumination CO(2) assimilation in mature tobacco(Rst) leaves remained limited by Rubisco activity and its rate (approximately 11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) was half that of tobacco controls. (35)S-methionine labeling showed the stability of assembled L(s)S(t) was similar to tobacco Rubisco and measurements of light transient CO(2) assimilation rates showed L(s)S(t) was adequately regulated by tobacco Rubisco activase. We conclude limitations to tobacco(Rst) growth primarily stem from reduced rbcL(S) mRNA levels and the translation and/or assembly of sunflower large with the tobacco small subunits that restricted L(s)S(t) synthesis.

  14. Effect of Soil Conditioner on Growth for Oriental Hybrid Lily (Sorbonne) Cut Flowers%土壤调理剂对百合生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺; 解占军

    2013-01-01

    In the study,the greenhouse planting methods were employed to reveal effect of soil conditioner and application methods on growth for lily (oriental hybrids) cut flowers in the Lingyuan city of western Liaoning province.The results were as follows:The soil conditioner promoted the growth of the lily.The Promoting effect followed as:conditioner Ⅰ treatment > Compound microelement fertilizer treatment > brenstone treatment > vinegar residue treatment.banding applications of conditioner Ⅰ was better than its broadcast applications.The reasonable application method of chemical fertilizers was that the basal fertilizers lay particular stress on P and K,and that the top-dressing fertilizer applied largely of N,which under the principle of fractional fertilization.%采用温室栽培方法,通过施用各种土壤酸性改良剂,探讨土壤改良剂和不同施用模式对辽西凌源市的百合生长发育的影响.结果表明,土壤改良剂明显促进了百合的生长,其中以调制剂1号处理为最好,其次为复合微肥处理,再次为硫磺处理,最次为醋渣处理,其中,调制剂1号沟施效果明显好于全层施用效果.施用化肥采用基施偏重P、K肥,轻施N肥;追施化肥要以氮肥为主,P、K肥为辅进行分量多次的施肥原则.

  15. Comparative analysis of growth and photosynthetic characteristics of (Populus simonii × P. nigra × (P. nigra × P. simonii hybrid clones of different ploidides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate differences among poplar clones of various ploidies, 12 hybrid poplar clones (P. simonii × P. nigra × (P. nigra × P. simonii with different ploidies were used to study phenotypic variation in growth traits and photosynthetic characteristics. Analysis of variance showed remarkable differences for each of the investigated traits among these clones (P < 0.01. Coefficients of phenotypic variation (PCV ranged from 2.38% to 56.71%, and repeatability ranged from 0.656 to 0.987. The Pn (photosynthetic rate photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD curves of the 12 clones were S-shaped, but the Pn-ambient CO2 (Ca curves were shaped like an inverted "V". The stomatal conductance (Gs-PPFD and transpiration rate (Tr-PPFD curves had an upward tendency; however, with increasing PFFD, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci-PPFD curves had a downward tendency in all of the clones. The Pn-PPFD and Pn-Ca curves followed the pattern of a quadratic equation. The average light saturation point and light compensation point of the triploid clones were the highest and lowest, respectively, among the three types of clones. For Pn-Ca curves, diploid clones had a higher average CO2 saturation point and average CO2 compensation point compared with triploid and tetraploid clones. Correlation analyses indicated that all investigated traits were strongly correlated with each other. In future studies, molecular methods should be used to analyze poplar clones of different ploidies to improve our understanding of the growth and development mechanisms of polyploidy.

  16. Self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles as conductive bridges mediated gap-electrical signal transduction for DNA hybridization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Nie, Huagui; Wu, Zhan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Xu, Xiangju; Huang, Shaoming

    2014-01-21

    A simple and sensitive gap-electrical biosensor based on self-catalytic growth of unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as conductive bridges has been developed for amplifying DNA hybridization events. In this strategy, the signal amplification degree of such conductive bridges is closely related to the variation of the glucose oxidase (GOx)-like catalytic activity of AuNPs upon interaction with single- and double-stranded DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), respectively. In the presence of target DNA, the obtained dsDNA product cannot adsorb onto the surface of AuNPs due to electrostatic interaction, which makes the unmodified AuNPs exhibit excellent GOx-like catalytic activity. Such catalytic activity can enlarge the diameters of AuNPs in the glucose and HAuCl4 solution and result in a connection between most of the AuNPs and a conductive gold film formation with a dramatically increased conductance. For the control sample, the catalytic activity sites of AuNPs are fully blocked by ssDNA due to the noncovalent interaction between nucleotide bases and AuNPs. Thus, the growth of the assembled AuNPs will not happen and the conductance between microelectrodes will be not changed. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed strategy exhibited a sensitive response to target DNA with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, this strategy was also demonstrated to provide excellent differentiation ability for single-nucleotide polymorphism. Such performances indicated the great potential of this label-free electrical strategy for clinical diagnostics and genetic analysis under real biological sample separation.

  17. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  18. Learning with Latent Factors in Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of learning, from samples, the dependency structure of a system of linear stochastic differential equations, when some of the variables are latent. In particular, we observe the time evolution of some variables, and never observe other variables; from this, we would like to find the dependency structure between the observed variables -- separating out the spurious interactions caused by the (marginalizing out of the) latent variables' time series. We develop a new method, based on convex optimization, to do so in the case when the number of latent variables is smaller than the number of observed ones. For the case when the dependency structure between the observed variables is sparse, we theoretically establish a high-dimensional scaling result for structure recovery. We verify our theoretical result with both synthetic and real data (from the stock market).

  19. Genotype, soil type, and locale effects on reciprocal transplant vigor, endophyte growth, and microbial functional diversity of a narrow sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglia, K.J.; McArthur, E.D.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Zak, J.C.; Freeman, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    When addressing the nature of ecological adaptation and environmental factors limiting population ranges and contributing to speciation, it is important to consider not only the plant's genotype and its response to the environment, but also any close interactions that it has with other organisms, specifically, symbiotic microorganisms. To investigate this, soils and seedlings were reciprocally transplanted into common gardens of the big sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah, to determine location and edaphic effects on the fitness of parental and hybrid plants. Endophytic symbionts and functional microbial diversity of indigenous and transplanted soils and sagebrush plants were also examined. Strong selection occurred against the parental genotypes in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil; F1 hybrids had the highest fitness under these conditions. Neither of the parental genotypes had superior fitness in their indigenous soils and habitats; rather F1 hybrids with the nonindigenous maternal parent were superiorly fit. Significant garden-by-soil type interactions indicate adaptation of both plant and soil microorganisms to their indigenous soils and habitats, most notably in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil. Contrasting performances of F1 hybrids suggest asymmetrical gene flow with mountain, rather than basin, big sagebrush acting as the maternal parent. We showed that the microbial community impacted the performance of parental and hybrid plants in different soils, likely limiting the ranges of the different genotypes.

  20. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  1. Bio-hybrid silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold to control the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farokhi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi13294@yahoo.com [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mottaghitalab, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.motaghi@gmail.com [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: mashokrgozar@pasteur.ac.ir [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, Jamshid; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of bio-hybrid silk fibroin/Calcium phosphate/PLGA nanocomposite scaffold as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery system. The scaffold was fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. Here, we highlight the structural changes of the scaffold using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The uniform dispersion of calcium phosohate (CaP) powder within silk fibroin (SF) solution was also confirmed using Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, good biocompatibility of osteoblast cells next to the scaffold was approved by cell adhesion, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase production. The release profile of VEGF during 28 days has established the efficacy of the scaffold as a sustained delivery system. The bioactivity of the released VEGF was maintained about 83%. The histology analysis has shown that the new bone tissue formation happened in the defected site after 10 weeks of implantation. Generally, our data showed that the fabricated scaffold could be considered as an effective scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/calcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold was successfully fabricated using freeze-drying and electrospinning. • The scaffold could control the release of VEGF during 28 days. • The bioactivity of electrospun VEGF was above 80%. • VEGF loaded scaffold could induce bone regeneration after 10 weeks in rabbit.

  2. Sustained release of hepatocyte growth factor by cationic self-assembling peptide/heparin hybrid hydrogel improves β-cell survival and function through modulating inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Lanlan; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong; Liu, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory response is a major cause of grafts dysfunction in islet transplantation. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) had shown anti-inflammatory activity in multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to deliver HGF by self-assembling peptide/heparin (SAP/Hep) hybrid gel to protect β-cell from inflammatory injury. The morphological and slow release properties of SAPs were analyzed. Rat INS-1 β-cell line was treated with tumor necrosis factor α in vitro and transplanted into rat kidney capsule in vivo, and the viability, apoptosis, function, and inflammation of β-cells were evaluated. Cationic KLD1R and KLD2R self-assembled to nanofiber hydrogel, which showed higher binding affinity for Hep and HGF because of electrostatic interaction. Slow release of HGF from cationic SAP/Hep gel is a two-step mechanism involving binding affinity with Hep and molecular diffusion. In vitro and in vivo results showed that HGF-loaded KLD2R/Hep gel promoted β-cell survival and insulin secretion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, cytokine release, T-cell infiltration, and activation of NFκB/p38 MAPK pathways in β-cells. This study suggested that SAP/Hep gel is a promising carrier for local delivery of bioactive proteins in islet transplantation. PMID:27729786

  3. Micro arc oxidized HAp-TiO 2 nanostructured hybrid layers-part I: Effect of voltage and growth time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S.; Bayati, M. R.; Golestani-Fard, F.; Rezaei, H. R.; Zargar, H. R.; Samanipour, F.; Shoaei-Rad, V.

    2011-05-01

    Micro arc oxidation was employed to grow hydroxyapatite-TiO 2 nanostructured porous composite layers. The layers were synthesized on the titanium substrates in the electrolytes consisting of calcium acetate and sodium β-glycerophosphate salts under different applied voltages for various times. SEM and AFM investigations revealed a porous structure and rough surface where the pores size and the surface roughness were respectively determined as 70-650 nm and 9.8-12.7 nm depending on the voltage and time. Chemical composition and phase structure of the layers were evaluated using EDX, XPS, and XRD methods. The layers consisted of the hydroxyapatite, anatase, α-TCP, and calcium titanatephases with a varying fraction depending on the growth conditions. The hydroxyapatite crystalline size was also determined as ˜42 nm. The sample fabricated under the voltage of 350 V for 3 min exhibited the most appropriate Ca/P ratio (˜1.60) as well as the highest amount of the hydroxyapatite phase. This sample had a fine surface morphology and a high pores density.

  4. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  5. Correlated Non-Parametric Latent Feature Models

    CERN Document Server

    Doshi-Velez, Finale

    2012-01-01

    We are often interested in explaining data through a set of hidden factors or features. When the number of hidden features is unknown, the Indian Buffet Process (IBP) is a nonparametric latent feature model that does not bound the number of active features in dataset. However, the IBP assumes that all latent features are uncorrelated, making it inadequate for many realworld problems. We introduce a framework for correlated nonparametric feature models, generalising the IBP. We use this framework to generate several specific models and demonstrate applications on realworld datasets.

  6. Application of mercaptosuccinic acid capped CdTe quantum dots for latent fingermark development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Yu, Yingchun; Cai, Kaiyang; Yang, Ruiqin

    2013-09-10

    The aqueous synthesis of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) solution for quickly and sensitively developing latent fingermarks is described. The rapid growth mechanism of CdTe/MSA QDs, which depends on the molecule structure of MSA, is briefly discussed and compared with that of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capped CdTe QDs. Development of latent fingermarks with the synthesized CdTe/MSA QDs was faster and the ridge details were clearer compared with CdTe/TGA QDs. In addition, latent fingermarks developed with CdTe/MSA QDs showed less background and better contrast than that of gentian violet or rhodamine 6G. Latent fingermarks could be well developed on black tape, scotch tape, tinfoil, aluminum alloy, stainless steel as well as on the adhesive side of yellow tape, even when the latter were aged up to seven days. As immersion time greatly reduced to 10 s by using CdTe/MSA QDs, a preliminary result of latent fingermark development by spraying was presented also.

  7. [Latent classes of personality disorders: group comparisons and course of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Schöttke, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Using latent class analysis the Personality Disorder Screening (PDS) classifies patients into 4 groups: personality disordered (PD) patients (PDS+), healthy patients (PDS -) and 2 hybrid classes with exaggerated personality styles (histrionic/dependent and avoidant/obsessive-compulsive). The present study investigated if the PDS groups differ concerning sociodemographic and clinical variables, psychological distress and treatment outcome. We analyzed the PDS response patterns of 555 outpatients. PDS+ group membership is associated with typical PD characteristics, chronic depression and a high level of general psychological distress. Patients of both hybrid classes are found to show average psychological distress. The treatment was effective for all patients. Membership in the histrionic/dependent hybrid class is associated with early drop out from outpatient therapy.

