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Sample records for hybrid laparo-endoscopic single

  1. Laparo-endoscopic single-site left adrenalectomy using conventional ports and instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepraj S Bhandarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparo-endoscopic single-site adrenalectomy (LESS-A is commonly performed using specialized access devices and/or instruments. We report a LESS-A in a 47-year-old woman with a left aldosteranoma via a subcostal approach utilizing conventional laparoscopic ports and instruments. The feasibility and cost-effectiveness of this approach are highlighted and the literature on the subject is reviewed.

  2. Complications of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery in urology

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    Hagop Sarkissian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to give a general overview of common complications and rates reported in the current literature during performance of a variety of urologic procedures using laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery or LESS. A search of published reports using Pubmed and MEDLINE was performed with the following search terms: laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery, LESS or laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery complications within the date range of 2005--2011. Studies that were deemed appropriate and relevant to the current symposium were chosen for review. Overall complication rates were reported as ranging between 10% and 25%. In general, reconstructive procedures had consistently higher rates of complications than their extirpative/ablative counterparts (27% vs. 8%. There remain insufficient data to comment on differences in the rates or types of complications related to variations in the approach (transperitoneal vs. retroperitoneal, site of surgery (upper tract vs. lower tract or specific technique used (instruments, access devices, robotic platforms, etc.. Complication rates associated with LESS in urology appear only slightly higher than with conventional laparoscopy. However, with proper patient selection and careful application of these techniques, proofs of concept and technical feasibility have been shown in several series. There continues to be a need for more standardization of the technique and reporting as well as more collaborative efforts to fully address questions of safety and efficacy of these new procedures.

  3. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J: An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

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    Mohammad Reza Vahdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.

  4. Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site Surgery for Radical and Cytoreductive Nephrectomy, Renal Vein Thrombectomy, and Partial Nephrectomy: A Prospective Pilot Evaluation

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    Ithaar H. Derweesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS may diminish morbidity of laparoscopic surgery. We prospectively evaluated feasibility and outcomes of LESS-Radical Nephrectomy (LESS-RN and Partial Nephrectomy (LESS-PN. Methods. 10 patients underwent LESS-RN (6 and LESS-PN (4 between 2/2009-5/2009. LESS-RN included 2 with renal vein thrombectomy, one of which was also cytoreductive. Transperitoneal LESS access was obtained by periumbilical incision. Patient/tumor characteristics, oncologic, and quality of life (QoL outcomes were analyzed. Results. 3 Men/7 Women (mean age 58.7 years, median follow-up 9.8 months underwent LESS. 9/10 cases were completed successfully. All had negative margins. Mean operative time was 161 minutes, estimated blood loss was 125 mL, and incision size was 4.4 cm. Median tumor size for LESS-RN and -PN was 5.0 and 1.7 cm (=.045. Median LESS-PN ischemia time was 24 minutes; mean preoperative/postoperative creatinine were 0.7/0.8 mg/dL (=.19. Mean pain score at discharge was 1.3. Mean preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative SF-36 QoL Score was 73.8, 74.4 and 77.1 (=.222. All patients are currently alive. Conclusions. LESS-RN, renal vein thrombectomy, and PN are technically feasible and safe while maintaining adherence to oncologic principles, with excellent QoL preservation and low discharge pain scores. Further study is requisite.

  5. Retroperitoneoscopic laparo-endoscopic single-site radical nephrectomy (RLESS-RN: initial experience with a homemade port

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    Chung Shiu-Dong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We successfully performed 6 LESS radical nephrectomy via the retroperitoneal approach (RLESS using the Alexis wound retractor as a single access with conventional laparoscopic instruments. The results demonstrated that our RLESS technique of radical nephrectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for management of localized renal cancer.

  6. [Choledocholithiasis and pregnancy. Hybrid laparo-endoscopic treatment in one step].

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    Valadez-Caballero, David; González-Santamaría, Roberto; Soto-Mendoza, Héctor; Alberto Blanco-Figueroa, Jorge; Flores-Pantoja, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las complicaciones asociadas con la coledocolitiasis son poco comunes durante el embarazo. Sin embargo, cuando aparecen incrementan la morbilidad y mortalidad para el feto y la madre. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 25 años de edad, en el segundo trimestre de embarazo. El padecimiento actual lo inició cuatro días previos a su ingreso al hospital, con dolor abdominal en el hipocondrio derecho acompañado de náuseas y vómito. A las 24 horas se agregó ictericia y coluria. A la exploración física se encontró tinte ictérico, dolor en el hipocondrio derecho, sin irritación peritoneal. Útero a nivel de la cicatriz umbilical, sin actividad uterina. Los exámenes de laboratorio mostraron: elevación de bilirrubinas y transaminasas, sin leucocitosis; el ultrasonido reportó producto único vivo intrauterino, con frecuencia cardiaca de 128 latidos por minuto, vesícula biliar con múltiples litos en su interior, colédoco 10 mm y dilatación de vía biliar. Se realizó colecistectomía laparoscópica y colangiografía transoperatoria con colocación de guía transcística para canulación selectiva de la vía biliar. Durante la colangiografía endoscópica transoperatoria se extrajeron algunos litos. La evolución fue satisfactoria, toleró la dieta y fue fue dada de alta del hospital a las 48 horas. Conclusión: en el tratamiento de la coledocolitiasis y embarazo la combinación de laparoscopia y colangiografía endoscópica terapéutica en un solo tiempo es eficaz porque disminuye el riesgo de complicaciones asociadas con la canulación de la vía biliar.

  7. Open and laparo-endoscopic repair of incarcerated abdominal wall hernias by the use of biological and biosynthetic meshes

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    René H Fortelny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although recently published guidelines recommend against the use of synthetic non-absorbable materials in cases of potentially contaminated or contaminated surgical fields due to the increased risk of infection [1, 2], the use of bio-prosthetic meshes for abdominal wall or ventral hernia repair is still controversially discussed in such cases. Bio-prosthetic meshes have been recommended due to less susceptibility for infection and the decreased risk of subsequent mesh explantation. The purpose of this review is to elucidate if there are any indications for the use of biological and biosynthetic meshes in incarcerated abdominal wall hernias based on the recently published literature.Methods: A literature search of the Medline database using the PubMed search engine, using the keywords returned 486 articles up to June 2015. The full text of 486 articles was assessed and 13 relevant papers were identified including 5 retrospective case cohort studies, 2 case controlled studies, 6 case series.Results: The results of Franklin et al [23, 24, 25] included the highest number of biological mesh repairs (Surgisis® by laparoscopic IPOM in infected fields which demonstrated a very low incidence of infection and recurrence (0,7% and 5,2%. Han et al [26] reported in his retrospective study the highest number of treated patients due to incarcerated hernias by open approach using acellular dermal matrix (ADM® with very low rate of infection as well as recurrences (1,6% and 15,9. Both studies achieved acceptable outcome in a follow up of at least 3,5 years compared to the use of synthetic mesh in this high-risk population [3]Conclusion:Currently there is a very limited evidence for the use of biological and biosynthetic meshes in strangulated hernias in either open or laparo-endoscopic repair. Finally, there is an urgent need to start with randomized controlled comparative trials as well as to support registries with data to achieve more

  8. Single port laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Henrik; Istre, Olav

    2012-01-01

    LESS, or laparo-endoscopic single site surgery, is a promising new method in minimally invasive surgery. An increasing number of surgical procedures are being performed using this technique, however, its large-scale adoption awaits results of prospective randomized controlled studies confirming...... potential benefits. Theoretically, cosmetic outcomes, postoperative pain and complication rates could be improved with use of single site surgery. This study describes introduction of the method in a private hospital in Denmark, in which 40 patients have been treated for benign gynecologic conditions...

  9. Laparo-endoscopic Assisted Percutaneous Drainage Gastrostomy and Feeding Jejunostomy

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    Vishwanath Golash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired tracheo-esophageal Fistula (TEF is a rare but serious complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation. Patients of TEF are usually very critically ill and prone to repeated aspiration and pneumonia. The first stage of treatment involves the diversion of salivary and gastric contents away from the fistula site, improving the nutritional status and control of sepsis. A drainage gastrostomy and feeding jejunostomy is often required to divert the gastric contents away from the fistula and for nutrition.

  10. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

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    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  11. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  12. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve t...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  13. [Transgastric laparo-endoscopic approach for difficult access lesions. Experimental mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Vega, Marcel Adalid; Morales-Chávez, Carlos Ernesto; Aguirre-Olmedo, Itzé; Cuendis-Velázquez, Adolfo; Rojano-Rodríguez, Martín Edgardo; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las neoplasias gástricas pueden tratarse de forma segura y eficaz mediante laparoscopia. Debido a su localización algunas lesiones son inaccesibles mediante cirugía laparoscópica, como alternativa se propone el abordaje transgástrico. Objetivo: exponer los resultados con la aplicación de una técnica laparo-endoscópica en un modelo animal que mantenga funcional la anatomía, para resecar neoplasias gástricas de la pared posterior del estómago, próximas al cardias y a la región pre-pilórica. Material y métodos: el estudio se efectuó entre los meses de mayo a diciembre de 2011en el Hospital General Gea González y consistió en experimentar en 12 cerdos la técnica laparo-endoscópica para resección de neoplasias gástricas de la pared posterior. La inserción de los trócares intragástricos se realizó mediante endoscopia. Se efectuaron tres gastrotomías en la pared anterior y con visión endoscópica los trócares se introdujeron con el auxilio laparoscópico. El estómago se insufló con CO2. La lesión se resecó manteniendo un margen circunferencial de 20 mm, se suturaron las gastrotomías, se utilizaron la prueba de t de Student y la prueba exacta de Fisher para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: todas las resecciones fueron exitosas y se efectuaron en un tiempo promedio de 102.33 minutos (± 4.50), hubo dos complicaciones y ninguna defunción transoperatoria. Conclusiones: el abordaje laparoscópico transgástrico es factible y seguro para resecar neoplasias de la pared posterior del estómago, próximas a la unión esófago-gástrica y área prepilórica.

  14. Hybrid Testing of Composite Structures with Single-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldbjørn, Jacob Paamand; Høgh, Jacob Herold; Stang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    a hybrid testing platform is introduced for single-component hybrid testing. In this case, the boundary between the numerical model and experimental setup is defined by multiple Degrees-Of-Freedoms (DOFs) which highly complicate the transferring of response between the two substructures. Digital Image......Hybrid testing is a substructuring technique where a structure is emulated by modelling a part of it in a numerical model while testing the remainder experimentally. Previous research in hybrid testing has been performed on multi-component structures e.g. damping fixtures, however in this paper...... Correlation (DIC) is therefore implemented for displacement control of the experimental setup. The hybrid testing setup was verified on a multicomponent structure consisting of a beam loaded in three point bending and a numerical structure of a frame. Furthermore, the stability of the hybrid testing loop...

  15. Tracing hybrid incompatibilities to single amino acid substitutions.

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    Harrison, J Scott; Burton, Ronald S

    2006-03-01

    Deleterious interactions among genes cause reductions in fitness of interpopulation hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Identifying genes involved in hybrid breakdown has proven difficult, and few studies have addressed the molecular basis of this widespread phenomenon. Because proper function of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) requires a coadapted set of nuclear and mitochondrial gene products, ETS genes present an attractive system for studying the evolution of coadapted gene complexes within isolated populations and the loss of fitness in interpopulation hybrids. Here we show the effects of single amino acid substitutions in cytochrome c (CYC) on its functional interaction with another ETS protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. The individual and pairwise consequences of three naturally occurring amino acid substitutions in CYC are examined by site-directed mutagenesis and found to differentially effect the rates of CYC oxidation by COX variants from different source populations. In one case, we show that interpopulation hybrid breakdown in COX activity can be attributed to a single naturally occurring amino acid substitution in CYC.

  16. Direct Measurement of Single-Molecule DNA Hybridization Dynamics with Single-Base Resolution.

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    He, Gen; Li, Jie; Ci, Haina; Qi, Chuanmin; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-07-25

    Herein, we report label-free detection of single-molecule DNA hybridization dynamics with single-base resolution. By using an electronic circuit based on point-decorated silicon nanowires as electrical probes, we directly record the folding/unfolding process of individual hairpin DNAs with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth. These measurements reveal two-level current oscillations with strong temperature dependence, enabling us to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of hairpin DNA hybridization. More importantly, successive, stepwise increases and decreases in device conductance at low temperature on a microsecond timescale are successfully observed, indicating a base-by-base unfolding/folding process. The process demonstrates a kinetic zipper model for DNA hybridization/dehybridization at the single base-pair level. This measurement capability promises a label-free single-molecule approach to probe biomolecular interactions with fast dynamics.

  17. Intracorporeal hybrid single port vs conventional laparoscopic appendectomy in children

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    Paul Anthony Karam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transumbilical laparoscopic assisted appendectomy combines laparoscopic single port dissection with open appendectomy after exteriorization of the appendix through the port site. Compared to the conventional three-port approach, this technique provides an alternative with excellent cosmetic outcome. We developed a safe and effective technique to perform an intracorporeal single port appendectomy, using the same laparoscope employed in the extracorporeal procedure. Retrospective review of 71 consecutively performed intracorporeal single port appendectomies and 30 conventional three-port appendectomies in children 6 to 17 years of age. A straight 10-mm Storz telescope with inbuilt 6 mm working channel is used to dissect the appendix, combined with one port-less 2.3 mm percutaneous grasper. Polymer WECK® hem-o-lock® clips are applied to seal the base of the appendix and the appendiceal vessels. No intraoperative complications were reported with the hybrid intracorporeal single port appendectomy or three-port appendectomy. There were two post-operative complications in the group treated with the single port hybrid technique: one intra-abdominal abscess and one surgical site infection. Groups did not differ in age, weight, and types of appendicitis. Operative times were shorter for the hybrid technique (70 vs 79 minutes but did not differ significantly (P=0.19. This modified technique to a previously described single port extracorporeal appendectomy is easy to master and implement. It provides exposure similar to a three-port laparoscopic appendectomy, while maintaining virtually scarless results and potentially reduces the risk for surgical site infections compared to the extracorporeal technique.

  18. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

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    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  19. Optimal traffic light control method for a single intersection based on hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈阳舟; 崔平远

    2003-01-01

    A single intersection of two phases is selected as a model to put forward a new optimal time-planning scheme for traffic light based on the model of hybrid automata for single intersection. A method of optimization is proposed for hybrid systems, and the average queue length over all queues is used as an objective function to find an optimal switching scheme for traffic light. It is illustrated that traffic light control for single intersection is a typical hybrid system, and the optimal planning-time scheme can be obtained using the optimal hybrid systems control based on the two stages method.

  20. Single Molecule Techniques for Advanced in situ Hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollars, C W; Stubbs, L; Carlson, K; Lu, X; Wehri, E

    2003-02-03

    One of the most significant achievements of modern science is completion of the human genome sequence, completed in the year 2000. Despite this monumental accomplishment, researchers have only begun to understand the relationships between this three-billion-nucleotide genetic code and the regulation and control of gene and protein expression within each of the millions of different types of highly specialized cells. Several methodologies have been developed for the analysis of gene and protein expression in situ, yet despite these advancements, the pace of such analyses is extremely limited. Because information regarding the precise timing and location of gene expression is a crucial component in the discovery of new pharmacological agents for the treatment of disease, there is an enormous incentive to develop technologies that accelerate the analytical process. Here we report on the use of plasmon resonant particles as advanced probes for in situ hybridization. These probes are used for the detection of low levels of gene-probe response and demonstrate a detection method that enables precise, simultaneous localization within a cell of the points of expression of multiple genes or proteins in a single sample.

  1. Characterization of single chain antibody targets through yeast two hybrid

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    Vielemeyer Ole

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their unique ability to bind their targets with high fidelity, antibodies are used widely not only in biomedical research, but also in many clinical applications. Recombinant antibodies, including single chain variable fragments (scFv, are gaining momentum because they allow powerful in vitro selection and manipulation without loss of function. Regardless of the ultimate application or type of antibody used, precise understanding of the interaction between the antibody's binding site and its specific target epitope(s is of great importance. However, such data is frequently difficult to obtain. Results We describe an approach that allows detailed characterization of a given antibody's target(s using the yeast two-hybrid system. Several recombinant scFv were used as bait and screened against highly complex cDNA libraries. Systematic sequencing of all retained clones and statistical analysis allowed efficient ranking of the prey fragments. Multiple alignment of the obtained cDNA fragments provided a selected interacting domain (SID, efficiently narrowing the epitope-containing region. Interactions between antibodies and their respective targets were characterized for several scFv. For AA2 and ROF7, two conformation-specific sensors that exclusively bind the activated forms of the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab1 respectively, only fragments expressing the entire target protein's core region were retained. This strongly suggested interaction with a non-linear epitope. For two other scFv, TA10 and SF9, which recognize the large proteins giantin and non-muscle myosin IIA, respectively, precise antibody-binding regions within the target were defined. Finally, for some antibodies, secondary targets within and across species could be revealed. Conclusions Our method, utilizing the yeast two-hybrid technology and scFv as bait, is a simple yet powerful approach for the detailed characterization of antibody targets. It allows precise

  2. Structural and Morphological Investigation for Water-Processed Graphene Oxide/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, M. R.; Ramli, M. M.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Halin, D. S. C.; Talip, L. F. A.; Mazelan, N. S.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Danial, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    New group of materials derived from hybridization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene oxide (GO) which resulting novel three dimensional (3D) materials generates an outstanding properties compared to corresponding SWCNTs and GO/Graphene. In this paper, we describe a simple approach using water processing method to develop integrated rGO/GO-SWCNT hybrids with different hybrid ratios. The hybrid ratios were varied into three divided ratio and the results were compared between pristine SWCNTs and GO in order to investigate the structural density and morphology of these carbonaceous materials. With an optimized ratio of rGO/GO-SWCNT, the hybrid shows a well-organized hybrid film structures with less defects density sites. The optimized mixture ratio emphasized the important of both rGO and SWCNTs in the hybrid structures. Morphological structural and defects density degrees were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Measurement of contact resistance in CdSe-single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Minkyung; Ahn, Juwon; Park, Taehee; Yi, Whikun

    2014-08-01

    The CdSe-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids are synthesized for measuring contact resistance between CdSe quantum dots and SWNTs in two hybrid samples, i.e., spray-deposited CdSe on SWNTs, and pyrene-self assembled CdSe on SWNTs. Currents are measured through indium-tin oxide (ITO), CdSe-SWNT hybrids and the tip of conductive AFM (c-AFM) with and without light at 532 and 655 nm.

  4. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, C.; López-Bao, J. V.; García, E. J.; Lema, F. J.; Llaneza, L.; Palacios, V.; Godinho, R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km2 in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids. Genetic relatedness was assessed between hybrids and wolves. We identified 130 genotypes, including 67 wolves and 7 hybrids. Three of the hybrids were backcrosses to dog whereas the others were backcrosses to wolf, the latter accounting for a 5.6% rate of introgression into the wolf population. Our results show a previously undocumented scenario of multiple and widespread wolf-dog hybridization events at the population level. However, there is a clear maintenance of wolf genetic identity, as evidenced by the sharp genetic identification of pure individuals, suggesting the resilience of wolf populations to a small amount of hybridization. We consider that real-time population level assessments of hybridization provide a new perspective into the debate on wolf conservation, with particular focus on current management guidelines applied in wolf-dog hybridization events. PMID:28195213

  5. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni;

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid...... SRM reduce the negative torque before zero-crossing point of torque curve, and build desired phase current to generate more power. Some experimental results are done to verify the performance of proposed hybrid SRM drive system....

  6. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes inter

  7. Single Fibre Pullout from Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes inter

  8. De Novo Identification of Single Nucleotide Mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydan, Jason S.; Okada, H. Mark; Flibotte, Stephane; Edgley, Mark L.; Moerman, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been used primarily to detect copy-number variants between two genomes. Here we report using aCGH to detect single nucleotide mutations on oligonucleotide microarrays with overlapping 50-mer probes. This technique represents a powerful method for rapidly detecting novel homozygous single nucleotide mutations in any organism with a sequenced reference genome. PMID:19189945

  9. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...

  10. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  11. Hybrid photodetector for single-molecule spectroscopy and microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalet, X; Cheng, Adrian; Antelman, Joshua; Suyama, Motohiro; Arisaka, Katsushi; Weiss, Shimon

    2008-02-15

    We report benchmark tests of a new single-photon counting detector based on a GaAsP photocathode and an electron-bombarded avalanche photodiode developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. We compare its performance with those of standard Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. We show its advantages for FCS due to the absence of after-pulsing and for fluorescence lifetime measurements due to its excellent time resolution. Its large sensitive area also greatly simplifies setup alignment. Its spectral sensitivity being similar to that of recently introduced CMOS SPADs, this new detector could become a valuable tool for single-molecule fluorescence measurements, as well as for many other applications.

  12. Plant somatic hybrid cytoplasmic DNA characterization by single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Fuster, Oscar; Hernández-Garrido, María; Guerri, José; Navarro, Luis

    2007-06-01

    Unlike maternal inheritance in sexual hybridization, plant somatic hybridization allows transfer, mixing and recombination of cytoplasmic genomes. In addition to the use of somatic hybridization in plant breeding programs, application of this unique tool should lead to a better understanding of the roles played by the chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes in determining agronomically important traits. The nucleotide sequences of cytoplasmic genomes are much more conserved than those of nuclear genomes. Cytoplasmic DNA composition in somatic hybrids is commonly elucidated either by length polymorphism analysis of restricted genome regions amplified with universal primers (PCR-RF) or by hybridization of total DNA using universal cytoplasmic probes. In this study, we demonstrate that single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is a powerful, quick and easy alternative method for cytoplasmic DNA characterization of somatic hybrids, especially for mitochondrial DNA. The technique allows detection of polymorphisms based on both size and sequence of amplified targets. Twenty-two species of the subfamily Aurantioideae were analyzed with eight universal primers (four from chloroplastic and four from mitochondrial regions). Differences in chloroplastic DNA composition were scored in 98% of all possible two-parent combinations, and different mitochondrial DNA profiles were found in 87% of them. Analysis by SSCP was also successfully used to characterize somatic hybrids and cybrids obtained by fusion of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. and C. excelsa Wester protoplasts.

  13. Application of a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approach to pharmacokinetic model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Eric A; Sale, Mark E; Pollock, Bruce G; Belani, Chandra P; Egorin, Merrill J; Ivy, Percy S; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Manuck, Stephen B; Marder, Stephen R; Muldoon, Matthew F; Scher, Howard I; Solit, David B; Bies, Robert R

    2012-08-01

    A limitation in traditional stepwise population pharmacokinetic model building is the difficulty in handling interactions between model components. To address this issue, a method was previously introduced which couples NONMEM parameter estimation and model fitness evaluation to a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm for global optimization of the model structure. In this study, the generalizability of this approach for pharmacokinetic model building is evaluated by comparing (1) correct and spurious covariate relationships in a simulated dataset resulting from automated stepwise covariate modeling, Lasso methods, and single-objective hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to covariate identification and (2) information criteria values, model structures, convergence, and model parameter values resulting from manual stepwise versus single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building for seven compounds. Both manual stepwise and single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building were applied, blinded to the results of the other approach, for selection of the compartment structure as well as inclusion and model form of inter-individual and inter-occasion variability, residual error, and covariates from a common set of model options. For the simulated dataset, stepwise covariate modeling identified three of four true covariates and two spurious covariates; Lasso identified two of four true and 0 spurious covariates; and the single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm identified three of four true covariates and one spurious covariate. For the clinical datasets, the Akaike information criterion was a median of 22.3 points lower (range of 470.5 point decrease to 0.1 point decrease) for the best single-objective hybrid genetic-algorithm candidate model versus the final manual stepwise model: the Akaike information criterion was lower by greater than 10 points for four compounds and differed by less than 10 points for three

  14. Protein Adsorption on Hybrids of Thermoresponsive Polymers and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Umemura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm is one of the most popular thermoresponsive polymers. Adsorption of RecA proteins onto hybrids of PNIPAAm and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs was observed in the presence and absence of DNA molecules. Although RecA molecules were adsorbed efficiently onto the hybrid surfaces at 37°C, even in the absence of DNA molecules, the adsorption of RecA was inhibited at 4°C. These results suggest that the thermoresponsive functions of PNIPAAm were effective, even on the SWNT surfaces, which supports the possibility of developing nanobiodevices using PNIPAAm-SWNT hybrids. However, although RecA is a DNA binding protein, there was no significant difference in the adsorption of RecA onto PNIPAAm-SWNT surfaces with and without DNA molecules. This study provides fundamental information for potential biological applications of PNIPAAm-SWNT hybrids.

  15. Plasmon assisted enhanced second-harmonic generation in single hybrid Au/ZnS nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Nadia M.; Wang, Kai; Han, Xiaobo; Long, Hua; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in single ZnS nanowires (NWs) attached with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with different densities of the attached Au NPs were prepared by a simple solution impregnation method. By comparing with bare ZnS NWs, ∼1.3, ∼6.6, ∼7 and ∼2 times enhancement of SH intensity was achieved in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with low, moderate, high and ultrahigh densities of the attached Au NPs, respectively. The enhanced SHG in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs is attributed to the strong local-fields from the Au cluster under the near-resonant condition, which is supported by the related dark-field scattering spectra. This hybrid Au/ZnS NWs provide a simple platform for enhancing nonlinear optical responses, which have potential applications in nano-probing and nano-sensing.

  16. Mode coupling in hybrid square-rectangular lasers for single mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu-Wen; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Weng, Hai-Zhong; Xiao, Zhi-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Mode coupling between a square microcavity and a Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is proposed and demonstrated for realizing single mode lasers. The modulations of the mode Q factor as simulation results are observed and single mode operation is obtained with a side mode suppression ratio of 46 dB and a single mode fiber coupling loss of 3.2 dB for an AlGaInAs/InP hybrid laser as a 300-μm-length and 1.5-μm-wide FP cavity connected to a vertex of a 10-μm-side square microcavity. Furthermore, tunable single mode operation is demonstrated with a continuous wavelength tuning range over 10 nm. The simple hybrid structure may shed light on practical applications of whispering-gallery mode microcavities in large-scale photonic integrated circuits and optical communication and interconnection.

  17. Hybrid Control Method for a Single Phase PFC using a Low Cost Microcontroller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Nielsen, Nils; Wolf, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control method for single phase boost PFCs. The high bandwidth current loop is analog while the voltage loop is implemented in an 8-bit microcontroller. The design focuses on minimizing the number of calculations done in the microcontroller. A 1kW prototype has been...

  18. Single axis controlled hybrid magnetic bearing for left ventricular assist device: hybrid core and closed magnetic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isaias; Horikawa, Oswaldo; Cardoso, Jose R; Camargo, Fernando A; Andrade, Aron J P; Bock, Eduardo G P

    2011-05-01

    In previous studies, we presented main strategies for suspending the rotor of a mixed-flow type (centrifugal and axial) ventricular assist device (VAD), originally presented by the Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC), Brazil. Magnetic suspension is achieved by the use of a magnetic bearing architecture in which the active control is executed in only one degree of freedom, in the axial direction of the rotor. Remaining degrees of freedom, excepting the rotation, are restricted only by the attraction force between pairs of permanent magnets. This study is part of a joint project in development by IDPC and Escola Politecnica of São Paulo University, Brazil. This article shows advances in that project, presenting two promising solutions for magnetic bearings. One solution uses hybrid cores as electromagnetic actuators, that is, cores that combine iron and permanent magnets. The other solution uses actuators, also of hybrid type, but with the magnetic circuit closed by an iron core. After preliminary analysis, a pump prototype has been developed for each solution and has been tested. For each prototype, a brushless DC motor has been developed as the rotor driver. Each solution was evaluated by in vitro experiments and guidelines are extracted for future improvements. Tests have shown good results and demonstrated that one solution is not isolated from the other. One complements the other for the development of a single-axis-controlled, hybrid-type magnetic bearing for a mixed-flow type VAD.

  19. Hybrid edge and feature-based single-image superresolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Moinul; Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Asari, Vijayan K.; Karim, Mohammad A.

    2016-07-01

    A neighborhood-dependent component feature learning method for regression analysis in single-image superresolution is presented. Given a low-resolution input, the method uses a directional Fourier phase feature component to adaptively learn the regression kernel based on local covariance to estimate the high-resolution image. The unique feature of the proposed method is that it uses image features to learn about the local covariance from geometric similarity between the low-resolution image and its high-resolution counterpart. For each patch in the neighborhood, we estimate four directional variances to adapt the interpolated pixels. This gives us edge information and Fourier phase gives features, which are combined to interpolate using kernel regression. In order to compare quantitatively with other state-of-the-art techniques, root-mean-square error and measure mean-square similarity are computed for the example images, and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms similar techniques available in the literature, especially at higher resolution scales.

  20. Tailored single-walled carbon nanotube--CdS nanoparticle hybrids for tunable optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglong; Jia, Yi; Cao, Anyuan

    2010-01-26

    The integration of organic and inorganic building blocks into novel nanohybrids is an important tool to exploit innovative materials with desirable functionalities. For this purpose, carbon nanotube--nanoparticle nanoarchitectures are intensively studied. We report here an efficient noncovalent chemical route to density-controllably and uniformly assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes with CdS nanoparticles. The methodology not only promises the resulting hybrids will be solution-processable but also endows the hybrids with distinct optoelectronic properties including tunable photoresponse mediated by amine molecules. On the basis of these merits, reliable thin-film photoswitches and light-driven chemical sensors are demonstrated, which highlights the potential of tailored hybrids in the development of new tunable optoelectronic devices and sensors.

  1. Time to a single hybridization event in a group of species with unknown ancestral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof; Jones, Graham; Oxelman, Bengt; Sagitov, Serik

    2013-04-07

    We consider a stochastic process for the generation of species which combines a Yule process with a simple model for hybridization between pairs of co-existent species. We assume that the origin of the process, when there was one species, occurred at an unknown time in the past, and we condition the process on producing n species via the Yule process and a single hybridization event. We prove results about the distribution of the time of the hybridization event. In particular we calculate a formula for all moments and show that under various conditions, the distribution tends to an exponential with rate twice that of the birth rate for the Yule process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compliant glass-polymer hybrid single ion-conducting electrolytes for lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaluenga, Irune; Wujcik, Kevin H; Tong, Wei; Devaux, Didier; Wong, Dominica H C; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2016-01-05

    Despite high ionic conductivities, current inorganic solid electrolytes cannot be used in lithium batteries because of a lack of compliance and adhesion to active particles in battery electrodes as they are discharged and charged. We have successfully developed a compliant, nonflammable, hybrid single ion-conducting electrolyte comprising inorganic sulfide glass particles covalently bonded to a perfluoropolyether polymer. The hybrid with 23 wt% perfluoropolyether exhibits low shear modulus relative to neat glass electrolytes, ionic conductivity of 10(-4) S/cm at room temperature, a cation transference number close to unity, and an electrochemical stability window up to 5 V relative to Li(+)/Li. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that the hybrid electrolyte limits lithium polysulfide dissolution and is, thus, ideally suited for Li-S cells. Our work opens a previously unidentified route for developing compliant solid electrolytes that will address the challenges of lithium batteries.

  3. Hybrid Graphene and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Enhanced Phase-Change Heat Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han; Yun, Hyung Duk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-02-10

    Nucleate boiling is an effective heat transfer method in power generation systems and cooling devices. In this letter, hybrid graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT), graphene, and SWCNT films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were fabricated to investigate the enhancement of nucleate boiling phenomena described by the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. The graphene films were grown on Cu foils and transferred to ITO surfaces. Furthermore, SWCNTs were deposited on the graphene layer to fabricate hybrid graphene/SWCNT films. We determined that the hybrid graphene/SWCNT film deposited on an ITO surface is the most effective heat transfer surface in pool boiling because of the interconnected network of carbon structures.

  4. Hybrid single-packet IP traceback with low storage and high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour

    2014-01-01

    Traceback schemes have been proposed to trace the sources of attacks that usually hide by spoofing their IP addresses. Among these methods, schemes using packet logging can achieve single-packet traceback. But packet logging demands high storage on routers and therefore makes IP traceback impractical. For lower storage requirement, packet logging and packet marking are fused to make hybrid single-packet IP traceback. Despite such attempts, their storage still increases with packet numbers. That is why RIHT bounds its storage with path numbers to guarantee low storage. RIHT uses IP header's ID and offset fields to mark packets, so it inevitably suffers from fragment and drop issues for its packet reassembly. Although the 16-bit hybrid IP traceback schemes, for example, MORE, can mitigate the fragment problem, their storage requirement grows up with packet numbers. To solve the storage and fragment problems in one shot, we propose a single-packet IP traceback scheme that only uses packets' ID field for marking. Our major contributions are as follows: (1) our fragmented packets with tracing marks can be reassembled; (2) our storage is not affected by packet numbers; (3) it is the first hybrid single-packet IP traceback scheme to achieve zero false positive and zero false negative rates.

  5. Hybrid input function estimation using a single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Shoghi, Kooresh I.

    2009-02-01

    A hybrid blood input function (BIF) model that incorporates region of interests (ROIs) based peak estimation and a two exponential tail model was proposed to describe the blood input function. The hybrid BIF model was applied to the single-input-multiple-output (SIMO) optimization based approach for BIF estimation using time activity curves (TACs) obtained from ROIs defined at left ventricle (LV) blood pool and myocardium regions of dynamic PET images. The proposed BIF estimation method was applied with 0, 1 and 2 blood samples as constraints for BIF estimation using simulated small animal PET data. Relative percentage difference of the area-under-curve (AUC) measurement between the estimated BIF and the true BIF was calculated to evaluate the BIF estimation accuracy. SIMO based BIF estimation using Feng's input function model was also applied for comparison. The hybrid method provided improved BIF estimation in terms of both mean accuracy and variability compared to Feng's model based BIF estimation in our simulation study. When two blood samples were used as constraints, the percentage BIF estimation error was 0.82 +/- 4.32% for the hybrid approach and 4.63 +/- 10.67% for the Feng's model based approach. Using hybrid BIF, improved kinetic parameter estimation was also obtained.