  8. Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K

    2014-12-01

    Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars.

  9. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George

    2013-01-01

    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition,

  10. Bayesian Multitask Learning with Latent Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We learn multiple hypotheses for related tasks under a latent hierarchical relationship between tasks. We exploit the intuition that for domain adaptation, we wish to share classifier structure, but for multitask learning, we wish to share covariance structure. Our hierarchical model is seen to subsume several previously proposed multitask learning models and performs well on three distinct real-world data sets.

  11. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  12. CICATRIZATION OF WOUNDS : XI. LATENT PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, A; du Noüy, P L

    1921-09-30

    1. The latent period of cicatrization varies generally from 5 to 7 days. 2. It stops abruptly and contraction starts with its maximum velocity. 3. The formula of du Noüy applies to the beginning of the contraction period as well as to the subsequent periods.

  13. Latent Trait Estimation: Theory vs. Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Donald

    Empirical results are presented as regards the implementation of a latent-trait psychometric model by means of conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Items are scored polychotomously into varying numbers of nominal categories and the test and item characteristic curves and information functions are examined. It is concluded that scoring items…

  14. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  15. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  16. Charging characteristics of ionographic latent images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallone, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    The charging characteristics of ionographic latent images are discussed in terms of the saturation characteristics of ionographic chambers. It is shown that latent images are essentially foil electrets with surface charge densities modulated by the x-ray transmission through the object. Empirical methods for the calculation of saturation current densities and extrapolated electric fields are given. Both the saturation current density and the extrapolated field consist of two components: one, which is linear with the air gap thickness, is produced by primary photon interactions in the chamber-sensitive volume; the other, exhibiting an exponential saturation, is attributed to photoelectrons backscattered from the polarizing electrode into the chamber-sensitive volume. The minimum applied electric field needed for an optimized charge collection in the ionographic chamber is presented in terms of both the characteristic polarization time and the electret relaxation time. The maximum possible surface charge density in the latent image is calculated, first exhibiting direct proportionality with the polarizing voltage V0, and then following a V0 (1/2) dependence for voltages larger than the breakpoint voltage. The optimum exposure for latent image production is calculated. Exposures below this optimum give insufficient charge densities for subsequent development, while exposures above it degrade the image and eventually result in a uniform foil electret charged to its maximum theoretical value.

  17. Random Effect and Latent Variable Model Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Dunson, David B

    2008-01-01

    Presents various methods for accommodating model uncertainty in random effects and latent variable models. This book focuses on frequentist likelihood ratio and score tests for zero variance components. It also focuses on Bayesian methods for random effects selection in linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed models

  18. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this generalize

  19. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic stability, as the degree to which identified segments at a given time remain unchanged over time in terms of number, size and profile, is a desirable segment property which has received limited attention so far. This study addresses the question to what degree latent classes identified from...

  20. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  1. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  2. Effect of new hybrids based on 5,16-pregnadiene scaffold linked to an anti-inflammatory drug on the growth of a human astrocytoma cell line (U373).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Mariana; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Cabeza, Marisa; Alcaraz, Belén; Bratoeff, Eugene

    2015-03-26

    In spite of the fact that anaplastic astrocytoma is an uncommon disease, very often the pathology of this disease is associated with lethal effects due to the late diagnosis and unspecific treatments. This paper reports the synthesis and the biological effect on the growth of U373 cell line (human anaplastic astrocytoma) of new hybrid compounds based on 5,16-pregnadiene scaffold linked to an anti-inflammatory drug (6a-e). Moreover, we also determined the cell growth effect of five non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, indomethacin and sulindac) as well as the free steroidal alcohol 5. The results from this study indicated that sulindac as well as compound 5 decreased the number of U373 cells at different concentrations. However, when an anti-inflammatory drug was bound to the steroidal structure (5), the resulting compounds (6a-e) showed an enhanced biological effect with exception of hybrid 6c. Furthermore, derivative 6e (sulindac hybrid) did not allow cell growth during six days of experiment at a concentration of 10 μM. The overall data indicated that these molecules showed an anti-proliferative activity on anaplastic astrocytoma cell line.

  3. Latent mnemonic strengths are latent: a comment on Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Pratte, Michael S; Morey, Richard D

    2010-06-01

    Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ratings for studied than for new items, which they interpreted as providing evidence that latent mnemonic strength distributions are 25% more variable for studied than for new items. We show here that this conclusion is critically dependent on assumptions--so much so that these assumptions determine the conclusions. In fact, opposite conclusions, such that study does not affect the variability of latent strength, may be reached by making different but equally plausible assumptions. Because all measurements of mnemonic strength variability are critically dependent on untestable assumptions, all are arbitrary. Hence, there is no principled method for assessing the relative variability of latent mnemonic strength distributions.

  4. Controlling for Latent Homophily in Social Networks through Inferring Latent Locations

    CERN Document Server

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla

    2016-01-01

    Social influence cannot be identified from purely observational data on social networks, because such influence is generically confounded with latent homophily, i.e., with a node's network partners being informative about the node's attributes and therefore its behavior. We show that {\\em if} the network grows according to either a community (stochastic block) model, or a continuous latent space model, then latent homophilous attributes can be consistently estimated from the global pattern of social ties. Moreover, these estimates are informative enough that controlling for them allows for unbiased and consistent estimation of social-influence effects in additive models. For community models, we also provide bounds on the finite-sample bias. These are the first results on the consistent estimation of social-influence effects in the presence of latent homophily, and we discuss the prospects for generalizing them.

  5. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders

    2004-01-01

    METHODOLOGY THE OMNI-PRESENCE OF LATENT VARIABLES Introduction 'True' variable measured with error Hypothetical constructs Unobserved heterogeneity Missing values and counterfactuals Latent responses Generating flexible distributions Combining information Summary MODELING DIFFERENT RESPONSE PROCESSES Introduction Generalized linear models Extensions of generalized linear models Latent response formulation Modeling durations or survival Summary and further reading CLASSICAL LATENT VARIABLE MODELS Introduction Multilevel regression models Factor models and item respons

  6. Trends in the Development of Hybrid Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Josef Morkus

    2016-01-01

    .... This paper deals with the growth in sales of vehicles with hybrid propulsion, the directions of their technological development, new solutions for transmission systems, the capacity and location...

  7. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  8. Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 27 contains latent fingerprints from crime scenes and their matching rolled fingerprint mates. This database can be used to develop and test new fingerprint algorithms, test commercial and research AFIS systems, train latent examiners, and promote the ANSI/NIST file format standard.

  9. A novel latent factor model for recommender system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Bipul

    2016-01-01

    ... a latent factor model that caters to both accuracy and efficiency by reducing the number of latent features of either users or items making it less complex than Funk-SVD, where latent features of both users and items are equal and often larger. A comprehensive empirical evaluation of accuracy on two publicly available, amazon and ml-100 k datasets rev...

  10. Synchronized metal-ion irradiation as a way to control growth of transition-metal nitride alloy films during hybrid HIPIMS/DCMS co-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    High-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is particularly attractive for growth of transition metal (TM) nitride alloys for two reasons: (i) the high ionization degree of the sputtered metal flux, and (ii) the time separation of metal- and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate. The former implies that ion fluxes originating from elemental targets operated in HIPIMS are distinctly different from those that are obtained during dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), which helps to separate the effects of HIPIMS and DCMS metal-ion fluxes on film properties. The latter feature allows one to minimize compressive stress due to gas-ion irradiation, by synchronizing the pulsed substrate bias with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Here, we use pseudobinary TM nitride model systems TiAlN, TiSiN, TiTaN, and TiAlTaN to carry out experiments in a hybrid configuration with one target powered by HIPIMS, the other operated in DCMS mode. This allows us to probe the roles of intense and metal-ion fluxes (n = 1 , 2) from HIPIMS-powered targets on film growth kinetics, microstructure, and physical properties over a wide range of M1M2N alloy compositions. TiAlN and TiSiN mechanical properties are shown to be determined by the average metal-ion momentum transfer per deposited atom. Irradiation with lighter metal-ions (M1 =Al+ or Si+ during M1-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS) yields fully-dense single-phase cubic Ti1-x (M1)x N films. In contrast, with higher-mass film constituent ions such as Ti+, easily exceeds the threshold for precipitation of second phase w-AlN or Si3N4. Based on the above results, a new PVD approach is proposed which relies on the hybrid concept to grow dense, hard, and stress-free thin films with no external heating. The primary targets, Ti and/or Al, operate in DCMS mode providing a continuous flux of sputter-ejected metal atoms to sustain a high deposition rate, while a high-mass target metal, Ta, is driven by HIPIMS to serve as a pulsed source of energetic

  11. Crescimento de híbridos e variedades porta-enxerto de citros sob salinidade = Growth of hybrids and rootstock varieties of citrus under salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dantas Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade da água e do solo afeta o crescimento, o desenvolvimento e a produção de espécies frutíferas, dentre as quais os citros. O uso de porta-enxertos tolerantes pode garantir a sustentabilidade do agronegócio citrícola em tais condições. Assim, estudou-se a sensibilidade à salinidade durante a fase de formação de portaenxertoscompreendendo variedades e híbridos selecionados. O experimento foirealizado em casa-de-vegetação, considerando cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação [testemunha, irrigação com água de abastecimento local, condutividade elétrica da água (CEa de 0,41 dS m-1 e água com CEa de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1] e sete genótipos, utilizando delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetiçõesem esquema fatorial e quatro plantas úteis por parcela, durante o período de 150 dias. Avaliaram-se variáveis de crescimento e fisiológicas. A redução mais expressiva foi observada na fitomassa seca total da parte aérea com aumento unitário da CEa. Observou-se redução linear no crescimento com aumento da salinidade nos híbridosLVK x LVA-009 e TSK x TRENG-256. Dentre os genótipos avaliados, o limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ foi o menos sensível ao estresse salino.Water and soil salinity affects the growth, development and production of fructiferous species, such as citrus. The use of tolerant rootstocks can guarantee the agribusiness of citrus under such conditions. Thus, the sensibility to salinity during the phase of rootstock formation of varieties and selected hybrids was studied. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with five levels of irrigation water salinity [control, tap water with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.41 dS m-1, and water with ECw of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1] and seven genotypes, in a randomized block designand five replications each consisting of four plants, during 150 day period. Growth and physiologic variables were evaluated. Significant effects

  12. ADUBAÇÃO MINERAL E ORGÂNICA DA ABÓBORA HÍBRIDA: CRESCIMENTO MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER OF THE HYBRID SQUASH: GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Américo Cardoso

    2007-09-01

    fertilizing treatments were tested plus a control (no treatment. In the fertilizing treatments, defined by a diagonal section of a complete factorial, rates of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 t/ha (dry basis of organic compost, associated with rates of 0.772, 0.579, 0.386, 0.193 and 0 t/ha of NPK (4-14-8, respectively, were applied with four replications in a randomized blocks design. The mineral and organic compost association increased the knots number in the main branch, the overall branches length and the dry matters of the aerial part, reproduction part and fruits. At 105 days after sowing, the highest dry matter percentage in the fruit, and the smallest vegetative growth, were obtained when the mineral fertilizer was replaced by the organic compost. On this day, the reproductive part dry matter reached a maximum of 1,997 g/ plant with 6,914 kg/ha of organic compost and 327 kg/ha of NPK.

    KEY-WORDS: Hybrid squash; organic compost; mineral Fertilizer; growth.

  13. Tree Growth-Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Predicting the Structure of Small (TiO2)n, n = 2-13, Nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingyang; Dixon, David A

    2013-07-09

    The initial structures for the search for the global minimum of TiO2 nanoclusters were generated by combining a tree growth (TG) algorithm with a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA). In the TG algorithm, the clusters grow from a small seed to the size of interest stepwise. New atoms are added to the smaller cluster from the previous step, by analogy to new leaves grown by a tree. The addition of the new atoms is controlled by predefined geometry parameters to reduce the computational cost and to provide physically meaningful structures. In each step, the energies for the various generated structures are evaluated, and those with the lowest energies are carried into the next step. The structures that match the formulas of interest are collected as HGA candidates during the various steps. Low energy candidates are fed to the HGA component to search for the global minimum for each formula of interest. The lowest energy structures from the HGA are then optimized by using density functional theory to study the dissociation energies of the clusters and the evolution in the structure as the size of the cluster increases. The optimized geometries of the (TiO2)n nanoclusters for n = 2-13, do not show the character of a TiO2 bulk crystal with a hexacoordinate Ti. The average clustering energy ⟨ΔEn⟩ converges slowly to the bulk value for rutile. The TiO2 dissociation energies for (TiO2)n clusters approach the bulk value for rutile more quickly but show larger variations. The (TiO2)12 cluster appears to be quite stable, and the (TiO2)13 cluster is quite unstable on a relative scale.

  14. A new mathematical model for nitrogen gas production with special emphasis on the role of attached growth media in anammox hybrid reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Swati; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The present study emphasised on the development of new mathematical models based on mass balance and stoichiometry of nitrogen removal in anammox hybrid reactor (AHR). The performance of AHR at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and nitrogen loading rates (NLRs) revealed that nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increases with increase in HRT and was found optimal (89 %) at HRT of 2 days. Mass balance of nitrogen revealed that major fraction (74.1 %) of input nitrogen is converted into N2 gas followed by 11.2 % utilised in biomass synthesis. Attached growth media (AGM) in AHR contributed to an additional 15.4 % ammonium removal and reduced the sludge washout rate by 29 %. This also enhanced the sludge retention capacity of AHR and thus minimised the formation of nitrate in the treated effluent, which is one of the bottlenecks of anammox process. Process kinetics was also studied using various mathematical models. The mass balance model derived from total nitrogen was found most precise and predicted N2 gas with least error (1.68 ± 4.44 %). Model validation for substrate removal kinetics dictated comparatively higher correlation for Grau second-order model (0.952) than modified Stover-Kincannon model (0.920). The study concluded that owing to features of high biomass retention, less nitrate formation and consistently higher nitrogen removal efficiency, this reactor configuration is techno-economically most efficient and viable. The study opens the door for researchers and scientists for pilot-scale testing of AHR leading to its wide industrial application.

  15. An in situ hybridization study of the insulin-like growth factor system in developing condylar cartilage of the fetal mouse mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shibata

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system in the developing mandibular condylar cartilage and temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Fetal mice at embryonic day (E 13.0-18.5 were used for in situ hybridization studies using [35S]-labeled RNA probes for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-I receptor (-IR, and IGF binding proteins (-BPs. At E13.0, IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were expressed in the mesenchyme around the mandibular bone, but IGF-IR mRNA was not expressed within the bone. At E14.0, IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were expressed in the outer layer of the condylar anlage, and IGF-IR mRNA was first detected within the condylar anlage, suggesting that the presence of IGF-IR mRNA in an IGF-rich environment triggers the initial formation of the condylar cartilage. IGFBP-4 mRNA was expressed in the anlagen of the articular disc and lower joint cavity from E15.0 to 18.5. When the upper joint cavity was formed at E18.5, IGFBP-4 mRNA expression was reduced in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity. Enhanced IGFBP-2 mRNA expression was first recognized in the anlagen of both the articular disc and lower joint cavity at E16.0 and continued expression in these tissues as well as in the fibrous mesenchymal tissue facing the upper joint cavity was observed at E18.5. IGFBP-5 mRNA was continuously expressed in the outer layer of the perichondrium/fibrous cell layer in the developing mandibular condyle. These findings suggest that the IGF system is involved in the formation of the condylar cartilage as well as in the TMJ.

  16. Rasch analysis of the orientation log and reconsideration of the latent construct during inpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Jacob; Abell, Malene; Malec, James F; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the measurement properties of the Orientation Log (O-Log) and a hybrid scale using Rasch analysis techniques and to explore the relations between the items of the 2 scales and the latent linear construct modeled in the Rasch analysis. Calibration of data collected weekly during inpatient rehabilitation. Ninety patients admitted for rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. Measure reliability/construct validity of the O-Log was too low to justify restructuring of disordered rating scales, but the broader set of items in the hybrid scale demonstrated good measure reliability/construct validity prior to and following rating scale restructuring. Both O-Log and hybrid measures demonstrated statistical fit with the linear latent construct, suggesting that orientation and memory are only a subset of symptoms in a broader syndrome. Posttraumatic amnesia is by definition a proxy measure of a broader syndrome during early recovery and not a measure of the syndrome itself. The results suggest that the O-Log cannot reliably measure progress during early recovery. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the construct of posttraumatic amnesia is too narrow and should be revisited to improve monitoring of recovery and prognostic estimation after brain injury.

  17. Latent Growth Curve Modeling of Child Behavior in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Kamphaus, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated child behavioral change during the early years of elementary school. Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992) teacher ratings of child behavior were collected over a three-year period. The sample consisted of 162 children measured yearly between first and third grade.…

  18. Missing Not at Random Models for Latent Growth Curve Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Craig K.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a noticeable shift in missing data handling techniques that assume a missing at random (MAR) mechanism, where the propensity for missing data on an outcome is related to other analysis variables. Although MAR is often reasonable, there are situations where this assumption is unlikely to hold, leading to biased parameter…

  19. A Latent Growth-Curve Approach to Difficult Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ty; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    2007-01-01

    A purported hallmark of temperament characteristics is that they appear very early in the course of development and are persistent across time and situation. There is, however, a small, but growing cadre of research findings that question this traditional view. It may be that temperament characteristics are not necessarily established during the…

  20. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  1. Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio MATOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

  2. Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo ARAÚJO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

  3. Noisy-OR Models with Latent Confounding

    CERN Document Server

    Hyttinen, Antti; Hoyer, Patrik O

    2012-01-01

    Given a set of experiments in which varying subsets of observed variables are subject to intervention, we consider the problem of identifiability of causal models exhibiting latent confounding. While identifiability is trivial when each experiment intervenes on a large number of variables, the situation is more complicated when only one or a few variables are subject to intervention per experiment. For linear causal models with latent variables Hyttinen et al. (2010) gave precise conditions for when such data are sufficient to identify the full model. While their result cannot be extended to discrete-valued variables with arbitrary cause-effect relationships, we show that a similar result can be obtained for the class of causal models whose conditional probability distributions are restricted to a `noisy-OR' parameterization. We further show that identification is preserved under an extension of the model that allows for negative influences, and present learning algorithms that we test for accuracy, scalabili...

  4. Learning Latent Structure in Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    as in the previous Bayesian approaches and in addition allows learning of node specific link properties similar to that in the modularity objective. We employ a new relaxation method for efficient inference in these generative models that allows us to learn the behavior of very large networks. We compare the link...... such as the Modularity, it has recently been shown that latent structure in complex networks is learnable by Bayesian generative link distribution models (Airoldi et al., 2008, Hofman and Wiggins, 2008). In this paper we propose a new generative model that allows representation of latent community structure...... prediction performance of the learning based approaches and other widely used link prediction approaches in 14 networks ranging from medium size to large networks with more than a million nodes. While link prediction is typically well above chance for all networks, we find that the learning based mixed...

  5. Blocking of potentiation of latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We present a theory of latent inhibition based on the Pearce-Hall (Pearce & Hall, 1980) model for classical conditioning. Its central features are (1) that the associability of a stimulus declines as it comes to predict its consequences and (2) that nonreinforced exposure to a stimulus engages an associative learning process that makes the stimulus an accurate predictor of its consequences (in this case, the occurrence of no event). A formalization of this theory is shown to accommodate the finding that preexposure in compound with another cue can potentiate latent inhibition to the target cue. It further predicts that preexposure to the added cue will eliminate the potentiation effect. An experiment using rats and the flavor-aversion procedure confirmed this prediction.

  6. Barcelona - Talent Latent 09 / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2010-01-01

    Fotonäitusest "Talent Latent 09" Barcelonas Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses. Loetletud näitusel eksponeeritud fotode autorid. Pikemalt Rafael Milach'i (sünd. 1978), Lucia Ganieva, Javier Marquerie Thomas'i (sünd. 1986), Amaury da Cunha (sünd. 1976) töödest. Lühidalt ka teistest näitustest Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses

  7. Barcelona - Talent Latent 09 / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2010-01-01

    Fotonäitusest "Talent Latent 09" Barcelonas Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses. Loetletud näitusel eksponeeritud fotode autorid. Pikemalt Rafael Milach'i (sünd. 1978), Lucia Ganieva, Javier Marquerie Thomas'i (sünd. 1986), Amaury da Cunha (sünd. 1976) töödest. Lühidalt ka teistest näitustest Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses

  8. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  9. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  10. Mixture latent autoregressive models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia

    2011-01-01

    Many relevant statistical and econometric models for the analysis of longitudinal data include a latent process to account for the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in a dynamic fashion. Such a process may be continuous (typically an AR(1)) or discrete (typically a Markov chain). In this paper, we propose a model for longitudinal data which is based on a mixture of AR(1) processes with different means and correlation coefficients, but with equal variances. This model belongs to the class of models based on a continuous latent process, and then it has a natural interpretation in many contexts of application, but it is more flexible than other models in this class, reaching a goodness-of-fit similar to that of a discrete latent process model, with a reduced number of parameters. We show how to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model by the joint use of an Expectation-Maximisation algorithm and a Newton-Raphson algorithm, implemented by means of recursions developed in the hidden Mark...

  11. The latent class multitrait-multimethod model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberski, Daniel L; Hagenaars, Jacques A P; Saris, Willem E

    2015-12-01

    A latent class multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model is proposed to estimate random and systematic measurement error in categorical survey questions while making fewer assumptions than have been made so far in such evaluations, allowing for possible extreme response behavior and other nonmonotone effects. The method is a combination of the MTMM research design of Campbell and Fiske (1959), the basic response model for survey questions of Saris and Andrews (1991), and the latent class factor model of Vermunt and Magidson (2004, pp. 227-230). The latent class MTMM model thus combines an existing design, model, and method to allow for the estimation of the degree to and manner in which survey questions are affected by systematic measurement error. Starting from a general form of the response function for a survey question, we present the MTMM experimental approach to identification of the response function's parameters. A "trait-method biplot" is introduced as a means of interpreting the estimates of systematic measurement error, whereas the quality of the questions can be evaluated by item information curves and the item information function. An experiment from the European Social Survey is analyzed and the results are discussed, yielding valuable insights into the functioning of a set of example questions on the role of women in society in 2 countries.

  12. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-02-22

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions.

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor and AKT1 gene copy numbers by multi-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization impact on prognosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Yunhui; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaobei; Bai, Jingchao; Yuan, Weiping; Hu, Linping; Cheng, Tao; Zetterberg, Anders; Lei, Zhenmin; Zhang, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway aberrations play significant roles in breast cancer occurrence and development. However, the status of EGFR and AKT1 gene copy numbers remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the rates of EGFR and AKT1 gene copy number alterations were associated with the prognosis of breast cancer. Among 205 patients, high EGFR and AKT1 gene copy numbers were observed in 34.6% and 27.8% of cases by multi-gene fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. Co-heightened EGFR/AKT1 gene copy numbers were identified in 11.7% cases. No changes were found in 49.3% of patients. Although changes in EGFR and AKT1 gene copy numbers had no correlation with patients' age, tumor stage, histological grade and the expression status of other molecular makers, high EGFR (P = 0.0002) but not AKT1 (P = 0.1177) gene copy numbers correlated with poor 5-year overall survival. The patients with co-heightened EGFR/AKT1 gene copy numbers displayed a poorer prognosis than those with tumors with only high EGFR gene copy numbers (P = 0.0383). Both Univariate (U) and COX multivariate (C) analyses revealed that high EGFR and AKT1 gene copy numbers (P = 0.000 [U], P = 0.0001 [C]), similar to histological grade (P = 0.001 [U], P = 0.012 [C]) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.046 [U], P = 0.158 [C]), were independent prognostic indicators of 5-year overall survival. These results indicate that high EGFR and AKT1 gene copy numbers were relatively frequent in breast cancer. Co-heightened EGFR/AKT1 gene copy numbers had a worse outcome than those with only high EGFR gene copy numbers, suggesting that evaluation of these two genes together may be useful for selecting patients for anti-EGFR-targeted therapy or anti-EGFR/AKT1-targeted therapy and for predicting outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    .... We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early...

  15. Latent and sensible heat fluxes overestimated and net heat flux underestimated in Lake Victoria

    CERN Document Server

    Verburg, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Cozar et al. (2012) used remotely-sensed data to link phytoplankton growth to the net heat flux in both the northern and southern parts of Lake Victoria. However, the latent and sensible heat fluxes were overestimated by ~26% by assuming a constant air density of 1.3 kg m-3. As a result, the net heat flux was underestimated, bringing into question conclusions regarding the convective circulation.