  6. Microwave resonant activation in hybrid single-gap/two-gap Josephson tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabello, Steven; Lambert, Joseph G.; Mlack, Jerome; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto C.

    2016-09-01

    Microwave resonant activation is a powerful, straightforward technique to study classical and quantum systems, experimentally realized in Josephson junction devices cooled to very low temperatures. These devices typically consist of two single-gap superconductors separated by a weak link. We report the results of the first resonant activation experiments on hybrid thin film Josephson junctions consisting of a multi-gap superconductor (MgB2) and a single-gap superconductor (Pb or Sn). We can interpret the plasma frequency in terms of theories both for conventional and hybrid junctions. Using these models, we determine the junction parameters including critical current, resistance, and capacitance and find moderately high quality factors of Q0˜ 100 for these junctions.

  7. Analysis of Single-cell Gene Transcription by RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronander, Elena; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Joergensen, Louise;

    2012-01-01

    and the consequence of differential binding on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infections. Recently, the mutually exclusive transcription paradigm has been called into doubt by transcription assays based on individual P. falciparum transcript identification in single infected erythrocytic cells using RNA...... fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of var gene transcription by the parasite in individual nuclei of P. falciparum IE(1). Here, we present a detailed protocol for carrying out the RNA-FISH methodology for analysis of var gene transcription in single-nuclei of P. falciparum infected human...... erythrocytes. The method is based on the use of digoxigenin- and biotin- labeled antisense RNA probes using the TSA Plus Fluorescence Palette System(2) (Perkin Elmer), microscopic analyses and freshly selected P. falciparum IE. The in situ hybridization method can be used to monitor transcription...

  8. Flux Concentration and Pole Shaping in a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2010-01-01

    The single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) may be a good candidate for low-cost drives used for pump applications. This paper presents a new design of the HSRM with improved starting torque achieved by stator pole shaping, and a better arrangement of the embedded stator permanent...... magnets with flux concentration effects. Analysis and simulation results of the proposed HSRM drive are validated using experimental results on a prototype HSRM....

  9. Adaptive kanban control mechanism for a single-stage hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korugan, Aybek; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2002-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a hybrid manufacturing system with two discrete production lines. Here the output of either production line can satisfy the demand for the same type of product without any penalties. The interarrival times for demand occurrences and service completions are exponentially distributed i.i.d. variables. In order to control this type of manufacturing system we suggest a single stage pull type control mechanism with adaptive kanbans and state independent routing of the production information.

  10. Single-Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Low-Power Low-Cost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Jakobsen, Uffe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new single-phase, Hybrid Switched Reluctance (HSR) motor for low-cost, low-power, pump or fan drive systems. Its single-phase configuration allows use of a simple converter to reduce the system cost. Cheap ferrite magnets are used and arranged in a special flux concentration...... manner to increase effectively the torque density and efficiency of this machine. The efficiency of this machine is comparable to the efficiency of a traditional permanent magnet machine in the similar power range. The cogging torque, due to the existence of the permanent magnetic field, is beneficially...

  11. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jain, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications.The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active v...

  12. Super-resolution Localization and Defocused Fluorescence Microscopy on Resonantly Coupled Single-Molecule, Single-Nanorod Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liang; Yuan, Haifeng; Lu, Gang; Rocha, Susana; Orrit, Michel; Hofkens, Johan; Uji-i, Hiroshi

    2016-02-23

    Optical antennas made of metallic nanostructures dramatically enhance single-molecule fluorescence to boost the detection sensitivity. Moreover, emission properties detected at the optical far field are dictated by the antenna. Here we study the emission from molecule-antenna hybrids by means of super-resolution localization and defocused imaging. Whereas gold nanorods make single-crystal violet molecules in the tip's vicinity visible in fluorescence, super-resolution localization on the enhanced molecular fluorescence reveals geometrical centers of the nanorod antenna instead. Furthermore, emission angular distributions of dyes linked to the nanorod surface resemble that of nanorods in defocused imaging. The experimental observations are consistent with numerical calculations using the finite-difference time-domain method.

  13. The Design and Implementation of Single Sign-on Based on Hybrid Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of solving the problems of user repeated logon from various kinds of Application which based on hybrid architecture and in different domains, single sign-on architecture is proposed. On the basis of analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of existing single sign-on models, combined with the key technology like Web Service, Applet and reverse proxy, two core problems such as single sign-on architecture mix B/S and C/S structure applications and cross-domain single sign-on are resolved. Meanwhile, the security and performance of this architecture are well protected since the reverse proxy and related encryption technology are adopted. The results show that this architecture is high performance and it is widely applicable, and it will be applied to practical application soon.

  14. Adoption of the hybrid CTO approach by a single non-CTO operator: procedural and clinical outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vo, Minh N; McCabe, James M; Lombardi, William L; Ducas, John; Ravandi, Amir; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-01-01

    ...) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has not been described. Consecutive patients who underwent CTO-PCI by a single operator using the "hybrid" approach between 2012 and 2013 formed the analytic cohort...

  15. SINGLE CELL DEGENERATE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PRIMER-PCR AND COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH MODIFIED CONTROL REFERENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For investigating the possibility of applying degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR (DOP-PCR) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) technique to analyses of genomic genetics in a single cell, the whole genomic DNA of a single cell with XX, XY, XO, XXY, +13 or +21 was amplified by DOP-PCR. Single cell DOP-PCR CGHs with conventional and modified control references, the genomic DNA and a single cell DOP-PCR product from normal male, were carried out respectively. The results showed that the average profile of the fluorescence intensity ratio in CGH with the genomic DNA as reference fluctuates much and that the standard deviation in about 30% haploid is beyond the normal limits. False positive hyper-representation was found to exist in X chromosome while trisomy 13 and 21 were not detected. However, the distributions of the mean and the standard deviation of the ratio in the CGH with DOP-PCR product as reference were quite acceptable. The copy number changes of chromosome X,Y,13 and 21 were revealed. Those results suggested that there is unrandom unequal amplification in a single cell DOP-PCR. Using a single DOP-PCR product as reference can decrease its influence on CGH. Single cell DOP-PCR-CGH and its application in the genetic analyses of preimplantation embryo or fetal cell in maternal blood may be possible.

  16. Single electron tunneling in large scale nanojunction arrays with bisferrocene-nanoparticle hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Shilpi; Kumar, Susmit; Marzo, Pasquale; Primiceri, Elisabetta; di Corato, Riccardo; Rinaldi, Ross; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio; Bramanti, Alessandro Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods.We report on the fabrication and single electron tunneling behaviour of large scale arrays of nanogap electrodes bridged by bisferrocene-gold nanoparticle hybrids (BFc-AuNP). Coulomb staircase was observed in the low temperature current-voltage curves measured on the junctions with asymmetric tunnel barriers. On the other hand, junctions with symmetric tunneling barrier exhibited mere nonlinear current voltage characteristics without discrete staircase. The experimental results agreed well with simulations based on the orthodox theory. The junction resistance showed thermally activated conduction behaviour at higher temperature. The overall voltage and temperature dependent results show that the transport behaviour of the large arrays of single particle devices obtained by a facile optical lithography and chemical etching process corresponds with the behaviour of single particle devices fabricated by other techniques like e-beam lithography and mechanical breaking methods. Electronic supplementary

  17. A single-ensemble-based hybrid approach to clutter rejection combining bilinear Hankel with regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Naizhang; Lee, Chin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    Clutter regarded as ultrasound Doppler echoes of soft tissue interferes with the primary objective of color flow imaging (CFI): measurement and display of blood flow. Multi-ensemble samples based clutter filters degrade resolution or frame rate of CFI. The prevalent single-ensemble clutter rejection filter is based on a single rejection criterion and fails to achieve a high accuracy for estimating both the low- and high-velocity blood flow components. The Bilinear Hankel-SVD achieved more exact signal decomposition than the conventional Hankel-SVD. Furthermore, the correlation between two arbitrary eigen-components obtained by the B-Hankel-SVD was demonstrated. In the hybrid approach, the input ultrasound Doppler signal first passes through a low-order regression filter, and then the output is properly decomposed into a collection of eigen-components under the framework of B-Hankel-SVD. The blood flow components are finally extracted based on a frequency threshold. In a series of simulations, the proposed B-Hankel-SVD filter reduced the estimation bias of the blood flow over the conventional Hankel-SVD filter. The hybrid algorithm was shown to be more effective than regression or Hankel-SVD filters alone in rejecting the undesirable clutter components with single-ensemble (S-E) samples. It achieved a significant improvement in blood flow frequency estimation and estimation variance over the other competing filters.

  18. Organic/hybrid nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes: preparation methods and chiral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassen, Haysem; Antony, Vijy; Ghanem, Ashraf; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles are molecular-sized solids with at least one dimension measuring between 1-100 nm or 10-1000 nm depending on the individual discipline's perspective. They are aggregates of anywhere from a few hundreds to tens of thousands of atoms which render them larger than molecules but smaller than bulk solids. Consequently, they frequently exhibit physical and chemical properties somewhere between. On the other hand, nanocrystals are a special class of nanoparticles which have started gaining attention recently owing to their unique crystalline structures which provide a larger surface area and promising applications including chiral separations. Hybrid nanoparticles are supported by the growing interest of chemists, physicists, and biologists, who are researching to fully exploit them. These materials can be defined as molecular or nano-composites with mixed (organic or bio) and inorganic components, where at least one of the component domain has a dimension ranging from a few Å to several nanometers. Similarly, and due to their extraordinary physical, chemical, and electrical properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes have been the subject of intense research. In this short review, the focus is mainly on the current well-established simple preparation techniques of chiral organic and hybrid nanoparticles as well as single-walled carbon nanotubes and their applications in separation science. Of particular interest, cinchonidine, chitosan, and β-CD-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are discussed as model examples for organic and hybrid nanoparticles. Likewise, the chemical vapor deposition method, used in the preparation of single-walled carbon nanotubes, is discussed. The enantioseparation applications of these model nanomaterials is also presented.

  19. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Kazuo; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki

    2016-12-01

    Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA-SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB-ssDNA-SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB-ssDNA-SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids.

  20. Storage-efficient 16-Bit Hybrid IP traceback with Single Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming Hour

    2014-01-01

    Since adversaries may spoof their source IPs in the attacks, traceback schemes have been proposed to identify the attack source. However, some of these schemes' storage requirements increase with packet numbers. Some even have false positives because they use an IP header's fragment offset for marking. Thus, we propose a 16-bit single packet hybrid IP traceback scheme that combines packet marking and packet logging with high accuracy and low storage requirement. The size of our log tables can be bounded by route numbers. We also set a threshold to determine whether an upstream interface number is stored in a log table or in a marking field, so as to balance the logging frequency and our computational loads. Because we store user interface information on small-degree routers, compared with current single packet traceback schemes, ours can have the lowest storage requirements. Besides, our traceback achieves zero false positive/negative rates and guarantees reassembly of fragmented packets at the destination.

  1. A hybrid algorithm for stochastic single-source capacitated facility location problem with service level requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Salemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facility location models are observed in many diverse areas such as communication networks, transportation, and distribution systems planning. They play significant role in supply chain and operations management and are one of the main well-known topics in strategic agenda of contemporary manufacturing and service companies accompanied by long-lasting effects. We define a new approach for solving stochastic single source capacitated facility location problem (SSSCFLP. Customers with stochastic demand are assigned to set of capacitated facilities that are selected to serve them. It is demonstrated that problem can be transformed to deterministic Single Source Capacitated Facility Location Problem (SSCFLP for Poisson demand distribution. A hybrid algorithm which combines Lagrangian heuristic with adjusted mixture of Ant colony and Genetic optimization is proposed to find lower and upper bounds for this problem. Computational results of various instances with distinct properties indicate that proposed solving approach is efficient.

  2. Plasma characteristics in inductively and capacitively coupled hybrid source using single RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwan-Yong; Lee, Moo-Young; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Parallel combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) using single RF generator was proposed to linear control of the plasma density with RF power. In the case of ICP, linear control of the plasma density is difficult because there is a density jump up due to E to H transition. Although the plasma density of CCP changes linearly with power, the density is lower than that of ICP due to high ion energy loss at the substrate. In our hybrid source, the single RF power generator was connected to electrode and antenna, and the variable capacitor was installed between the antenna and the power generator to control the current flowing through the antenna and the electrode. By adjusting the current ratio between the antenna and the electrode, linear characteristic of plasma density with RF power is achieved.

  3. Hybrid single-beam reconstruction technique for slow and fast varying wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaggis, Konstantinos; Kozacki, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    An iterative single-beam wave field reconstruction technique that employs both non-paraxial, wave propagation based and paraxial deterministic phase retrieval techniques is presented. This approach overcomes two major obstacles that exist in the current state of the art techniques: iterative methods do not reconstruct slowly varying wave fields due to slow convergence and stagnation, and deterministic methods have paraxial limits, making the reconstructions of quickly varying object features impossible. In this work, a hybrid approach is reported that uses paraxial wave field corrections within iterative phase retrieval solvers. This technique is suitable for cases ranging from slow to fast varying wave fields, and unlike the currently available methods, can also reconstruct measurement objects with different regions of both slowly and quickly varying object features. It is further shown that this technique gives a higher accuracy than current single-beam phase retrieval techniques, and in comparison to the iterative methods, has a higher convergence speed.

  4. Largely Enhanced Single-molecule Fluorescence in Plasmonic Nanogaps formed by Hybrid Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that narrow gaps between metallic nanostructures can be practical for producing large field enhancement. We design a hybrid silver nanostructure geometry in which fluorescent emitters are sandwiched between silver nanoparticles and silver island film (SIF). A desired number of polyelectrolyte layers are deposited on the SIF surface before the self-assembly of a second silver nanoparticle layer. Layer-by-layer configuration provides a well-defined dye position. It allows us to study the photophyical behaviors of fluorophores in the resulting gap at the single molecule level. The enhancement factor of a fluorophore located in the gap is much higher than those on silver surfaces alone and on glass. These effects may be used for increased detectability of single molecules bound to surfaces which contain metallic structures for either biophysical studies or high sensitivity assays. PMID:23373787

  5. Spectrally resolved single-photon imaging with hybrid superconducting - nanophotonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kahl, O; Kovalyuk, V; Vetter, A; Lewes-Malandrakis, G; Nebel, C; Korneev, A; Goltsman, G; Pernice, W

    2016-01-01

    The detection of individual photons is an inherently binary mechanism, revealing either their absence or presence while concealing their spectral information. For multi-color imaging techniques, such as single photon spectroscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, wavelength discrimination is essential and mandates spectral separation prior to detection. Here, we adopt an approach borrowed from quantum photonic integration to realize a compact and scalable waveguide-integrated single-photon spectrometer capable of parallel detection on multiple wavelength channels, with temporal resolution below 50 ps and dark count rates below 10 Hz. We demonstrate multi-detector devices for telecommunication and visible wavelengths and showcase their performance by imaging silicon vacancy color centers in diamond nanoclusters. The fully integrated hybrid superconducting-nanophotonic circuits enable simultaneous spectroscopy and lifetime mapping for correlative imagi...

  6. A hybrid phenomenological model for ferroelectroelastic ceramics. Part I: Single phased materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S.; Neumeister, P.; Balke, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this part I of a two part series, a rate-independent hybrid phenomenological constitutive model applicable for single phased polycrystalline ferroelectroelastic ceramics is presented. The term "hybrid" refers to the fact that features from macroscopic phenomenological models and micro-electromechanical phenomenological models are combined. In particular, functional forms for a switching function and the Helmholtz free energy are assumed as in many macroscopic phenomenological models; and the volume fractions of domain variants are used to describe the internal material state, which is a key feature of micro-electromechanical phenomenological models. The approach described in this paper is an attempt to combine the advantages of macroscopic and micro-electromechanical material models. Its potential is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for barium titanate. Finally, it is shown that the model for single phased materials cannot reproduce the material behavior of morphotropic PZT ceramics based on a realistic choice for the material parameters. This serves as a motivation for part II of the series, which deals with the modeling of morphotropic PZT ceramics taking into account the micro-structural specifics of these materials.

  7. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2015-02-07

    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  8. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  9. A Hybrid Estimator for Active/Reactive Power Control of Single-Phase Distributed Generation Systems with Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Majid; Eren, Suzan; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new active/reactive power closed-loop control system for a hybrid renewable energy generation system used for single-phase residential/commercial applications. The proposed active/reactive control method includes a hybrid estimator, which is able to quickly and accurately...... estimate the active/reactive power values. The proposed control system enables the hybrid renewable energy generation system to be able to perform real-time grid interconnection services such as active voltage regulation, active power control, and fault ride-through.Simulation and experimental results...... demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed closed-loop control system....

  10. Quasi-Static Single-Component Hybrid Simulation of a Composite Structure with Multi-Axis Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, J.; Waldbjørn, J.; Wittrup-Schmidt, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a quasi-static hybrid simulation performed on a single component structure. Hybrid simulation is a substructural technique, where a structure is divided into two sections: a numerical section of the main structure and a physical experiment of the remainder. In previous cases...... to evaluate the validity of the method, the results are compared to a test of the emulated structure – referred to here as the reference test. It was found that the error introduced by compliance in the load train was significant. Digital image correlation was for this reason implemented in the hybrid...

  11. Single-step One-pot Synthesis of Graphene Foam/TiO2 Nanosheet Hybrids for Effective Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Wang, Zhaofeng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sun, Luyi

    2017-03-01

    Millions of tons of wastewater containing both inorganic and organic pollutants are generated every day, leading to significant social, environmental, and economic issues. Herein, we designed a graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, which is able to effectively remove both chromium (VI) cations and organic pollutants simultaneously. This graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid was synthesized via a facile single-step one-pot hydrothermal method. The structure of the hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hybrid was evaluated for both chromium (VI) and organic pollutants (using methyl blue (MB) as an example) removal, and the removal mechanism was also investigated. During water treatment, graphene and TiO2 nanosheets function complimentarily, leading to a significant synergy. The hybrid exhibited outstanding chromium (VI) and MB removal capacity, much superior to the performance of the individual pure TiO2 sheets or pure graphene foam. The hybrid could also be easily separated after water treatment, and exhibited excellent recycle stability. Considering the very facile synthesis of this graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, and its excellent water treatment performance and recycle stability, such a hybrid is promising for large scale production for practical applications where both chromium (VI) cations and organic dyes are the main pollutants.

  12. Single-step One-pot Synthesis of Graphene Foam/TiO2 Nanosheet Hybrids for Effective Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Wang, Zhaofeng; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhengguo; Sun, Luyi

    2017-01-01

    Millions of tons of wastewater containing both inorganic and organic pollutants are generated every day, leading to significant social, environmental, and economic issues. Herein, we designed a graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, which is able to effectively remove both chromium (VI) cations and organic pollutants simultaneously. This graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid was synthesized via a facile single-step one-pot hydrothermal method. The structure of the hybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hybrid was evaluated for both chromium (VI) and organic pollutants (using methyl blue (MB) as an example) removal, and the removal mechanism was also investigated. During water treatment, graphene and TiO2 nanosheets function complimentarily, leading to a significant synergy. The hybrid exhibited outstanding chromium (VI) and MB removal capacity, much superior to the performance of the individual pure TiO2 sheets or pure graphene foam. The hybrid could also be easily separated after water treatment, and exhibited excellent recycle stability. Considering the very facile synthesis of this graphene foam/TiO2 nanosheet hybrid, and its excellent water treatment performance and recycle stability, such a hybrid is promising for large scale production for practical applications where both chromium (VI) cations and organic dyes are the main pollutants. PMID:28251998

  13. Ultralow Self-Doping in 2D Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2017-06-28

    Unintentional self-doping in semiconductors through shallow defects is detrimental to optoelectronic device performance. It adversely affects junction properties and it introduces electronic noise. This is especially acute for solution-processed semiconductors, including hybrid perovskites, which are usually high in defects due to rapid crystallization. Here, we uncover extremely low self-doping concentrations in single crystals of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4・(CH3NH3PbI3)n-1 (n=1, 2, and 3)—over three orders of magnitude lower than those of typical three-dimensional hybrid perovskites—by analyzing their conductivity behavior. We propose that crystallization of hybrid perovskites containing large organic cations suppresses defect formation and thus favors a low self-doping level. To exemplify the benefits of this effect, we demonstrate extraordinarily high light-detectivity (1013 Jones) in (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4・(CH3NH3PbI3)n-1 photoconductors due to the reduced electronic noise, which makes them particularly attractive for the detection of weak light signals. Furthermore, the low self-doping concentration reduces the equilibrium charge carrier concentration in (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4・(CH3NH3PbI3)n-1, advantageous in the design of p-i-n heterojunction solar cells by optimizing band alignment and promoting carrier depletion in the intrinsic perovskite layer, thereby enhancing charge extraction.

  14. A Hybrid Constructive Algorithm for Single-Layer Feedforward Networks Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Rózycki, Paweł; Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2015-08-01

    Single-layer feedforward networks (SLFNs) have been proven to be a universal approximator when all the parameters are allowed to be adjustable. It is widely used in classification and regression problems. The SLFN learning involves two tasks: determining network size and training the parameters. Most current algorithms could not be satisfactory to both sides. Some algorithms focused on construction and only tuned part of the parameters, which may not be able to achieve a compact network. Other gradient-based optimization algorithms focused on parameters tuning while the network size has to be preset by the user. Therefore, trial-and-error approach has to be used to search the optimal network size. Because results of each trial cannot be reused in another trial, it costs much computation. In this paper, a hybrid constructive (HC)algorithm is proposed for SLFN learning, which can train all the parameters and determine the network size simultaneously. At first, by combining Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and least-square method, a hybrid algorithm is presented for training SLFN with fixed network size. Then,with the hybrid algorithm, an incremental constructive scheme is proposed. A new randomly initialized neuron is added each time when the training entrapped into local minima. Because the training continued on previous results after adding new neurons, the proposed HC algorithm works efficiently. Several practical problems were given for comparison with other popular algorithms. The experimental results demonstrated that the HC algorithm worked more efficiently than those optimization methods with trial and error, and could achieve much more compact SLFN than those construction algorithms.

  15. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Hybrids for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Francesco; Campisciano, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Carla; La Parola, Valeria; Syrgiannis, Zois; Prato, Maurizio; Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis and catalytic properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimers hybrids (SWCNT-PAMAM), prepared via a convergent strategy. The direct reaction of cystamine-based PAMAM dendrimers (generations 2.5 and 3.0) with pristine SWCNTs in refluxing toluene, followed by immobilization and reduction of [PdCl4](2-), led to the formation of highly dispersed small palladium nanoparticles homogeneously confined throughout the nanotube length. One of these functional materials proved to be an efficient catalyst in Suzuki and Heck reactions, able to promote the above processes down to 0.002 mol % showing a turnover number (TON) of 48 000 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 566 000 h(-1). In addition, the hybrid material could be recovered and recycled for up to 6 times. No leaching of the metal has been detected during the Suzuki coupling. Additional experiments carried out on the spent catalyst permitted to suggest that a "release and catch" mechanism is operative in both reactions, although during Heck reaction small catalytically active soluble Pd species are also present.

  16. Combined Hybrid DFE and CCK Remodulator for Medium-Range Single-Carrier Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialin Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced modulation and channel equalization techniques are essential for improving the performance of medium-range single-carrier underwater acoustic communications. In this paper, an enhanced detection scheme, hybrid time-frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (DFE combined with complementary code keying (CCK remodulator, is presented. CCK modulation technique provides strong tolerance to intersymbol interference caused by multipath propagation in underwater acoustic channels. The conventional hybrid DFE, using a frequency domain feedforward filter and a time domain feedback filter, provides good performance along with low computational complexity. The error propagation in the feedback filter, caused by feedbacking wrong decisions prior to CCK demodulation, may lead to great performance degradation. In our proposed scheme, with the help of CCK coding gain, more accurate remodulated CCK chips can be used as feedback. The proposed detection scheme is tested by the practical ocean experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed detection scheme ensures robust communications over 10-kilometre underwater acoustic channels with the data rate at 5 Kbits/s in 3 kHz of channel bandwidth.

  17. On-chip single photon filtering and multiplexing in hybrid quantum photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaari, Ali W; Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Fognini, Andreas; Reimer, Michael E; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Zwiller, Val; Jöns, Klaus D

    2017-08-30

    Quantum light plays a pivotal role in modern science and future photonic applications. Since the advent of integrated quantum nanophotonics different material platforms based on III-V nanostructures-, colour centers-, and nonlinear waveguides as on-chip light sources have been investigated. Each platform has unique advantages and limitations; however, all implementations face major challenges with filtering of individual quantum states, scalable integration, deterministic multiplexing of selected quantum emitters, and on-chip excitation suppression. Here we overcome all of these challenges with a hybrid and scalable approach, where single III-V quantum emitters are positioned and deterministically integrated in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible photonic circuit. We demonstrate reconfigurable on-chip single-photon filtering and wavelength division multiplexing with a foot print one million times smaller than similar table-top approaches, while offering excitation suppression of more than 95 dB and efficient routing of single photons over a bandwidth of 40 nm. Our work marks an important step to harvest quantum optical technologies' full potential.Combining different integration platforms on the same chip is currently one of the main challenges for quantum technologies. Here, Elshaari et al. show III-V Quantum Dots embedded in nanowires operating in a CMOS compatible circuit, with controlled on-chip filtering and tunable routing.

  18. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Solving a Fuzzy Single Batch-Processing Machine Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA, variable neighborhood search (VNS, and simulated annealing (SA frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  19. Cell response to single-walled carbon nanotubes in hybrid porous collagen sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongli; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous collagen sponges incorporated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were prepared and used for 3D culture of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). The pore structures of the sponges were controlled by using ice particulates as a porogen material. The responses of cells to SWCNTs were investigated in this 3D cell culture system by evaluation of cell functions and cellular uptake of SWCNTs. The results showed that cells adhered and spatially distributed in the porous sponges. The incorporation of SWCNTs in the porous sponges promoted cell proliferation and production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG). Confocal Raman imaging revealed that SWCNTs could be internalized by cells. The hybrid porous sponges not only provided nanostructured pore surfaces to facilitate cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion but also supplied nanomaterials for cellular uptake which may be useful for biomedical applications.

  20. Single-Board-Computer-Based Traffic Generator for a Heterogeneous and Hybrid Smart Grid Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nguyet Quang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In smart grid communication implementation, network traffic pattern is one of the main factors that affect the system’s performance. Examining different traffic patterns in smart grid is therefore crucial when analyzing the network performance. Due to the heterogeneous and hybrid nature of smart grid, the type of traffic distribution in the network is still unknown. The traffic that popularly used for simulation and analysis no longer reflects the real traffic in a multi-technology and bi-directional communication system. Hence, in this study, a single-board computer is implemented as a traffic generator which can generate network traffic similar to those generated by various applications in the fully operational smart grid. By placing in a strategic and appropriate position, a collection of traffic generators allow network administrators to investigate and test the effect of heavy traffic on performance of smart grid communication system.

  1. Carbon nanotube-nucleobase hybrids: nanorings from uracil-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhpreet; Toma, Francesca Maria; Kumar, Jitendra; Venkatesh, V; Raya, Jesus; Prato, Maurizio; Verma, Sandeep; Bianco, Alberto

    2011-06-06

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been covalently functionalized with uracil nucleobase. The hybrids have been characterized by using complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques including solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The uracil-functionalized SWCNTs are able to self-assemble into regular nanorings with a diameter of 50-70 nm, as observed by AFM and TEM. AFM shows that the rings do not have a consistent height and thickness, which indicates that they may be formed by separate bundles of CNTs. The simplest model for the nanoring formation likely involves two bundles of CNTs interacting with each other via uracil-uracil base-pairing at both CNT ends. These nanorings can be envisaged for the development of advanced electronic circuits.

  2. Hybrid microfiber-lithium-niobate nanowaveguide structures as high-purity heralded single-photon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Philip; Mosley, Peter J.; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Lijian; Gorbach, Andrey V.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a compact, fiber-integrated architecture for photon-pair generation by parametric downconversion with unprecedented flexibility in the properties of the photons produced. Our approach is based on a thin-film lithium niobate nanowaveguide, evanescently coupled to a tapered silica microfiber. We demonstrate how controllable mode hybridization between the fiber and waveguide yields control over the joint spectrum of the photon pairs. We also investigate how independent engineering of the linear and nonlinear properties of the structure can be achieved through the addition of a tapered, proton-exchanged layer to the waveguide. This allows further refinement of the joint spectrum through custom profiling of the effective nonlinearity, drastically improving the purity of the heralded photons. We give details of a source design capable of generating heralded single photons in the telecom wavelength range with purity of at least 0.95, and we provide a feasible fabrication methodology.

  3. Hybrid metaheuristics for solving a fuzzy single batch-processing machine scheduling problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla-Alizadeh-Zavardehi, S; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R; Lotfi, F Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem of minimizing total weighted tardiness of jobs in a real-world single batch-processing machine (SBPM) scheduling in the presence of fuzzy due date. In this paper, first a fuzzy mixed integer linear programming model is developed. Then, due to the complexity of the problem, which is NP-hard, we design two hybrid metaheuristics called GA-VNS and VNS-SA applying the advantages of genetic algorithm (GA), variable neighborhood search (VNS), and simulated annealing (SA) frameworks. Besides, we propose three fuzzy earliest due date heuristics to solve the given problem. Through computational experiments with several random test problems, a robust calibration is applied on the parameters. Finally, computational results on different-scale test problems are presented to compare the proposed algorithms.

  4. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: hybridization assays on polymer particles obtained by direct solid phase assembly of the oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Heinonen, P; Iitiä, A; Lönnberg, H

    1997-01-01

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotides were assembled by conventional phosphoramidite chemistry on uniformly sized (50 microns) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate (SINTEF) and compact polystyrene (Dynosphere) particles, the aminoalkyl side chains of which were further derivatized with DMTrO-acetyl groups. The linker was completely resistant toward ammonolytic deprotection of the base moieties. The quality of oligonucleotides was assessed by repeating the synthesis on the same particles derivatized with a cleavable ester linker. The ability of the oligonucleotide-coated particles to bind complementary sequences via hybridization was examined by following the attachment of oligonucleotides bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate to the particles. The fluorescence emission was measured directly on a single particle. The effects of the following factors on the kinetics and efficiency of hybridization were studied: number of particles in a given volume of the assay solution, loading of oligonucleotide on the particle, concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution, length of the hybridizing sequence, presence of noncomplementary sequences, and ionic strength. The fluorescence signal measured on a single particle after hybridization was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the target oligonucleotide in solution over a concentration range of 5 orders of magnitude.

  5. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid Single/Three-Phase Islanded Microgrid Consisting of Hybrid Source PV/Battery Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based, hybrid single/three-phase islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV...... and battery units, and power flow among different phases is performed automatically through three-phase units. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid, the operation...... in different load, PV generation and battery conditions is validated experimentally in a microgrid lab prototype consisted of one three-phase unit and two single-phase units....

  6. Studies on the Recross Heterosis Effect of Male-sterile Single-hybrids in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Liang-yue; HU YAN-min; LI Yong-liang; HUANG Su-xiang; JI Hong-qiang; HUANG Xi-lin

    2002-01-01

    Re-cross was conducted between five ES cytoplasm male-sterile hybrids and four high-oil hybrids, and five normal hybrids, respectively. The oil content, yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size were estimated. Results were as follows: The average kernel oil content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was 1.6 % higher than that of the female parent. The xenia effect value of oil genes was 0.30. The yield and 1000-kernel weight of male-sterile hybrids were 10.1% and 5.8 % higher than that of corresponding fertile hybrids respectively, which showed significant cytoplasm effect. The yield of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid was similar to that of the female parent, but its 1000-kernel weight was 7.3% lower than that of the female parent. Compared with the high-oil male parent, grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size of the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid were higher. Seed-filling rate, the days of seed-filling and IAA content in the male-sterile hybrid × high-oil hybrid showed average heterosis tending the female parent, which may be perhaps one of the reasons resulting in the average heterosis tending to the female parent on kernel oil content,yield, 1000-kernel weight and kernel size.

  7. Single Nanometric Memory Unit Based On a Protein-Nanoparticle Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalsy, Izhar; Heyman, Arnon; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2009-03-01

    Proteins as an isolating template and nanoparticle (NP) as an electric storage component can form a single addressable unit cell isolated from the conductive surface and adjacent NPs. This setup gives rise to a wide range of nanoelectronic applications. Here we demonstrate, by Conductive AFM, a single nanometric memory unit using individual protein-NP hybrids. SP1 is a boiling-stable ring-shaped protein, 11 nm in diameter. Mutants of SP1 were synthesized allowing its selective attachment to gold surface and the formation of 2D arrays using methods such as phospholipids trough and Langmuir Blodgett. The SP1 inner pore was connected to Si NP forming a chargeable entity embedded in an isolating unit over a conductive surface. Each NP holds three charging states: natural, positive and negative. The charging life times are 10 min in ambient and days in vacuum. Using this setup, and the relative long charging time, we were able to apply a read and write operations on individual 5nm Si NP embedded in a stable protein.