  16. An Investigation of Early Parental Motivational Strategies on Mathematics Achievement by Ethnicity: A Latent Curve Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stefanie R.; Ing, Marsha; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental effects of early parental intrinsic and extrinsic motivational strategies on mathematics achievement scores obtained from White students compared to underrepresented minority students. A latent growth curve model was fit to data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY) with mathematics achievement…

  17. Latent Viruses: A Space Travel Hazard??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P. D.; Peng, R. S.; Pierson, D.; Lednicky, J.; Butel, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A major issue associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious disease causing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. Our proposal is designed to gain information that addresses several issues outlined in the Immunology/Infectious disease critical path. The major hypothesis addressed is that space flight causes alterations in the immune system that may allow latent viruses which are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal which can affect the health of crew members during a long term space-flight mission. We will initially focus our studies on the human herpesviruses and human polyomaviruses which are important pathogens known to establish latent infections in the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with this group of viruses can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and occasionally mortality of infected individuals. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and the vaccine itself can still reactivate from latent infection. Available antivirals are of limited use and are effective against only a few of the human herpesviruses. Although most individuals display little if any clinical consequences from latent infection, events which alter immune function such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation are known to increase the risk of developing complications as a result of latent virus reactivation. This proposal will measure both the frequency and magnitude of viral shedding and genome loads in the blood from humans participating in activities that serve as ground based models of space flight conditions. Our initial goal is to develop sensitive quantitative competitive PCR- based assays (QC-PCR) to detect the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the polyomaviruses SV40, BKV, and JCV. Using these assays we will establish baseline patterns of viral genome load in

  18. Latent inhibition and autonomic responses: a psychophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, D; Lipp, O V

    1997-10-01

    Latent inhibition, retarded learning after preexposure to the to-be-conditioned stimulus, has been implied as a tool for the investigation of attentional deficits in schizophrenia and related disorders. The present paper reviews research that used Pavlovian conditioning as indexed by autonomic responses (electrodermal, vasomotor, cardiac) to investigate latent inhibition in adult humans. Latent inhibition has been demonstrated repeatedly in healthy subjects in absence of a masking task that is required in other latent inhibition paradigms. Moreover, latent inhibition of Pavlovian conditioning is stimulus-specific and increases with an increased number of preexposure trials which mirrors results from research in animals. A reduction of latent inhibition has been shown in healthy subjects who score high on questionnaire measures of psychosis proneness and in unmedicated schizophrenic patients. The latter result was obtained in a within-subject paradigm that holds promise for research with patient samples.

  19. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP......), the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were...

  20. Functional networks underlying latent inhibition learning in the mouse brain

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, Frank; Barrett, Douglas W.; Bastida, Christel C.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports the first comprehensive map of brain networks underlying latent inhibition learning and the first application of structural equation modeling to cytochrome oxidase data. In latent inhibition, repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a latent form of learning that inhibits subsequent associations with that stimulus. As neuronal energy demand to form learned associations changes, so does the induction of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Therefore, cytochrom...

  1. Protection from Latent Inhibition Provided by a Conditioned Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Bridget L.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated the influence on latent inhibition of compounding a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor with the target cue during preexposure treatment. Results were compared to subjects that received conventional latent inhibition training, no preexposure, or preexposure to the target cue in compound with a neutral stimulus. In Experiment 1, greater attenuation of the latent inhibition effect was observed in subjects that received target preexposur...

  2. Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Latent Curve Models with Nonlinear Longitudinal Latent Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies, investigators often measure multiple variables at multiple time points and are interested in investigating individual differences in patterns of change on those variables. Furthermore, in behavioral, social, psychological, and medical research, investigators often deal with latent variables that cannot be observed directly…

  3. Latent mnemonic strengths are latent : A comment on Mickes, Wixted, and Wais

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, J.N.; Pratte, M.S.; Morey, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ra

  4. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes Lubomir; Mauder Tomas; Ostry Milan; Charvat Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF LATENT VARIABLES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly A. Maslak Anatoly A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the measurement accuracy of latent variables depending on a number of dichotomous test items and variation range.Methods: Investigation is based on the simulation experiments.Results: The authors make recommendations for selecting a number of dichotomous test items and variation range depending on the required measurement precision of latent variables.Scientific novelty: The research demonstrates statistical correlation between the measurement precision of latent variables and a number of test items and variation range.Importance for practice: The research results can be used while developing the questionnaires and tests for measuring the latent variables.

  6. Discrimination of wild types and hybrids of Duboisia myoporoides and Duboisia leichhardtii at different growth stages using (1)H NMR-based metabolite profiling and tropane alkaloids-targeted HPLC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike; Averesch, Nils J H; Castellanos, Leonardo; Choi, Young Hae; Rothauer, Andreas; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    Duboisia species, which belong to the family of Solanaceae, are commercially cultivated in large scale, as they are main source of the pharmaceutically-used active compound scopolamine. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolite profiling linking primary with secondary metabolism and additional quantification via HPCL-MS with special focus on the tropane alkaloids were applied to compare leaf and root extracts of three wild types and two hybrids of Duboisia myoporoides and D. leichhardtii at different developmental stages grown under controlled conditions in climate chambers and under agricultural field plantation. Based on the leaf extracts, a clear distinction between the Duboisia hybrids and the wild types Duboisia myoporoides and D. leichhardtii using principal component analysis of (1)H NMR data was observed. The average content in scopolamine in the hybrids of Duboisia cultivated in climate chambers increased significantly from month 3-6 after potting of the rooted cuttings, however not so for the examined wild types. The Duboisia hybrids grown in climate chambers showed higher growth and contained more sugars and amino acids than Duboisia hybrids grown in the field, which in contrast showed an enhanced flux towards tropane alkaloids as well as flavonoids. For a more detailed analysis of tropane alkaloids, an appropriate HPLC-MS method was developed and validated. The measurements revealed large differences in the alkaloid pattern within the different genotypes under investigation, especially regarding the last enzymatic step, the conversion from hyoscamine to scopolamine by the hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase. Scopolamine was found in highest concentrations in Duboisia hybrids (20.04 ± 4.05 and 17.82 ± 3.52 mg/g dry wt) followed by Duboisia myoporoides (12.71 ± 2.55 mg/g dry wt), both showing a high selectivity for scopolamine in contrast to Duboisia leichhardtii (3.38 ± 0.59 and 5.09 ± 1.24 mg/g dry wt) with hyoscyamine being the

  7. Interface Induced Growth and Transformation of Polymer-Conjugated Proto-Crystalline Phases in Aluminosilicate Hybrids: A Multiple-Quantum (23)Na-(23)Na MAS NMR Correlation Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Jiri; Kobera, Libor; Urbanova, Martina; Doušová, Barbora; Lhotka, Miloslav; Koloušek, David; Kotek, Jiří; Čuba, Pavel; Czernek, Jiri; Dědeček, Jiří

    2016-03-22

    Nanostructured materials typically offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of their large interfacial area. In this contribution, we present a comprehensive structural characterization of aluminosilicate hybrids with polymer-conjugated nanosized zeolites specifically grown at the organic-inorganic interface. The inorganic amorphous Al-O-Si framework is formed by alkali-activated low-temperature transformation of metakaoline, whereas simultaneous copolymerization of organic comonomers creates a secondary epoxide network covalently bound to the aluminosilicate matrix. This secondary epoxide phase not only enhances the mechanical integrity of the resulting hybrids but also introduces additional binding sites accessible for compensating negative charge on the aluminosilicate framework. This way, the polymer network initiates growth and subsequent transformation of protocrystalline short-range ordered zeolite domains that are located at the organic-inorganic interface. By applying an experimental approach based on 2D (23)Na-(23)Na double-quantum (DQ) MAS NMR spectroscopy, we discovered multiple sodium binding sites in these protocrystalline domains, in which immobilized Na(+) ions form pairs or small clusters. It is further demonstrated that these sites, the local geometry of which allows for the pairing of sodium ions, are preferentially occupied by Pb(2+) ions during the ion exchange. The proposed synthesis protocol thus allows for the preparation of a novel type of geopolymer hybrids with polymer-conjugated zeolite phases suitable for capturing and storage of metal cations. The demonstrated (23)Na-(23)Na DQ MAS NMR combined with DFT calculations represents a suitable approach for understanding the role of Na(+) ions in aluminositicate solids and related inorganic-organic hybrids, particularly their specific arrangement and clustering at interfacial areas.

  8. Increased disulphide dimer formation of latent associated peptide fusions of TGF-β by addition of L-cystine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Lisa M; Adams, Gill; Chernajovsky, Yuti

    2012-10-31

    The development of novel protein therapeutics relies on the ability to express appreciable amounts of correctly folded recombinant proteins. Latent IFN-β is engineered using the latency-associated peptide (LAP) of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) to maintain IFN-β in a biologically inactive form until such time as it is released at sites of inflammation by matrix metalloproteinase activity (see Adams et al., 2003). CHO cells cultured in suspension were used for expression of latent IFN-β to allow medium scale transient transfection. However, the recombinant protein expressed in this system consisted of a mixture of properly linked disulphide dimers and monomers. The ratio of dimer:monomer produced could be significantly altered towards increased dimer production by the addition of L-cystine to the CHO culture medium. The total yield of latent IFN-β was increased by co-transfection of plasmid coding for the simian virus (SV) 40 large T antigen to the plasmid with the SV40 origin of replication expressing latent IFN-β DNA. These results provide valuable new insights for developing protocols to produce substantial quantities of latent cytokine dimers in CHO cells in suspension.

  9. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  10. Crescimento e acúmulo de nutrientes pela abóbora híbrida tipo Tetsukabuto Growth and accumulation of nutrients in hybrid squash Tetsukabuto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanzio Mollica Vidigal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Jaíba (MG para avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes pela abóbora híbrida, cv. Suprema. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 28; 42; 56; 70; 84 e 98 dias após a semeadura (DAS para determinação da matéria seca das folhas, caule, flor, fruto e raiz. A planta teve lento crescimento até 56 DAS e a partir daí o crescimento intensificou-se até o final do ciclo. A produção total de matéria seca máxima ocorreu aos 89 DAS, atingindo 1.657,92 g planta-1. Os frutos acumularam mais matéria seca que outros órgãos da planta. A taxa de crescimento absoluto da planta e dos frutos foram 124,25 e 172,75 g planta-1 dia-1, aos 74 e 79 dias, respectivamente. A absorção de nutrientes seguiu o padrão da curva de acúmulo de matéria seca pelas plantas. O acúmulo de nutrientes foi reduzido nos primeiros 42 DAS, intensificando-se a partir daí, acumulando continuamente até o final do ciclo para N, S, Mg e os micronutrientes. O K foi o nutriente mais absorvido pela planta, seguido do N e Ca. A ordem de macronutrientes acumulados foi K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S e de micronutrientes foi Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu. Na colheita, aos 98 DAS, 69% da matéria seca alocou-se nos frutos, 19% nas folhas, 8% no caule, e o restante nas flores e raízes. Os nutrientes N, K, S e Cu acumularam-se preferencialmente nos frutos, enquanto o P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe e Mn na parte vegetativa. Os frutos exportaram 51,0 kg ha-1 de N; 12,4 kg ha-1 de P; 61,4 kg ha-1 de K; 3,6 kg ha-1 de S; 8,8 kg ha-1 de Ca e 3,5 kg ha-1 de Mg, e 11,4 g ha-1 de Cu; 61,6 g ha-1 de Zn; 126,6 g ha-1 de Fe e 44,3 g ha-1 de Mn.An experiment was carried out at Jaíba, Northern Minas Gerais State, to evaluate the growth and accumulation of nutrients in hybrid squash cv. Suprema. The samplings of plants were taken at 28; 42; 56; 70; 84, and 98 days after the sowing (DAS for dry matter determination of leaves, stem, flower, fruit and root. The plants grew slowly up the 56 DAS

  11. 应用RNA干扰抑制EB病毒潜伏膜蛋白-1表达对鼻咽癌细胞生长的影响%Effect of inhibition of EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 by small interfering RNA on EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 李湘平; 彭英; 刘雄; 李晓华

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for selective inhibiting latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) expression in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line C611, and observe the effects of LMP1 gene silencing on the NPC cell growth. Methods Four synthesized double-strand siRNA were respectively transfected into NPC cells, using OligofectamineTM reagent. The subsequent changes in LMP1 mRNA level were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Flow cytometry and MTT assay were employed to examine the alterations in cell cycle and cell proliferation. Results The most effective sequence was identified among the 4 candidate siRNAs, and its single dose caused nearly 90% loss of LMP1 mRNA in C611 cells, with sustained specific inhibition for 96 h following a re-transfection. LMP1 siRNA treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase, accompanied by a reduction of cell proliferation by 33%, whereas EBV-negative NPC cells appeared unaffected. Conclusions EBV-encoded LMP-1 is vulnerable to RNA interference and selective inhibition of LMP1 suppresses the proliferation of EBV-positive NPC cells, a finding that sheds light on the possible use of RNA interference in further investigations of LMP1 and for therapeutic purposes of EBV-related NPC.%目的探讨能否通过siRNA人工诱导RNA干扰,在EB病毒阳性的鼻咽癌细胞株C611中,选择性抑制潜伏膜蛋白1(LMP1)的表达,并了解LMP1抑制对鼻咽癌细胞生长的影响.方法利用脂质体转染的方法,将人工合成的双链siRNA导入鼻咽癌细胞,通过半定量RT-PCR检测LMP1 muRNA水平的变化.并采用MTT法和流式细胞仪检测LMP1表达抑制后,鼻咽癌细胞增殖和细胞周期的变化.结果C611细胞转染siRNA可使LMP1 muRNA水平下降90%以上.LMP1基因抑制后,C611细胞增殖速度下降33%;流式细胞检测显示,C611细胞周期在G0-G1期受阻.结论本研究证明,全新

  12. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  13. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  14. A LATENT TRAIT MODEL FOR DICHOTOMOUS CHOICE DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOIJTINK, H

    1990-01-01

    The PARELLA model is a probabilistic parallelogram model that can be used for the measurement of latent attitudes or latent preferences. The data analyzed are the dichotomous responses of persons to stimuli, with a one (zero) indicating agreement (disagreement) with the content of the stimulus. The

  15. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  16. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  17. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David

    2008-01-01

    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  18. Transient response of latent heat storage in greenhouse solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Cengel, Y.A.; Toksoy, M.

    1983-06-01

    A latent heat storage system with two different stacking configurations and air bafflings was designed and constructed as an integrated part of the greenhouse solar system. Commercial cylindrical storage rods were used as the primary storage elements. The results showed that the latent storage system performed significantly better than water or rock storage.

  19. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  20. Nonlinear Latent Curve Models for Multivariate Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Conger, Katherine J.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Latent curve models have become a useful approach to analyzing longitudinal data, due in part to their allowance of and emphasis on individual differences in features that describe change. Common applications of latent curve models in developmental studies rely on polynomial functions, such as linear or quadratic functions. Although useful for…

  1. A Review of the Latent and Manifest Benefits (LAMB) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Juanita; Waters, Lea

    2012-01-01

    The latent and manifest benefits (LAMB) scale (Muller, Creed, Waters & Machin, 2005) was designed to measure the latent and manifest benefits of employment and provide a single scale to test Jahoda's (1981) and Fryer's (1986) theories of unemployment. Since its publication in 2005 there have been 13 studies that have used the scale with 5692…

  2. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George

    2013-01-01

    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition, th

  3. Aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate efficiently delivers miRNA-29b to non-small-cell lung cancer cells and inhibits growth by downregulating essential oncoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepelyuk M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Maryna Perepelyuk, Christina Maher, Ashakumary Lakshmikuttyamma, Sunday A Shoyele Department of Pharmaceutical Science, College of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are potentially attractive candidates for cancer therapy. However, their therapeutic application is limited by lack of availability of an efficient delivery system to stably deliver these potent molecules intracellularly to cancer cells while avoiding healthy cells. We developed a novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system to selectively deliver miRNA-29b to MUC1-expressing cancer cells. Significant downregulation of oncoproteins DNMT3b and MCL1 was demonstrated by these MUC1 aptamer-functionalized hybrid nanoparticles in A549 cells. Furthermore, downregulation of these oncoproteins led to antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis in a superior version when compared with Lipofectamine 2000. This novel aptamer-hybrid nanoparticle bioconjugate delivery system could potentially serve as a platform for intracellular delivery of miRNAs to cancer cells, hence improving the therapeutic outcome of lung cancer. Keywords: aptamer, nanoparticles, microRNA, lung cancer, targeted delivery

  4. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  5. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  6. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  7. Endogenous Opioid-Masked Latent Pain Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Manuel P; Donahue, Renee R; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2015-01-01

    naloxone dose (0.021 mg/kg). However, while LS was consistently demonstrated in 21/24 mice, LS was only seen in 4/12 subjects. This difference is likely due to selection bias since the C57BL/6 mouse strain exhibits markedly enhanced pain sensitivity in assays of acute thermal nociception. Future......UNLABELLED: Following the resolution of a severe inflammatory injury in rodents, administration of mu-opioid receptor inverse agonists leads to reinstatement of pain hypersensitivity. The mechanisms underlying this form of latent pain sensitization (LS) likely contribute to the development...... of chronic pain, but LS has not yet been demonstrated in humans. Using a C57BL/6 mouse model of cutaneous mild heat injury (MHI) we demonstrated a dose-dependent reinstatement of pain sensitization, assessed as primary (P

  8. Unsupervised Feature Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weiran; Du Gang; Chen Guang; Guo Jun; Yang Jie

    2011-01-01

    As a generative model Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model,which lacks optimization of topics' discrimination capability focuses on how to generate data,This paper aims to improve the discrimination capability through unsupervised feature selection.Theoretical analysis shows that the discrimination capability of a topic is limited by the discrimination capability of its representative words.The discrimination capability of a word is approximated by the Information Gain of the word for topics,which is used to distinguish between “general word” and “special word” in LDA topics.Therefore,we add a constraint to the LDA objective function to let the “general words” only happen in “general topics”other than “special topics”.Then a heuristic algorithm is presented to get the solution.Experiments show that this method can not only improve the information gain of topics,but also make the topics easier to understand by human.

  9. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E R

    1989-06-01

    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed.

  10. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic......A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour....... A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...

  11. A latent classification of male batterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M; Lopez, Frederick G

    2009-01-01

    Regression latent class analysis was used to identify batterer subgroups with distinct violence patterns and to examine associations between class membership and adult attachment orientations as well as antisocial and borderline personality disorders. Results supported three batterer subgroups, with classes varying on frequency and severity of violence. The high-level violence class represented 40% of batterers, and both anxious and avoidant adult attachment orientations as well as borderline personality characteristics predicted membership in this class. The moderate-level violence class represented 35% of the batterers, and adult anxious attachment orientation was associated with membership in this class. The low-level violence class represented 25% of the sample and reported significantly less violence than other classes. Neither adult attachment orientations nor personality disorders predicted membership in this class.

  12. Latent Images, Blind Comments on Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Feray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photographs, or images as the final result of a process, merely mark out the moment when the eye is helplessly limited to what it sees. Thus, what escapes the eye in the physical sense, i.e. what the eye will never see, is what occurs before the product- image, within the act itself. The latent image, the desire-image, unfolds throughout the duration of the photographic act. When the picture is ‘taken’, then the desire subsides until the next desire for another image arises. Based on the photographic experiment by Jerry Chan, member of a group of blind people, this article aims at rethinking the photographic act as the real- life experience of an impression process, leading the blind apprentice photographer to experience sightedness within his very flesh.  

  13. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  14. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  15. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  16. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D" Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  17. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-09-01

    The data in this article supports the research paper entitled "Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints" [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the "White Box Latent Print Examiner Study," in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  18. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Ulery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article supports the research paper entitled “Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints” [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the “White Box Latent Print Examiner Study,” in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  19. An Application of Latent Variable Structural Equation Modeling For Experimental Research in Educational Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyeon Woo LEE

    2011-01-01

      AN APPLICATION OF LATENT VARIABL AN APPLICATION OF LATENT VARIABLE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING FOR EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY As the technology-enriched learning environments...

  20. Multiplexed Imaging of Trace Residues in a Single Latent Fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Zhou, Wen; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Dingbin

    2016-12-20

    The development of highly sensitive, selective, nondestructive, and multiplexed imaging modalities is essential for latent fingerprint (LFP) identification and fingerprint residues detection. Herein, we present a versatile strategy to identify LFPs and to probe the multiple trace residues in a single LFP simultaneously. With the purpose of achieving high sensitivity, we for the first time introduced a polydopamine (PDA)-triggered Au growth method to prepare superbright and multiplex surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags, which were endowed with high selectivity by conjugating with specific antibodies. In combination with a rapid Raman mapping technique, the sensitivity of the SERS probes was down to picogram scale and all the three levels of LFP features can be clearly seen. More significantly, the multiplexed imaging of diverse residues in a single LFP provides more accurate information than that using monochromatic imaging of individuals alone. The high analytical figures of merit enable this approach great promise for use in the fields ranging from chemical detection to molecular imaging.

  1. In vivo disruption of latent HSV by designer endonuclease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Martine; Madden, Emily A; Loprieno, Michelle; DeSilva Feelixge, Harshana S; Stensland, Laurence; Huang, Meei-Li; Greninger, Alexander L; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Niyonzima, Nixon; Nguyen, Thuy; Magaret, Amalia; Galleto, Roman; Stone, Daniel; Jerome, Keith R

    2016-09-08

    A large portion of the global population carries latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), which can periodically reactivate, resulting in asymptomatic shedding or formation of ulcerative lesions. Current anti-HSV drugs do not eliminate latent virus from sensory neurons where HSV resides, and therefore do not eliminate the risk of transmission or recurrent disease. Here, we report the ability of HSV-specific endonucleases to induce mutations of essential HSV genes both in cultured neurons and in latently infected mice. In neurons, viral genomes are susceptible to endonuclease-mediated mutagenesis, regardless of the time of treatment after HSV infection, suggesting that both HSV lytic and latent forms can be targeted. Mutagenesis frequency after endonuclease exposure can be increased nearly 2-fold by treatment with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Using a mouse model of latent HSV infection, we demonstrate that a targeted endonuclease can be delivered to viral latency sites via an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, where it is able to induce mutation of latent HSV genomes. These data provide the first proof-of-principle to our knowledge for the use of a targeted endonuclease as an antiviral agent to treat an established latent viral infection in vivo.

  2. Direct growth of Fe3O4-MoO2 hybrid nanofilm anode with enhanced electrochemical performance in neutral aqueous electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi Li; Xin Ba; Yimeng Wang; Wenhua Zuo; Chong Wang; Yuanyuan Li; Jinping Liu

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the electrochemical energy storage performance of supercapacitors (SCs), the current re-searches are general directed towards the cathode materials. However, the anode materials are relatively less studied. In the present work, Fe3O4-MoO2 (FO-MO) hybrid nano thin film directly grown on Ti substrate is investigated, which is used as high-performance anode material for SCs in Li2SO4 electrolyte with the comparison to pristine Fe3O4 nanorod array. The areal capacitance of FO-MO hybrid electrode was initially found to be 65.0 mF cm?2 at 2 mV s?1 and continuously increased to 260.0%after 50 cycles of activation. The capacitance values were considerably comparable or higher than many reported thin-film iron oxide-based anodes in neutral electrolyte. With the protection of MoO2 shell, the FO-MO electrode developed in this study also exhibited excellent cyclic stability (increased to 230.8%after 1000 cycles). This work presents a promising way to improve the electrochemical performance of iron oxide-based anodes for SCs.

  3. Bounded hybrid superiority in an avian hybrid zone: effects of mate, diet, and habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, T P; Ellis, J C; Annett, C A; Pierotti, R

    2000-10-01

    differences in hatching and fledging success, with females paired to hybrid males showing better success compared to females paired to glaucous-winged gull males. Hybrids showed better hatching and fledging success in the north because hybrids are more like western gulls than glaucous-winged gulls in foraging behavior, taking a higher percentage of fish in their diet, which enhances chick growth and survival. This is believed to be the first documentation of bounded hybrid superiority that delineates the mechanisms that underlie hybrid superiority.

  4. Application of cross finned tubes in latent heat storages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, H.; Wolff, D. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anlagentechnik); Brose, J. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Arbeitsgruppe Chemieapparatebau)

    1978-01-01

    Heat storages, utilizing the latent heat of materials have in comparison with sensible heat storages the two fundamental advantages of small storage volumes and constant temperatures during charge and discharge. Known storage systems in the field of industrial heating may be replaced advantageous by latent heat storage systems. A new latent heat storage, applying storage material around vertical arranged cross finned tubes is presented. It results in good heat transfer rates and avoids degredation and stratification of salthydrates during operation. The scaling-up of a single cross finned tube to a compact unit with plate fins seems to be practicable without problems. Some experimental results are presented.

  5. Optical Properties of Drug Metabolites in Latent Fingermarks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators (SRRs), which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field. As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them. In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example.