  8. Rapid High Resolution Single Nucleotide Polymorphism–Comparative Genome Hybridization Mapping in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flibotte, Stephane; Edgley, Mark L.; Maydan, Jason; Taylor, Jon; Zapf, Rick; Waterston, Robert; Moerman, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a significantly improved and simplified method for high-resolution mapping of phenotypic traits in Caenorhabditis elegans using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and oligo array comparative genome hybridization (array CGH). We designed a custom oligonucleotide array using a subset of confirmed SNPs between the canonical wild-type Bristol strain N2 and the Hawaiian isolate CB4856, populated with densely overlapping 50-mer probes corresponding to both N2 and CB4856 SNP sequences. Using this method a mutation can be mapped to a resolution of ∼200 kb in a single genetic cross. Six mutations representing each of the C. elegans chromosomes were detected unambiguously and at high resolution using genomic DNA from populations derived from as few as 100 homozygous mutant segregants of mutant N2/CB4856 heterozygotes. Our method completely dispenses with the PCR, restriction digest, and gel analysis of standard SNP mapping and should be easy to extend to any organism with interbreeding strains. This method will be particularly powerful when applied to difficult or hard-to-map low-penetrance phenotypes. It should also be possible to map polygenic traits using this method. PMID:18957702

  9. Thermodynamics for the Formation of Double-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Akiko; Toshimitsu, Fumiyuki; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, the thermodynamics are described for the formation of double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA)-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids. This treatment is applied to the exchange reaction of sodium cholate (SC) molecules on SWNTs and the ds-DNAs d(A)20 -d(T)20 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB decoy. UV/Vis/near-IR spectroscopy with temperature variations was used for analyzing the exchange reaction on the SWNTs with four different chiralities: (n,m)=(8,3), (6,5), (7,5), and (8,6). Single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs), including d(A)20 and d(T)20, are also used for comparison. The d(A)20-d(T)20 shows a drastic change in its thermodynamic parameters around the melting temperature (Tm ) of the DNA oligomer. No such Tm dependency was measured, owing to high Tm in the NF-κB decoy DNA and no Tm in the ss-DNA.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy: theoretical models for preimplantation genetic testing of a single nucleus using the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.N. Scriven; P.M.M. Bossuyt

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and use theoretical models to investigate the accuracy of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in testing a single nucleus from a preimplantation embryo without the complicating effect of mosaicism. Mathematical models were constructed for thre

  11. Single-Particle Cryo-EM and 3D Reconstruction of Hybrid Nanoparticles with Electron-Dense Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guimei; Yan, Rui; Zhang, Chuan; Mao, Chengde; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), accompanied with 3D reconstruction, is a broadly applicable tool for the structural characterization of macromolecules and nanoparticles. Recently, the cryo-EM field has pushed the limits of this technique to higher resolutions and samples of smaller molecular mass, however, some samples still present hurdles to this technique. Hybrid particles with electron-dense components, which have been studied using single-particle cryo-EM yet with limited success in 3D reconstruction due to the interference caused by electron-dense elements, constitute one group of such challenging samples. To process such hybrid particles, a masking method is developed in this work to adaptively remove pixels arising from electron-dense portions in individual projection images while maintaining maximal biomass signals for subsequent 2D alignment, 3D reconstruction, and iterative refinements. As demonstrated by the success in 3D reconstruction of an octahedron DNA/gold hybrid particle, which has been previously published without a 3D reconstruction, the devised strategy that combines adaptive masking and standard single-particle 3D reconstruction approach has overcome the hurdle of electron-dense elements interference, and is generally applicable to cryo-EM structural characterization of most, if not all, hybrid nanomaterials with electron-dense components.

  12. Probing the Salt Concentration Dependent Nucelobase Distribution in a Single-Stranded DNA-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid with Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumadwip; Patel, Nisheet; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi

    2016-01-28

    The hybrids of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are novel nanoscale materials having remarkable applications in nanotechnology. The absorption of nucleobases on the surface of a SWCNT depends strongly on the ionic strength of the medium. In this paper, using atomistic molecular dynamics we have shown that at low salt concentration ssDNA wraps on the surface of SWCNT through hydrophobic π-π stacking between the DNA bases and the sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms of the carbon nanotube. At high salt concentration, however, the DNA molecule adopts a partially folded structure and the ssDNA-SWCNT wrapping gets weakened significantly due to the self-stacking of the DNA bases. Our study can find relevance in CNT mediated gene delivery processes where subsequent unwrapping of the gene from its carrier is anticipated across the cell membrane regulated by an existing salt concentration gradient.

  13. Impact of hybrid SPECT/CT imaging on the detection of single parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Antony; Brennan, Patrick C.; Reed, Warren; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Schembri, Geoff; Bailey, Elizabeth; Roach, Paul; Evanoff, Michael; Kench, Peter L.

    2011-03-01

    Objective: The aim of this investigation is to determine the impact of hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) on the detection of parathyroid adenoma. Materials and methods: 16 patients presented with suspected parathyroid adenoma localised within the neck. All patients were injected with Tc-99m sestamibi and were scanned with a GE Infinia Hawkeye SPECT/CT. There were six negative and ten positive confirmed cases. Five expert radiologists specializing in nuclear medicine were asked to report on the 16 planar and SPECT data sets and were then asked to report on the same randomly ordered data sets with the addition of CT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed using the Dorfman-Berbaum-Metz multireadermulticase methodology and sensitivity and specificity values were generated. A significance level of p parathyroid adenoma. However the difference in diagnostic efficacy between the two groups was not found to be statistically significant therefore requiring further investigation. These findings have implications beyond the clinical situation described here.

  14. Hybrid Structure of a Dynamic Single-Chain Carboxylase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Anna; Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Maier, Timm

    2016-08-01

    Biotin-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylases (aCCs) are involved in key steps of anabolic pathways and comprise three distinct functional units: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyl transferase (CT). YCC multienzymes are a poorly characterized family of prokaryotic aCCs of unidentified substrate specificity, which integrate all functional units into a single polypeptide chain. We employed a hybrid approach to study the dynamic structure of Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) YCC: crystal structures of isolated domains reveal a hexameric CT core with extended substrate binding pocket and a dimeric BC domain. Negative-stain electron microscopy provides an approximation of the variable positioning of the BC dimers relative to the CT core. Small-angle X-ray scattering yields quantitative information on the ensemble of Dra YCC structures in solution. Comparison with other carrier protein-dependent multienzymes highlights a characteristic range of large-scale interdomain flexibility in this important class of biosynthetic enzymes.

  15. Purine-benzimidazole hybrids: synthesis, single crystal determination and in vitro evaluation of antitumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2015-03-26

    In an effort to identify novel compounds for the treatment of cancer, a diverse array of potential bioactive hybrid, purine-benzimidazole was synthesized in good yields through nucleophilic substitution at C6 position of purine ring with versatile cyclic amines at C2 position. The structures of newly prepared compounds were confirmed by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, mass spectroscopy and, in case of 19, by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated against 60 human tumour cell lines at one dose concentration level. Compound 6 exhibited significant growth inhibition and was evaluated as 60 cell panel at five dose concentration levels. Compound 6 proved to be 1.25 fold more active than the positive control 5-FU, with GI50 value of 18.12 μM (MG-MID). Interaction of the compounds with Aurora-A enzyme involved in the process of propagation of cancer, has also been investigated. Compound 6 showed selectivity towards Aurora-A kinase inhibition with IC50 value of 0.0l μM. Molecular docking studies in the active binding site provided theoretical support for the experimental biological data acquired.

  16. Silicon spectral response extension through single wall carbon nanotubes in hybrid solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Del Gobbo, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and n-silicon multiple heterojunctions have been fabricated by a SWCNT film transferring process. We report on the ability of the carbon nanotubes to extend the Si spectral range towards the near ultraviolet (UV) and the near infrared regions. Semiconducting and about metallic SWCNT networks have been studied as a function of the film sheet resistance, Rsh. Optical absorbance and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assign nanotube chirality and electronic character. This gave us hints of evidence of the participation of the metal nanotubes in the photocurrent generation. Moreover, we provide evidence that the external quantum efficiency spectral range can be modulated as a function of the SWCNT network sheet resistance in a hybrid SWCNT/Si solar cell. This result will be very useful to further design/optimize devices with improved performance in spectral regions generally not covered by conventional Si p-n devices. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Single layer graphene band hybridization with silver nanoplates: Interplay between doping and plasmonic enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Salmaan R.; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Flanders, Stuart J.; Taylor, Adam B.; Lim, Byungkwon; Chon, James W. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report single layer graphene (SLG) hybridized with silver nanoplates, in which nanoplates act as either a charge doping or a field enhancement source for the SLG Raman spectrum. Surprisingly, the stiffening of both G and 2D peaks of more than 10 cm-1 was observed with no plasmonic enhancement of peaks, indicating that p-doping from nanoplates on SLG is occurring. Such observation is explained in terms of the contact separation distance between the graphene and the silver nanoplates being enough (˜4 Å) to cause a Fermi level shift in graphene to allow p-doping. When nanoplates were modified in shape with laser irradiation by either photothermal plasmon printing or laser induced ablation, the charge doping was lifted and the strong plasmonic enhancement of Raman signals was observed, indicating that the separation distance is increased. Further, when the nanoplates are oxidized, the two effects on the Raman bands of SLG are turned off, returning the Raman signals back to the original SLG state.

  18. Detection of gamma photons using solution-grown single crystals of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, Sergii; Dirin, Dmitry N.; Shynkarenko, Yevhen; Morad, Viktoriia; Cherniukh, Ihor; Nazarenko, Olga; Kreil, Dominik; Nauser, Thomas; Kovalenko, Maksym V.

    2016-09-01

    The decay of the majority of radioactive isotopes involves the emission of gamma (γ) photons with energies of ˜50 keV to 10 MeV. Detectors of such hard radiation that are low-cost, highly sensitive and operate at ambient temperatures are desired for numerous applications in defence and medicine, as well as in research. We demonstrate that 0.3-1 cm solution-grown single crystals (SCs) of semiconducting hybrid lead halide perovskites (MAPbI3, FAPbI3 and I-treated MAPbBr3, where MA = methylammonium and FA = formamidinium) can serve as solid-state gamma-detecting materials. This possibility arises from a high charge-carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product of 1.0-1.8 × 10-2 cm2 V-1, a low dark carrier density of 109-1011 cm-3 (refs 3,4), a low density of charge traps of 109-1010 cm-3 (refs 4,5) and a high absorptivity of hard radiation by the lead and iodine atoms. We demonstrate the utility of perovskite detectors for testing the radiopurity of medical radiotracer compounds such as 18F-fallypride. Energy-resolved sensing at room temperature is presented using FAPbI3 SCs and an 241Am source.

  19. A Single-Degree-of-Freedom Energy Optimization Strategy for Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Xia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-degree-of-freedom energy optimization strategy to solve the energy management problem existing in power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. The proposed strategy is based on a quadratic performance index, which is innovatively designed to simultaneously restrict the fluctuation of battery state of charge (SOC and reduce fuel consumption. An extended quadratic optimal control problem is formulated by approximating the fuel consumption rate as a quadratic polynomial of engine power. The approximated optimal control law is obtained by utilizing the solution properties of the Riccati equation and adjoint equation. It is easy to implement in real-time and the engineering significance is explained in details. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, the forward-facing vehicle simulation model is established based on the ADVISOR software (Version 2002, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. The simulation results show that there is only a little fuel consumption difference between the proposed strategy and the Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP-based global optimal strategy, and the proposed strategy also exhibits good adaptability under different initial battery SOC, cargo mass and road slope conditions.

  20. A Detailed Experimental Study on Single-Pump Raman/EDFA Hybrid Amplifiers: Static, Dynamic, and System Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You Min; Han, Young Geun; Chung, Haeyang; Hyuck Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang Bae

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the performance comparison of three different schemes of single-pump dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF)-based Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) hybrid amplifiers together with a DCF-based Raman-only amplifier in terms of static properties, dynamic properties, and system impact: Raman-only amplifier (Type I), Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF located either after (Type II) or prior to (Type III) a DCF, and a Raman-assisted EDFA (Type IV), the concept of which was proposed by Kurosawa With respect to the overall gain and system impact based on bit error rate (BER) measurements in a transmission system, the hybrid amplifier of Type II was found to have the best performance among the four types while the Raman-only amplifier shows the best tolerance to transient response.

  1. Dynamic properties of single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju; Chang, You; Han, Young-Geun; Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang

    2004-12-27

    We experimentally investigate transient effects of our proposed single pump, dispersion-compensating Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier recycling residual Raman pump in a cascaded EDF under the situation of multi-channel add/drop, and then demonstrate the use of a FBG based all-optical gain-clamping technique to efficiently suppress the output transients. The results show that the proposed hybrid amplifier has a significantly long transient response time of ~ 2 ms compared to the previous reported value of the conventional separate pump, Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifiers due to both the low-pumping regime operation of 14XX nm pumped EDFA section and the additional pump transit time through the 12.6 km long dispersion compensating fiber to reach the EDF. However, using a simple gain-clamping method we obtain an almost, transient-free operation.

  2. Hybrid electric system based on fuel cell and battery and integrating a single dc/dc converter for a tramway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Luis M., E-mail: luis.fernandez@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Garcia, Carlos Andres, E-mail: carlosandres.garcia@uca.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Algeciras, University of Cadiz, Avda. Ramon Puyol, s/n. 11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, Francisco, E-mail: fjurado@ujaen.e [Department of Electrical Engineering, EPS Linares, University of Jaen, C/Alfonso X, No. 28. 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. {yields} Hybrid system based on PEM fuel cell with dc/dc converter and Ni-MH battery. {yields} New control strategy for the energy management of the tramway. {yields} Hybrid system demonstrated to meet appropriate driving cycle of the tramway. -- Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid electric power system for a real surface tramway. The hybrid system consists of two electrical energy sources integrating a single dc/dc converter to provide the power demanded by the tramway loads (four electric traction motors and auxiliary services): (1) a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) as the primary and (2) a rechargeable Ni-MH battery as electrical energy storage to supplement the FC over the driving cycle. According to the requirements of the real driving cycle of the tramway, it was considered a 200 kW PEM FC system with two FCs connected in parallel and a 34 Ah Ni-MH battery. The PEM FC and Ni-MH battery models were designed from commercially available components. The power conditioning system provides the appropriate power for the tramway. It is composed of: (1) a unique dc/dc boot converter which adapts the FC output voltage to the 750 V traction standard dc bus; (2) three phase inverters to drive properly each electric motors; and (3) a braking chopper to dissipate excess of regenerative braking energy. Suitable state machine control architecture is presented for the hybrid system, its objective being to provide demanded power by the driving cycle, optimizing the energy generated. Following this objective, a new state machine control strategy based on eight states decides the operating point of each component of the system and a cascade control structure allows achieving the operating points determined by the strategy. Simulation results of the real driving cycle of the tramway check the adequacy of the hybrid electric power system.

  3. Assessing patterns of hybridization between North Atlantic eels using diagnostic single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujolar, José Martin; Jacobsen, M.W.; Als, Thomas Damm

    2014-01-01

    The two North Atlantic eel species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the American eel (Anguilla rostrata), spawn in partial sympatry in the Sargasso Sea, providing ample opportunity to interbreed. In this study, we used a RAD (Restriction site Associated DNA) sequencing approach to identify...... eel) collected in the Sargasso Sea. Our SNP survey showed that the majority of Icelandic eels are pure European eels but there is also an important contribution of individuals of admixed ancestry (10.7%). Although most of the hybrids were identified as F1 hybrids from European eel female × American......, no hybrids were observed in the Faroe Islands, the closest bodies of land to Iceland. It is possible that hybrids show an intermediate migratory behaviour between the two parental species that ultimately brings hybrid larvae to the shores of Iceland, situated roughly halfway between the Sargasso Sea...

  4. Single-molecule RNA detection at depth by hybridization chain reaction and tissue hydrogel embedding and clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheel; Lubeck, Eric; Schwarzkopf, Maayan; He, Ting-Fang; Greenbaum, Alon; Sohn, Chang Ho; Lignell, Antti; Choi, Harry M. T.; Gradinaru, Viviana; Pierce, Niles A.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and robust detection of mRNA molecules in thick tissue samples can reveal gene expression patterns in single cells within their native environment. Preserving spatial relationships while accessing the transcriptome of selected cells is a crucial feature for advancing many biological areas – from developmental biology to neuroscience. However, because of the high autofluorescence background of many tissue samples, it is difficult to detect single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) signals robustly in opaque thick samples. Here, we draw on principles from the emerging discipline of dynamic nucleic acid nanotechnology to develop a robust method for multi-color, multi-RNA imaging in deep tissues using single-molecule hybridization chain reaction (smHCR). Using this approach, single transcripts can be imaged using epifluorescence, confocal or selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) depending on the imaging depth required. We show that smHCR has high sensitivity in detecting mRNAs in cell culture and whole-mount zebrafish embryos, and that combined with SPIM and PACT (passive CLARITY technique) tissue hydrogel embedding and clearing, smHCR can detect single mRNAs deep within thick (0.5 mm) brain slices. By simultaneously achieving ∼20-fold signal amplification and diffraction-limited spatial resolution, smHCR offers a robust and versatile approach for detecting single mRNAs in situ, including in thick tissues where high background undermines the performance of unamplified smFISH. PMID:27342713

  5. Research on the filtering characteristic of single phase series hybrid active power filter based on fundamental magnetic flux compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Chen, Qiaofu; Zhang, Yuqi

    2012-12-01

    In this article, the PWM inverter works as a controlled fundamental current source in the single phase series hybrid active power filter (APF) based on fundamental magnetic flux compensation (FMFC). The series transformer can exhibit the self-impedance of primary winding to harmonic current, which forces harmonic current to flow into passive power filter. With the influence of harmonic current, the voltage of primary winding of transformer is a harmonic voltage, which makes the inverter output currents have a certain harmonic component, and it degrades the filtering characteristics. On the basis of PWM inverter, the mathematical model of series hybrid APF is established, and the filtering characteristics of single phase APF are analysed in detail. Three methods are gained to improve filtering characteristics: reasonably designing the inverter output filter inductance, increasing series transformer ratio and adopting voltage feed-forward control. Experimental results show that the proposed APF has greater validity.

  6. Fused porphyrin-single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids: efficient formation and photophysical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen; Diev, Vyacheslav V; Roberts, Sean T; Antunez, Priscilla D; Brutchey, Richard L; Bradforth, Stephen E; Thompson, Mark E

    2013-04-23

    A systematic study of the interaction between π-extended porphyrins and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is reported here. Zinc porphyrins with 1-pyrenyl groups in the 5,15-meso positions, 1, as well as compounds where one or both of the pyrene groups have been fused at the meso and β positions of the porphyrin core, 2 and 3, respectively, have been examined. The strongest binding to SWNTs is observed for porphyrin 3, leading to debundling of the nanotubes and formation of stable suspensions of 3-SWNT hybrids in a range of common organic solvents. Absorption spectra of 3-SWNT suspensions are broad and continuous (λ=400-1400 nm), and the Q-band of 3 displays a significant bathochromic shift of 33 nm. The surface coverage of the SWNTs in the nanohybrids was estimated by spectroscopic and analytical methods and found to reach 64% for (7,6) nanotubes. The size and shape of π-conjugated porphyrins were found to be important factors in determining the strength of the π-π interactions, as the linear anti-3 isomer displays more than 90% binding selectivity compared to the bent syn-3 isomer. Steady-state photoluminescence measurements show quenching of porphyrin emission from the nanohybrids. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that this quenching results from ultrafast electron transfer from the photoexcited porphyrin to the SWNT (1/kCT=260 fs) followed by rapid charge recombination on a picosecond time scale. Overall, our data demonstrate that direct π-π interaction between fused porphyrins and SWNTs leads to electronically coupled stable nanohybrids.

  7. Real time hybridization studies by resonant waveguide gratings using nanopattern imaging for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle

    2013-12-20

    2D imaging of biochips is particularly interesting for multiplex biosensing. Resonant properties allow label-free detection using the change of refractive index at the chip surface. We demonstrate a new principle of Scanning Of Resonance on Chip by Imaging (SORCI) based on spatial profiles of nanopatterns of resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) and its embodiment in a fluidic chip for real-time biological studies. This scheme allows multiplexing of the resonance itself by providing nanopattern sensing areas in a bioarray format. Through several chip designs we discuss resonance spatial profiles, dispersion and electric field distribution for optimal light-matter interaction with biological species of different sizes. Fluidic integration is carried out with a black anodized aluminum chamber, advantageous in term of mechanical stability, multiple uses of the chip, temperature control and low optical background. Real-time hybridization experiments are illustrated by SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detection in gyrase A of E. coli K12, observed in evolution studies of resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. We choose a 100 base pairs (bp) DNA target (∼30 kDa) including the codon of interest and demonstrate the high specificity of our technique for probes and targets with close affinity constants. This work validates the safe applicability of our unique combination of RWGs and simple instrumentation for real-time biosensing with sensitivity in buffer solution of ∼10 pg/mm2. Paralleling the success of RWGs sensing for cells sensing, our work opens new avenues for a large number of biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

  8. Effect of Calcium Phosphate–Hybridized Tendon Graft in Anatomic Single-Bundle ACL Reconstruction in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Fujie, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Makoto; Nomura, Shunsuke; Sakane, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Background: We previously developed a novel technique using an alternate soaking process that improves tendon-bone healing by hybridizing the tendon graft with calcium phosphate (CaP). However, the effects of the CaP-hybridized tendon graft on anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts compared with untreated tendon grafts 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a goat model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Animals were divided into a CaP group (n = 5 goats) and a control group (n = 5 goats), and we analyzed (1) knee kinematics and in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N and internal tibial torque of 2.0 N·m in the grafts at full extension and at 60° and 90° of knee flexion, (2) the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement using computed tomography (CT), and (3) the histology of the tendon-bone interface. Results: The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N at 60° and 90° of knee flexion in the CaP group were greater than those in the control group (P joint aperture sites of the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnel, was greater in the CaP group than that in the control group (P joint aperture site in both anterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnels 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction in goats. The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads at greater flexion angles in the CaP group increased compared with controls. Clinical Relevance: Anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using CaP-hybridized tendon grafts may lead to better postoperative knee function. PMID:27660798

  9. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.; Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm×20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96×192 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 μW/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 μV/e- and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e- rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  10. 18k Channels single photon counting readout circuit for hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: piotr.maj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Grybos, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurements and Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Sakumura, T.; Tsuji, Y. [X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corporation, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    We have performed measurements of an integrated circuit named PXD18k designed for hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used in X-ray imaging applications. The PXD18k integrated circuit, fabricated in CMOS 180 nm technology, has dimensions of 9.64 mm Multiplication-Sign 20 mm and contains approximately 26 million transistors. The core of the IC is a matrix of 96 Multiplication-Sign 192 pixels with 100 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 100 {mu}m pixel size. Each pixel works in a single photon counting mode. A single pixel contains two charge sensitive amplifiers with Krummenacher feedback scheme, two shapers, two discriminators (with independent thresholds A and B) and two 16-bit ripple counters. The data are read out via eight low voltage differential signaling (LVDS) outputs with 100 Mbps rate. The power consumption is dominated by analog blocks and it is about 23 {mu}W/pixel. The effective peaking time at the discriminator input is 30 ns and is mainly determined by the time constants of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). The gain is equal to 42.5 {mu}V/e{sup -} and the equivalent noise charge is 168 e{sup -} rms (with bump-bonded silicon pixel detector). Thanks to the use of trim DACs in each pixel, the effective threshold spread at the discriminator input is only 1.79 mV. The dead time of the front end electronics for a standard setting is 172 ns (paralyzable model). In the standard readout mode (when the data collection time is separated from the time necessary to readout data from the chip) the PXD18k IC works with two energy thresholds per pixel. The PXD18k can also be operated in the continuous readout mode (with a zero dead time) where one can select the number of bits readout from each pixel to optimize the PXD18k frame rate. For example, for reading out 16 bits/pixel the frame rate is 2.7 kHz and for 4 bits/pixel it rises to 7.1 kHz.

  11. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  12. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the stru

  13. Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Single Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Honghua; Raissa, Raissa; Abdu-Aguye, Mustapha; Adjokatse, Sampson; Blake, Graeme R.; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid organometal halide perovskites have been demonstrated to have outstanding performance as semiconductors for solar energy conversion. Further improvement of the efficiency and stability of these devices requires a deeper understanding of their intrinsic photophysical properties. Here, the stru

  14. FDTD Acceleration for Cylindrical Resonator Design Based on the Hybrid of Single and Double Precision Floating-Point Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasitha Muthumala Waidyasooriya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceleration of FDTD (finite-difference time-domain is very important for the fields such as computational electromagnetic simulation. We consider the FDTD simulation model of cylindrical resonator design that requires double precision floating-point and cannot be done using single precision. Conventional FDTD acceleration methods have a common problem of memory-bandwidth limitation due to the large amount of parallel data access. To overcome this problem, we propose a hybrid of single and double precision floating-point computation method that reduces the data-transfer amount. We analyze the characteristics of the FDTD simulation to find out when we can use single precision instead of double precision. According to the experimental results, we achieved over 15 times of speed-up compared to the CPU single-core implementation and over 1.52 times of speed-up compared to the conventional GPU-based implementation.

  15. Very-short-term wind power prediction by a hybrid model with single- and multi-step approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Very-short-term wind power prediction (VSTWPP) has played an essential role for the operation of electric power systems. This paper aims at improving and applying a hybrid method of VSTWPP based on historical data. The hybrid method is combined by multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), which is intended for reducing prediction errors. The predicted values are obtained through two sub-processes:1) transform the time-series data of actual wind power into the power ratio, and then predict the power ratio;2) use the predicted power ratio to predict the wind power. Besides, the proposed method can include two prediction approaches: single-step prediction (SSP) and multi-step prediction (MSP). WPP is tested comparatively by auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model from the predicted values and errors. The validity of the proposed hybrid method is confirmed in terms of error analysis by using probability density function (PDF), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and means square error (MSE). Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation coefficients between the actual values and the predicted values for different prediction times and window has confirmed that MSP approach by using the hybrid model is the most accurate while comparing to SSP approach and ARMA. The MLR&LS is accurate and promising for solving problems in WPP.

  16. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by activating p38 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinxin; Yang, Wen; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Xianzhe

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are becoming increasingly significant in biomedical fields since they exhibit exceptional physicochemical and biocompatible properties. Today, the stem cells offer potentially new therapeutic approaches in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the induction of differentiation into specific lineages remains challenging, which provoked us to explore the biomedical applications of carbon nanomaterials in stem cells. In this study, we investigated the interactions between graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (G/SWCNT) hybrids and rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and focused on the proliferation and differentiation of rMSCs treated with G/SWCNT hybrids. Cell viability and morphology were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assay and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Osteogenic differentiation evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity of MSCs proved to be higher after treatment with G/SWCNT hybrids, and the mineralized matrix nodule formation was also enhanced. In addition, the expression levels of osteogenic-associated genes were upregulated, while the adipocyte-specific markers were downregulated. Consistent with these results, we illustrated that the effect of G/SWCNT hybrids on the process of osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs can be modulated by activating the p38 signaling pathway and inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway. Nevertheless, our study suggests that carbon nanomaterials offer a promising platform for regenerative medicine in the near future.

  17. Pain management after surgery for single-ventricle palliation using the hybrid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Aymen N; Dewhirst, Elisabeth; Winch, Peter D; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Tobias, Joseph D

    2012-10-01

    The hybrid pathway for the management of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome was pioneered at our institution and is the preferred approach compared with the traditional Norwood pathway. Patients undergoing this surgery are generally extubation. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients receiving fentanyl analgesia after HS1 palliation for single-ventricle anatomy between June 2008 and August 2011. In addition to demographic data, we also recorded the mode of analgesia, total fentanyl administered during the first 48 postoperative hours, and total hours of fentanyl use. Other data collected included pain scores, adverse effects, time of tracheal extubation, and use of adjunctive medications, such as dexmedetomidine. Nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA) with fentanyl was used in 21 of the 33 patients in the study cohort, with the remainder receiving a continuous fentanyl infusion. NCA-fentanyl was the method of choice in 12 of the 13 patients whose tracheas were extubated in the operating room versus 9 of 20 patients who received postoperative mechanical ventilation and tracheal intubation (p = 0.0093). During the first and second 24 h after surgery, fentanyl requirements were lower in patients whose tracheas were extubated (11.8 ± 7.6 vs. 20.6 ± 18.1 and 6.6 ± 10.3 vs. 24.3 ± 20.4 μg/kg, respectively). Adverse effects were noted in 3 of the 33 patients (9%) and included one episode each of respiratory depression requiring reintubation of the trachea, pruritus, and excessive sedation. Dexmedetomidine was used as an adjunct medication in 5 patients and resulted in decreased fentanyl use (6.3 ± 1.3 vs. 19 ± 15.9 μg/kg in the first 24 postoperative hours and 7.9 ± 3.5 vs. 19 ± 20.3 μg/kg in the second 24 postoperative hours). Fentanyl administered by way of continuous infusion or NCA provided effective postoperative analgesia with a limited adverse effect profile after HS1 surgery in neonates with complex CHD. Fentanyl requirements were lower

  18. A polypeptide-DNA hybrid with selective linking capability applied to single molecule nano-mechanical measurements using optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayed, Fatemeh; Mashaghi, Alireza; Tans, Sander J

    2013-01-01

    Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN) and the peptide StrepTag II (ST). We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST). In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV) linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV)-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications.

  19. A polypeptide-DNA hybrid with selective linking capability applied to single molecule nano-mechanical measurements using optical tweezers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moayed

    Full Text Available Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN and the peptide StrepTag II (ST. We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST. In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications.

  20. A Polypeptide-DNA Hybrid with Selective Linking Capability Applied to Single Molecule Nano-Mechanical Measurements Using Optical Tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tans, Sander J.

    2013-01-01

    Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient, rapid and specific manner, based on the recently developed linkage between the protein StrepTactin (STN) and the peptide StrepTag II (ST). We introduce a two-step approach, in which we first construct a hybrid between DNA and a tandem of two STs peptides (tST). In a second step, this hybrid is linked to polystyrene bead surfaces and Maltose Binding Protein (MBP) using STN. Furthermore, we show the STN-tST linkage is more stable against forces applied by optical tweezers than the commonly used biotin-Streptavidin (STV) linkage. It can be used in conjunction with Neutravidin (NTV)-biotin linkages to form DNA tethers that can sustain applied forces above 65 pN for tens of minutes in a quarter of the cases. The method is general and can be applied to construct other surface-DNA and protein-DNA hybrids. The reversibility, high mechanical stability and specificity provided by this linking procedure make it highly suitable for single molecule mechanical studies, as well as biosensing and lab on chip applications. PMID:23336001

  1. Transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid exciton of a metal nanoparticle-semiconductor quantum dot system coupled to a plasmonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Chol; Ko, Myong-Chol; Choe, Song-Il; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Li, Jian-Bo; Im, Song-Jin; Ko, Yong-Hae; Jo, Chon-Gyu; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2016-11-01

    The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a metal nanoparticle (MNP) coupled to a one-dimensional surface plasmonic waveguide are investigated theoretically via the real-space approach. We considered that the MNP-SQD interaction leads to the formation of a hybrid exciton and the transmission and reflection of a single incident plasmon could be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the classical control field applied to the MNP-SQD hybrid nanosystem, the kinds of MNPs and the background media. The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with such a hybrid nanosystem discussed here could find applications in the design of next-generation quantum devices, such as single-photon switching and nanomirrors, and in quantum information processing.

  2. Transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid exciton of a metal nanoparticle-semiconductor quantum dot system coupled to a plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Chol; Ko, Myong-Chol; Choe, Song-Il; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Li, Jian-Bo; Im, Song-Jin; Ko, Yong-Hae; Jo, Chon-Gyu; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2016-11-18

    The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and a metal nanoparticle (MNP) coupled to a one-dimensional surface plasmonic waveguide are investigated theoretically via the real-space approach. We considered that the MNP-SQD interaction leads to the formation of a hybrid exciton and the transmission and reflection of a single incident plasmon could be controlled by adjusting the frequency of the classical control field applied to the MNP-SQD hybrid nanosystem, the kinds of MNPs and the background media. The transport properties of a single plasmon interacting with such a hybrid nanosystem discussed here could find applications in the design of next-generation quantum devices, such as single-photon switching and nanomirrors, and in quantum information processing.

  3. Studies of the Ecophysiology of Single Cells in Microbial Communities by (Quantitative) Microautoradiography and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (MAR-FISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    Microautoradiography (MAR) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method of obtaining information about the ecophysiology of probe-defined single cells in mixed microbial communities. The incorporation of radiolabelled substrates can be quantified by automated...

  4. Detection of colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in single T cells by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, D J; Owens, T; Pearse, M

    1989-01-01

    RNA being detected earlier and at a lower concentration of stimulus. The rise in intracellular mRNA was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding CSF bioactivity in the supernatant. In situ hybridization was of comparable sensitivity to Northern blot analysis and revealed significant heterogeneity...

  5. Adoption of the hybrid CTO approach by a single non-CTO operator: procedural and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Minh N; McCabe, James M; Lombardi, William L; Ducas, John; Ravandi, Amir; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of adopting the "hybrid" approach by a single operator without prior experience in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has not been described. Consecutive patients who underwent CTO-PCI by a single operator using the "hybrid" approach between 2012 and 2013 formed the analytic cohort. No patient was declined on the basis of angiographic findings. Clinical and angiographic characteristics together with procedural and hospital outcomes are described. During the study period, a total of 48 consecutive patients underwent PCI of 50 CTOs. Mean age was 63.4 ± 9.4 years and most patients (83%) were men. The right coronary artery (RCA) was the most commonly treated CTO vessel (54%) and mean J-CTO score was 2.3 ± 1.1. A primary retrograde approach was chosen for 33% of lesions and 40% required use of an epicardial collateral vessel. The primary strategy was effective in 65% of successful cases, 35% required one change in strategy, and 15% requiring two strategy changes. Procedural success rate was 92%. The median number of stents used was 3 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-4] and the total stent length was 73 mm [IQR, 38-96 mm). Mean contrast volume was 356.4 ± 148.3 mL and the mean air kerma radiation exposure was 3.5 ± 2.0 Gy. No patient experienced a major periprocedural complication. The "hybrid" approach to CTO-PCI can be successfully adopted by a single operator with excellent early procedural success and low complication rates, despite a lack of prior CTO-PCI experience.

  6. A Heuristic for Two-Stage No-Wait Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling with a Single Machine in Either Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志新; 谢金星; 李建国; 董杰方

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the hybrid flow-shop scheduling problem with no-wait restrictions. The production process consists of two machine centers, one has a single machine and the other has more than one parallel machine. A greedy heuristic named least deviation algorithm is designed and its worst case performance is analyzed. Computational results are also given to show the algorithm's average performance compared with some other algorithms. The least deviation algorithm outperforms the others in most cases tested here, and it is of low computational complexity and is easy to carry out,thus it is of favorable application value.

  7. A bolometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and hybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, D. S.; Boldyrev, N. Yu.; Iakovlev, V. Ya.; Gladush, Yu. G.; Nasibulin, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    We have designed a bolometric IR detector based on freestanding aerosol synthesised carbon nanotubes and hybrid graphene materials deposited on a film suspended over a hole in the substrate. In this case, graphene serves as an absorber. The effect of the amount of the deposited absorber on the spectral characteristics, voltage sensitivity, response time and noise of the bolometer is investigated. The best response time is observed for the samples of pristine carbon nanotubes, whereas the hybrid sample with the largest amount of graphene demonstrates the highest sensitivity to radiation. Moreover, we have measured and analysed the bolometer parameters as functions of the ambient pressure and temperature, which has allowed us to determine the optimum operating conditions for the device.

  8. Single-Board-Computer-Based Traffic Generator for a Heterogeneous and Hybrid Smart Grid Communication Network

    OpenAIRE

    Do Nguyet Quang; Ong Hang See; Lai Lee Chee; Che Yung Xuen; Shashiteran A/L. Karuppiah

    2014-01-01

    In smart grid communication implementation, network traffic pattern is one of the main factors that affect the system’s performance. Examining different traffic patterns in smart grid is therefore crucial when analyzing the network performance. Due to the heterogeneous and hybrid nature of smart grid, the type of traffic distribution in the network is still unknown. The traffic that popularly used for simulation and analysis no longer reflects the real traffic in a multi-technology and bi-dir...

  9. Enhanced UV photoresponse of KrF-laser-synthesized single-wall carbon nanotubes/n-silicon hybrid photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, V; Gautier, L A; Castrucci, P; Del Gobbo, S; De Crescenzi, M; El Khakani, M A

    2012-06-01

    We report on the KrF-laser ablation synthesis, purification and photocurrent generation properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The thermally purified SWCNTs are integrated into hybrid photovoltaic (PV) devices by spin-coating them onto n-Si substrates. These novel SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are shown to generate significant photocurrent (PC) over the entire 250-1050 nm light spectrum with external quantum efficiencies (EQE) reaching up to ~23%. Our SWCNTs/n-Si hybrid devices are not only photoactive in the traditional spectral range of Si solar cells, but generate also significant PC in the UV domain (below 400 nm). This wider spectral response is believed to be the result of PC generation from both the SWCNTs themselves and the tremendous number of local p-n junctions created at the nanotubes/Si interface. To assess the prevalence of these two contributions, the EQE spectra and J-V characteristics of these hybrid devices were investigated in both planar and top-down configurations, as a function of SWCNTs' film thickness. A sizable increase in EQE in the near UV with respect to the silicon is observed in both configurations, with a more pronounced UV photoresponse in the planar mode, confirming thereby the role of SWCNTs in the photogeneration process. The PC generation is found to reach its maximum for an optimal the SWCNT film thickness, which is shown to correspond to the best trade-off between lowest electrical resistance and highest optical transparency. Finally, by analyzing the J-V characteristics of our SWCNTs/n-Si devices with an equivalent circuit model, we were able to point out the contribution of the various electrical components involved in the photogeneration process. The SWCNTs-based devices demonstrated here open up the prospect for their use in highly effective photovoltaics and/or UV-light sensors.

  10. Single and multiple molecular beacon probes for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiaojing; Tan, Weihong

    1999-05-01

    Surface immobilizable molecular beacons have been developed for DNA hybridization studies on a silica glass plate. Molecular beacons are a new class of oligonucleotide probes that have a loop-and-stem structure with a fluorophore and a quencher attached to the two ends of the stem. They only emit intense fluorescence when hybridize to their target molecules. This provides an excellent selectivity for the detection of DNA molecules. We have designed biotinylated molecular beacons which can be immobilized onto a solid surface. The molecular beacon is synthesized using DABCYL as the quencher and an optical stable dye, tetramethylrhodamine, as the fluorophore. Mass spectrometry is used to confirm the synthesized molecular beacon. The molecular beacons have been immobilized onto a silica surface through biotin-avidin binding. The surface immobilized molecular beacons have been used for the detection of target DNA with subnanomolar analytical sensitivity. have also immobilized two different molecular beacons on a silica surface in spatially resolved microscopic regions. The hybridization study of these two different molecular beacon probes has shown excellent selectivity for their target sequences. The newly designed molecular beacons are intended for DNA molecular interaction studies at an interface and for the development of ultrasensitive DNA sensors for a variety of applications including disease diagnosis, disease mechanism studies, new drug development, and in the investigation of molecular interactions between DNA molecules and other interesting biomolecules.

  11. Fabrication of single/multi-walled hybrid buckypaper composites and their enhancement of electromagnetic interference shielding performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaowei; Shao, Junyan; Ma, Keming; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lu; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon nanotubes show great potential for the application as an electromagnetic interference shielding material. In this paper, the electromagnetic interference shielding the effectiveness of a composite surface coated single/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid buckypaper was measured, which showed an average shielding effectiveness of ~55 dB with a buckypaper thickness of 50 µm, and bukypaper density of 0.76 g cm-3, it is much higher than other carbon nanotube/resin materials when sample thickness is on the similar order. The structural, specific surface area and conductivity of the buckypapers were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analyzer and four probes resistance tester, respectively.

  12. Density functional theory (DFT) study of a new novel bionanosensor hybrid; tryptophan/Pd doped single walled carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefian, Mehdi; Etminan, Nazanin

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore a new novel L-amino acid/transition metal doped single walled carbon nanotube based biosensor, density functional theory calculations were studied. These hybrid structures of organic-inorganic nanobiosensors are able to detect the smallest amino acid building block of proteins. The configurations of amine and carbonyl group coordination of tryptophan aromatic amino acid adsorbed on Pd/doped single walled carbon nanotube were compared. The frontier molecular orbital theory, quantum theory atom in molecule and natural bond orbital analysis were performed. The molecular electrostatic potential and the electron density surfaces were constructed. The calculations indicated that the Pd/SWCNT was sensitive to tryptophan suggesting the importance of interaction with biological molecule and potential detecting application. The proposed nanobiosensor represents a highly sensitive detection of protein at ultra-low concentration in diagnosis applications.

  13. Dissecting the accountability of parameterized and parameter-free single-hybrid and double-hybrid functionals for photophysical properties of TADF-based OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Mojtaba; Karimi, Niloofar

    2017-06-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters are an attractive category of materials that have witnessed a booming development in recent years. In the present contribution, we scrutinize the accountability of parameterized and parameter-free single-hybrid (SH) and double-hybrid (DH) functionals through the two formalisms, full time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA), for the estimation of photophysical properties like absorption energy, emission energy, zero-zero transition energy, and singlet-triplet energy splitting of TADF molecules. According to our detailed analyses on the performance of SHs based on TD-DFT and TDA, the TDA-based parameter-free SH functionals, PBE0 and TPSS0, with one-third of exact-like exchange turned out to be the best performers in comparison to other functionals from various rungs to reproduce the experimental data of the benchmarked set. Such affordable SH approximations can thus be employed to predict and design the TADF molecules with low singlet-triplet energy gaps for OLED applications. From another perspective, considering this point that both the nonlocal exchange and correlation are essential for a more reliable description of large charge-transfer excited states, applicability of the functionals incorporating these terms, namely, parameterized and parameter-free DHs, has also been evaluated. Perusing the role of exact-like exchange, perturbative-like correlation, solvent effects, and other related factors, we find that the parameterized functionals B2π-PLYP and B2GP-PLYP and the parameter-free models PBE-CIDH and PBE-QIDH have respectable performance with respect to others. Lastly, besides the recommendation of reliable computational protocols for the purpose, hopefully this study can pave the way toward further developments of other SHs and DHs for theoretical explorations in the field of OLEDs technology.

  14. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  15. Single-mode surface-emitting distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers based on hybrid waveguide structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanhong Guo; Junqi Liu; Jianyan Chen; Lu Li; Lijun Wang; Fengqi Liu; Zhanguo Wang

    2011-01-01

    Surface-emitting distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers operating at λ≈7.8 μm are demonstrated.The metal-covered second-order grating is shallow-etched into the surface of a thin InGaAs contact and cladding layer. This forms a hybrid waveguide and used to achieve relatively low waveguide losses and high coupling strengths. The devices exhibit stable single-mode operation from 90 to 130 K with a side mode suppression ratio above 20 dB. A slope efficiency of 194 mW/A is obtained at 90 K, which is twice higher than that of the Fabry-Perot counterpart.%@@ Surface-emitting distributed feedback quantum-cascade lasers operating at λ≈7.8 μm are demonstrated.The metal-covered second-order grating is shallow-etched into the surface of a thin InGaAs contact and cladding layer.This forms a hybrid waveguide and used to achieve relatively low waveguide losses and high coupling strengths.The devices exhibit stable single-mode operation from 90 to 130 K with a side mode suppression ratio above 20 dB.A slope efficiency of 194 mW/A is obtained at 90 K, which is twice higher than that of the Fabry-Perot counterpart.

  16. Estimates for Genetic Variance Components in Reciprocal Recurrent Selection in Populations Derived from Maize Single-Cross Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Costa dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain the estimates of genetic variance and covariance components related to intra- and interpopulation in the original populations (C0 and in the third cycle (C3 of reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS which allows breeders to define the best breeding strategy. For that purpose, the half-sib progenies of intrapopulation (P11 and P22 and interpopulation (P12 and P21 from populations 1 and 2 derived from single-cross hybrids in the 0 and 3 cycles of the reciprocal recurrent selection program were used. The intra- and interpopulation progenies were evaluated in a 10×10 triple lattice design in two separate locations. The data for unhusked ear weight (ear weight without husk and plant height were collected. All genetic variance and covariance components were estimated from the expected mean squares. The breakdown of additive variance into intrapopulation and interpopulation additive deviations (στ2 and the covariance between these and their intrapopulation additive effects (CovAτ found predominance of the dominance effect for unhusked ear weight. Plant height for these components shows that the intrapopulation additive effect explains most of the variation. Estimates for intrapopulation and interpopulation additive genetic variances confirm that populations derived from single-cross hybrids have potential for recurrent selection programs.

  17. A new hybrid genetic algorithm for optimizing the single and multivariate objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Laboratory; McCulloch, Richard Chet James [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-07-01

    In this work a new hybrid genetic algorithm was developed which combines a rudimentary adaptive steepest ascent hill climbing algorithm with a sophisticated evolutionary algorithm in order to optimize complex multivariate design problems. By combining a highly stochastic algorithm (evolutionary) with a simple deterministic optimization algorithm (adaptive steepest ascent) computational resources are conserved and the solution converges rapidly when compared to either algorithm alone. In genetic algorithms natural selection is mimicked by random events such as breeding and mutation. In the adaptive steepest ascent algorithm each variable is perturbed by a small amount and the variable that caused the most improvement is incremented by a small step. If the direction of most benefit is exactly opposite of the previous direction with the most benefit then the step size is reduced by a factor of 2, thus the step size adapts to the terrain. A graphical user interface was created in MATLAB to provide an interface between the hybrid genetic algorithm and the user. Additional features such as bounding the solution space and weighting the objective functions individually are also built into the interface. The algorithm developed was tested to optimize the functions developed for a wood pelleting process. Using process variables (such as feedstock moisture content, die speed, and preheating temperature) pellet properties were appropriately optimized. Specifically, variables were found which maximized unit density, bulk density, tapped density, and durability while minimizing pellet moisture content and specific energy consumption. The time and computational resources required for the optimization were dramatically decreased using the hybrid genetic algorithm when compared to MATLAB's native evolutionary optimization tool.

  18. Impact Resistance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Single and Hybrid Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sallehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recycled aggregate concrete (RAC mix that has been modified by adding treated recycled concrete aggregate (RCA and various types of fiber-reinforced systems. The effectiveness of these modifications in terms of energy absorption and impact resistance was evaluated and compared with that of the corresponding regular concrete, as well as with unmodified RAC specimens. Results clearly indicate that although modification of the RAC mix with treated RCA significantly enhances the impact resistance of RAC, further diversification with additional fiber, particularly those in hybrid form, can optimize the results.

  19. Lateral-Structure Single-Crystal Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Piezoelectric Poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Song, Jingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Ducharme, Stephen; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-04-13

    Single-crystal perovskite solar cells with a lateral structure yield an efficiency enhancement 44-fold that of polycrystalline thin films, due to the much longer carrier diffusion length. A piezoelectric effect observed in perovskite single-crystal and the strain-generated grain-boundaries enable ion migration to form a p-i-n structure.

  20. Multi-Input Single Output SSSC based damping controller design by a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution-Pattern Search approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sidhartha; Yegireddy, Narendra Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Improved Differential Evolution and Pattern Search (hIDEPS) approach is proposed for the design of a PI-Type Multi-Input Single Output (MISO) Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) based damping controller. The improvement in Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is introduced by a simple but effective scheme of changing two of its most important control parameters i.e. step size and crossover probability with an objective of achieving improved performance. Pattern Search (PS) is subsequently employed to fine tune the best solution provided by modified DE algorithm. The superiority of a proposed hIDEPS technique over DE and improved DE has also been demonstrated. At the outset, this concept is applied to a SSSC connected in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) power system and then extended to a multi-machine power system. To show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach, simulation results are presented and compared with DE and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized Single Input Single Output (SISO) SSSC based damping controllers. It is observed that the proposed approach yield superior damping performance compared to some approaches available in the literature.

  1. Forward stair descent with hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis: Single case study demonstrating feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Kobetic, Rudi; Audu, Musa L; Schnellenberger, John R; Pinault, Gilles; Triolo, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    The ability to negotiate stairs is important for community access and independent mobility but requires more effort and strength than level walking. For this reason, previous attempts to utilize functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) to restore stair navigation after spinal cord injury (SCI) have had limited success and are not readily generalizable. Stair descent is particularly challenging because it requires energy absorption via eccentric muscle contractions, a task not easily accomplished with FNS. This article presents the design and initial testing of a hybrid neuroprosthesis with a variable impedance knee mechanism (VIKM-HNP) for stair descent. Using a 16-channel percutaneous FNS system, a muscle activation pattern was synthesized to descend stairs with the VIKM-HNP in a step-by-step fashion. A finite state control system was implemented to deactivate knee extensor stimulation and utilize the VIKM-HNP to absorb energy and regulate descent speed. Feasibility testing was performed on one individual with complete thoracic-level SCI. Stair descent was achieved with maximum upper-limb forces of less than 45% body weight compared with previously reported value of 70% with FNS only. The experiments also provided insight into design requirements for future hybrid systems for stair navigation, the implications of which are discussed.

  2. Single-Phase PFC Converter for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Ahamed Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a front end ac–dc power factor correction topology is proposed for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging. The topology can achieve improved power quality, in terms of power factor correction, reduced total harmonic distortion at input ac mains, and precisely regulated dc output. Within this context, this paper introduces a boost converter topology for implementing digital power factor correction based on low cost digital signal controller that operates the converter in continuous conduction mode, thereby significantly reducing input current harmonics. The theoretical analysis of the proposed converter is then developed, while an experimental digital control system is used to implement the new control strategy. A detailed converter operation, analysis and control strategy are presented along with simulation and experimental results for universal ac input voltage (100–240V to 380V dc output at up to 3.0 kW load and a power factor greater than 0.98. Experimental results show the advantages and flexibilities of the new control method for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV battery charging application.

  3. Effects of correlated hybridization in the single-impurity Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Líbero, Valter; Veiga, Rodrigo

    2013-03-01

    The development of new materials often dependents on the theoretical foundations which study the microscopic matter, i.e., the way atoms interact and create distinct configurations. Among the interesting materials, those with partially filled d or f orbitals immersed in nonmagnetic metals have been described by the Anderson model, which takes into account Coulomb correlation (U) when a local level (energy Ed) is doubled occupied, and an electronic hybridization between local levels and conduction band states. In addition, here we include a correlated hybridization term, which depends on the local-level occupation number involved. This term breaks particle-hole symmetry (even when U + 2Ed = 0), enhances charge fluctuations on local levels and as a consequence strongly modifies the crossover between the Hamiltonian fixed-points, even suppressing one or other. We exemplify these behaviors showing data obtained from the Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG) computation for the impurity temperature-dependent specific heat, entropy and magnetic susceptibility. The interleaving procedure is used to recover the continuum spectrum after the NRG-logarithmic discretization of the conduction band. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - FAPESP.

  4. Harnessing light energy with a planar transparent hybrid of graphene/single wall carbon nanotube/n-type silicon heterojunction solar cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Leifeng; Yu, Hua; Zhong, Jiasong

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated by a simple electrophoretic method with a planar transparent hybrid of graphenes (GPs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SCNTs)/n-type silicon heterojunction was significantly increased compared to GPs/n-Si and SCNTs/n-Si solar cells...... by doping the hybrid film with Au nanoparticles, and the power conversion efficiency can be increased to 8.8%. The fabrication processes are simple, low cost and fit for scaling. The results demonstrate that planar transparent hybrid of GPs/SCNTs/n-Si heterojunction is efficient for solar energy conversion...

  5. Single step hydrothermal synthesis of carbon nanodot decorated V2O5 nanobelts as hybrid conducting material for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Remya

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanodot (C-dot) decorated V2O5 (C-dot@V2O5) nanobelts are synthesized by single step, low cost hydrothermal route at low temperature by using V2O5 and glucose as precursors. We have not added any extra organic solvents or surfactants which are commonly used for the preparation of different nanostructures of V2O5. Electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that C-dot is entrapped inside V2O5 nanobelts which in turn enhance the conductivity and ion propagation property of this composite material. The C-dot@V2O5 nanobelts exhibit an excellent three electrode electrochemical performance in 1 M Na2SO4 and which showed a specific capacitance of 270 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, which is 4.5 times higher than the pristine V2O5 electrode. The electrochemical energy storage capacity of this hybrid is investigated towards solid state supercapacitor application also for the first time by employing electrophoretically deposited C-dot as the counter electrode and Li based gel as the electrolyte. The hybrid material delivers an energy density of 60 W h kg-1 and a reasonably high power density of 4.1 kW kg-1 at 5 A g-1 and good cycling stability and capacitance retention of about 87% was observed even after 5000 cycles. Above mentioned results clearly show that C-dot embedded hybrid, nanostructured transition metal oxides has great potential towards fabrication of electrodes for energy storage devices.

  6. Analyses of 32 loci clarify phylogenetic relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi lineages and support a single hybridization prior to human contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Flores-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions

  7. Optimum Synthesis of Mechanism for single- and hybrid-tasks using Differential Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Penunuri, F; Villanueva, C; Pech-Oy, D

    2011-01-01

    In this document the optimal dimensional synthesis for planar mechanisms using differential evo- lution (DE) is shown. Four study cases are presented: in the first case, the synthesis of a mechanism for hybrid-tasks, considering path generation, function generation, and motion generation, is car- ried out. The second and third cases deal with path generation with and without prescribed timing. Finally, the synthesis of an Ackerman's mechanism is performed. The order defect problem is addressed by manipulating individuals instead of penalizing or discretizing the searching space for the parameters, as was proposed by other authors. A new technique which consists of applying a transformation in order to satisfy the Grashof and crank conditions to generate an initial elitist population is introduced. As a result, the evolutionary algorithm increases its efficiency.

  8. Synthesis, single crystal and antitumor activities of benzimidazole-quinazoline hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Luxami, Vijay; Paul, Kamaldeep

    2013-06-01

    A series of novel regioisomeric hybrids of quinazoline/benzimidazole viz. (3-allyl-2-methyl-3H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine and (1-allyl-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)-(2-substituted-quinazolin-4-yl)-amine of biological interest were synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were well characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as mass spectroscopy. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for in vitro antitumor activities against 60 tumor cell lines panel assay. A significant inhibition for cancer cells were observed with compound 9 and also more active against known drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in some tumor cell lines. Compound 9 displayed appreciable anticancer activity against leukemia, colon, melanoma, renal and breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Sensorless Control of Low-cost Single-phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, and variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special hybrid switched reluctance motor. The proposed sensorless control method beneficially utilizes the stator side PM field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive system, is demonstrated...... in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  10. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  11. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...... system, is demonstrated in detail in this paper. Important design details for practical implementation of the sensorless control algorithm are included. The complete drive system performance is validated using a prototype drive system....

  12. Economical launching and accelerating control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Song, Jian; Li, Liang; Li, Shengbo; Cao, Dongpu

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an economical launching and accelerating mode, including four ordered phases: pure electrical driving, clutch engagement and engine start-up, engine active charging, and engine driving, which can be fit for the alternating conditions and improve the fuel economy of hybrid electric bus (HEB) during typical city-bus driving scenarios. By utilizing the fast response feature of electric motor (EM), an adaptive controller for EM is designed to realize the power demand during the pure electrical driving mode, the engine starting mode and the engine active charging mode. Concurrently, the smoothness issue induced by the sequential mode transitions is solved with a coordinated control logic for engine, EM and clutch. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed launching and accelerating mode and its control methods are effective in improving the fuel economy and ensure the drivability during the fast transition between the operation modes of HEB.

  13. The influence of poly(phenyleneethynylene) side chain structure on single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Liu, Qian; Wang, Shujing; Lv, Xin; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Yin, Shougen

    2008-07-01

    A novel poly(phenyleneethynylene)/single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) donor-acceptor nanohybrid system was constructed based on the bulk heterojunction concept, and their photovoltaic (PV) properties were studied. Comparing with that of the pristine polymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE) device, the PV performance of the SWNTs/PPE hybrid is dramatically improved. The origin of open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of the pristine polymer PPE device and SWNTs/PPE device was explained by metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode model and pinning mechanism, respectively. Furthermore, incorporation of sensitizing groups to the side chain of PPE has great effect on the photovoltaic cell performance based on these hybrid materials and both the short-circuit current density (I(sc)) and power conversion efficiency are significantly enhanced. It is proposed that the main reason for the increase of short circuit current is due to efficient transfer of holes by sensitizer to PPE backbone and the transfer of electrons to the SWNTs. The power conversion efficiency is enhanced by approximately 1 order magnitude to 0.031% for the device based on the PPE3 with anthracene sensitizer group on the side chain compared with that (4.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE1 and 6.2 x 10(-3)% for SWNTs/PPE2) of the device without anthracene sensitizer on the side chain.

  14. A Novel Torque Coordination Control Strategy of a Single-Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The torque coordination control during mode transition is a very important task for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV with a clutch serving as the key enabling actuator element. Poor coordination will deteriorate the drivability of the driver and lead to excessive wearing to the clutch friction plates. In this paper, a novel torque coordination control strategy for a single-shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented to coordinate the motor torque, engine torque, and clutch torque so that the seamless mode switching can be achieved. Different to the existing model predictive control (MPC methods, only one model predictive controller is needed and the clutch torque is taken as an optimized variable rather than a known parameter. Furthermore, the successful idea of model reference control (MRC is also used for reference to generate the set-point signal required by MPC. The parameter sensitivity is studied for better performance of the proposed model predictive controller. The simulation results validate that the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy has less vehicle jerk, less torque interruption, and smaller clutch frictional losses, compared with the baseline method. In addition, the sensitivity and adaptiveness of the proposed novel torque coordination control strategy are evaluated.

  15. A New Single-blade Based Hybrid CFD Method for Hovering and Forward-flight Rotor Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongjie; ZHAO Qijun; FAN Feng; XU Guohua

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Euler/full potential/Lagrangian wake method, based on single-blade simulation, for predicting unsteady aerodynamic flow around helicopter rotors in hover and forward flight has been developed. In this method, an Euler solver is used to model the near wake evolution and transonic flow phenomena in the vicinity of the blade, and a full potential equation (FPE) is used to model the isentropic potential flow region far away from the rotor, while the wake effects of other blades and the far wake are incorporated into the flow solution as an induced inflow distribution using a Lagrangian based wake analysis. To further reduce the execution time, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution and rotor wake analysis (including induced velocity update) are conducted parallelly, and a load balancing strategy is employed to account for the information exchange between two solvers. By the developed method, several hover and forward-flight cases on Caradonna-Tung and Helishape 7A rotors are performed. Good agreements of the loadings on blade surface with available measured data demonstrate the validation of the method. Also, the CPU time required for different computation runs is compared in the paper, and the results show that the present hybrid method is superior to conventional CFD method in time cost, and will be more efficient with the number of blades increasing.

  16. Integrative self-assembly of functional hybrid nanoconstructs by inorganic wrapping of single biomolecules, biomolecule arrays and organic supramolecular assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Synthesis of functional hybrid nanoscale objects has been a core focus of the rapidly progressing field of nanomaterials science. In particular, there has been significant interest in the integration of evolutionally optimized biological systems such as proteins, DNA, virus particles and cells with functional inorganic building blocks to construct mesoscopic architectures and nanostructured materials. However, in many cases the fragile nature of the biomolecules seriously constrains their potential applications. As a consequence, there is an on-going quest for the development of novel strategies to modulate the thermal and chemical stabilities, and performance of biomolecules under adverse conditions. This feature article highlights new methods of ``inorganic molecular wrapping'' of single or multiple protein molecules, individual double-stranded DNA helices, lipid bilayer vesicles and self-assembled organic dye superstructures using inorganic building blocks to produce bio-inorganic nanoconstructs with core-shell type structures. We show that spatial isolation of the functional biological nanostructures as ``armour-plated'' enzyme molecules or polynucleotide strands not only maintains their intact structure and biochemical properties, but also enables the fabrication of novel hybrid nanomaterials for potential applications in diverse areas of bionanotechnology.

  17. The role of pH control on biohydrogen production by single stage hybrid dark- and photo-fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodnik, R; Laniecki, M

    2015-10-01

    The role of pH control on biohydrogen production by co-culture of dark-fermentative Clostridium acetobutylicum and photofermentative Rhodobacter sphaeroides was studied. Single stage dark fermentation, photofermentation and hybrid co-culture systems were studied at different values of controlled and uncontrolled pH. Increasing pH during dark fermentation resulted in lower hydrogen production rate (HPR) and longer lag time for both controlled and uncontrolled conditions. However, it only slightly affected cumulative H2 volume. Results have shown that pH control at pH 7.5 increased photofermentative hydrogen production from 0.966 to 2.502 L H2/L(medium) when compared to uncontrolled process. Fixed pH value has proven to be an important control strategy also for the hybrid process and resulted in obtaining balanced co-culture of dark and photofermentative bacteria. Control of pH at 7.0 was found optimum for bacteria cooperation in the co-culture what resulted in obtaining 2.533 L H2/L(medium) and H2 yield of 6.22 mol H2/mol glucose.

  18. A hybrid single-end-access MZI and Φ-OTDR vibration sensing system with high frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Xia, Lan; Cao, Chunqi; Sun, Zhenhong; Li, Yanting; Zhang, Xuping

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid single-end-access Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and phase sensitive OTDR (Φ-OTDR) vibration sensing system is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In our system, the narrow optical pulses and the continuous wave are injected into the fiber through the front end of the fiber at the same time. And at the rear end of the fiber, a frequency-shift-mirror (FSM) is designed to back propagate the continuous wave modulated by the external vibration. Thus the Rayleigh backscattering signals (RBS) and the back propagated continuous wave interfere with the reference light at the same end of the sensing fiber and a single-end-access configuration is achieved. The RBS can be successfully separated from the interference signal (IS) through digital signal process due to their different intermediate frequency based on frequency division multiplexing technique. There is no influence between these two schemes. The experimental results show 10 m spatial resolution and up to 1.2 MHz frequency response along a 6.35 km long fiber. This newly designed single-end-access setup can achieve vibration events locating and high frequency events response, which can be widely used in health monitoring for civil infrastructures and transportation.

  19. Impact of Reabsorption on the Emission Spectra and Recombination Dynamics of Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Hiba; Arnold, Christophe; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Delport, Géraud; Vilar, Christèle; Bretenaker, Fabien; Barjon, Julien; Lauret, Jean-Sébastien; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Garrot, Damien

    2017-07-06

    Understanding the surface properties of organic-inorganic lead-based perovskites is of high importance to improve the device's performance. Here, we have investigated the differences between surface and bulk optical properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence was used to probe the near-surface region on a depth of a few microns. In addition, we have studied the transmitted luminescence through thicknesses between 50 and 600 μm. In both experiments, the expected spectral shift due to the reabsorption effect has been precisely calculated. We demonstrate that reabsorption explains the important variations reported for the emission energy of single crystals. Single crystals are partially transparent to their own luminescence, and radiative transport is the dominant mechanism for propagation of the excitation in thick crystals. The transmitted luminescence dynamics are characterized by a long rise time and a lengthening of their decay due to photon recycling and light trapping.

  20. The analysis of single-electron orbits in a free electron laser based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordbacheh, A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Roghayeh; Maraghechi, B.

    2012-09-01

    A three-dimensional analysis of a novel free-electron laser (FEL) based upon a rectangular hybrid wiggler (RHW) is presented. This RHW is designed in a configuration composed of rectangular rings with alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers immersed in a solenoidal magnetic field. An analytic model of RHW is introduced by solution of Laplace's equation for the magnetostatic fields under the appropriate boundary conditions. The single-electron orbits in combined RHW and axial guide magnetic fields are studied when only the first and the third spatial harmonic components of the RHW field are taken into account and the higher order terms are ignored. The results indicate that the third spatial harmonic leads to group III orbits with a strong negative mass regime particularly in large solenoidal magnetic fields. RHW is found to be a promising candidate with favorable characteristics to be used in microwave FEL.

  1. Time resolved single molecule spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum dot/conjugated organic hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoi, Michael Yemoh

    Single molecule studies on CdSe quantum dots functionalized with oligo-phenylene vinylene ligands (CdSe-OPV) provide evidence of strong electronic communication that facilitate charge and energy transport between the OPV ligands and the CdSe quantum dot core. This electronic interaction greatly modify, the photoluminescence properties of both bulk and single CdSe-OPV nanostructure thin film samples. Size-correlated wide-field fluorescence imaging show that blinking suppression in single CdSe-OPV is linked to the degree of OPV coverage (inferred from AFM height scans) on the quantum dot surface. The effect of the complex electronic environment presented by photoexcited OPV ligands on the excited state property of CdSe-OPV is measured with single photon counting and photon-pair correlation spectroscopy techniques. Time-tagged-time-resolved (TTTR) single photon counting measurements from individual CdSe-OPV nanostructures, show excited state lifetimes an order of magnitude shorter relative to conventional ZnS/CdSe quantum dots. Second-order intensity correlation measurements g(2)(tau) from individual CdSe-OPV nanostructures point to a weak multi-excitonic character with a strong wavelength dependent modulation depth. By tuning in and out of the absorption of the OPV ligands we observe changes in modulation depth from g(2) (0) ≈ 0.2 to 0.05 under 405 and 514 nm excitation respectively. Defocused images and polarization anisotropy measurements also reveal a well-defined linear dipole emission pattern in single CdSe-OPV nanostructures. These results provide new insights into to the mechanism behind the electronic interactions in composite quantum dot/conjugated organic composite systems at the single molecule level. The observed intensity flickering , blinking suppression and associated lifetime/count rate and antibunching behaviour is well explained by a Stark interaction model. Charge transfer from photo-excitation of the OPV ligands to the surface of the Cd

  2. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3 +, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at e...

  3. Hybrid Tunable Wideband Single Feed Antenna Element for Smartphones supporting Carrier Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanev, Simon Peter; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a single feed antenna with a dual branch matching circuit combined with a 3dB microstrip power divider to support the carrier aggregation in LTE advanced mobile handsets. By the use of the matching circuits, an independent and versatile broadband antenna is achieved. Hence, th...

  4. Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assays Using Single-FRET-Pair Distance-Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xue; Guo, Jiajia; Jin, Zongwen; Petreto, Alexandra; Medintz, Igor L; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2017-07-01

    Multiplexed photoluminescence (PL) detection plays an important role in chemical and biological sensing. Here, it is shown that time-gated (TG) detection of a single terbium-donor-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair can be used to selectively quantify low nanomolar concentrations of multiple DNAs or microRNAs in a single sample. This study demonstrates the applicability of single-TG-FRET-pair multiplexing for molecular (Tb-to-dye) and nanoparticle (Tb-to-quantum-dot) biosensing. Both systems use acceptor-sensitization and donor-quenching for quantifying biomolecular recognition and modification of the donor-acceptor distance for tuning the PL decays. TG intensity detection provides extremely low background noise and a quick and simple one-step assay format. Single-TG-FRET-pair multiplexing can be combined with spectral and spatial resolution, paving the way for biosensing with unprecedented high-order multiplexing capabilities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  6. Single Molecule Spectroelectrochemistry of Interfacial Charge Transfer Dynamics In Hybrid Organic Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Shanlin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2014-11-16

    Our research under support of this DOE grant is focused on applied and fundamental aspects of model organic solar cell systems. Major accomplishments are: 1) we developed a spectroelectorchemistry technique of single molecule single nanoparticle method to study charge transfer between conjugated polymers and semiconductor at the single molecule level. The fluorescence of individual fluorescent polymers at semiconductor surfaces was shown to exhibit blinking behavior compared to molecules on glass substrates. Single molecule fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurements showed the conformation of the polymer molecules did not differ appreciably between glass and semiconductor substrates. The similarities in molecular conformation suggest that the observed differences in blinking activity are due to charge transfer between fluorescent polymer and semiconductor, which provides additional pathways between states of high and low fluorescence quantum efficiency. Similar spectroelectrochemistry work has been done for small organic dyes for understand their charge transfer dynamics on various substrates and electrochemical environments; 2) We developed a method of transferring semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into organic solvent for a potential electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells which employed polymer semiconductor as the electron donor. Electron transfer from the polymer semiconductor to semiconductor and GO in solutions and thin films was established through fluorescence spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Solar cells containing these materials were constructed and evaluated using transient absorption spectroscopy and dynamic fluorescence techniques to understand the charge carrier generation and recombination events; 3) We invented a spectroelectorchemistry technique using light scattering and electroluminescence for rapid size determination and studying electrochemistry of single NPs in an

  7. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-07-06

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  8. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-07-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br- or I-) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  9. CONTROLLABILITY OF A CLASS OF HYBRID DYNAMIC SYSTEMS ( Ⅱ )--SINGLE TIME-DELAY CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广明; 王龙; 叶庆凯

    2003-01-01

    The controllability for switched linear systems with time-delay in controls isfirst investigated. The whole work contains three parts. This is the second part. The definition and determination of controllability of switched linear systems with single time-delay in control functions is mainly investigated. The sufficient and necessary conditions for the oneperiodic, multiple-periodic controllability of periodic-type systems and controllability of periodic systems are presented, respectively.