  6. Group Lasso with Overlaps: the Latent Group Lasso approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We study a norm for structured sparsity which leads to sparse linear predictors whose supports are unions of prede ned overlapping groups of variables. We call the obtained formulation latent group Lasso, since it is based on applying the usual group Lasso penalty on a set of latent variables. A detailed analysis of the norm and its properties is presented and we characterize conditions under which the set of groups associated with latent variables are correctly identi ed. We motivate and discuss the delicate choice of weights associated to each group, and illustrate this approach on simulated data and on the problem of breast cancer prognosis from gene expression data.

  7. Optical properties of drug metabolites in latent fingermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Ai, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators (SRRs), which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field. As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them. In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example.

  8. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  9. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology

    1999-12-01

    . So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re-entry. It may become manifest as legitimating of something else, for instance as rational choice. In everyday life re-entries emerge as compromise. But compromises conceal the relevant difference. In scientific life re-entries emerge as mixed scanning. But mixed scanning displays a mix, not a difference. And it is always a difference which makes a difference. This remains latent.

  10. Latent class profiles of depressive symptoms from early to middle childhood: predictors, outcomes, and gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Diana J; Luby, Joan L; Tilman, Rebecca; Mike, Anissa; Barch, Deanna; Belden, Andy C

    2016-07-01

    There has been little available data to inform the predictors and outcomes of latent class trajectories of depressive symptoms beginning during preschool and continuing throughout school age. Further, the extant literature in this domain has been limited by the use of parent report checklists of nonspecific 'internalizing' psychopathology rather than diagnostic interviews for depression. To address these gaps in the literature, this study applied growth mixture modeling to depressive symptom severity endorsed by children and/or their caregivers (N = 348) during a structured clinical interview in a 10-year longitudinal dataset spanning from preschool into late school age. Three distinct trajectories of depressive symptom severity were found in boys and girls. For boys, but not girls, the high depression severity latent class increased in depressive symptoms from preschool through school age, followed by a decline in depressive symptom severity during later school age. For girls, the high depression severity latent class remained stable across time. Early childhood social adversity, familial history of affective disorder, preschool-onset ODD/CD, and school age functional impairment differentiated high-risk trajectory classes among both boys and girls. Extending the literature on trajectories of depressive symptoms to the preschool period, these findings incorporate structured clinical interviews of depressive symptom severity and indicate gender differences as well as psychosocial predictors and functional outcomes among children in high severity latent classes. The findings from this study suggest that increased attention to screening for depressive symptoms in early childhood is of significant public health importance. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Some children with autism have latent social skills that can be tested

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka,1 Tomas Urbanek,2 Maria Vacova,1 Stepanka Beranova,1 Iva Dudova1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: The idea of latent social skills in autism emerged as a possible interpretation of the rapid (but temporary improvement of autistic subjects in oxytocin studies. We tested a hypothesis that a normal response to Item No 59 “Secure Base” from the third version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (ADIR-59 could indicate the presence of latent social skills in autism.Methods: We examined 110 autistic children (88 boys and 22 girls with a mean age of 6.0±2.5 years (range: 2.2–14.8 years using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS – Generic. A diagnosis of mental retardation was established in 68 autistic children (62%.Results: The difference in the ADOS social domain between children aged ≤5 years on one side and children older than 5 years on the other side was significant in subjects with normal responses to ADIR-59 (9.60 vs 6.47; P=0.031 but not in those with abnormal responses to ADIR-59 (10.62 vs 9.63; P=0.537. In a predictive model, lower ADOS social domain scores were predicted by older age (P=0.001, lower scores on the ADIR-59 (P=0.01, and the absence of mental retardation (P=0.049.Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the normal response to item ADIR-59 “Secure Base” indicates the presence of latent social skills in autism that might foretell further social growth in older autistic subjects. Keywords: autism, latent social skills, Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, prediction

  12. Species hybridization in the genus Pinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    Results of a breeding program in which a large number of pine species were tested indicate that a number of species and hybrids may be useful in the northeastern United States. Austrian black pine x Japanese black pine and hybrids containing Japanese red pine all had good growth rates. While none of the soft pines grew faster than eastern white pine, a number of...

  13. Study on Cross Fruitfulness and Growth Characteristics of Hybrids of Astragalus Linn.Plant%黄芪属植物杂交结实性与杂交种生长特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智勇; 赵景峰; 石凤翎; 伊风艳; 高翠萍

    2013-01-01

    Using Astragalus adsurgens ×A. membranaceus as female parent, Astraglus membrana-ceus(Fish. )Bge. as male parent, hybridization was conducted, the seed setting rate, seed vigor and seedling survival rate were compared between inbred and backcross first generation. In addition, the female parent above mentioned was crossed with A. adsurgens Pall. cv. Zahua(purple flower, white flower) , Astragalus dahuricus, A. adsurgens, A. adsurgens Pall. cv. Zhongsha No. 2, Astraglus membranaceus respectively, the growth characteristics of hybrids were studied. The results showed that seed setting rate of backcross first generation was 73. 55%, but the germination, survival rate of seedling on inbred and back-cross first generation were much lower. Hybrid had a lot of branch, plant type was compact and vertical; among 6 hybrids, No. 2,No. 4 and No. 6 were better in characteristics, but No. 4 had potential ability of high yield.%以黄芪草(Astragalus adsurgens×A.membranaceus)为母本,以膜荚黄芪为父本进行杂交试验,比较回交与自交的结实性、种子活力、幼苗成活率;另外,以上述母本再与杂花沙打旺(白花、紫花)、达乌里黄芪、野生斜茎黄芪和中沙2号杂交,研究黄芪属种间杂交种生长特性.结果表明:自交与回交相比,回交一代的结实率较高(73.55%),而回交一代和自交种子的发芽率、幼苗成活率均较低;6个杂交种的分枝数较多,株型多数为紧凑直立,以2号、4号、6号杂交种性状表现较优,其中4号杂交种具有牧草高产的潜在能力.

  14. Evaluation of growth performance in three imported Litopenaeus vannamei populations and their hybrid offspring%凡纳滨对虾3个引进群体及其杂交子代的生长性能评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志国; 刘建勇; 袁瑞鹏; 张嘉晨

    2015-01-01

    have gradually established several L. vannamei breeding groups to improve growth, disease resistance, and other quantitative traits that yield genetic improvement. Although the domestic L. vannamei germplasm mainly comes from an American source, there has been substantial genetic improvement of L. vannamei, including production of new strains such as“in section No. 1,”“ZTE No. 1,”“Kehai No. 1,”and“Gui Hai No. 1,”which were obtained from distant groups by hybridization. Heterosis can effectively improve growth potential and increase production, which is one of the most important goals of animal and plant breeding. Crossbreeding has been used in aquaculture to exploit hybrid vigor in crossbred offspring that show better performance and increased fitness compared with their purebred parents. In the present study, we used genetic resources from different geographical strains of white shrimp from Miami, Hawaii, and Thailand in a complete diallel cross (Griffing I). In this study, we analyzed the effect of heterosis on growth rate and body weight at parental-and hybrid-strain juveniles, adults, and reserve seed stages. The results showed that the ranges of least squares means of different mating combinations among these stages were 5.86–12.15 g, 14.79–28.82 g, and 38.25–54.74 g, respectively, and the ranges of growth rate were 3.40–5.70%/d, 1.11–2.56%/d, and 0.33–0.68%/d, respectively. Least squares means of hybrid strains were higher than those of inbred strains. Heterosis analysis showed positive mid-parent heterosis and heterobeltiosis for body weight of hybrids with a diminishing trend over time. The highest heterosis occurred in hybrid offspring that were crosses of female individuals of the Miami population with male individuals of the Hawaiian population. At each growth stage, least squares mean of offspring of the Miami population and average of the parents were higher than those of the average of all 3 parent populations. Increase in

  15. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder [Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Olson, Kenneth R. [Department of Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, South Bend, IN 46617 (United States); Kashfi, Khosrow, E-mail: kashfi@med.cuny.edu [Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin is the first dual acting NO and H{sub 2}S releasing hybrid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its IC{sub 50} for cell growth inhibition is in the low nano-molar range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure-activity studies show that the sum of the parts does not equal the whole. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin reduced tumor growth by 85% in mice bearing a colon cancer xenograft. -- Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC{sub 50}s of 45.5 {+-} 2.5, 19.7 {+-} 3.3, and 7.7 {+-} 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation.

  16. Brain Macrophages in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected, Antiretroviral-Suppressed Macaques: a Functional Latent Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Claudia R; Abreu, Celina M; Queen, Suzanne E; Li, Ming; Price, Sarah; Shirk, Erin N; Engle, Elizabeth L; Forsyth, Ellen; Bullock, Brandon T; Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Haase, Ashley T; Zink, M Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L; Clements, Janice E; Gama, Lucio

    2017-08-15

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cure requires an understanding of the cellular and anatomical sites harboring virus that contribute to viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are reported in HIV-infected individuals on ART. Biomarkers for macrophage activation and neuronal damage in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-infected individuals demonstrate continued effects of HIV in brain and suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) may serve as a viral reservoir. Using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model for HIV encephalitis and AIDS, we evaluated whether infected cells persist in brain despite ART. Eight SIV-infected pig-tailed macaques were virally suppressed with ART, and plasma and CSF viremia levels were analyzed longitudinally. To assess whether virus persisted in brain macrophages (BrMΦ) in these macaques, we used a macrophage quantitative viral outgrowth assay (MΦ-QVOA), PCR, and in situ hybridization (ISH) to measure the frequency of infected cells and the levels of viral RNA and DNA in brain. Viral RNA in brain tissue of suppressed macaques was undetectable, although viral DNA was detected in all animals. The MΦ-QVOA demonstrated that the majority of suppressed animals contained latently infected BrMΦ. We also showed that virus produced in the MΦ-QVOAs was replication competent, suggesting that latently infected BrMΦ are capable of reestablishing productive infection upon treatment interruption. This report provides the first confirmation of the presence of replication-competent SIV in BrMΦ of ART-suppressed macaques and suggests that the highly debated issue of viral latency in macrophages, at least in brain, has been addressed in SIV-infected macaques treated with ART.IMPORTANCE Resting CD4(+) T cells are currently the only cells that fit the definition of a latent reservoir. However, recent evidence suggests that HIV

  17. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Michele L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, Azure D.; Bobela, David; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2016-05-31

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a 'thermal valve,' which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  18. Latent learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2010-04-02

    The zebrafish may represent an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity for behavioral brain research. It may be particularly appropriate for large scale screening studies whose aim is to identify mutants with altered phenotypes or novel compounds with particular efficacy. For example, the zebrafish may have utility in the analysis of the biological mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning and memory have been extensively studied and hundreds of underlying molecular mechanisms have been identified, this number may represent only the fraction of genes involved in these complex brain functions. Thus large scale mutagenesis screens may have utility. In order for such screens to succeed, appropriate screening paradigms must be developed. The first step in this research is the characterization of learning and memory capabilities of zebrafish and the development of automatable tasks. Here we show that zebrafish is capable of latent learning, i.e. can acquire memory of their environment after being allowed to explore it. For example, we found experimental zebrafish that experienced an open left tunnel or an open right tunnel of a maze during the unrewarded exploration phase of the test to show the appropriate side bias during a probe trial when they had to swim to a group of conspecifics (the reward). Given that exploration of the maze does not require the presence of the experimenter and the probe trial, during which the subjects are video-recorded and their memory is tested, is short, we argue that the paradigm has utility in high-throughput screening.

  19. Effects of fencamfamine on latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cilene R R; Delucia, Roberto; Silva, M Teresa A

    2002-10-01

    The effects of fencamfamine (FCF), an indirect dopamine (DA) agent, were investigated using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia. In the LI procedure, rats preexposed (PE) to an unreinforced stimulus show difficulty in subsequent learning of an association in which that stimulus is predictive of an unconditioned stimulus (US). FCF (1.75, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg i.p.) yielded an inverse dose-response relationship regarding LI. At 3.5 mg/kg, LI was abolished and no effect was observed at 1.75 and 7.0 mg/kg. The effect of FCF (3.5 mg/kg) on LI was blocked by the antipsychotic risperidone (RIS; 4.0 mg/kg), a D2/5HT2 antagonist. These results confirm the similarity of the behavioral profile of FCF and amphetamine (AMPH). In addition, they provide a further validation of the LI model for psychosis, since RIS was shown to prevent a psychostimulant-induced disruption of LI.