  10. Detection of oligonucleotide hybridization on a single microparticle by time-resolved fluorometry: quantitation and optimization of a sandwich type assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, H; Mäki, E; Lönnberg, H

    1998-01-01

    Uniformly sized (50 micro m) porous glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate particles (SINTEF) were used as the solid phase in a sandwich type mixed-phase hybridization assay based on time-resolved fluorescence detection on a single particle. These particles were coated with oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes by conventional phosphoramidite chain assembly. An oligodeoxyribonucleotide bearing a photoluminescent europium(III) chelate, ¿2,2',2",2"'-¿¿4'-¿4"'-[(4, 6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]phenyl¿-2,2':6',2"-terpyrid ine-6, 6"-diyl¿bis(methylenenitrilo)¿tetrakis(acetato)¿eur opi um(III), was hybridized to a complementary sequence of the target oligonucleotide, and the resulting duplex was further hybridized to the particle-bound probes. The latter binding was quantified by time-resolved measurement of the emission signal of a single particle. Kinetics of hybridization and the effect of the concentration of the target oligomer and the fluorescently tagged probe on the efficiency of hybridization were studied. The intensity of the emission signal was linearly related to the concentration of the target oligomer over a range of 5 orders of magnitude. The length of the complementary region between the target oligomer and the particle-bound probe was varied, and the effect of point mutations and deletions on the hybridization efficiency was determined in each case. The maximal selectivity was observed with 10-16-base pair complementary sequences, the optimal length depending on the oligonucleotide loading on the particle. Discrimination between the complete matches and point mismatches was unequivocal, a single point mutation and/or deletion decreasing the efficiency of hybridization by more than 2 orders of magnitude.

  11. Indirect Matrix Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application with Three-Phase and Single-Phase Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeongsu Bak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an indirect matrix converter (IMC topology for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV application with three-phase and single-phase outputs. The HEV includes mechanical, electrical, control, and electrochemical systems among others. In the mechanical system, a traction motor and a compressor motor are used to drive the HEV. The traction motor and the compressor motor are usually operated as three-phase and single-phase motors, respectively. In this respect, a dual AC-drive system can operate the traction and the compressor motor simultaneously. Furthermore, compared to a conventional dual matrix converter system, the proposed topology can reduce the number of switches that the dual outputs share with a DC-link. The application of this system for HEV has advantages, like long lifetime and reduced volume due to the lack of a DC-link. The proposed control strategy and modulation schemes ensure the sinusoidal input and output waveforms and bidirectional power transmission. The proposed system for the HEV application is verified by simulation and experiments.

  12. Generation and manipulation of spin current via a hybrid four-terminal single-molecule junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Rong [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Bai Long, E-mail: bailong2100@163.com [College of Science, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Duan Chenlong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2012-07-01

    We present a new device which consists of a molecular quantum dot (MQD) attached to a normal-metal, two ferromagnetic (FM), and a superconducting leads. The spin-related Andreev reflection (AR) current and the spin-dependent single-particle tunneling current through the normal-metal terminal are obtained, and it is found that the spin current exhibits the transistor-like behavior. The joint effects of the coherent spin flip and the angle between magnetic moments of the two FM leads on the spin current are also studied, these results provide the possibility to manipulate the spin current with the system parameters.

  13. Single-fiber-based hybridization of energy converters and storage units using graphene as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonho; Lee, Minbaek; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Young Jun; Cha, Seung Nam; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jin [Department of Physics, MyongJi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Engineering, MyongJi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Churl Seung [Energy Nanomaterials Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, 68 Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-09

    The first integration of multiple energy harvesters and a storage device along single fiber using ZnO nanowires (NWs) and graphenes as the basic materials is reported. This energy generation and storage device allows simultaneous harvesting of solar and mechanical energy. The unique architecture of fiber-based electrodes and use of ZnO NWs, and graphenes as active material and electrodes could be useful for the future development of flexible and wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Gold-based optical biosensor for single-mismatched DNA detection using salt-induced hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Zongrui; Ma, Xingyi; Cao, Cuong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a gold nanoparticle (Au-NP)-based detection method for sensitive and specific DNA-based diagnostic applications is described. A sandwich format consisting of Au-NPs/DNA/PMP (Streptavidin-coated MagnetSphere Para-Magnetic Particles) was fabricated. PMPs captured and separated target...... in the presence of different buffers was well investigated, and thus, the optimized salt concentration allowed for discrimination of single-mismatched DNA (MMT) from perfectly matched DNA (PMT). Therefore, quantitative information concerning the target analyte was translated into a colorimetric signal, which...

  15. Towards hybrid quantum systems: Trapping a single atom near a nanoscale solid-state structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiecke T.G.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and demonstrate a method to deterministically trap single atoms near nanoscale solid-state objects. The trap is formed by the interference of an optical tweezer and its reflection from the nano object, creating a one-dimensional optical lattice where the first lattice site is at z0 ∼ λ/4 from the surface. Using a tapered optical fiber as the nanoscopic object, we characterize the loading into different lattice sites by means of the AC-Stark shift induced by a guided fiber mode. We demonstrate a loading efficiency of 94(6% into the first lattice site, and measure the cooperativity for the emission of the atom into the guided mode of the nanofiber. We show that by tailoring the dimensions of the nanofiber the distance of the trap to the surface can be adjusted. This method is applicable to a large variety of nanostructures and represents a promising starting point for interfacing single atoms with arbitrary nanoscale solid-state systems.

  16. Unified Scattering Parameters formalism in terms of Coupled-Mode Theory for investigating hybrid single-mode/two-mode photonic interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Yann G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of Linear Algebra, a directional coupler between a single-mode waveguide and a two-mode waveguide can be thought of as formally equivalent to a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides. Its responses, easily derived in the frame of ternary Coupled-Mode Theory, are used to establish analytically the scattering parameters of a hybrid ring-based modal multiplexer.

  17. Unified Scattering Parameters formalism in terms of Coupled-Mode Theory for investigating hybrid single-mode/two-mode photonic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Yann G.; Parini, Alberto; Féron, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In terms of Linear Algebra, a directional coupler between a single-mode waveguide and a two-mode waveguide can be thought of as formally equivalent to a set of three mutually coupled single-mode waveguides. Its responses, easily derived in the frame of ternary Coupled-Mode Theory, are used to establish analytically the scattering parameters of a hybrid ring-based modal multiplexer.

  18. Studies of Hybrid Nano-Bio-System: Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svedruzic-Chang, D.; Blackburn, J. L.; McDonald, T. J.; Heben, M. J.; King, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) optical signals upon addition of recombinant [FeFe] hydrogenases from Clostridium acetobutylicum or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found evidence that novel and stable charge-transfer complexes are formed only under conditions of hydrogenase catalytic turnover. Formation of the complex sensitizes the nanotubes to the proton-to-hydrogen redox half-reaction. Thus, the experimental potential can be altered by changing the pH or molecular hydrogen concentration. In the presence of molecular hydrogen, hydrogenase mediates electron injection into the conduction band of semiconducting SWNT, which was observed as a quenching of the photoluminescence signals. Here, we will present recent Raman studies, which revealed that SWNTs in a complex with hydrogenase may undergo either oxidation or reduction, depending on the electronic structure of the SWNT and the oxidation state of the enzyme. In addition, we will describe our efforts to prepare stable, solubilized SWNT/hydrogenase complexes in the absence of detergent. This work shows that SWNT/hydrogenase complexes have potential applications as a component of an energy conversion device.

  19. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  20. New adders using hybrid circuit consisting of three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) and MOSFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, YunSeop; Choi, JungBum

    2007-11-01

    A half-adder (HA) and a full-adder (FA) using hybrid circuits combining three-gate single-electron transistors (TG-SETs) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) are proposed. The proposed HA consists of three TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs, and the proposed FA consists of eight TG-SETs, two enhanced-mode NMOSFETs, and two depletion-mode NMOSFETs. The complexities in the HA and the FA are 7 and 12, respectively, and the worst-case delays in the HA and the FA are 1.48 ns and 2.25 ns, respectively. Compared with the conventional CMOS FA with 0.35 microm technology, the proposed FA can be constructed with 0.43 of devices, and can operate with 3.5 of worst-case delay, 1/534 of average power consumption, and 1/152 of power-delay-product (PDP). The proposed HA and FA can be operated as a half-subtractor (HS) and a full-subtractor (FS) in the case when the levels of the control gates in the HA and the FA are fitly determined. The basic operations of the proposed HA and the proposed FA have been successfully confirmed through SPICE circuit simulation based on the physical device model of TG-SETs.

  1. Synthesis of CdTe QDs/single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes hybrid compound and their antimicrobial activity on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Daniela A., E-mail: daniela.geraldo@unab.cl [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile); Arancibia-Miranda, Nicolas [CEDENNA, Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Chile); Villagra, Nicolas A. [Universidad Andres Bello, Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas (Chile); Mora, Guido C. [Universidad Andres Bello, Unidad de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina (Chile); Arratia-Perez, Ramiro [Universidad Andres Bello, Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    The use of molecular conjugates of quantum dots (nanocrystalline fluorophores) for biological purposes have received much attention due to their improved biological activity. However, relatively, little is known about the synthesis and application of aluminosilicate nanotubes decorated with quantum dots (QDs) for imaging and treatment of pathogenic bacteria. This paper describes for a first time, the use of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes (SWNT) (imogolite) as a one-dimensional template for the in situ growth of mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs. This new nanohybrid hydrogel was synthesized by a simple reaction pathway and their enhanced optical properties were monitored by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming that the use of these nanotubes favors the confinement effects of net CdTe QDs. In addition, studies of FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the non-covalent functionalization of SWNT. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of SWNT coated with CdTe QDs toward three opportunistic multi-resistant pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested. Growth inhibition tests were conducted by exposing growing bacteria to CdTe QDs/SWNT hybrid compound showing that the new nano-structured composite is a potential antimicrobial agent for heavy metal-resistant bacteria.

  2. Current Profile Measurements from Moderate to Strong Lower Hybrid Single-Pass Damping on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Wallace, G. M.; Scott, S. D.; Shiraiwa, S.; Faust, I.; Parker, R. R.

    2015-11-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to non-inductively drive up to 100% of the plasma current on Alcator C-Mod. Measurements with an upgraded MSE diagnostic show that the fast-electron current profile is broader than the Ohmic current profile but still located the plasma core in agreement with strongly centrally peaked fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) measurements. Scans in a regime of high current drive efficiency across a range of density, LHCD power, launched n||, and plasma current show the driven current profile, FEB profile shapes, and current drive efficiency are sensitive only to total plasma current. Simulations using ray-tracing Fokker Planck codes show that the rays make 1-3 bounces through the plasma edge to bridge the spectral gap. Although in agreement with the total current, the simulations qualitatively disagree with experiment regarding current and FEB profiles as well as sensitivity to power and density. Simulations at higher plasma temperature and current predict stronger single-pass damping and preliminary experiments show increased current drive efficiency. Experiments to determine if the profile discrepancies persist when the ray bounces play a reduced role are planned, including companion experiments in D and He resulting in different edge plasma conditions. This work was performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a DoE Office of Science user facility, and is supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Single-inclusive particle production in proton-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order in the hybrid formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Beuf, Guillaume; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the perturbative next-to-leading calculation of the single inclusive hadron production in the framework of the hybrid formalism, applied to hadron production in proton-nucleus collisions. Our analysis, performed in the wave function approach, differs from the previous works in three points. First, we are careful to specify unambiguously the rapidity interval that has to be included in the evolution of the leading-order eikonal scattering amplitude. This is important, since varying this interval by a number of order unity changes the next-to-leading order correction that the calculation is meant to determine. Second, we introduce the explicit requirement that fast fluctuations in the projectile wave function which only exist for a short time are not resolved by the target. This Ioffe time cutoff also strongly affects the next-to-leading order terms. Third, our result does not employ the approximation of a large number of colors. Our final expressions are unambiguous and do not coincide at next-to...

  4. Ultrahigh Carrier Mobility Achieved in Photoresponsive Hybrid Perovskite Films via Coupling with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2017-02-22

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have drawn substantial interest for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications due to their remarkable physical properties and low processing cost. However, perovskite thin films suffer from low carrier mobility as a result of their structural imperfections such as grain boundaries and pinholes, limiting their device performance and application potential. Here we demonstrate a simple and straightforward synthetic strategy based on coupling perovskite films with embedded single-walled carbon nanotubes. We are able to significantly enhance the hole and electron mobilities of the perovskite film to record-high values of 595.3 and 108.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , respectively. Such a synergistic effect can be harnessed to construct ambipolar phototransistors with an ultrahigh detectivity of 3.7 × 10(14) Jones and a responsivity of 1 × 10(4) A W(-1) , on a par with the best devices available to date. The perovskite/carbon nanotube hybrids should provide a platform that is highly desirable for fields as diverse as optoelectronics, solar energy conversion, and molecular sensing.

  5. Three-dimensional Aerographite-GaN hybrid networks: Single step fabrication of porous and mechanically flexible materials for multifunctional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Arnim; Braniste, Tudor; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Deng, Mao; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Raevschi, Simion; Schulte, Karl; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2015-03-01

    Three dimensional (3D) elastic hybrid networks built from interconnected nano- and microstructure building units, in the form of semiconducting-carbonaceous materials, are potential candidates for advanced technological applications. However, fabrication of these 3D hybrid networks by simple and versatile methods is a challenging task due to the involvement of complex and multiple synthesis processes. In this paper, we demonstrate the growth of Aerographite-GaN 3D hybrid networks using ultralight and extremely porous carbon based Aerographite material as templates by a single step hydride vapor phase epitaxy process. The GaN nano- and microstructures grow on the surface of Aerographite tubes and follow the network architecture of the Aerographite template without agglomeration. The synthesized 3D networks are integrated with the properties from both, i.e., nanoscale GaN structures and Aerographite in the form of flexible and semiconducting composites which could be exploited as next generation materials for electronic, photonic, and sensors applications.

  6. Prediction of Maize Single Cross Hybrids Using the Total Effects of Associated Markers Approach Assessed by Cross-Validation and Regional Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Mateus Costa Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to predict the performance of maize hybrids and assess whether the total effects of associated markers (TEAM method can correctly predict hybrids using cross-validation and regional trials. The training was performed in 7 locations of Southern Brazil during the 2010/11 harvest. The regional assays were conducted in 6 different South Brazilian locations during the 2011/12 harvest. In the training trial, 51 lines from different backgrounds were used to create 58 single cross hybrids. Seventy-nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype these 51 lines. In the cross-validation method the predictive accuracy ranged from 0.10 to 0.96, depending on the sample size. Furthermore, the accuracy was 0.30 when the values of hybrids that were not used in the training population (119 were predicted for the regional assays. Regarding selective loss, the TEAM method correctly predicted 50% of the hybrids selected in the regional assays. There was also loss in only 33% of cases; that is, only 33% of the materials predicted to be good in training trial were considered to be bad in regional assays. Our results show that the predictive validation of different crop conditions is possible, and the cross-validation results strikingly represented the field performance.

  7. Single-isocenter hybrid IMRT plans versus two-isocenter conventional plans and impact of intrafraction motion for the treatment of breast cancer with supraclavicular lymph nodes involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoush, Ahmad; Murray, Eric; Yu, Jennifer S; Xia, Ping

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to compare the single-isocenter, four-field hybrid IMRT with the two-isocenter techniques to treat the whole breast and supraclavicular fields and to investigate the intrafraction motions in both techniques in the superior direction. Fifteen breast cancer patients who underwent lumpectomy and adjuvant radiation to the whole breast and supraclavicular (SCV) fossa at our institution were selected for this study. Two planning techniques were compared for the treatment of the breast and SCV lymph nodes. The patients were divided into three subgroups according to the whole breast volume. For the two-isocenter technique, conventional wedged or field-within-a-field tangents (FIF) were used to match with the same anterior field for the SCV region. For the single-isocenter technique, four-field hybrid IMRT was used for the tangent fields matched with a half blocked anterior field for the SCV region. To simulate the intrafraction uncertainties in the longitudinal direction for both techniques, the treatment isocenters were shifted by 1 mm and 2 mm in the superior direction. The average breast clinical tumor volume (CTV) receiving 100% (V(100%)) of the prescription dose (50 Gy) was 99.3% ± 0.5% and 96.4% ± 1.2% for the for two-isocenter and single-isocenter plans (р 20 Gy (V(20Gy)) and the heart receiving > 30 Gy (V(30Gy)) were 13.6% vs. 14.3% (р = 0.03) and 1.25% vs. 1.2% (р = 0.62), respectively. Shifting the treatment isocenter by 1 mm and 2 mm superiorly showed that the average maximum dose to 1 cc of the breast volume was 55.5 ± 1.8 Gy and 58.6 ± 4.3 Gy in the two-isocentric technique vs. 56.4 ± 2.1 Gy and 59.1 ± 5.1 Gy in the single-isocentric technique (р = 0.46, 0.87), respectively. The single-isocenter technique using four-field hybrid IMRT approach resulted in comparable plan quality as the two-isocentric technique. The single-isocenter technique is more sensitive to intra-fraction motion in the superior direction compared to

  8. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second...

  9. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids: one-step catalytic growth and applications for high-rate Li-S batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhu, Wancheng; Wei, Fei

    2012-12-21

    The theoretically proposed graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube (G/SWCNT) hybrids by placing SWCNTs among graphene planes through covalent C-C bonding are expected to have extraordinary physical properties and promising engineering applications. However, the G/CNT hybrids that have been fabricated differ greatly from the proposed G/SWCNT hybrids because either the covalent C-C bonding is not well constructed or only multiwalled CNTs/carbon nanofibers rather than SWCNTs are available in the hybrids. Herein, a novel G/SWCNT hybrid was successfully fabricated by a facile catalytic growth on layered double hydroxide (LDH) at a high temperature over 950 °C. The thermally stable Fe nanoparticles and the uniform structure of the calcined LDH flakes are essential for the simultaneously catalytic deposition of SWCNTs and graphene. The SWCNTs and the CVD-grown graphene, as well as the robust connection between the SWCNTs and graphene, facilitated the construction of a high electrical conductive pathway. The internal spaces between the two stacked graphene layers and among SWCNTs offer room for sulfur storage. Therefore, the as obtained G/SWCNT-S cathode exhibited excellent performance in Li-S batteries with a capacity as high as 650 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles even at a high current rate of 5 C. Such a novel G/SWCNT hybrid can serve not only as a prototype to shed light on the chemical principle of G/CNT synthesis but also as a platform for their further applications in the area of nanocomposites, heterogeneous catalysis, drug delivery, electrochemical energy storage, and so on.

  10. No more time to stay 'single' in the detection of Anisakis pegreffii, A. simplex (s. s.) and hybridization events between them: a multi-marker nuclear genotyping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, S; Acerra, V; Paoletti, M; Cipriani, P; Levsen, A; Webb, S C; Canestrelli, D; Nascetti, G

    2016-07-01

    A multi-marker nuclear genotyping approach was performed on larval and adult specimens of Anisakis spp. (N = 689) collected from fish and cetaceans in allopatric and sympatric areas of the two species Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis simplex (s. s.), in order to: (1) identify specimens belonging to the parental taxa by using nuclear markers (allozymes loci) and sequence analysis of a new diagnostic nuclear DNA locus (i.e. partial sequence of the EF1 α-1 nDNA region) and (2) recognize hybrid categories. According to the Bayesian clustering algorithms, based on those markers, most of the individuals (N = 678) were identified as the parental species [i.e. A. pegreffii or A. simplex (s. s.)], whereas a smaller portion (N = 11) were recognized as F1 hybrids. Discordant results were obtained when using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) on the same specimens, which indicated the occurrence of a large number of 'hybrids' both in sympatry and allopatry. These findings raise the question of possible misidentification of specimens belonging to the two parental Anisakis and their hybrid categories derived from the application of that single marker (i.e. PCR-RFLPs analysis of the ITS of rDNA). Finally, Bayesian clustering, using allozymes and EF1 α-1 nDNA markers, has demonstrated that hybridization between A. pegreffii and A. simplex (s. s.) is a contemporary phenomenon in sympatric areas, while no introgressive hybridization takes place between the two species.

  11. Hybrid Powder - Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction Instrument for Planetary Mineralogical Analysis of Unprepared Samples Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a planetary exploration XRD/XRF instrument based on a hybrid diffraction approach that complements powder XRD analysis, similar to that of the...

  12. 大葱雄性不育三交种与单交种的优势比较%Comparison of Male Sterility Triple Hybrid and Single Cross Hybrid of Welsh Onion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永生; 崔连伟; 贾俊香; 周丹; 刘金涛; 吴振红

    2012-01-01

    To explore the application feasibility of triple hybrid of welsh onion, the triple hybrid 244-152A x 2000Y24-3S98 and the single cross hybrid Liaoeongerhao were used as the experimental materials, the hybrid seed yield per plant, thousand-seed weight, floret number per plant of female parent, plant height, stem length, stem diameter, single plant weight, disease resistance and yield were compared were determined. The results showed that the hybrid seed yield per plant, thousand-seed weight and floret number per plant of female parent of 244- 152A x 2000Y24-3S98 were significantly higher than those of Liaocongerhao, while other botanical characters had no significant difference. The triple hybrid had seed yield advantage, which could be applied in production.%为探索大葱三交种应用的可行性,以大葱三交种品种244-152A×2000Y24-3S98、单交种品种辽葱二号为试验材料,将三交种与单交种在单株制种产量、种子千粒重和母本单株小花数、株高、假茎长、茎粗、单株重、抗病性和丰产性等方面进行了比较。结果表明:大葱三交种244-152A×2000Y24-3S98在单株制种产量、种子千粒重和母本单株小花数3个方面显著〉单交种辽葱二号,其他植物学性状与单交种无显著差异。大葱三交种较单交种具有制种产量优势,可应用于生产实践。

  13. A hybrid method for predicting the microstructure of polymers with complex architecture: combination of single-chain simulation with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dapeng; Jiang, Tao; Wu, Jianzhong

    2006-04-28

    A hybrid method is proposed to investigate the microstructure of various polymeric fluids confined between two parallel surfaces. The hybrid method combines a single-chain Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for the ideal-gas part of the Helmholtz energy and a density functional theory (DFT) for the excess part that arises from nonbonded intersegment interactions. The latter consists of a modified fundamental measure theory for excluded-volume effect, the first-order thermodynamics perturbation theory for chain connectivity, and a mean-field approximation for the van der Waals attraction. In comparison with a conventional DFT, the hybrid method avoids calculation of the time-consuming recursive functions and is directly applicable to polymers with arbitrary molecular architecture. Its numerical performance has been validated by extensive comparisons with MC data for the density distributions of totally flexible, semiflexible, or rigid polymers and those with starlike architecture. Special attention is also given to the formation of a nematic monolayer by rigid molecules laying perpendicular to a planar surface. The hybrid method predicts the surface pressure versus surface coverage in good agreement with experiment.

  14. A hybrid microbial fuel cell stack based on single and double chamber microbial fuel cells for self-sustaining pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Li, Jun; Ye, Dingding; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Proton accumulation in the anode chamber is the major problem that affects the operational stability and electricity generation performance of double chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this study, a hybrid microbial fuel cell stack (DS-DS stack) based on single (SCMFCs) and double chamber MFCs (DCMFCs) is proposed for self-sustaining pH control in the MFC stack. It is found that the aerobic microbial oxidation of acetate by the biofilm that is attached to the air cathode of SCMFCs is responsible for the self-sustaining removal of accumulated H+ in the effluent of DCMFCs. Compared with the stack that solely consists of SCMFCs (SS-SS stack) or DCMFCs (DD-DD stack), the hybrid stack exhibits the highest electricity output performance and the most effective conversion of acetate into electricity at high power levels. Furthermore, the hybrid stack demonstrates the operation time of 15.7 ± 1.1 h when the operating voltage is above 0.8 V. This value is much higher than that of the DD-DD (8.5 ± 2.4 h) and SS-SS (8.1 ± 1.4 h) stacks, which suggests that the hybrid stack had a good operational stability.

  15. Enhanced phenol degradation by Pseudomonas sp. SA01: Gaining insight into the novel single and hybrid immobilizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollaei, Monir [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahpour, Saeeide [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atashgahi, Siavash; Abbasi, Habib; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Rad, Iman [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfi, Abbas Sahebghadam [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahiri, Hossein Shahbani [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vali, Hojatollah [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari, E-mail: Akbari@nigeb.ac.ir [National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, Pseudomonas sp. SA01 cells were immobilized in a series of singular and hybrid immobilization techniques to achieve enhanced phenol removal. The singular immobilization strategies consisted of various concentrations of alginate (2-4%) and pectin (3-5%), while the hybrid strategies incorporated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate and glycerol-alginate beads and alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) capsules. Immobilization protected cells against phenol and resulted in remarkable reduction (65%) in degradation time by cells immobilized in either alginate (3%) beads, in a hybrid PVA-alginate beads, or in ACA capsules compared to freely suspended cells. Cells immobilized in PVA-alginate and ACA provided the best performance in experiments using elevated phenol concentrations, up to 2000 mg/L, with complete degradation of 2000 mg/L phenol after 100 and 110 h, respectively. Electron microscopy examination indicated that cell loading capacity was increased in PVA-alginate hybrid beads through reduced cell leakage, resulting in higher activity of PVA-alginate hybrid beads compared to all other immobilization methods.

  16. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China.

  17. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  18. A compact seven switches topology and reduced DC-link capacitor size for single-phase stand-alone PV system with hybrid energy storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Single-phase stand-alone PV system is suitable for household applications in remote area. Hybrid battery/ultra-capacitor energy storage can reduce charge and discharge cycles and avoid deep discharges of battery. This paper proposes a compact seven switches structure for stand-alone PV system......, which otherwise needs nine switches configuration, inclusive of one switch for boost converter, four switches for single-phase inverter and four switches for two DC/DC converters of battery and ultra-capacitor. It is well-known that a bulky DC-link capacitor is always required to absorb second......-order harmonic current caused by single-phase inverter. In the proposed compact topology, a small size DC-link capacitor can achieve the same function through charging/discharging control of ultra-capacitor to mitigate second-order ripple current. Simulation results are provided to validate the effectiveness...

  19. Single-step direct fabrication of pillar-on-pore hybrid nanostructures in anodizing aluminum for superior superhydrophobic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Conventional electrochemical anodizing processes of metals such as aluminum typically produce planar and homogeneous nanopore structures. If hydrophobically treated, such 2D planar and interconnected pore structures typically result in lower contact angle and larger contact angle hysteresis than 3D disconnected pillar structures and, hence, exhibit inferior superhydrophobic efficiency. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the anodizing parameters can be engineered to design novel pillar-on-pore (POP) hybrid nanostructures directly in a simple one-step fabrication process so that superior surface superhydrophobicity can also be realized effectively from the electrochemical anodization process. On the basis of the characteristic of forming a self-ordered porous morphology in a hexagonal array, the modulation of anodizing voltage and duration enabled the formulation of the hybrid-type nanostructures having controlled pillar morphology on top of a porous layer in both mild and hard anodization modes. The hybrid nanostructures of the anodized metal oxide layer initially enhanced the surface hydrophilicity significantly (i.e., superhydrophilic). However, after a hydrophobic monolayer coating, such hybrid nanostructures then showed superior superhydrophobic nonwetting properties not attainable by the plain nanoporous surfaces produced by conventional anodization conditions. The well-regulated anodization process suggests that electrochemical anodizing can expand its usefulness and efficacy to render various metallic substrates with great superhydrophilicity or -hydrophobicity by directly realizing pillar-like structures on top of a self-ordered nanoporous array through a simple one-step fabrication procedure.

  20. Fabrication, Metrology, and Transport Characteristics of Single Polymeric Nanopores in Three-Dimensional Hybrid Microfluidic/Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Travis L.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofluidic elements between microfluidic channels to form hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic architectures allows the extension of microfluidic systems into the third dimension, thus removing the constraints imposed by planarity. Measuring and understanding the behavior of these devices creates new analytical challenges due to…

  1. Crystallographic Investigations into Properties of Acentric Hybrid Perovskite Single Crystals NH(CH3)3SnX3(X = Cl, Br)

    KAUST Repository

    Dang, Yangyang

    2016-10-11

    The hybrid perovskites with special optoelectronic properties have attracted more attention to the scientific and industrial applications. However, because of the toxicity and instability of lead complexes, there is interest in finding a nontoxic substitute for the lead in the halides perovskites and solving the ambiguous crystal structures and phase transition of NH(CH3)3SnX3 (X = Cl, Br). Here, we report the bulk crystal growths and different crystal morphologies of orthorhombic hybrid perovskites NH(CH3)3SnX3 (X = Cl, Br) in an ambient atmosphere by bottom-seeded solution growth (BSSG) method. More importantly, detailed structural determination and refinements, phase transition, band gap, band structure calculations, nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, XPS, thermal properties, and stability of NH(CH3)3SnX3 (X = Cl, Br) single crystals are demonstrated. NH(CH3)3SnCl3 single crystal undergoes reversible structural transformation from orthorhombic space group Cmc21 (no. 36) to monoclinic space group Cc (no. 9) and NH(CH3)3SnBr3 belongs to the orthorhombic space group Pna21 (no. 33) by DSC, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent SHG measurements, which clarify the former results. These results should pave the way for further studies of these materials in optoelectronics.

  2. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buton, C., E-mail: clement.buton@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dawiec, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Bérar, J.F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Clémens, J.C.; Debarbieux, F. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Gastaldi, T. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Hustache, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Morel, C.; Pangaud, P. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Perez-Ponce, H. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Vigeolas, E. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France)

    2014-09-11

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and {sup 241}Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  3. New developments of scintillating crystal-based hybrid single photon detectors (X-HPDs) for charged particle and neutrino detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Samarai, I.; Busto, J.; Hallewell, G. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, F-13288 Marseille (France); KM3NeT Consortium (France); Combettes, B.; Dehaine, A. G. [Photonis S.A.S. Avenue Roger Roncier, F-19106 Brive la Gaillarde (France)

    2009-07-01

    Scintillating crystal-based hybrid photon detectors have been demonstrated as viable single photon detectors since 1996 in the Lake Baikal neutrino telescope. Prior to this, the Philips XP2600 was developed under the DUMAND program, while more recently, developments at CERN have demonstrated the advantages of a true concentric geometry with a scintillator at the geometric centre of a spherical photocathode, giving almost 100% electrostatic collection efficiency over 3{pi} solid angle coverage. We began the development of a new series of quasi-spherical crystal hybrid photon detectors (the Photonis XP2608 series) for use in the future KM3NeT cubic kilometer-scale deep sea neutrino telescope. The thrust of this research was to investigate the industrialization of the crystal hybrid photon detector to the point where it would represent a significant cost reduction per cubic kilometer of instrumented volume compared to conventional large photomultipliers, thereby allowing extremely large telescope target volumes. Such gains would arise through an all-glass envelope, 'internal' processing of the photocathode, and from the use of an inexpensive scintillating crystal or deposited phosphor viewed by a small photomultiplier. Details of these developments are presented. (authors)

  4. Bionano donor-acceptor hybrids of porphyrin, ssDNA, and semiconductive single-wall carbon nanotubes for electron transfer via porphyrin excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; Das, Sushanta K; Zandler, Melvin E; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Ito, Osamu

    2011-12-14

    Photoinduced electron transfer in self-assemblies of porphyrins ion-paired with ssDNA wrapped around single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has been reported. To accomplish the three-component hybrids, two kinds of diameter-sorted semiconducting SWCNT(n,m)s of different diameter ((n,m) = (6,5) and (7,6)) and free-base or zinc porphyrin bearing peripheral positive charges ((TMPyP(+))M (tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin); M = Zn and H(2)) serving as light-absorbing photoactive materials are utilized. The donor-acceptor hybrids are held by ion-pairing between the negatively charged phosphate groups of ssDNA on the surface of the SWCNT and the positively charged at the ring periphery porphyrin macrocycle. The newly assembled bionano donor-acceptor hybrids have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopic methods. Photoinduced electron transfer from the excited singlet porphyrin to the SWCNTs directly and/or via ssDNA as an electron mediator has been established by performing systematic studies involving the steady-state and time-resolved emission as well as the transient absorption studies. Higher charge-separation efficiency has been successfully demonstrated by the selection of the appropriate semiconductive SWCNTs with the right band gap, in addition to the aid of ssDNA as the electron mediator. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Hybrid metabolic flux analysis and recombinant protein prediction in Pichia pastoris X-33 cultures expressing a single-chain antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Inês A; Portela, Rui M; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Despite the growing importance of the Pichia pastoris expression system as industrial workhorse, the literature is almost absent in systematic studies on how culture medium composition affects central carbon fluxes and heterologous protein expression. In this study we investigate how 26 variations of the BSM+PTM1 medium impact central carbon fluxes and protein expression in a P. pastoris X-33 strain expressing a single-chain antibody fragment. To achieve this goal, we adopted a hybrid metabolic flux analysis (MFA) methodology, which is a modification of standard MFA to predict the rate of synthesis of recombinant proteins. Hybrid MFA combines the traditional parametric estimation of central carbon fluxes with non-parametric statistical modeling of product-related quantitative or qualitative measurements as a function of central carbon fluxes. It was observed that protein yield variability was 53.6 % (relative standard deviation) among the different experiments. Protein yield is much more sensitive to medium composition than biomass growth, which is mainly determined by the carbon source availability and main salts. Hybrid MFA was able to describe accurately the protein yield with normalized RMSE of 6.3 % over 5 independent experiments. The metabolic state that promotes high protein yields is characterized by high overall metabolic rates through main central carbon pathways concomitantly with a relative shift of carbon flux from biosynthetic towards energy generating pathways.

  6. pH-Sensitive photoinduced energy transfer from bacteriorhodopsin to single-walled carbon nanotubes in SWNT-bR hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadj, Karim; Bertoncini, Patricia; Chauvet, Olivier

    2013-10-22

    Energy transfer mechanisms in noncovalently bound bacteriorhodopsin/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrids are investigated using optical absorption and photoluminescence excitation measurements. The morphology of the hybrids was investigated by atomic force microscopy. In this study, proteins are immobilized onto the sidewall of the carbon nanotubes using a sodium cholate suspension-dialysis method that maintains the intrinsic optical and fluorescence properties of both molecules. The hybrids are stable in aqueous solutions for pH ranging from 4.2 to 9 and exhibit photoluminescence properties that are pH-dependent. The study reveals that energy transfer from bacteriorhodopsin to carbon nanotubes takes place. So, at pH higher than 5 and up to 9, the SWNTs absorb the photons emitted by the aromatic residues of the protein, inducing a strong increase in intensity of the E11 emissions of SWNTs through their E33 and E44 excitations. From pH = 4.2 to pH = 5, the protein fluorescence is strongly quenched whatever the emission wavelengths, while additional fluorescence features appear at excitation wavelengths ranging from 660 to 680 nm and at 330 nm. The presence of these features is attributed to a resonance energy transfer mechanism that has an efficiency of 0.94 ± 0.02. More, by increasing the pH of the dispersion, the fluorescence characteristics become those observed at higher pH values and vice versa.

  7. Identification of the specificity of isolated phage display single-chain antibodies using yeast two-hybrid screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nicolaj; Ditzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    A method is described for the identification of the antigen recognised by an scFv isolated from an antibody phage display library using selection against a complex mixture of proteins (e.g. intact cells, purified cell surface membranes, and tissue sections). The method takes advantage of a yeast ...... two-hybrid system that additionally allows for reorganization of post-translational modifications to the bait and target proteins. This technique is therefore especially useful for identifying surface-expressed antigens....

  8. Lung tattooing combined with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) as a single procedure in a hybrid room: our institutional experience in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanam, Surendra; Gerstle, Ted; Amaral, Joao; John, Philip; Parra, Dimitri; Temple, Michael; Connolly, Bairbre

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of small pulmonary nodules in children poses an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. To review our experience of lung tattooing with immediate video-assisted thoracoscopic resection (IVATR) performed as a single procedure in a hybrid room for technical difficulties, complications and diagnostic yield of the procedure. Retrospective analysis of 31 children (16 boys, 15 girls) who underwent lung tattooing of various lesions from January 2001 to July 2011. Data were collected from the Interventional Radiology database, Electronic Patient Chart (EPC) and PACS. A total of 34 lesions were treated in 31 children. Tattooing was performed on lung lesions with median size 3 mm and median depth 2 mm from pleura. Technical success was 91.1% and diagnostic yield was 100%. In seven children, it was combined with other interventional radiologic procedures. The median procedure time for lung tattooing and IVATR was 197 min. Lung tattooing with IVATR as a single procedure in a hybrid room is safe and effective in children with several inherent advantages, including avoiding the need to move the child from the interventional radiology suite to the operating room.

  9. Comprehensive meiotic segregation analysis of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) complex chromosome rearrangement using single sperm array comparative genomic hybridization and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Miroslav; Vozdova, Miluse; Musilova, Petra; Prinosilova, Petra; Oracova, Eva; Linkova, Vlasta; Vesela, Katerina; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-10-01

    Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) represent rare structural chromosome abnormalities frequently associated with infertility. In this study, meiotic segregation in spermatozoa of an infertile normospermic carrier of a 4-breakpoint t(1;3;6) CCR was analysed. A newly developed array comparative genomic hybridization protocol was used, and all chromosomes in 50 single sperm cells were simultaneously examined. Three-colour FISH was used to analyse chromosome segregation in 1557 other single sperm cells. It was also used to measure an interchromosomal effect; sperm chromatin structure assay was used to measure chromatin integrity. A high-frequency of unbalanced spermatozoa (84%) was observed, mostly arising from the 3:3 symmetrical segregation mode. Array comparative genomic hybridization was used to detect additional aneuploidies in two out of 50 spermatozoa (4%) in chromosomes not involved in the complex chromosome rearrangement. Significantly increased rates of diploidy and XY disomy were found in the CCR carrier compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Defective condensation of sperm chromatin was also found in 22.7% of spermatozoa by sperm chromatin structure assay. The results indicate that the infertility in the man with CCR and normal spermatozoa was caused by a production of chromosomally unbalanced, XY disomic and diploid spermatozoa and spermatozoa with defective chromatin condensation.

  10. Charge-transfer pipi* excited state in the 7-azaindole dimer. A hybrid configuration interactions singles/time-dependent density functional theory description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert, Ricard; Moreno, Miquel; Lluch, José M

    2006-01-26

    The hybrid configuration interaction singles/time dependent density functional theory approach of Dreuw and Head-Gordon [Dreuw, A.; Head-Gordon, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 4007] has been applied to study the potential energy landscape and accessibility of the charge-transfer pipi* excited state in the dimer of 7-azaindole, which has been traditionally considered a model for DNA base pairing. It is found that the charge-transfer pipi* excited state preferentially stabilizes the product of a single proton transfer. In this situation, the crossing between this state and the photoactive electronic state of the dimer is accessible. It is found that the charge-transfer pipi* excited state has a very steep potential energy profile with respect to any single proton-transfer coordinate and, in contrast, an extremely flat potential energy profile with respect to the stretch of the single proton-transfer complex. This is predicted to bring about a pair of rare fragments of the 7-azaindole dimer, physically separated and hence having very long lifetimes. This could have implications in the DNA base pairs of which the system is an analogue, in the form of replication errors.

  11. Cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid non-woven macrofiber mats as novel wearable supercapacitors with excellent stability, tailorability and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingyuan; Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang

    2014-03-01

    Non-woven macrofiber mats are prepared by simply controlling the extrusion patterns of cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions in an ethanol coagulation bath, and drying in air under restricted conditions. These novel wearable supercapacitors based on non-woven macrofiber mats are demonstrated to have excellent tailorability, electrochemical stability, and damage reliability.Non-woven macrofiber mats are prepared by simply controlling the extrusion patterns of cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions in an ethanol coagulation bath, and drying in air under restricted conditions. These novel wearable supercapacitors based on non-woven macrofiber mats are demonstrated to have excellent tailorability, electrochemical stability, and damage reliability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental, TEM image, IR spectra, and XRD spectra of cellulose nanofibers, photograph of the cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube suspension, cellulose nanofiber/single-walled carbon nanotube non-woven macrofiber mat and non-woven macrofiber mat wearable supercapacitors. The electrochemical performance of the CNF/SWCNT hybrid fiber wearable supercapacitor. Photograph of the non-woven macrofiber mat wearable supercapacitors integrated within textiles. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05929d

  12. Genes with Restricted Introgression in a Field Cricket (Gryllus firmus/Gryllus pennsylvanicus) Hybrid Zone Are Concentrated on the X Chromosome and a Single Autosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroja, Luana S; Larson, Erica L; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-08-26

    Characterizing the extent of genomic differentiation between recently diverged lineages provides an important context for understanding the early stages of speciation. When such lineages form discrete hybrid zones, patterns of differential introgression allow direct estimates of which genome regions are likely involved in speciation and local adaptation. Here we use a backcross experimental design to construct a genetic linkage map for the field crickets Gryllus firmus and Gryllus pennsylvanicus, which interact in a well-characterized hybrid zone in eastern North America. We demonstrate that loci with major allele frequency differences between allopatric populations are not randomly distributed across the genome. Instead, most are either X-linked or map to a few small autosomal regions. Furthermore, the subset of those highly differentiated markers that exhibit restricted introgression across the cricket hybrid zone are also concentrated on the X chromosome (39 of 50 loci) and in a single 7-cM region of one autosome. Although the accumulation on the sex chromosome of genes responsible for postzygotic barriers is a well-known phenomenon, less attention has been given to the genomic distribution of genes responsible for prezygotic barriers. We discuss the implications of our results for speciation, both in the context of the role of sex chromosomes and also with respect to the likely causes of heterogeneous genomic divergence. Although we do not yet have direct evidence for the accumulation of ecological, behavioral, or fertilization prezygotic barrier genes on the X chromosome, faster-X evolution could make these barriers more likely to be X-linked.

  13. Karyotyping and single-gene detection using fluorescence in situ hybridization on chromosomes of Hydra magnipapillata (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anokhin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fresh water polyp Hydra L., 1758 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa plays a key role as a model organism in modern evolutionary and developmental biology. A complete genome sequence has been published recently for Hydra magnipapillata Ito, 1947 and molecular data are rapidly accumulating in the literature, but little information is available on its chromosomes. In this study, an efficient fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH method is described for H. magnipapillata which not only allows identification of the chromosomes but also visualization of the location of individual genetic loci. Together with cDNA and genomic sequencing this may provide the foundation for increasingly precise genetic and physical mapping in this basal metazoan model organism.

  14. Localization of cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA using ribonucleotide probes: methods for double- and single-label in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Andrea G

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents a reliable, detailed method for performing double-label in situ hybridization (ISH) that has been validated for use in studies identifying the co-localization of cannabinoid CB1 receptor mRNA with other distinct species of mRNAs. This method permits simultaneous detection of two different species of mRNA within the same tissue section. Double-label ISH may be accomplished by hybridizing tissue sections with a combination of radiolabeled and digoxigenin-labeled RNA probes that are complementary to their target mRNAs. Single-label ISH may be accomplished by following the procedures described for use with radioisotopic probes (here [35S]-labeled) only. Silver grains derived from conventional emulsion autoradiography are used to detect the radiolabeled cRNA probe. An alkaline phosphatase-dependent chromogen reaction product is used to detect the nonisotopic (here, digoxigenin-labeled) cRNA probe. Necessary controls that are required to document the specificity of the labeling of the digoxigenin and radiolabeled probes are described. The methods detailed herein may be employed to detect even low levels of a target mRNA. These methods may be utilized to study co-localization and coregulation of expression of a particular gene within identified neurons in multiple systems.

  15. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuan-Yuan Xu; Rui-Hongwan-Yan; Zai-Yun Li

    2007-12-01

    Many novel lines were established from an intergeneric mixoploid between Brassica rapa ($2n = 20$) and Orychophragmus violaceus ($2n = 24$) through successive selections for fertility and viability. Pedigrees of individual F2 plants were advanced to the 10th generation by selfing. Their breeding habit was self-compatible and different from the self-incompatibility of their female parent B. rapa, and these lines were reproductively isolated to different degrees from B. rapa and B. napus. The lines with high productivity showed not only a wide spectrum of phenotypes but also obvious variations in fatty acid profiles of seed oil and glucosinolate contents in seed meal. These lines had $2n = 36$, 37, 38, 39 and 40, with $2n = 38$ being most frequent (64.56%), and no intact O. violaceus chromosomes were detected by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses revealed a high extent of variation in genomic compositions across all the lines. O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in B. rapa and novel bands for two parents were detected in these lines, with novel bands being the most frequent. The morphological and genetic divergence of these novel types derived from a single hybrid is probably due to rapid chromosomal evolution and introgression, and provides new genetic resources for rapeseed breeding.

  16. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL than with dairy wastewater (248 mL. Besides H2 production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56% than in dairy wastewater (45%. Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H2 production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS. This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  17. Photodiodes based in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/single layer MoS2 hybrid vertical heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yue; Frisenda, Riccardo; Svatek, Simon A.; Orfila, Gloria; Gallego, Fernando; Gant, Patricia; Agraït, Nicolás; Leon, Carlos; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto; Pérez De Lara, David; Santamaria, Jacobo; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-09-01

    The fabrication of artificial materials by stacking of individual two-dimensional (2D) materials is amongst one of the most promising research avenues in the field of 2D materials. Moreover, this strategy to fabricate new man-made materials can be further extended by fabricating hybrid stacks between 2D materials and other functional materials with different dimensionality making the potential number of combinations almost infinite. Among all these possible combinations, mixing 2D materials with transition metal oxides can result especially useful because of the large amount of interesting physical phenomena displayed separately by these two material families. We present a hybrid device based on the stacking of a single layer MoS2 onto a lanthanum strontium manganite (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3) thin film, creating an atomically thin device. It shows a rectifying electrical transport with a ratio of 103, and a photovoltaic effect with V oc up to 0.4 V. The photodiode behaviour arises as a consequence of the different doping character of these two materials. This result paves the way towards combining the efforts of these two large materials science communities.

  18. Single-Stage Operation of Hybrid Dark-Photo Fermentation to Enhance Biohydrogen Production through Regulation of System Redox Condition: Evaluation with Real-Field Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Nikhil, G N; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-28

    Harnessing hydrogen competently through wastewater treatment using a particular class of biocatalyst is indeed a challenging issue. Therefore, biohydrogen potential of real-field wastewater was evaluated by hybrid fermentative process in a single-stage process. The cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) was observed to be higher with distillery wastewater (271 mL) than with dairy wastewater (248 mL). Besides H₂ production, the hybrid process was found to be effective in wastewater treatment. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was found higher in distillery wastewater (56%) than in dairy wastewater (45%). Co-culturing photo-bacterial flora assisted in removal of volatile fatty acids (VFA) wherein 63% in distillery wastewater and 68% in case of dairy wastewater. Voltammograms illustrated dominant reduction current and low cathodic Tafel slopes supported H₂ production. Overall, the augmented dark-photo fermentation system (ADPFS) showed better performance than the control dark fermentation system (DFS). This kind of holistic approach is explicitly viable for practical scale-up operation.

  19. Split-probe hybrid femtosecond/picosecond rotational CARS for time-domain measurement of S-branch Raman linewidths within a single laser shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brian D; Gao, Yi; Seeger, Thomas; Kliewer, Christopher J

    2013-11-15

    We introduce a multiplex technique for the single-laser-shot determination of S-branch Raman linewidths with high accuracy and precision by implementing hybrid femtosecond (fs)/picosecond (ps) rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) with multiple spatially and temporally separated probe beams derived from a single laser pulse. The probe beams scatter from the rotational coherence driven by the fs pump and Stokes pulses at four different probe pulse delay times spanning 360 ps, thereby mapping collisional coherence dephasing in time for the populated rotational levels. The probe beams scatter at different folded BOXCARS angles, yielding spatially separated CARS signals which are collected simultaneously on the charge coupled device camera. The technique yields a single-shot standard deviation (1σ) of less than 3.5% in the determination of Raman linewidths and the average linewidth values obtained for N(2) are within 1% of those previously reported. The presented technique opens the possibility for correcting CARS spectra for time-varying collisional environments in operando.

  20. Knee-Extension Training with a Single-Joint Hybrid Assistive Limb during the Early Postoperative Period after Total Knee Arthroplasty in a Patient with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Hisashi; Kubota, Shigeki; Onishi, Mio; Kanamori, Akihiro; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The knee range of motion is an important outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to previous studies, the knee range of motion temporarily decreases for approximately 1 month after TKA due to postoperative pain and quadriceps dysfunction following surgical invasion into the knee extensor mechanism. We describe our experience with a knee-extension training program based on a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ, Cyberdyne Inc., Tsukuba, Japan) during the acute recovery phase after TKA. HAL-SJ is a wearable robot suit that facilitates the voluntary control of knee joint motion. A 76-year-old man underwent HAL-SJ-based knee-extension training, which enabled him to perform knee function training during the acute phase after TKA without causing increased pain. Thus, he regained the ability to fully extend his knee postoperatively. HAL-SJ-based knee-extension training can be used as a novel post-TKA rehabilitation modality.

  1. An incidentally found inflamed uterine myoma Causing low abdominal pain, using TC-99m-tektrotyd single photon emission computed tomography-CT hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandieh, Shahin; Schuetz, Matthias; Bernt, Reinhard; Zwerina, Jochen; Haller, Joerg [Hanusch-Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    We report the case of a 50-year-old woman presented with a history of right hemicolectomy due to an ileocecal neuroendocrine tumor and left breast metastasis. Owing to a slightly elevated chromogranin A-level and lower abdominal pain, single photon emission computed tomography-computer tomography (SPECT-CT) was performed. There were no signs of recurrence on the SPECT-CT scan, but the patient was incidentally found to have an inflamed intramural myoma. We believe that the slightly elevated chromogranin A-level was caused by the hypertension that the patient presented. In the clinical context, this is a report of an inflamed uterine myoma seen as a false positive result detected by TC-99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide (Tektrotyd) SPECT-CT hybrid imaging.

  2. A Polypeptide-DNA Hybrid with Selective Linking Capability Applied to Single Molecule Nano-Mechanical Measurements Using Optical Tweezers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moayed, F.; Mashaghi, A.; Tans, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many applications in biosensing, biomaterial engineering and single molecule biophysics require multiple non-covalent linkages between DNA, protein molecules, and surfaces that are specific yet strong. Here, we present a novel method to join proteins and dsDNA molecule at their ends, in an efficient

  3. Host-guest interactions in azafullerene (C59N)-single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) peapod hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Liu, Zheng; Suenaga, Kazu; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iijima, Sumio; Rotas, Georgios; Tagmatarchis, Nikos

    2010-02-28

    The effect of azafullerene encapsulation on the electronic states of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is investigated; UV-vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy shows that the interaction between SWCNTs and the encapsulated azafullerenes is originated from the weak intermolecular forces, which suggests a lack of strong doping effect such as electron transfer between them.

  4. Hybrid I-f starting and observer-based Ssnsorless control of single-phase BLDC-PM motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepure, Liviu Ioan; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    A motion sensorless control for single-phase permanent magnet brushless dc motor based on an I-f starting sequence and a real-time permanent magnet flux estimation is proposed here. The special calculation for extracting the position and speed used here implies the generating of an orthogonal flux...

  5. Hybrid three-dimensional and support vector machine approach for automatic vehicle tracking and classification using a single camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachach, Redouane; Cañas, José María

    2016-05-01

    Using video in traffic monitoring is one of the most active research domains in the computer vision community. TrafficMonitor, a system that employs a hybrid approach for automatic vehicle tracking and classification on highways using a simple stationary calibrated camera, is presented. The proposed system consists of three modules: vehicle detection, vehicle tracking, and vehicle classification. Moving vehicles are detected by an enhanced Gaussian mixture model background estimation algorithm. The design includes a technique to resolve the occlusion problem by using a combination of two-dimensional proximity tracking algorithm and the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracking algorithm. The last module classifies the shapes identified into five vehicle categories: motorcycle, car, van, bus, and truck by using three-dimensional templates and an algorithm based on histogram of oriented gradients and the support vector machine classifier. Several experiments have been performed using both real and simulated traffic in order to validate the system. The experiments were conducted on GRAM-RTM dataset and a proper real video dataset which is made publicly available as part of this work.

  6. Generation of intracellular single-chain antibodies directed against polypeptide GalNAc-transferase using a yeast two-hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Koyota, Souichi; Myoen, Yu; Yamashita, Tetsuro; Yatabe, Naoki; Koizumi, Yukio; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Nishimichi, Norihisa; Matsuda, Haruo; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2012-02-24

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large number of UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-T). Although extensive in vitro studies using synthetic peptides as substrates suggest that most GalNAc-Ts exhibit overlapping substrate specificities, many studies have shown that individual GalNAc-Ts play an important role in both animals and humans. Further investigations of the functions of individual GalNAc-Ts including in vivo substrate proteins and O-glycosylation sites are necessary. In this study, we attempted to generate single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies to bind to GalNAc-T1, T2, T3, and T4 using a yeast two-hybrid system for screening a naive chicken scFv library. Several different scFvs were isolated against a single target GalNAc-T isoform specifically under expressed in yeast and were confirmed to be expressed in mammalian cells and to retain binding activity inside the cells. Generation of these specific antibodies provides an opportunity to modify and exploit antibodies for specific applications in investigations of GalNAc-T functions.

  7. Detailed optical spectroscopy of hybridization gap and hidden-order transition in high-quality URu2Si2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, N.; Stricker, D.; Muleady, S.; Wang, K.; Mydosh, J. A.; Huang, Y. K.; van der Marel, D.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed temperature and frequency dependence of the optical conductivity measured on clean high-quality single crystals of URu2Si2 of a c - and a b -plane surfaces. Our data demonstrate the itinerant character of the narrow 5 f bands, becoming progressively coherent as the temperature is lowered below a crossover temperature T*˜75 K. T* is higher than in previous reports as a result of a different sample preparation, which minimizes residual strain. We furthermore present the density-response (energy-loss) function of this compound, and determine the energies of the heavy-fermion plasmons with a - and c -axis polarization. Our observation of a suppression of optical conductivity below 50 meV along both the a and c axes, along with a heavy-fermion plasmon at 18 meV, points toward the emergence of a band of coherent charge carriers crossing the Fermi energy and the emergence of a hybridization gap on part of the Fermi surface. The evolution towards coherent itinerant states is accelerated below the hidden order temperature THO=17.5 K. In the hidden order phase the low-frequency optical conductivity shows a single gap at ˜6.5 meV, which closes at THO.

  8. Single Component Lanthanide Hybrids Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Near-Ultraviolet White Light LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Wu; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2016-09-14

    Near-UV single-phase white-light phosphor (Eu0.045Tb0.955CPOMBA/La0.6Eu0.1Tb0.3CPOMBA) based on metal-organic framework was prepared by in situ doping isostructural lanthanide MOF with Eu(3+) and Tb(3+), and it is found that the energy can effectively transfer from organic ligand to lanthanides, which can overcome weak absorption under direct excitation of lanthanide ions due to the forbidden f-f transitions. The photoluminescence and thermostability of the new MOF phosphor are investigated, and effective white-light emission is achieved under 365 and 380 nm excitations. By employing Eu0.045Tb0.955CPOMBA as phosphor, we fabricated a near-ultraviolet white-light-emitting diode (n-UV WLED) (365 nm) with low CCT (5733 K), high CRI (Ra = 73.4), and CIE chromaticity coordinate (0.3264, 0.3427). This approach may open new perspectives for developing single-phase UV phosphors.

  9. The effect of intraoperative hypotension on the outcomes of initial hybrid palliation for single ventricle congenital heart disease: an historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, James; Gertler, Ralph; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian; Holtby, Helen; Caldarone, Christopher A; Taylor, Katherine

    2013-05-01

    The "hybrid procedure" is an alternative surgical palliation strategy for single ventricle congenital heart disease. The purported benefit is improved cognitive ability secondary to avoidance of cardiopulmonary bypass in the neonatal period when neuronal apoptosis is greater. It is unknown whether survival is improved after this procedure. Intraoperative hypotension is common in these patients, and we hypothesized that this hypotension was associated with mortality or morbidity. We reviewed the records of 58/58 patients undergoing a first-stage hybrid procedure from 2004 to 2010 in a tertiary pediatric academic centre. Risk factors for poor outcome and the association between intraoperative hypotension and morbidity or mortality were investigated. Average preoperative arterial blood pressure (ABP) [systolic/diastolic presented as mean (standard deviation)] were 68 (12.7) / 38 (9.4) mmHg. Post-induction ABP was 65 (15.2) / 37 (8.6) mmHg. The average intraoperative nadir of ABP was 45 (7.0) / 26 (4.8) mmHg. On return to the intensive care unit (ICU), the average ABP was 69 (13.7) / 38 (11.6) mmHg. The nadir lasted longer than ten minutes in 32/58 patients. The mortality at 48 hr, 60 days, and 12 months was 3/58 (5%), 10/58 (17%), and 15/58 (26%), respectively. Six patients returned to the ICU on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). There was a weak statistical correlation between the average mean and diastolic BP pre-induction and changes of > 20% in systolic and diastolic BP during the case. In this patient cohort, we can show an association between short periods of intraoperative hypotension and mortality or return to the ICU on ECMO, but the importance of this is not certain.

  10. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex genetic alterations in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenter Gemma G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma develops as a result of multiple genetic alterations. Different studies investigated genomic alterations in cervical cancer mainly by means of metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (mCGH and microsatellite marker analysis for the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Currently, high throughput methods such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array and gene expression arrays are available to study genome-wide alterations. Integration of these 3 platforms allows detection of genomic alterations at high resolution and investigation of an association between copy number changes and expression. Results Genome-wide copy number and genotype analysis of 10 cervical cancer cell lines by array CGH and SNP array showed highly complex large-scale alterations. A comparison between array CGH and SNP array revealed that the overall concordance in detection of the same areas with copy number alterations (CNA was above 90%. The use of SNP arrays demonstrated that about 75% of LOH events would not have been found by methods which screen for copy number changes, such as array CGH, since these were LOH events without CNA. Regions frequently targeted by CNA, as determined by array CGH, such as amplification of 5p and 20q, and loss of 8p were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Genome-wide, we did not find a correlation between copy-number and gene expression. At chromosome arm 5p however, 22% of the genes were significantly upregulated in cell lines with amplifications as compared to cell lines without amplifications, as measured by gene expression arrays. For 3 genes, SKP2, ANKH and TRIO, expression differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Conclusion This study showed that copy number data retrieved from either array CGH or SNP array are comparable and that the integration of genome-wide LOH, copy number and gene

  11. High-Pressure Single-Crystal Structures of 3D Lead-Halide Hybrid Perovskites and Pressure Effects on their Electronic and Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Adam; Lin, Yu; Beavers, Christine M; Voss, Johannes; Mao, Wendy L; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2016-04-27

    We report the first high-pressure single-crystal structures of hybrid perovskites. The crystalline semiconductors (MA)PbX3 (MA = CH3NH3 (+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) afford us the rare opportunity of understanding how compression modulates their structures and thereby their optoelectronic properties. Using atomic coordinates obtained from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction we track the perovskites' precise structural evolution upon compression. These structural changes correlate well with pressure-dependent single-crystal photoluminescence (PL) spectra and high-pressure bandgaps derived from density functional theory. We further observe dramatic piezochromism where the solids become lighter in color and then transition to opaque black with compression. Indeed, electronic conductivity measurements of (MA)PbI3 obtained within a diamond-anvil cell show that the material's resistivity decreases by 3 orders of magnitude between 0 and 51 GPa. The activation energy for conduction at 51 GPa is only 13.2(3) meV, suggesting that the perovskite is approaching a metallic state. Furthermore, the pressure response of mixed-halide perovskites shows new luminescent states that emerge at elevated pressures. We recently reported that the perovskites (MA)Pb(Br x I1-x )3 (0.2 solar cells employing these absorbers. Our high-pressure PL data indicate that compression can mitigate this PL redshift and may afford higher steady-state voltages from these absorbers. These studies show that pressure can significantly alter the transport and thermodynamic properties of these technologically important semiconductors.

  12. Shifting Control Algorithm for a Single-Axle Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Bus Equipped with EMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the characteristics of motor with fast response speed, an electric-drive automated mechanical transmission (EMT is proposed as a novel type of transmission in this paper. Replacing the friction synchronization shifting of automated manual transmission (AMT in HEVs, the EMT can achieve active synchronization of speed shifting. The dynamic model of a single-axle parallel PHEV equipped with the EMT is built up, and the dynamic properties of the gearshift process are also described. In addition, the control algorithm is developed to improve the shifting quality of the PHEV equipped with the EMT in all its evaluation indexes. The key techniques of changing the driving force gradient in preshifting and shifting compensation phases as well as of predicting the meshing speed in the gear meshing phase are also proposed. Results of simulation, bench test, and real road test demonstrate that the proposed control algorithm can reduce the gearshift jerk and the power interruption time noticeably.

  13. Simplifying the growth of hybrid single-crystals by using nanoparticle precursors: the case of AgI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biao; Wang, Ruji; Wang, Xun

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals.We report the synthesis of a series of AAgmIn single-crystals within 24 h, at room temperature, utilizing AgI nanoparticles (NPs) as the precursor. The AgI NPs impart high reactivity under mild conditions and favor the growth kinetics. 0D, 1D and 2D iodoargentate crystals can be obtained. This work represents the first application of NPs in the field of organo-metal-halide crystals and will inspire the design of other AMmXn crystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectra of AgI NPs, schematic representation of the formation process of [Ag4I8]4- in 2, UV-Vis spectra of the DTMA-Ag-I clusters, analysis of force balance of a crystal at the interface between H2O and CH2Cl2 and crystal structure depiction of 1-4. CIF files of 1-4 are also provided. CCDC reference numbers 863848, 863849, 863850 and 863851. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30139c

  14. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ARQ AND HYBRID ARQ OVER SINGLE-HOP, DUAL-HOP, AND MULTIBRANCH DUAL-HOP NETWORKS

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjtaieb, Amir

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, relay networks have attracted a lot of interest due to their numerous benefits. The relaying technique allows extending the coverage zone of wireless networks and offers a higher reliability for communication systems. The performance of relay networks can be improved further by the use of automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques. ARQ and HARQ are retransmission mechanisms that ensure a good quality of service even in absence of channel state information at the transmitter. We, firstly, study the spectral and energy efficiency of ARQ in Nakagami-m block-fading channels. We maximize both spectral efficiency and energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power. We derive exact expressions as well as compact and tight approximation for the solutions of these problems. Our analysis shows that the two problems of maximizing spectral efficiency and energy efficiency with respect to the transmitted power are completely different and give different solutions. Additionally, operating with a power that maximizes energy efficiency can lead to a significant drop in the spectral efficiency, and vice versa. Next, we consider a three node relay network comprising a source, a relay, and a destination. The source transmits the message to the destination using HARQ with incremental redundancy (IR). The relay overhears the transmitted message, amplifies it using a variable gain amplifier, and then forwards the message to the destination. This latter combines both the source and the relay message and tries to decode the information. In case of decoding failure, the destination sends a negative acknowledgement. A new replica of the message containing new parity bits is then transmitted in the subsequent HARQ round. This process continues until successful decoding occurs at the destination or a maximum number M of rounds is reached. We study the performance of HARQ-IR over the considered relay channel from an

  15. Potencial de híbridos simples de milho para extração de linhagens Potential of maize single hybrids to generate inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de híbridos simples comerciais de milho é uma das opções de populações para a extração de linhagens, porque são adaptados e provavelmente concentram alta freqüência de alelos favoráveis já fixados. Mesmo nos locos que estão segregando, a freqüência de alelos favoráveis é 0,5. Assim, a identificação de populações promissoras, derivadas de híbridos simples superiores, é uma boa estratégia para aumentar a eficiência dos programas de melhoramento. As populações derivadas dos híbridos simples comerciais AG9012 e C333 foram avaliadas com o objetivo de verificar o potencial dessas para extração de linhagens superiores, por meio das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos, da estimativa de m+a e a metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976. Foram avaliadas 169 famílias S1 de cada população, durante a safra agrícola de 1999/2000, na área experimental do Departamento de Biologia da UFLA, em Lavras - MG, em látice simples 13x13, sendo as parcelas constituídas por uma linha de 3 m. As características analisadas foram incidência de Phaeosphaeria maydis em duas épocas, altura de plantas, altura de espigas e produtividade de espigas despalhadas. Foi constatado que há possibilidade de se obterem linhagens com bom desempenho per se, sendo a população derivada do C333 a mais promissora, por associar resistência a Phaeosphaeria maydis e possuir média mais alta e maior probabilidade de obtenção de linhagens superiores. A metodologia proposta por Jinks & Pooni (1976 mostrou-se mais informativa do que a estimativa de m+a para a escolha de populações, mas, quando possível, as duas podem ser utilizadas simultaneamente para auxiliar na decisão dos melhoristas.Populations derived from commercial single hybrids are one of the breeder options for inbred line extraction because of their adaptation and probable high frequency of loci with fixed favorable alleles. Even the segregating loci carry

  16. Efficient White Light Emission Using a Single Copolymer with Red and Green Chromophores on a Conjugated Polyfluorene Backbone Hybridized with InGaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; HOU Qiong; NIU Qiao-Li; ZHENG Shu-Wen; LI Shu-Ti; HE Miao; FAN Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    We report an efficient white-light emission based on a single copolymer/InGaN hybrid light-emitting diode.The single copolymer consists of a conjugated polyfluorene backbone by incorporating 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) and 4, 7-bis(2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DBT) as green and red light-emitting units, respectively. For the single eopolymer/lnGaN hybrid device, the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates,color temperature Tc and color rendering index Ra at 20mA are (0.323,0.329), 5960K and 86, respectively.In comparison with the performance of red copolymer PFO-DBT15 (DOF:DBT=85:15 with DOF being 9'9-dioctylfluorene) and green copolymer PFO-BT35 (DOF:BT=65:35) blend/InGaN hybrid white devices, it is concluded that the chemically doped copolymer hybridized device shows a higher emission intensity and spectral stability at a high driving current than the polymer blend.