  20. Photoacoustic and Colorimetric Visualization of Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Huang, Peng; Yi, Chenglin; Ning, Bo; Hu, Song; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Nie, Zhihong

    2015-12-22

    There is a high demand on a simple, rapid, accurate, user-friendly, cost-effective, and nondestructive universal method for latent fingerprint (LFP) detection. Herein, we describe a combination imaging strategy for LFP visualization with high resolution using poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (PSMA-b-PS) functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). This general approach integrates the merits of both colorimetric imaging and photoacoustic imaging. In comparison with the previous methods, our strategy is single-step and does not require the signal amplification by silver staining. The PSMA-b-PS functionalized GNPs have good stability, tunable color, and high affinity for universal secretions (proteins/polypeptides/amino acids), which makes our approach general and flexible for visualizing LFPs on different substrates (presumably with different colors) and from different people. Moreover, the unique optical property of GNPs enables the photoacoustic imaging of GNPs-deposited LFPs with high resolution. This allows observation of level 3 hyperfine features of LFPs such as the pores and ridge contours by photoacoustic imaging. This technique can potentially be used to identify chemicals within LFP residues. We believe that this dual-modality imaging of LFPs will find widespread use in forensic investigations and medical diagnostics.

  1. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  2. Latent Infections with Plasmodium ovale Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Marcus, David M.; Cameron, Douglas G.

    1965-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in West Africa appeared as primary delayed attacks after one year's continuous residence in Canada. Both patients took full prophylactic doses of chloroquine before, during, and for several weeks after exposure. The inadequacy of the 4-aminoquinolines for protection against latent benign tertian malaria is noted, and the use of primaquine is recommended. Paroxysms occurred in the evening and were accompanied by severe muscle pain, features considered typical of ovale malaria. One patient showed electrocardiographic changes and clinical signs of cardiac malfunction; these disappeared following specific treatment for malaria. In this age of accelerated travel and international movements of people it is important that physicians in temperate regions be aware of the exotic infections of the tropics, as well as of the need for protective measures for travellers to areas where these diseases are endemic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1b,1cFig. 3 a-dFig. 3 e-h PMID:14296004

  3. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  4. The Influence of the Ratio of Nitrate to Ammonium Nitrogen on Nitrogen Removal in the Economical Growth of Vegetation in Hybrid Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing vegetables economically in the use of constructed wetland for wastewater treatment can play a role in overcoming water and food scarcity. Allium porrum L., Solanum melongena L., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Capsicum annuum L. plants were selected to grow in hybrid constructed wetland (CW under natural conditions. The impact of the ratio of nitrate to ammonium nitrogen on ammonium and nitrate nitrogen removal and on total nitrogen were studied in wastewater. Constructed wetland planted with Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Solanum melongena L. showed higher removal efficiency for ammonium nitrogen under higher ammonium concentration, whereas Allium porrum L.-planted CW showed higher nitrate nitrogen removal when NO3–N concentration was high in wastewater. Capsicum annuum L.-planted CW showed little efficiency for both nitrogen sources compared to other vegetables.

  5. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  6. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  7. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina

    2012-08-03

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  8. Gaussian Process Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In a variety of disciplines such as social sciences, psychology, medicine and economics, the recorded data are considered to be noisy measurements of latent variables connected by some causal structure. This corresponds to a family of graphical models known as the structural equation model with latent variables. While linear non-Gaussian variants have been well-studied, inference in nonparametric structural equation models is still underdeveloped. We introduce a sparse Gaussian process parameterization that defines a non-linear structure connecting latent variables, unlike common formulations of Gaussian process latent variable models. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure is described. We evaluate the stability of the sampling procedure and the predictive ability of the model compared against the current practice.

  9. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  10. Effect of Boundary Layer Latent Heating on MJO Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; LI Chongyin; ZHOU Wen; JIA Xiaolong; Chidong ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    A latent heating peak in the PBL was detected in a simulation by a global GCM that failed to reproduce Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO).The latent heating peak in the PBL was generated by very shallow convection,which prevented moisture from being transported to the free troposphere.Large amount of moisture was therefore confined to the PBL,leading to a dry bias in the free atmosphere.Suffering from this dry bias,deep convection became lethargic,and MJO signals failed to occur.When the latent heating peak in the PBL was removed in another simulation,reasonable MJO signals,including the eastward propagation and the structure of its large-scale circulation,appeared.We therefore propose that the excessive latent heating peak in the PBL due to hyperactive shallow convection may be a reason for a lack of MJO signals in some simulations by other GCMs as well.

  11. Protection from latent inhibition provided by a conditioned inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bridget L; Wheeler, Daniel S; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2009-10-01

    Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated the influence on latent inhibition of compounding a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor with the target cue during preexposure treatment. Results were compared with those of subjects that received conventional latent inhibition training, no preexposure, or preexposure to the target cue in compound with a neutral stimulus. In Experiment 1, greater attenuation of the latent inhibition effect was observed in subjects that received target preexposure in compound with a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor relative to subjects that received preexposure with a neutral stimulus or to the target alone. In Experiment 2, this protection from latent inhibition was attenuated if the excitor that was used to train the conditioned inhibitor was extinguished between preexposure and target training. The results are consistent with an account offered by the extended comparator hypothesis.

  12. Motivational control of latent inhibition in flavor preference conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; González, Felisa; Hall, Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    In three experiments, rats given pairings of a neutral flavor with sucrose showed a preference for that flavor when subsequently allowed to choose between it and water. Preexposure to the flavor produced a latent inhibition effect (reduced the size of the preference) when the rats were hungry during the test (Experiments 1 and 2). Rats that were not hungry during the test failed to show latent inhibition (Experiments 1-3). Experiment 3 confirmed that sucrose-flavor pairings were capable of producing a preference even in nonhungry rats. It is argued that the preference shown by rats that are hungry on test depends on a flavor-nutrient association, a form of learning that is susceptible to latent inhibition in the same way as standard conditioning procedures are. The failure to obtain latent inhibition in nonhungry rats suggests that the preference obtained in these conditions depends on a different form of learning that is less susceptible to the effects of stimulus exposure.

  13. Understanding the sufficiency of information for latent fingerprint value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Kiebuzinski, George I; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, Joann

    2013-07-10

    A latent print examiner's assessment of the value, or suitability, of a latent impression is the process of determining whether the impression has sufficient information to make a comparison. A "no value" determination preemptively states that no individualization or exclusion determination could be made using the impression, regardless of quality of the comparison prints. Factors contributing to a value determination include clarity and the types, quantity, and relationships of features. These assessments are made subjectively by individual examiners and may vary among examiners. We modeled the relationships between value determinations and feature annotations made by 21 certified latent print examiners on 1850 latent impressions. Minutia count was strongly associated with value determinations. None of the models resulted in a stronger intraexaminer association with "value for individualization" determinations than minutia count alone. The association between examiner annotation and value determinations is greatly limited by the lack of reproducibility of both annotation and value determinations.

  14. Time-resolved imaging of latent fingerprints with nanosecond resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, L. K.; Dinish, U. S.; Ong, S. K.; Chao, Z. X.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2004-07-01

    Imaging of latent fingerprints using time-resolved (TR) method offers a broader platform to eliminate the unwanted background emission. In this paper, a novel TR imaging technique is demonstrated and implemented, which facilitates the detection of latent fingerprints with nanosecond resolution. Simulated experiments were carried out with two overlapping fingerprints treated with two fluorescent powders having different lifetimes in nanosecond range. The dependence of the fluorescence emission intensity in nanosecond resolution of TR imaging is also revealed.

  15. Transient response of latent heat storage in greenhouse solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Toksoy, M.; Cengel, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    A latent heat storage system with two different stacking configurations and air bafflings was designed and constructed as an integrated part of the greenhouse solar system (solar barn). Commercial cylindrical storage rods were used as the primary storage elements. The results showed that the designed latent storage systems demonstrated significantly higher compact storage capacity than water or rock storage and that the ring-baffled storage unit performed better than the cross-baffled storage unit.

  16. Latent-failure risk estimates for computer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William R.; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Green, Owen R.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that critical computer controls employing unmonitored safety circuits are unsafe. Analysis supporting this result leads to two additional, important conclusions: (1) annual maintenance checks of safety circuit function do not, as widely believed, eliminate latent failure risk; (2) safety risk remains even if multiple, series-connected protection circuits are employed. Finally, it is shown analytically that latent failure risk is eliminated when continuous monitoring is employed.

  17. LATENT INHIBITION AND PSYCHOMETRICALLY DEFINED SCHIZOTYPY: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2003-01-01

    The review of the literature suggests that the interpretation of the disruption of latent inhibition within the schizophrenia continuum remains elusive due to a number of methodological and theoretical problems. This thesis adopted a personality-based approach to experimental psychopathology testing alternative interpretations of latent inhibition deficits as a function of psychotic-like features in non-clinical participants. Results from 12 Experiments are discussed in terms of a two-compone...

  18. Fitting Latent Cluster Models for Networks with latentnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Krivitsky

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available latentnet is a package to fit and evaluate statistical latent position and cluster models for networks. Hoff, Raftery, and Handcock (2002 suggested an approach to modeling networks based on positing the existence of an latent space of characteristics of the actors. Relationships form as a function of distances between these characteristics as well as functions of observed dyadic level covariates. In latentnet social distances are represented in a Euclidean space. It also includes a variant of the extension of the latent position model to allow for clustering of the positions developed in Handcock, Raftery, and Tantrum (2007.The package implements Bayesian inference for the models based on an Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. It can also compute maximum likelihood estimates for the latent position model and a two-stage maximum likelihood method for the latent position cluster model. For latent position cluster models, the package provides a Bayesian way of assessing how many groups there are, and thus whether or not there is any clustering (since if the preferred number of groups is 1, there is little evidence for clustering. It also estimates which cluster each actor belongs to. These estimates are probabilistic, and provide the probability of each actor belonging to each cluster. It computes four types of point estimates for the coefficients and positions: maximum likelihood estimate, posterior mean, posterior mode and the estimator which minimizes Kullback-Leibler divergence from the posterior. You can assess the goodness-of-fit of the model via posterior predictive checks. It has a function to simulate networks from a latent position or latent position cluster model.

  19. Growth charts of human development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews and compares two types of growth charts for tracking human development over age. Both charts assume the existence of a continuous latent variable, but relate to the observed data in different ways. The D-score diagram summarizes developmental indicators into a single aggregate s

  20. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  1. Yeast two-hybrid screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Yeast two-hybrid is a method for screening large numbers of gene products (encoded by cDNA libraries) for their ability to interact with a protein of interest. This system can also be used for characterizing and manipulating candidate protein: protein interactions. Interactions between proteins are monitored by the growth of yeast plated on selective media.

  2. Comparing the context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R; Laborda, Mario A; Polack, Cody W; Miguez, Gonzalo

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to a cue alone either before (i.e., latent inhibition treatment) or after (i.e., extinction) the cue is paired with an unconditioned stimulus results in attenuated conditioned responding to the cue. Here we report two experiments in which potential parallels between the context specificity of the effects of extinction and latent inhibition treatments were directly compared in a lick suppression preparation with rats. The reversed ordering of conditioning and nonreinforcement in extinction and latent inhibition designs allowed us to examine the effect of training order on the context specificity of what is learned given phasic reinforcement and nonreinforcement of a target cue. Experiment 1 revealed that when conditioned-stimulus (CS) conditioning and CS nonreinforcement were administered in the same context, both extinction and latent inhibition treatments had reduced impacts on test performance, relative to excitatory conditioning when testing occurred outside the treatment context. Similarly, Experiment 2 showed that when conditioning was administered in one context and nonreinforcement was administered in a second context, the effects of both extinction and latent inhibition treatments were attenuated when testing occurred in a neutral context, relative to the context in which the CS was nonreinforced. The observed context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition treatments has been previously reported in both cases, but not in a single experiment under otherwise identical conditions. The results of the two experiments convergently suggest that memory of nonreinforcement becomes context dependent after a cue is both reinforced and nonreinforced, independent of the order of training.

  3. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S

    2016-01-15

    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research.

  4. Structure and interdomain interactions of a hybrid domain: a disulphide-rich module of the fibrillin/LTBP superfamily of matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sacha A; Iqbal, Sarah; Lowe, Edward D; Redfield, Christina; Handford, Penny A

    2009-05-13

    The fibrillins and latent transforming growth factor-beta binding proteins (LTBPs) form a superfamily of structurally-related proteins consisting of calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like (cbEGF) domains interspersed with 8-cysteine-containing transforming growth factor beta-binding protein-like (TB) and hybrid (hyb) domains. Fibrillins are the major components of the extracellular 10-12 nm diameter microfibrils, which mediate a variety of cell-matrix interactions. Here we present the crystal structure of a fibrillin-1 cbEGF9-hyb2-cbEGF10 fragment, solved to 1.8 A resolution. The hybrid domain fold is similar, but not identical, to the TB domain fold seen in previous fibrillin-1 and LTBP-1 fragments. Pairwise interactions with neighboring cbEGF domains demonstrate extensive interfaces, with the hyb2-cbEGF10 interface dependent on Ca(2+) binding. These observations provide accurate constraints for models of fibrillin organization within the 10-12 nm microfibrils and provide further molecular insights into how Ca(2+) binding influences the intermolecular interactions and biomechanical properties of fibrillin-1.