  17. Frequencies of complex chromosome exchange aberrations induced by 238Pu alpha-particles and detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using single chromosome-specific probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C S; Marsden, S J; Stevens, D L; Simpson, P; Savage, J R

    1995-04-01

    We undertook an analysis of chromosome-type exchange aberrations induced by alpha-particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome-specific probes for human chromosomes 1 or 4, together with a pan-centromeric probe. Contact-inhibited primary human fibroblasts (in G1) were irradiated with 0.41-1.00 Gy 238Pu alpha-particles and aberrations were analysed at the next mitosis following a single chromosome paint. Exchange and aberration painting patterns were classified according to Savage and Simpson (1994a). Of exchange aberrations, 38-47% were found to be complex derived, i.e. resulting from three or more breaks in two or more chromosomes, and the variation with dose was minimal. The class of complex aberrations most frequently observed were insertions, derived from a minimum of three breaks in two chromosomes. There was also an elevated frequency of rings. The high level of complex aberrations observed after alpha-particle irradiation indicates that, when chromosome domains are traversed by high linear energy transfer alpha-particle tracks, there is an enhanced probability of production of multiple localized double-strand breaks leading to more complicated interactions.

  18. Combined therapy using botulinum toxin A and single-joint hybrid assistive limb for upper-limb disability due to spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Kazuya; Morishita, Takashi; Hyakutake, Koichi; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Shiota, Etsuji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Tooru

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the combination of robot-assisted rehabilitation (RT) using a single-joint hybrid assistive limb (HAL-SJ) and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) as therapy for paretic arm with spasticity in post-stroke patients. Participants were seven patients (4 females, 3 males; mean (±SD) age: 60.6±8.4years) who had spastic hemiplegia following chronic stroke. On the day following BTX-A injection, we started RT, which was performed for 20 sessions of 60min each over a two-week period. Clinical outcome measures, including Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and Disability Assessment Scale (DAS), and cortical activity were evaluated at baseline, and two weeks, and four months following BTX-A injection. Cortical activity associated with elbow joint movement of the affected arm was assessed via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). FMA, MAL, and DAS scores significantly improved at two weeks and four months (phemiplegia due to stroke, and functional imaging study showed neuroplasticity induced by the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  20. Single Base Station Hybrid TOA/AOA Positioning Technology%单基站TOA/AOA混合定位技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳丽君

    2012-01-01

    In order to overcome the defects of traditional mobile location technology, through the AOA location and TOA positioning method combined with the AOA of a single base station/on TOA hybrid positioning scheme, TOA error program in NLOS conditions Wylie and CarlMan filter two to e- liminate and inhibit error program, and two errors to eliminate the program simulation, simulation re- suits show that the Kalman filter, the results can be better approximation of the true trajectory of mo- bile station.%为了克服传统的移动定位技术存在的缺陷,通过AOA定位以及TOA定位方式的结合,提出一种单基站AOA/TOA混合定位的方案,对方案中在NLOS条件下存在的TOA误差提出了Wylie和卡尔曼滤波2种消除和抑制误差方案,并对2种误差消除方案进行了仿真,仿真结果表明卡尔曼滤波后的结果能更好的逼近移动台的真实运动轨迹。

  1. Genotyping for Glycophorin GYP(B-A-B) Hybrid Genes Using a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Algorithm by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Lopez, Genghis H; Ji, Yanli; Condon, Jennifer A; Irwin, Darryl L; Luo, Guangping; Hyland, Catherine A; Flower, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    The genetic basis for five GP(B-A-B) MNS system hybrid glycophorin blood group antigens results from rearrangement between the homologous GYPA and GYPB genes. Each hybrid glycophorin displays a characteristic profile of antigens. Currently, no commercial serological reagents are currently available to serologically type for these antigens. The aim of this study was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping genotyping technique to allow characterisation of various GYP(B-A-B) hybrid alleles. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) assays were designed to genotype five GYP(B-A-B) hybrid alleles. Eight nucleotide positions were targeted and incorporated into the SNP mapping protocol. The allelic frequencies were calculated using peak areas. Sanger sequencing was performed to resolve a GYP*Hop 3' breakpoint. Observed allelic peak area ratios either coincided with the expected ratio or were skewed (above or below) from the expected ratio with switching occurring at and after the expected break point to generate characteristic mass spectral plots for each hybrid. Sequencing showed that the GYP*Hop crossover in the intron 3 region, for this example, was identical to that for GYP*Bun reference sequence. An analytical algorithm using MALDI-TOF MS genotyping platform defined GYPA inserts for five GYP(B-A-B) hybrids. The SNP mapping technique described here demonstrates proof of concept that this technology is viable for genotyping hybrid glycophorins, GYP(A-B-A), GYP(A-B) and GYP(B-A), and addresses the gap in current typing technologies.

  2. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  3. One-step synthesis of a highly homogeneous SBA-NHC hybrid material: en route to single-site NHC-metal heterogeneous catalysts with high loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocquin, Mansuy; Henrion, Mickaël; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Bertani, Philippe; Chetcuti, Michael J; Louis, Benoît; Ritleng, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The one-step synthesis of a mesoporous silica of SBA type, functionalized with a 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3-propyl-imidazolium (iPr2Ar-NHC-propyl) cation located in the pore channels, is described. This material was obtained by the direct hydrolysis and co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3-[3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-imidazolium iodide in the presence of Pluronic P123 as a non-ionic structure-directing agent and aqueous HCl (37%) as an acid catalyst. Small-angle X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, as well as dinitrogen sorption analyses revealed that the synthesized material is highly mesoporous with a 2D hexagonal arrangement of the porous network. (13)C and (29)Si CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the material contains intact iPr2Ar-NHC-propyl cations, which are covalently anchored via silicon atoms fused into the silica matrix. Moreover, comparison of the latter data with those of an analogous post-synthetic grafted SBA-NHC material allowed us to establish that, as expected, (i) it is most probably more homogeneous and (ii) it shows a more robust anchoring of the organic units. Finally, elemental mapping by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the scanning electron microscope demonstrated a very homogeneous distribution of the imidazolium units within the one-pot material, moreover with a high content. This study thus demonstrates that a relatively bulky and hydrophilic imidazolium unit can be directly co-condensed with TEOS in the presence of a structure-directing agent to provide in a single step a highly ordered and homogeneous mesoporous hybrid SBA-NHC material, possessing a significant number of cationic NHC sites.

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of single-molecule sequencing and hybrid approaches for finishing the Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1 strain DSM 10061 genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Nagaraju, Shilpa [LanzaTech; Utturkar, Sagar M [ORNL; De Tissera, Sashini [LanzaTech; Segovia, Simón [LanzaTech; Mitchell, Wayne [LanzaTech; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Dassanayake, Asela [LanzaTech; Köpke, Michael [LanzaTech

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium autoethanogenum strain JA1-1 (DSM 10061) is an acetogen capable of fermenting CO, CO2 and H2 (e.g. from syngas or waste gases) into biofuel ethanol and commodity chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol. A draft genome sequence consisting of 100 contigs has been published. Results A closed, high-quality genome sequence for C. autoethanogenum DSM10061 was generated using only the latest single-molecule DNA sequencing technology and without the need for manual finishing. It is assigned to the most complex genome classification based upon genome features such as repeats, prophage, nine copies of the rRNA gene operons. It has a low G + C content of 31.1%. Illumina, 454, Illumina/454 hybrid assemblies were generated and then compared to the draft and PacBio assemblies using summary statistics, CGAL, QUAST and REAPR bioinformatics tools and comparative genomic approaches. Assemblies based upon shorter read DNA technologies were confounded by the large number repeats and their size, which in the case of the rRNA gene operons were ~5 kb. CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Paloindromic Repeats) systems among biotechnologically relevant Clostridia were classified and related to plasmid content and prophages. Potential associations between plasmid content and CRISPR systems may have implications for historical industrial scale Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation failures and future large scale bacterial fermentations. While C. autoethanogenum contains an active CRISPR system, no such system is present in the closely related Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528. A common prophage inserted into the Arg-tRNA shared between the strains suggests a common ancestor. However, C. ljungdahlii contains several additional putative prophages and it has more than double the amount of prophage DNA compared to C. autoethanogenum. Other differences include important metabolic genes for central metabolism (as an additional hydrogenase and the absence of a

  5. Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van Der Merwe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively. The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

  6. Hybrid Baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2003-01-01

    We review the status of hybrid baryons. The only known way to study hybrids rigorously is via excited adiabatic potentials. Hybrids can be modelled by both the bag and flux-tube models. The low-lying hybrid baryon is N 1/2^+ with a mass of 1.5-1.8 GeV. Hybrid baryons can be produced in the glue-rich processes of diffractive gamma N and pi N production, Psi decays and p pbar annihilation.

  7. Minilaparoscopy-assisted transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERALDO JOSÉ DE SOUZA LIMA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The role of laparoscopy in the modern surgery era is well established. With the prospect of being able to improve the already privileged current situation, new alternatives have been proposed, such as natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES, the method for single transumbilical access (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery and minilaparoscopy (MINI. The technique proposed by the authors uses a laparoscope with an operative channel like the flexible endoscope used in NOTES. All operative times are carried out through the umbilical trocar as in LESS, and assisted by a minilaparoscopy grasper. This new technic combines, and results from, the rationalization of technical particularities and synergy of these three approaches, seeking to join their advantages and minimize their disadvantages.

  8. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  9. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  10. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  11. Single-wall carbon nanotube hybridized graphene films:self assembly and electrical properties%单壁碳纳米管-石墨烯杂化材料的自组装及其电学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari; Yong-hun Ko; Daesung Jung; Chung-Yun Park

    2015-01-01

    A SWCNT-G/Si hybrid film was fabricated from graphene ( G) film by chemical vapor deposition and single-walled carbon nanotubes ( SWCNTs) by an immobilization method, in which a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane monolayer was formed on a UV irradiated graphene film by self-assembly, and acid-oxidized SWCNTs were chemisorbed on it. The G/Si, 3-aminopropyltrie-thoxysilane immobilized G/Si and SWCNT-G/Si hybrid films were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and conduc-tivity and electrochemical tests. Results indicate that the immobilization changes the p-type G/Si into n-type by electron donation from a lone electron pair on the amine and the chemisorption reduces the n-type behavior. The SWCNT-G/Si hybrid film has a high-er specific capacitance than the G/Si film. This approach could be of great use in the fabrication of supercapacitors, flexible hybrid electrodes and other devices.%以Si为基底,采用气相沉积法制备出石墨烯( G/Si)薄膜。将含1%APTES的苯溶液与G/Si密封,在115℃下加热2 h,G薄膜上自组装单层APTES膜( SAM-G/Si)。将SAM-G/Si浸渍于酸处理后的单壁碳纳米管氯仿液中,45℃干燥即得到单壁碳纳米管-石墨烯杂化材料( SWCNT-G/Si)。结果表明,具有p-型电学性能的G/Si经表面改性后呈现出n-型性能,电容性能得到提高。

  12. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  13. Emergência em campo de híbridos simples de milho superdoce de um cruzamento dialélico Field emergence of supersweet maize single crosses hybrids from a complete diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Agostinho Lemos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Para identificar híbridos simples de milho superdoce de elevado poder germinativo, foram avaliados em 1996/97, 45 híbridos simples e 10 linhagens S4, originados de cruzamento dialélico completo, nos municípios de Pesqueira e Vitória de Santo Antão (PE. O delineamento utilizado foi "látice"7 x 8 com duas repetições por local. Foram estimados os efeitos da capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação para o caráter. A análise conjunta de variância mostrou alta significância de linhagens, de híbridos e capacidades combinatórias. Houve interação significativa de CGC e CEC (PTo identify single crosses hybrids of supersweet maize of high seed germination in 1996/97, 45 single crosses and 10 inbred lines were evaluated (S4, from a complete diallel cross, at Pesqueira and Vitória de Santo Antão, Brazil. A lattice 7 x 8 design was used with two replications, per each location. The general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability effects were estimated for the trait stand. In the combined analysis of variance, lines, hybrids and both GCA and SCA effects were significant (P<0.01. The interactions of GCA and SCA (P<0.01 were significant with the locations. For the individual analysis, the mean squares estimates for lines, hybrids, GCA and SCA were also significant (P<0.01. The relative magnitude of GCA and SCA mean squares indicated predominance of additive gene effects. The average mean seed germination were of 40.4% and 56.5% at Pesqueira and Vitória de Santo Antão, respectively. The hybrids L3 x L6 and L3 x L7 at Pesqueira and L1 x L10 and L3 x L5 at Vitória de Santo Antão, were the most favorable single crosses of high quality seed having good field emergence potential.

  14. Hybrid transumbilical single port laparoscopic splenectomy: a report of 6 cases%杂交式经脐单孔腹腔镜脾切除术6例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光永; 王磊; 刘少壮; 展翰翔; 李峰; 胡春晓; 刘腾; 刘新农; 胡三元

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨杂交式经脐单孔腹腔镜脾切除术的可行性、安全性、实用性及优缺点.方法:2011年11月至2012年12月为6例患者(免疫性血小板减少性紫癜4例、遗传性球形红细胞增多症2例)施行杂交式经脐单孔腹腔镜脾切除术.4例应用自制单孔腹腔镜入路装置,2例应用SILS入路装置.6例均采用左腋前线肋缘下2 cm处辅助5 mm切口,通过此孔留置引流管.结果:6例杂交式经脐单孔腹腔镜脾切除术均获成功,手术时间150 ~225 min,平均(189.2±31.8) min;术中出血量50 ~ 200 ml,平均(108.3±58.5) ml;术后住院6~9 d,平均(7.2±1.2)d.术后随访3~14个月,患者恢复良好,脐部切口位置隐蔽,美容效果佳.结论:杂交式经脐单孔腹腔镜脾切除术安全、可行,具有更佳的美容效果.但此手术难度较高,应严格把握适应证.%Objective:To explore the feasibility,safety,practicality,advantages and disadvantages of hybrid transumbilical single port laparoscopic splenectomy. Methods:From Nov. 2011 to Dec. 2012,hybrid transumbilical single incision splenectomy was performed in six patients; four cases were immune thrombocytopenic purpura and two cases were hereditary spherocytosis. Self-made single port device was used in four cases and SILS accessing device was used in two cases. An assisted 5 mm Trocar was inserted through an incision 2 cm below the left subcostal margin,where a drainage tube was placed after surgery. Results; All the six cases of hybrid transumbilical single port laparoscopic splenectomy were successfully performed. The mean operative time was (189. 2 ±31. 8) min (range 150-225 min) ,the mean blood loss was ( 108. 3 ± 58. 5) ml (range 50-200 ml) , and the post-operative hospital stay was (7. 2 ± 1.2) d (range 6-9 d). During the 3-14 months follow-up,the patients recovere well. The umbilical incision was well hidden,the cosmetic result was good. Conclusions: Hybrid transumbilical single port laparoscopic

  15. Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Taihuei; Chen, Chuyang; He, Xingdao; Yuan, Yongbiao; Li, Yue; Li, Qinghua

    2014-06-11

    Low-temperature solution-processed photovoltaics suffer from low efficiencies because of poor exciton or electron-hole transfer. Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell, although still in its infancy, has attracted great interest thus far. One of the promising ways to enhance exciton dissociation or electron-hole transport is the doping of lanthanide phosphate ions. However, the underlying photophysical mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully distinguished hot electron, less energetic electron, hole transport from electron-hole recombination. Concrete evidence has been provided that lanthanide phosphate doping improves the efficiency of both hot electron and "less energetic" electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 12.7 ps, that is, more than 60% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Such improvement was ascribed to the facts that the conduction band (CB) edge energy level of TiO2 has been elevated by 0.2 eV, while the valence band level almost remains unchanged, thus not only narrowing the energy offset between CB levels of TiO2 and P3HT, but also meanwhile enlarging the band gap of TiO2 itself that permits one to inhibit electron-hole recombination within TiO2. Consequently, lanthanide phosphate doped TiO2/P3HT bulk-heterojunction solar cell has been demonstrated to be a promising hybrid solar cell, and a notable power conversion efficiency of 2.91% is therefore attained. This work indicates that lanthanide compound ions can efficiently facilitate exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport, thus enhancing photovoltaic performance.

  16. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  17. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  18. ``Hybrid'' multi-gap/single-gap Josephson junctions: Evidence of macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconducting-to-normal switching experiments on MgB2/I/Pb and MgB2/I/Sn junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabello, Steve; Lambert, Joseph; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto

    We report results of superconducting-to-normal switching experiments on MgB2/I/Pb and MgB2/I/Sn junctions, with and without microwaves. These results suggest that the switching behavior is dominated by quantum tunneling through the washboard potential barrier, rather than thermal excitations or electronic noise. Evidence includes a leveling in the standard deviation of the switching current distribution below a crossover temperature, a Lorentzian shape of the escape rate enhancement peak upon excitation by microwaves, and a narrowing in the histogram of escape counts in the presence of resonant microwave excitation relative to that in the absence of microwaves. These are the first such results reported in ``hybrid'' Josephson tunnel junctions, consisting of multi-gap and single-gap superconducting electrodes.

  19. Comparison of repair of DNA double-strand breaks in identical sequences in primary human fibroblast and immortal hamster-human hybrid cells harboring a single copy of human chromosome 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, B.; Waldren, C. A.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    We have optimized a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis assay that measures induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in specific regions of the genome (Lobrich et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 12050-12054, 1995). The increased sensitivity resulting from these improvements makes it possible to analyze the size distribution of broken DNA molecules immediately after the introduction of DSBs and after repair incubation. This analysis shows that the distribution of broken DNA pieces after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is consistent with the distribution expected from randomly induced DSBs. It is apparent from the distribution of rejoined DNA pieces after repair incubation that DNA ends continue to rejoin between 3 and 24 h postirradiation and that some of these rejoining events are in fact misrejoining events, since novel restriction fragments both larger and smaller than the original fragment are generated after repair. This improved assay was also used to study the kinetics of DSB rejoining and the extent of misrejoining in identical DNA sequences in human GM38 cells and human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells containing a single human chromosome 11. Despite the numerous differences between these cells, which include species and tissue of origin, levels of TP53, expression of telomerase, and the presence or absence of a homologous chromosome for the restriction fragments examined, the kinetics of rejoining of radiation-induced DSBs and the extent of misrejoining were similar in the two cell lines when studied in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, DSBs were removed from the single-copy human chromosome in the hamster A(L) cells with similar kinetics and misrejoining frequency as at a locus on this hybrid's CHO chromosomes.

  20. Role of π -d hybridization in a 300-K organic-magnetic interface: Metal-free phthalocyanine single molecules on a bcc Fe(001) whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T. K.; Yamagishi, Y.; Nakashima, S.; Kitaoka, Y.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-11-01

    The realization of single molecular electronics is considered the next frontier to addressing and sustaining the storage needs of the future. In order to realize a single molecular device working at 300 K, two conditions must be satisfied: first, there must be no molecular diffusion, i.e., robust bonding between molecules and the contacting electrode, and second, stable electronic interface states. In this study, using a combination of 7-K and 300-K ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy experiments and theoretical ab initio calculations, we investigated the adsorption of π -conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine (Pc) single molecules onto an Fe(001) whisker single crystal along with the resulting electronic interface structures. The Pc/Fe(001) system was found to prevent molecular diffusion even at 300 K, due to strong adsorption as well as the presence of a larger diffusion barrier than that of the Pc/Ag(001) system, in which molecules are known to diffuse at 300 K. The origin of such a robust bonding was studied by recovering the sample local density of states (LDOS) with the normalized (d I /d V )/T curves, where the LDOS peaks are successfully explained by theoretical calculations.

  1. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available effect was observed for the elongation at break of the hybrid composites. The impact strength of the hybrid composites increased with the addition of glass fibres. The tensile and impact properties of thermoplastic natural rubber reinforced short... panels made from conventional structural materials. Figure 3 illustrates the performance of cellular biocomposite panels against conventional systems used for building and residential construction, namely a pre- cast pre-stressed hollow core concrete...

  3. Preparation and characterization of functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (fSWCNT)/ Hydroxyapatite (HAp)-Nylon hybridized composite biomaterial to study the mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Suraj; Leventouri, Theodora; Mahfuz, Hassan; Rondinone, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) bears poor mechanical properties that limit its applicability in orthopedics. We study the possibility of overcoming such limitations by incorporating functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (fSWCNT) in a biocompatible/bioactive nano-composite. We present results from synthesis and characterization of samples prepared under different processing parameters. Ultra sonication method was to disperse functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (fSWCNT) in HAp followed by a simple hot assorting method to incorporate with polymerized ɛ-caprolactam. The fracture toughness of the composite materials was tested in compliance with the ASTM D-5045 standard. We have found that while the fracture toughness strongly depends on the processing parameters, a value comparable to the one for cortical bone is achieved. Mechanical properties, electron microscopy and crystal structure properties of the composite materials will be discussed.

  4. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  5. Potential advantage of preoperative three-dimensional mapping of sentinel nodes in breast cancer by a hybrid single photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT system

    OpenAIRE

    Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kawasoe, Teru; Shiraishi, Shinya; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Honda, Yumi; Iyama, Kenichi; Iwase, Hirotaka; イブスキ, ムツコ; ヤマモト, ユタカ; カワソエ, テル; シライシ, シンヤ; トミグチ, セイジ; ヤマシタ, ヤスユキ

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to assess the role of three dimensional single-photon emissioncomputed tomography (3D-SPECT/CT) in sentinel node (SN) identification, and toanalyze the impact of such information on estimating metastases to SNs.Background: Nodal status is a key factor for breast cancer. SN biopsy has beenestablished as the alternative to routine axillary dissection these days. We investigatedboth the anatomical location of SNs demonstrated by our 3D-SPECT/CT system and thecorrelatio...

  6. Near Room-Temperature Memory Devices Based on Hybrid Spin-Crossover@SiO2 Nanoparticles Coupled to Single-Layer Graphene Nanoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holovchenko, Anastasia; Dugay, Julien; Giménez-Marqués, Mónica; Torres-Cavanillas, Ramón; Coronado, Eugenio; van der Zant, Herre S J

    2016-09-01

    The charge transport properties of SCO [Fe(Htrz)2 (trz)](BF4 ) NPs covered with a silica shell placed in between single-layer graphene electrodes are reported. A reproducible thermal hysteresis loop in the conductance above room-temperature is evidenced. This bistability combined with the versatility of graphene represents a promising scenario for a variety of technological applications but also for future sophisticated fundamental studies.

  7. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy single crystals and photodetector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy (X=Cl and I single crystals via a stepwise temperature control approach. High-quality CH3NH3Pb(Br3−yXy crystals with a tunable bandgap from 1.92eV to 2.53eV have been prepared successfully in this way. And further experiments revealed the influence of halogen content and preparation temperature on the structural and optical properties of these crystals. It is observed that chlorine can lower the critical nucleation energy, which results in crystallizing at lower temperature with the chlorine content increasing, while the nucleation energy increases slowly with increasing iodine content. Moreover, in contrast to Frank–van der Merwe growth with low heating rate, high heating rate leads to a mass of small size single crystals and Stranski-Krastanov growth. The single crystals with tunable band gap and impressive characteristics enable us to fabricate high performance photodetectors for different wavelengths.

  8. Tunable bandgap in hybrid perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) single crystals and photodetector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yuan, G. D.; Duan, R. F.; Huang, F.; Wei, T. B.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the synthesis of CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) (X=Cl and I) single crystals via a stepwise temperature control approach. High-quality CH3NH3Pb(Br3-yXy) crystals with a tunable bandgap from 1.92eV to 2.53eV have been prepared successfully in this way. And further experiments revealed the influence of halogen content and preparation temperature on the structural and optical properties of these crystals. It is observed that chlorine can lower the critical nucleation energy, which results in crystallizing at lower temperature with the chlorine content increasing, while the nucleation energy increases slowly with increasing iodine content. Moreover, in contrast to Frank-van der Merwe growth with low heating rate, high heating rate leads to a mass of small size single crystals and Stranski-Krastanov growth. The single crystals with tunable band gap and impressive characteristics enable us to fabricate high performance photodetectors for different wavelengths.

  9. Stability analyses of single arch in arch-reticulated shell hybrid steel structure of Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden%北京将台花园拱壳杂交钢结构的单拱稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永久; 高阳; 王元清; 施刚; 卢凯; 任景峰

    2013-01-01

    对于大跨度空间钢结构而言,整体稳定分析不可忽略.北京将台商务中心冬季花园采用网壳与拉索杂交结构,玻璃幕墙固定于拉索上.其中网壳部分由9榀空间钢拱和普通壳体杆件组成,可以看作拱壳杂交结构.本文选取了结构中跨度最长的单榀拱结构进行稳定分析,包括特征值屈曲分析及非线性全过程分析.结果表明,单拱的稳定承载力满足要求,非线性对单榀结构的稳定性能有较大影响.此外,尽管几何初始缺陷对弹性结构的稳定性能有一定影响,但对弹塑性结构的稳定性能影响不大.%Global stability analysis cannot be ignored for large-span spatial steel structures. Beijing Jiangtai Winter Garden adopts hybrid structure with latticed shell and vertical cables,on which glass curtain wall is fixed. Therein the reticulated shell is composed of 9 spatial arches and other common frames,thus it can be seen as arch-reticulated shell hybrid structure. This paper analyzed the stability of one single arch structure which has the longest span in the whole structure, including buckling analyses and non-linear full range analyses. The results showed that the stability of single arch met requirements, and the nonlinearity had great influence on the stability of single arch structure. Besides, although the initial geometric imperfection had certain effect on the elastic structure, it had little effect on the elasto-plastic one.

  10. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Interactive Online Learning on Campus: Testing MOOCs and Other Platforms in Hybrid Formats in the University System of Maryland." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 study, "Interactive Online Learning on Campus: Testing MOOCs and Other Platforms in Hybrid Formats in the University System of Maryland," researchers examined the impact of using hybrid forms of interactive online learning in seven undergraduate courses across seven universities in Maryland. Hybrid forms of interactive online…

  12. Digital Astronaut Project Biomechanical Models: Biomechanical Modeling of Squat, Single-Leg Squat and Heel Raise Exercises on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Crentsil, Lawton; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Humphreys, Brad T.; DeWitt, John K.; Fincke, Renita S.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    a given device to help formulate exercise prescriptions and other operational considerations. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) laboratory and NSBRI-funded researchers by developing and implementing well-validated computational models of exercises with advanced exercise device concepts. This report focuses specifically on lower-body resistance exercises performed with the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device as a deliverable to the AEC Project.

  13. Improved hybrid rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David L.

    1995-01-01

    McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, as part of its Independent R&D, has initiated development of a clean burning, high performance hybrid fuel for consideration as an alternative to the solid rocket thrust augmentation currently utilized by American space launch systems including Atlas, Delta, Pegasus, Space Shuttle, and Titan. It could also be used in single stage to orbit or as the only propulsion system in a new launch vehicle. Compared to solid propellants based on aluminum and ammonium perchlorate, this fuel is more environmentally benign in that it totally eliminates hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide by products, producing only water, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon oxides, and trace amounts of nitrogen oxides. Compared to other hybrid fuel formulations under development, this fuel is cheaper, denser, and faster burning. The specific impulse of this fuel is comparable to other hybrid fuels and is between that of solids and liquids. The fuel also requires less oxygen than similar hybrid fuels to produce maximum specific impulse, thus reducing oxygen delivery system requirements.

  14. MediSPECT: Single photon emission computed tomography system for small field of view small animal imaging based on a CdTe hybrid pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, R.; Autiero, M.; Celentano, L.; Chmeissani, M.; Cozzolino, R.; Curion, A. S.; Frallicciardi, P.; Laccetti, P.; Lanza, R. C.; Lauria, A.; Maiorino, M.; Marotta, M.; Mettivier, G.; Montesi, M. C.; Riccio, P.; Roberti, G.; Russo, P.

    2007-02-01

    We describe MediSPECT, a new scanner developed at University and INFN Napoli, for SPECT studies on small animals with a small field of view (FOV) and high spatial resolution. The CdTe pixel detector (a 256×256 matrix of 55 μm square pixels) operating in single photon counting for detection of gamma-rays with low and medium energy (e.g. 125I, 27-35 keV, 99mTc, 140 keV), is bump bonded to the Medipix2 readout chip. The FOV of the MediSPECT scanner with a coded aperture mask collimator ranges from 6.3 mm (system spatial resolution 110 μm at 27-35 keV) to 24.3 mm. With a 0.30 mm pinhole the FOV ranges from 2.4 to 29 mm (where the system spatial resolution is 1.0 mm at 27-35 keV and 2.0 mm at 140 keV). MediSPECT will be used for in vivo imaging of small organs or tissue structures in mouse, e.g., brain, thyroid, heart or tumor.

  15. Agronomic traits and chemical composition of single hybrids of sweet corn Caracteres agronômicos e composição química de híbridos simples de milho doce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kwiatkowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the greengrocery market of sweet corn has been expanding along the country. In contrast, there have been few agri-industries canning sweet corn (Zea mays because of the lack of cultivars with agronomic characteristics proper to industrial purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA of seven inbred lines of sweet corn, and the specific combining ability (SCA of their hybrid combinations based on their agronomic traits, and the chemical composition of the grain. In the growing season 2006/2007, twenty-one single hybrids were evaluated in the Iguatemi Research Station, Maringá County, Northwestern Paraná, in Brazil using a complete randomized block design with four replications. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance and the genotypes were clustered by the Scott-Knott test. We estimated the GCA and SCA effects using the Griffing's method IV with the fixed model for plant height (PH, height of ear (EH, dehusked ears yield (DEY, reducing (RS and total sugars (TS, starch (ST, proteins (PTN, ether extract (EE and fibers (FB. The inbred line L4, which was originated from the 'Doce de Cuba', had the best GCA for crop yield and grain quality and therefore should be used in the next hybrid combinations. The hybrids L4xL5 and L3xL7 were the most promising with regard to crop yield and grain quality.No Brasil, poucas indústrias envazam o milho doce (Zea mays por causa da falta de cultivares para o processamento industrial. Em compensação, o mercado de milho verde doce aumentou. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade geral de combinação (CGC de sete linhagens de milho doce e da capacidade específica de combinação (CEC das combinações híbridas, com base em características agronômicas e composição química dos grãos. Os vinte e um híbridos simples foram avaliados em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007, no distrito de Iguatemi

  16. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  17. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  18. Potential advantage of preoperative three-dimensional mapping of sentinel nodes in breast cancer by a hybrid single photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kawasoe, Teru; Shiraishi, Shinya; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Honda, Yumi; Iyama, Kenichi; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to assess the role of three-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (3D-SPECT/CT) in sentinel node (SN) identification, and to analyze the impact of such information on estimating metastases to SNs. Nodal status is a key factor for breast cancer. SN biopsy has been established as the alternative to routine axillary dissection these days. We investigated both the anatomical location of SNs demonstrated by our 3D-SPECT/CT system and the correlation to SN positivity. Two hundred and twenty-three clinically node-negative patients underwent SN biopsy. All of the axillary structures, including SNs, were visualized by a SPECT/CT combined system after subcutaneous injection of (99m)Tc-phytate. By plotting the visualized SNs, the most frequent SN location 'Pedestal area (PA)' was designated. SPECT/CT detected (99m)Tc uptake in 217 cases (97.3%). 3D-SPECT/CT images visualized the accurate location of SNs in each case. In patients whose SNs were histopathologically negative (SN-), 228 (98.3%) SNs were found in the PA, and 4 (1.7%) were in other zones. In those with histopathologically positive SNs (SN+), 65 (78.3%) SNs were in the PA and 18 (21.7%) were outside it. The difference in SN distribution (i.e., in or out of the PA) between SN+ and SN- patients was statistically significant (pSNs in patients with breast cancer. Atypical distribution of SNs out of the PA may suggest SN positivity, reflecting failure of the lymphatic drainage systems.

  19. Hybrid optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua W.

    Optofluidics, born of the desire to create a system containing microfluidic environments with integrated optical elements, has seen dramatic increases in popularity over the last 10 years. In particular, the application of this technology towards chip based molecular sensors has undergone significant development. The most sensitive of these biosensors interface liquid- and solid-core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). These sensor chips are created using conventional silicon microfabrication. As such, ARROW technology has previously been unable to utilize state-of-the-art microfluidic developments because the technology used--soft polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) micromolded chips--is unamenable to the silicon microfabrication workflows implemented in the creation of ARROW detection chips. The original goal of this thesis was to employ hybrid integration, or the connection of independently designed and fabricated optofluidic and microfluidic chips, to create enhanced biosensors with the capability of processing and detecting biological samples on a single hybrid system. After successful demonstration of this paradigm, this work expanded into a new direction--direct integration of sensing and detection technologies on a new platform with dynamic, multi-dimensional photonic re-configurability. This thesis reports a number of firsts, including: • 1,000 fold optical transmission enhancement of ARROW optofluidic detection chips through thermal annealing, • Detection of single nucleic acids on a silicon-based ARROW chip, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and passive PDMS microfluidic chips, • Hybrid optofluidic integration of ARROW detection chips and actively controllable PDMS microfluidic chips with integrated microvalves, • On-chip concentration and detection of clinical Ebola nucleic acids, • Multimode interference (MMI) waveguide based wavelength division multiplexing for detection of single influenza virions,

  20. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and highly non-linear optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid compound: 1,4-Diazbicyclo-octane oxonium tri- nitrates single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchiri, Rokaya; Ennaceur, Nasreddine; Cordier, Marie; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Elaloui, Elimame

    2017-07-01

    A new nonlinear optical hybrid crystal 1,4-Diazbicyclo[222]octane oxonium tri-nitrates (DOTN), of the dimension 4×12×1 mm3. The crystal was grown using water as solvent at room temperature and crystal structure was determined by X-Ray diffraction respectively, this title compound was shown to crystallize in non-centrosymmetric trigonal system with space group P31c. The recorded FTIR spectrum has proven the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal as well as the formation of DOTN. Besides, the thermal stability and melting temperature of the DOTN crystal were identified from the TG/DSC analysis. The suitability of this material for optical application was studied by non-linear optical (NLO) and UV-visible absorption techniques. Furthermore, the nonlinear optical property was analyzed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and was 3.4 times than that of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) single crystals. The first hyperpolarizability of nitrate was determined by Second Harmonic light Scattering.