  5. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2012-03-16

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H(2)S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H(2)S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC(50)s of 45.5 ± 2.5, 19.7 ± 3.3, and 7.7 ± 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G(0)/G(1) cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of unobserved heterogeneity with growth mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Jost Reinecke; Luca Mariotti

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve models as structural equation models are extensively discussedin various research fields (Duncan et al., 2006). Recent methodological and statisticalextension are focused on the consideration of unobserved heterogeneity in empiricaldata. Muth´en extended the classical structural equation approach by mixture components,i. e. categorical latent classes (Muth´en 2002, 2004, 2007).The paper will discuss applications of growth mixture models with data from oneof the first panel...

  7. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Shiner, Rebecca L; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports) for 429 children (mean age 8 years at Time 1) replicated the Resilient, Under-, and Overcontroller types. Latent Class Growth Analysis of externalizing and internalizing problems (modeled as latent factors, based on mother and father reports), revealed that Undercontrollers were at greater risk of belonging to a high/decreasing externalizing problem class and a high/stable co-occurring problem class than were Resilients. Overcontrollers were more likely to be in a high/stable internalizing class and less likely to be in the externalizing problem class, but only at low levels of parental overreactivity. Undercontrollers appeared at double risk as they were at risk for high overreactive parenting, which was an independent risk-factor for the elevated problem trajectories. Because childhood personality types were a risk factor for adjustment problems that persisted into adolescence, Under- and Overcontrollers might be considered as a target for early intervention, with a focus on overreactive parenting for Undercontrollers specifically.

  8. Antitumor immunopreventive and immunotherapeutic effect in mice induced by hybrid vaccine of dendritic cells and hepatocarcinoma in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Juan Zhang; Hai-Bin Chen; Su-Biao Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To develop atumor vaccine by fusion of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells and DC, and to study its protective and therapeutical effect against H22 cell.METHODS: H22-DC vaccine was produced by PEG fusion of H22 and DC induced by cytokine released from splenic mononuclear cells, sorted by CD11c magnetic microbead marker. It was injected through the tail vein of the mice and the H22-DC oncogenesis was detected in the liver, spleen and lung. In order to study the therapeutical and protective effect of H22-DC against tumor H22, two groups were divided:immune group and therapeutic group. Immune group was further divided into P, D, HD and H subgroups, immunized by PBS, DC, H22-DC and inactivated H22, respectively, and attacked by H22 cell. The tumor size, tumor weight, mice survival time and tumor latent period were recorded and statistically analyzed; Therapeutical group was divided into three subgroups of P, D and HD, and attacked by H22, then treated with PBS, DC, and H22-DC, respectively. Pathology and flow cytometry were also applied to study the mechanism how the H22-DC vaccine attacked on the H22 cell.RESULTS: 1. No oncogenesis was found in spleen, lung and liver after H22-DC injection. 2. Hybrid vaccine immunized mice had strongest CTL activity. 3. In the immune group,latent period was longer in HD subgroup than that in P, H and D subgroup; and tumor size and weight were smaller in HD subgroup than that in P, H and D subgroup. 4. In therapeutic group, tumor size was smaller in HD subgroup than that in P, D subgroup.CONCLUSION: 1. H22-DC tumor vaccine is safe without oncogenesis in vivo. 2. Hybrid vaccine can stimulate potent specific CTL activity against H22.3. H22-DC vaccine has distinctive prophylatic effect on tumor H22 and can inhibit the tumor growth.

  9. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  10. Latent viral immune inflammatory response model for chronic multisymptom illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Sean R; Jensen, Susan; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Goolkasian, Paula

    2013-03-01

    A latent viral immune inflammatory response (LVIIR) model is presented which integrates factors that contribute to chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) in both the veteran and civilian populations. The LVIIR model for CMI results from an integration of clinical experience with a review of the literature in four distinct areas: (1) studies of idiopathic multisymptom illness in the veteran population including two decades of research on Gulf War I veterans with CMI, (2) new evidence supporting the existence of chronic inflammatory responses to latent viral antigens and the effect these responses may have on the nervous system, (3) recent discoveries concerning the role of vitamin D in maintaining normal innate and adaptive immunity including suppression of latent viruses and regulation of the immune inflammatory response, and (4) the detrimental effects of extreme chronic repetitive stress (ECRS) on the immune and nervous systems. The LVIIR model describes the pathophysiology of a pathway to CMI and presents a new direction for the clinical assessment of CMI that includes the use of neurological signs from a physical exam, objective laboratory data, and a new proposed latent viral antigen-antibody imaging technique for the peripheral and central nervous system. The LVIIR model predicts that CMI can be treated by a focus on reversal of immune system impairment, suppression of latent viruses and their antigens, and healing of nervous system tissue damaged by chronic inflammation associated with latent viral antigens and by ECRS. In addition, the LVIIR model suggests that maintaining optimal serum 25 OH vitamin D levels will maximize immune system suppression of latent viruses and their antigens and will minimize immune system inflammation. This model also emphasizes the importance of decreasing ECRS to improve immune system function and to minimize nervous system injury from excess serum glucocorticoid levels. The proposed model supports growing evidence that increasing

  11. Linear Latent Force Models using Gaussian Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Mauricio A; Lawrence, Neil D

    2011-01-01

    Purely data driven approaches for machine learning present difficulties when data is scarce relative to the complexity of the model or when the model is forced to extrapolate. On the other hand, purely mechanistic approaches need to identify and specify all the interactions in the problem at hand (which may not be feasible) and still leave the issue of how to parameterize the system. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach using Gaussian processes and differential equations to combine data driven modelling with a physical model of the system. We show how different, physically-inspired, kernel functions can be developed through sensible, simple, mechanistic assumptions about the underlying system. The versatility of our approach is illustrated with three case studies from motion capture, computational biology and geostatistics.

  12. Conversion from latent to symptomatic Sheehan's syndrome by pegylated interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Keitaro; Kayahara, Takahisa; Seno, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was admitted to our hospital to receive interferon (IFN) therapy. Twenty years earlier she had received blood transfusion because of obstetric hemorrhage. Blood test showed mild hypothyroidism and a relatively elevated eosinophil count. Therapy with pegylated IFNalpha-2a was started, and two days later she complained of nausea and severe malaise. Blood test showed hyponatremia, and plasma prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol levels were all decreased. A simultaneous administration test of lutenizing hormone releasing-, corticotrophin releasing-, growth hormone releasing- and thyrotropin releasing-hormones revealed that only adrenocorticotropic hormone was responsive. Magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy of anterior lobe of pituitary gland. We diagnosed that IFN therapy disclosed latent Sheehan's syndrome due to previous obstetric hemorrhage. Following supplementation of thyroid and adrenal cortical hormones, we were able to complete IFN therapy. Thus, before IFN therapy for woman patients it is important to suspect latent Sheehan's syndrome when the patient had a history of obstetric hemorrhage.

  13. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  14. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  15. Use of Sulfometuron in Hybrid Poplar Energy Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1995-01-01

    Reports that low rates of sulfometuron, 70 grams per hactare (1 ounce product or 0.75 ounces active ingredient per acre), applied when hybrid poplars are completely dormant, can provide season-long weed control and increase hybrid poplar growth. If plantation access is not possible before growth activity begins in the spring, late fall application of this herbicide...

  16. Regression of latent endometrial precancers by progestin infiltrated intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørbo, Anne; Rise, Cecil E; Mutter, George L

    2006-06-01

    PTEN tumor suppressor inactivation is the earliest step in endometrial carcinogenesis, occurring in morphologically unremarkable endometrial glands in half of normal women. We test the hypothesis that sex hormones positively or negatively select for these "latent precancers" by examining their emergence, persistence, and regression rates under differing hormonal conditions. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women had an intake endometrial biopsy and underwent hormonal therapy with progestin-impregnated intrauterine device (IUD; n = 21), cyclic oral progestins (n = 28), or surveillance only (n = 22) with follow-up biopsies. For comparison, premenopausal naturally cycling endometrial biopsies were studied as single time points in 87 patients and multiple surveillance time points in 34 patients. Biopsies in which any PTEN protein-null glands were found by immunohistochemistry were scored as containing a latent endometrial precancer. All groups had a similar proportion of latent precancers at intake but differed after therapy. Emergence rates were highest (21%) for the naturally cycling premenopausal group compared with just 9% for untreated perimenopausal women. The IUD group had the highest rate of regression, with a 62% pretherapy and 5% post-therapy rate of latent precancers. This contrasted to nonsignificant changes for the oral progestin and untreated control groups. Delivery of high doses of progestins locally to the endometrium by IUD leads to ablation of preexisting PTEN-inactivated endometrial latent precancers and is a possible mechanism for reduction of long-term endometrial cancer risk known to occur in response to this hormone.

  17. Some properties of active and latent catechol oxidase of mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latent form of mushroom catechol oxidase was activated by O,1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Catalytic power of the latent form, calculated from the kinetic parameters was 1,8 times higher than that of active one. Salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM appeared as a powerful inhibitor for both active and latent forms of catechol oxidase. However, in the range of 150-250 μM SHAM the inhibitory effect for active catechol oxidase was significantly higher than that for the latent one. Non-competitive and irreversible characteristics of inhibition of latent and active catechol oxidase was calculated from kinetic data. Electrophoretic analysis followed by scanning of the gels was used. The spots' absorbance was determined from a computer image of the isoenzyme band patterns. It allowed us to estimate gels quantitatively. Presence of one additional clearly defined slow moving isoform of SDS-activated catechol oxidase, differed in the respect of 3 bands for the active and 4 bands for the total.

  18. Learning From Hidden Traits: Joint Factor Analysis and Latent Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiao; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction techniques play an essential role in data analytics, signal processing and machine learning. Dimensionality reduction is usually performed in a preprocessing stage that is separate from subsequent data analysis, such as clustering or classification. Finding reduced-dimension representations that are well-suited for the intended task is more appealing. This paper proposes a joint factor analysis and latent clustering framework, which aims at learning cluster-aware low-dimensional representations of matrix and tensor data. The proposed approach leverages matrix and tensor factorization models that produce essentially unique latent representations of the data to unravel latent cluster structure -- which is otherwise obscured because of the freedom to apply an oblique transformation in latent space. At the same time, latent cluster structure is used as prior information to enhance the performance of factorization. Specific contributions include several custom-built problem formulations, corresponding algorithms, and discussion of associated convergence properties. Besides extensive simulations, real-world datasets such as Reuters document data and MNIST image data are also employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  19. A Magnetically Responsive Polydiacetylene Precursor for Latent Fingerprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joosub; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-03-01

    A magnetically responsive diacetylene (DA) powder was developed for the visualization of latent fingerprints. A mixture of the DA and magnetite nanoparticles, applied to a surface containing latent fingermarks, becomes immobilized along the ridge patterns of the fingerprints when a magnetic field is applied. Alignment along the ridge structures is a consequence of favorable hydrophobic interactions occurring between the long alkyl chains in the DAs and the lipid-rich, sebaceous latent fingermarks. UV irradiation of the DA-magnetite composite immobilized on the latent fingerprint results in the generation of blue-colored PDAs. Heat treatment of the blue-colored image promotes a blue-to-red transition as well as fluorescence turn-on. A combination of the aligned pale brown-colored monomeric state, UV irradiation generated blue-colored PDA state, as well as the heat treatment generated red-colored and fluorescent PDA state enables efficient visual imaging of a latent fingerprint, which is deposited on various colored solid surfaces.

  20. Latent lip print development and its role in suspect identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The study aims to develop latent lip prints on glass surface using fingerprint black powder and its comparison with standard lipstick prints and also determines the effectiveness of the technique. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects, comprising of 50 males and 50 females with age ranging from 17 to 38 years. Latent lipprint was developed by pressing the lips against a glass slab with lips together and the print formed was developed by sprinkling the black finger print powder and transferred to a bond sheet. Subsequently, standard lipstick print was developed from the same subject. All the samples were coded and graded according to the patterns suggested in the literature. Results: Out of 100 latent prints only 29 prints showed lip patterns in all four quadrants. The percentage matching with self lipstick print of good latent prints ranged from 25% to 100% and those of random prints ranged from 8% to 92%. Quadrant wise matching ranged from 52.67% to 57.67%. Statistically significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the usefulness of latent lip print in personal identification.