  1. Design and selection of a camelid single-chain antibody yeast two-hybrid library produced de novo for the cap protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjing Fu

    Full Text Available Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VHH yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library according to the Clontech Mate & Plate library construction system. The transformation efficiency and titer of the VHH Y2H library were 7.26×10(6 cfu/3 µg and 2×10(9 cfu/ml, which met the demand for Y2H library screening. Using as an example the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 Cap protein as bait, we screened 21 positive Cap-specific VHH sequences. Among these sequences, 7 of 9 randomly selected clones were strongly positive as indicated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, either using PCV2 viral lysis or purified Cap protein as coated antigen. Additionally, the immunocytochemistry results further indicated that the screened VHHs could specifically detected PCV2 in the infected cells. All this suggests the feasibility of in vivo VHH throughput screening based on Y2H strategy.

  2. Ultrathin single-crystalline TiO2 nanosheets anchored on graphene to be hybrid network for high-rate and long cycle-life sodium battery electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Anwer; Huang, Yongxin; Liu, Jia; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Wang, Ziheng; Chen, Renjie; Zhang, Jiatao; Wu, Feng

    2017-02-01

    In view of the growing concern about energy management issues, sodium ion batteries (SIBs) as cheap and environmentally friendly devices have increasingly received wide research attentions. The high current rate and long cycle-life of SIBs are considered as two key parameters determining its potential for practical applications. In this work, the rigid single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with a thickness of ∼4 nm has been firstly prepared, based on which a stable nanostructured network consisting of ultrathin anatase TiO2 NSs homogeneously anchored on graphene through chemical bonding (TiO2 NSs-G) has fabricated by hydrothermal process and subsequent calcination treatment. The morphology, crystallization, chemical compositions and the intimate maximum contact between TiO2 NSs and graphene are confirmed by TEM, SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman characterizations. The results of electrochemical performance tests indicated that the TiO2 NSs-G hybrid network could be consider as a promising anode material for SIBs, in assessment of its remarkably high current rate and long cycle-life aside from the improved specific capacity, rate capability and cycle stability.

  3. Preparation of a novel ionic hybrid stationary phase by non-covalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with amino-derivatized silica gel for fast HPLC separation of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Hayriye; Çelik, K Serdar; Aral, Tarık; Topal, Giray

    2016-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were immobilized on spherical silica gel with a 4-μm average particle size and a 60-Å average pore size. The amino-derivatized silica gel was non-covalently coated with carboxylated SWCNTs to preserve the structure of the nanotubes and their physico-chemical properties. The novel ionic hybrid stationary phase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and then, it was used to fill an empty 150×4.6mm(2) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column. Chromatographic parameters, such as the theoretical plate number, retention factor and peak asymmetry factor, and analytical parameters, such as the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linear range, calibration equation, and R(2) value, and quantitative analysis parameters were calculated for all of the analytes. Using different mobile phases, five different classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were separated in a very short analysis time of 4-8min. Furthermore, a high theoretical plate number (up to 25000) and an excellent peak asymmetry factor (1.0) were obtained. The results showed that the surface of the SWNTs had very strong interactions with aromatic groups, therefore providing high selectivity for the separation of different classes of aromatic compounds. This study indicates that SWCNTs enable the extension of the application range of the newly prepared stationary phases for the fast separation of aromatic compounds by HPLC.

  4. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  5. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  6. Gear Decision for Regenarative Brake in Single Shaft Parallel Hybrid Electric Transmitting Bus%单轴并联式混合动力城市客车再生制动挡位决策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泳丹; 席军强; 陈慧岩

    2012-01-01

    Mathmalic model of regenerative brake for single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) was established and a series-parallel multi-brake pedal was correspondingly designed. To ensure the brake stability, a new brake torque distribution similar to the atomic transition was proposed. The factors of generator efficiency, battery charging efficiency and braking stability, which restrict the increase in regenerative efficiency, were analyzed and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm was used to optimize the gear decision and regenerative brake torque ouput. The model of hybrid propulsion system has been built under the Cruise and Matlab/Simulink joint simulation platforms. According to the rule of UDC drive cycle simulation, the experimental data indicate that, compared with traditional dual parameters shift decision, the final state of charge (SOC) could be increased by 1.5% and the regenerative efficiency be 11. 00% more than that in the normal brake pattern. Three typical cycle road tests have been implemented and the results well fit in with the simulation ones.%设计一种串并混联式复合制动踏板方案,并针对该方案制订再生制动阶跃式制动力分配曲线.分析了影响再生制动效率的多种因素,提出运用序列二次规划(SQP)算法优化挡位决策和电机输出扭矩以解决再生制动中回收效率与制动力分配曲线和电机转速的矛盾.在Cruise和Matlab/Simulink联合仿真平台下,建立了单轴并联式混合动力传动系统整车模型,基于欧洲公交客车循环工况(UDC)进行了仿真研究.结果表明,电池荷电状态(SOC)比采用传统双参数换挡规律提高了近1.5%.进行了三种典型制动工况下实车试验,取得了与仿真结果相吻合的试验结果,其中正常制动工况下的能量回收率比传统双参数换挡策略提高了近11.00%.

  7. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  8. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  10. Synthesis of 1D-glyconanomaterials by a hybrid noncovalent-covalent functionalization of single wall carbon nanotubes: a study of their selective interactions with lectins and with live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernía Leal, M.; Assali, M.; Cid, J. J.; Valdivia, V.; Franco, J. M.; Fernández, I.; Pozo, D.; Khiar, N.

    2015-11-01

    To take full advantage of the remarkable applications of carbon nanotubes in different fields, there is a need to develop effective methods to improve their water dispersion and biocompatibility while maintaining their physical properties. In this sense, current approaches suffer from serious drawbacks such as loss of electronic structure together with low surface coverage in the case of covalent functionalizations, or instability of the dynamic hybrids obtained by non-covalent functionalizations. In the present work, we examined the molecular basis of an original strategy that combines the advantages of both functionalizations without their main drawbacks. The hierarchical self-assembly of diacetylenic-based neoglycolipids into highly organized and compacted rings around the nanotubes, followed by photopolymerization leads to the formation of nanotubes covered with glyconanorings with a shish kebab-type topology exposing the carbohydrate ligands to the water phase in a multivalent fashion. The glyconanotubes obtained are fully functional, and able to establish specific interactions with their cognate receptors. In fact, by taking advantage of this selective binding, an easy method to sense lectins as a working model of toxin detection was developed based on a simple analysis of TEM images. Remarkably, different experimental settings to assess cell membrane integrity, cell growth kinetics and cell cycle demonstrated the cellular biocompatibility of the sugar-coated carbon nanotubes compared to pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes.To take full advantage of the remarkable applications of carbon nanotubes in different fields, there is a need to develop effective methods to improve their water dispersion and biocompatibility while maintaining their physical properties. In this sense, current approaches suffer from serious drawbacks such as loss of electronic structure together with low surface coverage in the case of covalent functionalizations, or instability of

  11. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  12. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  13. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  14. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  15. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  16. 猪经脐经肛直肠肿瘤切除的杂交NOTES手术模型建立%Establishing swine hybrid NOTES model of transumbilical single-incision laparoscopic rectal tumor resection with transanal specimen extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 周鸿鲲; 曹浩强; 何小伟; 徐言; 俞清江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a minimally invasive swine hybrid NOTES model of transumbilical single-port la-paroscopic rectal resection with transanal specimen extraction. Methods Seven healthy pigs were treated with the intra-muscular injection of midazolam(0.3 mg/kg) and ketamine(10mg/kg). Followed by inhalation anesthesia with 2%isoflurane to enable tracheal intubation and maintained with isoflurane on a circle rebreathing circuit. Pneumoperitoneum was created by closed veress needle technique. Transumblical 3 trocars were introduced through one incision. After the distal colon and rectum were fully mobilized and vessels ligated, bowel resection were performed with endoGIA. The ring forceps was in-serted transanally to drag out distal bowel, and the resected specimen was removed via the transanal method. The circular stapler CDH25 inserted transanally was used for completing the end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. Results All the oper-ation were successful, The operating time for the entire procedures including resection, anastomosis, and specimen extrac-tion was(44.83 ±7.47) min, blood loss during the procedures was(10.62±8.24)ml, and distance of the resected bowel was (8.76 ±1.11)cm, anastomosis was perfect. Conclusion The minimally invasive swine hybrid NOTES model is feasible, and it can be used as a preclinical training model before transition to the routine clinical application.%目的:建立猪经脐经肛直肠肿瘤切除的杂交NOTES手术模型。方法选择健康普通家猪7只,气管插管,异氟烷吸入麻醉。造气腹后,经脐单切口分别置入5 mm、10 mm及12 mm Trocar各1支,腹腔镜下游离、切断肠系膜血管及肠管,经肛将远断端结、直肠拖出肛门外,预定平面切断并移除标本,腔镜直视下CDH25吻合器完成吻合。结果所有手术均顺利完成,手术时间38~57 min,平均(44.83±7.47)min;术中出血量5~24 ml、平均(10.62±8.24)ml;切除肠管长度7.8~11.3 cm

  17. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  18. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  19. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  20. 石墨烯-碳纳米管杂化物在超级电容器中的应用%Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids and applications in supercapacitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢青; 魏飞; 田佳瑞; 何宫樊; 和冲冲; 康辉; 魏小波; 孙久铭; 骞伟中; 张强

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitor, based on electric double-layer capacitance effect, had advantages of high power density and long cycle life. Current focuses to develop new electrode material and high voltage system in order toincrease energy density of device. We reported the preparation of graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids (GNH) by chemical vapor deposition method. The materials had huge specific surface area (1200—1800 m2/g), high purity, good dispersion and high chemical stability. It, as the electrode, exhibited high capacitance performance in electrolytes such as KOH at 1 V, Et4NBF4/PC at 2.7 V and ionic liquids at 4 V. Soft-pack capacitors with Et4NBF4/PC electrolyte were also examined by using activated carbon as main electrode and GNHs as conductive additives. All results suggested GNH was an excellent electrode material choice, paving the way for the development of capacitor with high energy density and high power density.%双电层超级电容器作为新型清洁能源储能器件,具有安全、高功率密度和长寿命的优点。目前发展新电极材料与提高工作电压窗口是提高电容器能量密度的重要方向。本工作利用化学气相沉积法制备了石墨烯-碳纳米管杂化物,具有导电性优良、孔径可调、化学稳定性高、比表面积大(1200~1800 m2/g)的优点,同时避免了单独石墨烯或者碳纳米管电极制备过程中堆叠的缺点。并且系统研究了石墨烯-碳纳米管杂化物在水系、有机电解液和离子液体中的电容性质,考察了以活性炭为主体电极材料,石墨烯-碳纳米管为添加剂的软包电容器的性质,为开发高能量密度和高功率密度的超级电容器提供了基础。

  1. Hybrid neural network models of transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shilin; Zhang, Xinong; Chen, Shenglai; Zhu, Changchun

    2011-10-01

    A hybrid neural network (NN) approach is proposed and applied to modeling of transducers in the paper. The modeling procedures are also presented in detail. First, the simulated studies on the modeling of single input-single output and multi input-multi output transducers are conducted respectively by use of the developed hybrid NN scheme. Secondly, the hybrid NN modeling approach is utilized to characterize a six-axis force sensor prototype based on the measured data. The results show that the hybrid NN approach can significantly improve modeling precision in comparison with the conventional modeling method. In addition, the method is superior to NN black-box modeling because the former possesses smaller network scale, higher convergence speed, higher model precision and better generalization performance.

  2. Suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    Comparing two RNA populations that differ from the effects of a single independent variable, such as a drug treatment or a specific genetic defect, can establish differences in the abundance of specific transcripts that vary in a population dependent manner. There are different methods for identifying differentially expressed genes. These methods include microarray, Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE), and quantitative Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Herein, the protocol describes an easy and cost-effective alternative that does not require prior knowledge of the transcriptomes under examination. It is specifically relevant when low levels of RNA starting material are available. This protocol describes the use of Switching Mechanism At RNA Termini Polymerase Chain Reaction (SMART-PCR) to amplify cDNA from small amounts of RNA. The amplified cDNA populations under comparison are then subjected to Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-PCR). SSH-PCR is a technique that couples subtractive hybridization with suppression PCR to selectively amplify fragments of differentially expressed genes. The resulting products are cDNA populations enriched for significantly overrepresented transcripts in either of the two input RNAs. These cDNA populations can then be cloned to generate subtracted cDNA library. Microarrays made with clones from the subtracted forward and reverse cDNA libraries are then screened for differentially expressed genes using targets generated from tester and driver total RNAs.

  3. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  4. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  5. VLSI Hybrid DC-DC Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Cosp Vilella, Jordi; Martínez García, Herminio

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid DC-DC regulators are structures that combine both a linear voltage regulator and a switching DC-DC converter. The main objective of this hybrid topology is to converge, in a single circuit topology, the best of both alternatives: a small voltage output ripple, which is a common characteristic of linear regulator circuits, and good energy efficiency, as in switching alternatives. While the linear regulator fixes the required output voltage to a fixed value with negligible steady-state r...

  6. Highly stretchable piezoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Keun Young; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Dae-Yeong; Oh, Junho; Ryu, Changkook; Yoo, Won Jong; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-02-01

    A highly stretchable hybrid nanogenerator has been developed using a micro-patterned piezoelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE), PDMS-CNT composite, and graphene nanosheets. Mechanical and thermal energies are simultaneously harvested from a single cell of the device. The hybrid nanogenerator exhibits high robustness behavior even after 30% stretching and generates very stable piezoelectric and pyroelectric power outputs due to micro-pattern designing. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enhanced cell uptake via non-covalent decollation of a single-walled carbon nanotube-DNA hybrid with polyethylene glycol-grafted poly(l-lysine) labeled with an Alexa-dye and its efficient uptake in a cancer cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kano, Arihiro; Maruyama, Atsushi; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2011-10-01

    The use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for biomedical applications is a promising approach due to their unique outer optical stimuli response properties, such as a photothermal response triggered by near-IR laser irradiation. The challenging task in order to realize such applications is to render the SWNTs biocompatible. For this purpose, the stable and homogeneous functionalization of the SWNTs with a molecule carrying a biocompatible group is very important. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of a polyanionic SWNT/DNA hybrid combined with a cationic poly(l-lysine) grafted by polyethylene glycol (PLL-g-PEG) to provide a supramolecular SWNT assembly. A titration experiment revealed that the assembly undergoes an approximately 1 : 1 reaction of the SWNT/DNA with PLL-g-PEG. We also found that SWNT/DNA is coated with PLL-g-PEG very homogeneously that avoids the non-specific binding of proteins on the SWNT surface. The experiment using the obtained supramolecular hybrid was carried out in vitro and a dramatic enhancement in the cell uptake efficiency compared to that of the SWNT/DNA hybrid without PLL-g-PEG was found.The use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for biomedical applications is a promising approach due to their unique outer optical stimuli response properties, such as a photothermal response triggered by near-IR laser irradiation. The challenging task in order to realize such applications is to render the SWNTs biocompatible. For this purpose, the stable and homogeneous functionalization of the SWNTs with a molecule carrying a biocompatible group is very important. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of a polyanionic SWNT/DNA hybrid combined with a cationic poly(l-lysine) grafted by polyethylene glycol (PLL-g-PEG) to provide a supramolecular SWNT assembly. A titration experiment revealed that the assembly undergoes an approximately 1 : 1 reaction of the SWNT/DNA with PLL-g-PEG. We also found that SWNT/DNA is coated with PLL

  8. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  9. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  10. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  11. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both....... Such a museum is referred to as a hybrid museum....

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  13. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  14. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    to single spots to release hybridized DNA. This work leverages LLNL expertise in optics, microfluids, and bioinformatics.

  15. Hybrid Models of Alternative Current Filter for Hvdc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a hybrid simulation concept of HVDC, the developed hybrid AC filter models, providing the sufficiently full and adequate modeling of all single continuous spectrum of quasi-steady-state and transient processes in the filter, are presented. The obtained results suggest that usage of the hybrid simulation approach is carried out a methodically accurate with guaranteed instrumental error solution of differential equation systems of mathematical models of HVDC.

  16. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  17. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  18. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  19. Homoploid hybrid expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoploid hybrid speciation occurs when a stable, fertile, and reproductively isolated lineage results from hybridization between two distinct species without a change in ploidy level. Reproductive isolation between a homoploid hybrid species and its parents is generally attained via chromosomal re...

  20. Hybrid armature projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Asay, James R.; Hall, Clint A.; Konrad, Carl H.; Sauve, Gerald L.; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Susoeff, Allan R.

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  1. Intraply Hybrid Composite Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Several theoretical approaches combined in program. Intraply hybrid composites investigated theoretically and experimentally at Lewis Research Center. Theories developed during investigations and corroborated by attendant experiments used to develop computer program identified as INHYD (Intraply Hybrid Composite Design). INHYD includes several composites micromechanics theories, intraply hybrid composite theories, and integrated hygrothermomechanical theory. Equations from theories used by program as appropriate for user's specific applications.

  2. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  3. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  4. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steidel, R.F.

    1978-09-01

    A hybrid system consists of two or more energy conversion processes. This study examines the use of three energy conversion machines in hybrid systems: the conventional single-phase turbine, and the two-phase expanders known as the Lysholm engine and the radial outflow reaction turbine. Two hybrid systems are presented. The first is a two-stage, single-flash system with the Lysholm engine as the first stage, and a separator and conventional turbine as the second stage. The second system adds a radial outflow reaction turbine to recover a part of the energy rejected in the second stage. A theoretical specific power of 41.3 kW.s/lb is predicted for the two-stage, single-flash hybrid system. The addition of the radial outflow rotary turbine increases performance to 44.8 kW.s/lb. Both are superior to the double-flash system, with a specific power of 37.8 kW.s/lb. In addition, the hybrid system offers operating flexibility.

  5. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure, EPR and theoretical studies of a new hybrid inorganic-organic compound [Cu(Hdien)2(H2O)2](pnb)4·4H2O and its structural comparison with related [Cu(en)2(H2O)2](pnb)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Witwicki, Maciej; Ferretti, Valeria

    2016-11-01

    A new hybrid inorganic-organic compound [Cu(Hdien)2(H2O)2](pnb)4·4H2O (1) (where pnb = p-nitrobenzoate), in which the tridentate ligand diethylenetriamine (dien) shows an unusual coordination behavior acting as a bidentate ligand when present in its monoprotonated form (Hdien+) has been synthesized by the reaction of copper(II) p-nitrobenzoate and slight excess of dien in methanol-water mixture (4:1v/v). Re-crystallization of the violet precipitated product from hot water gave single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. The newly synthesized compound 1 has been characterized by spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR), and theoretical methods (DFT and MRCI/SORCI). Single crystal X-ray structure determination revealed the existence of the cationic species [Cu(Hdien)2(H2O)2]4+, four p-nitrobenzoate as counter anions and four water molecules are present as solvent of crystallization. Packing analyses of title compound as well as of the structurally similar [Cu(en)2(H2O)2](pnb)2,2 has shown similarities in the crystalline architecture that both hybrid inorganic-organic compounds is stabilized by various non-covalent interactions such as N-H⋯O, C-H⋯O, O-H⋯O etc.

  7. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities.

  8. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  9. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF CODOMINANT MARKERS FOR IDENTIFYING SPECIES HYBRIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein we describe a simple method for developing species-diagnostic markers that would permit the rapid identification of hybrid individuals. Our method relies on amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technologies, both of which...

  11. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.

  12. Hybrid Long-Distance Entanglement Distribution Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, J.B.; Rigas, I.; Polzik, E.S.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a hybrid (continuous-discrete variable) quantum repeater protocol for long-distance entanglement distribution. Starting from states created by single-photon detection, we show how entangled coherent state superpositions can be generated by means of homodyne detection. We show that near...

  13. 单模复合功率分流混合动力系统结构优化%Structure Optimization of SingleMode Compound Split Hybrid Power Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜爱民; 刘开圣; 朱忠攀; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    针对混合动力汽车中的动力耦合系统,提出一种双行星排结构的单模复合功率分流装置。通过对几种方案机械点的特性进行分析,筛选得出最优结构。对行星排特征参数进行优化,并推导得出满足结构限制的参数条件范围,在此基础上分析系统的工作模式和控制策略,最终利用离线仿真对该方案进行验证。%Based on a power coupling system in hybrid vehicles,a novel singlemode compound split power train with the structure of double- row planetary gear sets was proposed.An optimized structure was obtained by analyzing the mechanical points.Then the range of characteristic parameter of the planetary gear set was calculated and optimized.Operating modes and control strategy were anaG lyzed based on this optimized structure.The effectiveness of this hybrid system was finally validated by the simulation.

  14. Hybrid dynamics in a species group of swallowtail butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, J R; Sperling, F A H

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid zones provide unique natural laboratories for studying mechanisms of evolution. But identification and classification of hybrid individuals (F1, F2, backcross, etc.) can be complicated by real population changes over time as well as by use of different marker types, both of which challenge documentation of hybrid dynamics. Here, we use multiple genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites and genomewide single nucleotide polymorphisms) to re-examine population structure in a hybrid zone between two species of swallowtail butterflies in western Canada, Papilio machaon and P. zelicaon. Our aim was to test whether their hybrid dynamics remain the same as found 30 years ago using morphology and allozymes, and we compared different genetic data sets as well as alternative hybrid identification and classification methods. Overall, we found high differentiation between the two parental species, corroborating previous research from the 1980s. We identified fewer hybrid individuals in the main zone of hybridization in recent years, but this finding depended on the genetic markers considered. Comparison of methods with simulated data sets generated from our data showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms were more powerful than microsatellites for both hybrid identification and classification. Moreover, substantial variation among comparisons underlined the value of multiple markers and methods for documenting evolutionarily dynamic systems.

  15. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  16. Microbatteries for self-sustained hybrid micropower supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, John N.; LaFollette, Rodney M.; Selfridge, Richard H.; Howell, Larry L.

    This paper describes the characteristics of microbatteries suitable for use in a hybrid micropower supply for powering autonomous MEMS and other microsystems. The hybrid power supply includes an energy conversion device, microscopic batteries for energy storage, and control/interface circuitry. Comparison of the hybrid approach with single power sources (either a battery or energy conversion device alone) shows that it offers several potential advantages including reduced size, increased flexibility, long lifetime and increased reliability. Such an approach is well suited to the expected duty cycles of remote microsensors. Realization of the advantages of a hybrid system depends on the availability of a battery with the required characteristics. Initial experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating microbatteries with the proper characteristics and the use of these batteries as part of a hybrid micropower supply. It is anticipated that hybrid micropower supplies with suitable microbatteries will play a critical role in the successful implementation of a wide variety of autonomous microsystems.

  17. Hybrid cluster identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Herrero, J.

    2004-10-01

    I present a hybrid method for the labelling of clusters in two-dimensional lattices, which combines the recursive approach with iterative scanning to reduce the stack size required by the pure recursive technique, while keeping its benefits: single pass and straightforward cluster characterization and percolation detection parallel to the labelling. While the capacity to hold the entire lattice in memory is usually regarded as the major constraint for the applicability of the recursive technique, the required stack size is the real limiting factor. Resorting to recursion only for the transverse direction greatly reduces the recursion depth and therefore the required stack. It also enhances the overall performance of the recursive technique, as is shown by results on a set of uniform random binary lattices and on a set of samples of the Ising model. I also show how this technique may replace the recursive technique in Wolff's cluster algorithm, decreasing the risk of stack overflow and increasing its speed, and the Hoshen-Kopelman algorithm in the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm, allowing effortless characterization during generation of the samples and increasing its speed.

  18. BayFish: Bayesian inference of transcription dynamics from population snapshots of single-molecule RNA FISH in single cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Gomez-Schiavon; Liang-Fu Chen; Anne E West; Nicolas E Buchler

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) provides unparalleled resolution in the measurement of the abundance and localization of nascent and mature RNA transcripts in fixed, single cells...

  19. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  1. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  2. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  4. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  5. Hybrid Unifying Variable Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare new phenomenon of topology change,evolution,hybrid ratio and network characteristics of unified hybrid network theoretical model with unified hybrid supernetwork model,this paper constructed unified hybrid variable supernetwork model(HUVSM).The first layer introduces a hybrid ratio dr,the

  6. Large Unifying Hybrid Supernetwork Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Qiang; FANG; Jin-qing; LI; Yong

    2015-01-01

    For depicting multi-hybrid process,large unifying hybrid network model(so called LUHNM)has two sub-hybrid ratios except dr.They are deterministic hybrid ratio(so called fd)and random hybrid ratio(so called gr),respectively.

  7. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankaran Venugopal; K K Rajesh; V Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems...

  8. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  9. Consensus statement of the consortium for LESS cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona; Rosemurgy, Alexander; Albrink, Michael; Choung, Edward; Dapri, Giovanni; Gallagher, Scott; Hernandez, Jonathan; Horgan, Santiago; Kelley, William; Kia, Michael; Marks, Jeffrey; Martinez, Jose; Mintz, Yoav; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Pryor, Aurora; Rattner, David; Rivas, Homero; Roberts, Kurt; Rubach, Eugene; Schwaitzberg, Steven; Swanstrom, Lee; Sweeney, John; Wilson, Erik; Zemon, Harry; Zundel, Natan

    2012-10-01

    Many surgeons attempting Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy have found the operation difficult, which is inconsistent with our experience. This article is an attempt to promote a standardized approach that we feel surgeons with laparoscopic skills can perform safely and efficiently. This is a four-trocar approach consistent with the four incisions utilized in conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After administration of general anesthesia, marcaine is injected at the umbilicus and a 12-mm vertical incision is made through the already existing anatomical scar of the umbilicus. A single four-trocar port is inserted. A 5-mm deflectable-tip laparoscope is placed through the trocar at the 8 o'clock position, a bariatric length rigid grasper is inserted through the trocar at the 4 o'clock position (to grasp the fundus), and a rigid bent grasper is placed through the 10-mm port (to grasp the infundibulum). This arrangement of the instruments promotes minimal internal and external instrument clashing with simultaneous optimization of the operative view. This orientation allows retraction of the gallbladder in a cephalad and lateral direction, development of a window between the gallbladder and the liver which promotes the "critical view" of the cystic duct and artery, and provides triangulation with excellent visualization of the operative field. The operation is concluded with diaphragmatic irrigation of marcaine solution to minimize postoperative pain. Standardization of LESS cholecystectomy will speed adoption, reduce intraoperative complications, and improve the efficiency and safety of the approach.

  10. Hybrid optical acoustic seafloor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gabrielle

    The oceanographic research and industrial communities have a persistent demand for detailed three dimensional sea floor maps which convey both shape and texture. Such data products are used for archeology, geology, ship inspection, biology, and habitat classification. There are a variety of sensing modalities and processing techniques available to produce these maps and each have their own potential benefits and related challenges. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are such two sensors with complementary strengths making them ideally suited for data fusion. Data fusion approaches however, have seen only limited application to underwater mapping and there are no established methods for creating hybrid, 3D reconstructions from two underwater sensing modalities. This thesis develops a processing pipeline to synthesize hybrid maps from multi-modal survey data. It is helpful to think of this processing pipeline as having two distinct phases: Navigation Refinement and Map Construction. This thesis extends existing work in underwater navigation refinement by incorporating methods which increase measurement consistency between both multibeam and camera. The result is a self consistent 3D point cloud comprised of camera and multibeam measurements. In map construction phase, a subset of the multi-modal point cloud retaining the best characteristics of each sensor is selected to be part of the final map. To quantify the desired traits of a map several characteristics of a useful map are distilled into specific criteria. The different ways that hybrid maps can address these criteria provides justification for producing them as an alternative to current methodologies. The processing pipeline implements multi-modal data fusion and outlier rejection with emphasis on different aspects of map fidelity. The resulting point cloud is evaluated in terms of how well it addresses the map criteria. The final hybrid maps retain the strengths of both sensors and show significant improvement

  11. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  12. Kinetics and dynamics of DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yandong; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2011-11-15

    DNA hybridization, wherein strands of DNA form duplex or larger hybrids through noncovalent, sequence-specific interactions, is one of the most fundamental processes in biology. Developing a better understanding of the kinetic and dynamic properties of DNA hybridization will thus help in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in numerous biochemical processes. Moreover, because DNA hybridization has been widely adapted in biotechnology, its study is invaluable to the development of a range of commercially important processes. In this Account, we examine recent studies of the kinetics and dynamics of DNA hybridization, including (i) intramolecular collision of random coil, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), (ii) nucleic acid hairpin folding, and (iii) considerations of DNA hybridization from both a global view and a detailed base-by-base view. We also examine the spontaneous single-base-pair flipping in duplex DNA because of its importance to both DNA hybridization and repair. Intramolecular collision of random coil ssDNA, with chemical relaxation times ranging from hundreds of nanoseconds to a few microseconds, is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The first passage time theory of Szabo, Schulten, and Schulten, which determines the average reaction time of the intrachain collision, was tested. Although it was found to provide an acceptable approximation, a more sophisticated theoretical treatment is desirable. Nucleic acid hairpin folding has been extensively investigated as an important model system of DNA hybridization. The relaxation time of hairpin folding and unfolding strongly depends on the stem length, and it may range from hundreds of microseconds to hundreds of milliseconds. The traditional two-state model has been revised to a multistate model as a result of new experimental observations and theoretical study, and partially folded intermediate states have been introduced to the folding energy landscape. On the other hand, new

  13. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Eoin; Meany, Thomas; Flother, Frederick F; Lee, James P; Griffiths, Jonathan P; Jones, Geb A C; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Bennet, Anthony J; Shields, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to an SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single photon nature of the emission was veri?ed by an on-chip Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  14. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  15. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...... countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  16. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  17. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    contexts, or sites, for mixing scientific knowledge and technical skills from different fields and social domains into new combinations, thus fostering what the authors term a “hybrid imagination”. Such a hybrid imagination is especially important today, as a way to counter the competitive and commercial...

  18. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  19. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  20. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  1. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  2. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  3. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ...

  4. Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipkes, Christoph; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Palzer, Stefan; Sias, Carlo; Koehl, Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-10

    In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ.

  5. Extreme Environments Facilitate Hybrid Superiority – The Story of a Successful Daphnia galeata × longispina Hybrid Clone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Johanna; Gießler, Sabine; Poxleitner, Monika; Navas Faria, Amanda; Yin, Mingbo; Wolinska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization within the animal kingdom has long been underestimated. Hybrids have often been considered less fit than their parental species. In the present study, we observed that the Daphnia community of a small lake was dominated by a single D. galeata × D. longispina hybrid clone, during two consecutive years. Notably, in artificial community set-ups consisting of several clones representing parental species and other hybrids, this hybrid clone took over within about ten generations. Neither the fitness assay conducted under different temperatures, or under crowded and non-crowded environments, nor the carrying capacity test revealed any outstanding life history parameters of this hybrid clone. However, under simulated winter conditions (i.e. low temperature, food and light), the hybrid clone eventually showed a higher survival probability and higher fecundity compared to parental species. Hybrid superiority in cold-adapted traits leading to an advantage of overwintering as parthenogenetic lineages might consequently explain the establishment of successful hybrids in natural communities of the D. longispina complex. In extreme cases, like the one reported here, a superior hybrid genotype might be the only clone alive after cold winters. Overall, superiority traits, such as enhanced overwintering here, might explain hybrid dominance in nature, especially in extreme and rapidly changing environments. Although any favoured gene complex in cyclic parthenogens could be frozen in successful clones independent of hybridization, we did not find similarly successful clones among parental species. We conclude that the emergence of the observed trait is linked to the production of novel recombined hybrid genotypes. PMID:26448651

  6. Towards the Holy Grail: What can we do for truly scarlesssurgery?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The work of Muhe and Mouret in the late 1980s, pavedthe way for mainstream laparoscopic procedures andit rapidly became the mainstream method for manyintra-abdominal procedures. Natural orifice transluminalsurgery (NOTES) and Laparo-endoscopic single-sitesurgery (LESS) are very exciting new modalities inthe field of minimally invasive surgery which work forfurther reducing the scars of standard laparoscopyand towards scarless surgery. However, according toobjective assessment of the literatures, there is noclearly demonstrated benefit of NOTES (LESS), evencosmesis is poorly supported and had mixed resultsin the available data. NOTES (LESS) is far from thetruly scarless surgery. Towards the Holy Grail, we havedeveloped several techniques of creating nonvisible scarand named them as "Scar-hidden Endoscopic Surgery".With the rapid development of science and technology,we believe that minimally invasive surgery over the next2 decades will continue to bring remarkable change andrealize truly scarless surgery even we may not be ableto imagine what lies ahead.

  7. Full Gradient Solution to Adaptive Hybrid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob; Schiller, Noah H.; Fuller, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adaptation mechanisms in adaptive hybrid controllers. Most adaptive hybrid controllers update two filters individually according to the filtered reference least mean squares (FxLMS) algorithm. Because this algorithm was derived for feedforward control, it does not take into account the presence of a feedback loop in the gradient calculation. This paper provides a derivation of the proper weight vector gradient for hybrid (or feedback) controllers that takes into account the presence of feedback. In this formulation, a single weight vector is updated rather than two individually. An internal model structure is assumed for the feedback part of the controller. The full gradient is equivalent to that used in the standard FxLMS algorithm with the addition of a recursive term that is a function of the modeling error. Some simulations are provided to highlight the advantages of using the full gradient in the weight vector update rather than the approximation.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization by single crystal XRD, structural discussion and electric, dielectrical properties of (C6H9N2)2(Hg0.12Zn0.88)Cl4 hybrid compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwej, R.; Hlel, F.

    2016-10-01

    The new hybrid compound "Bis-2-amino-4-picolinium tetrachloro-mercurate-zincate ((C6H9N2)2(Hg0.12Zn0.88)Cl4)" was prepared by hydrothermal method using HCl as solvent and characterized by XRD, NMR-MAS 13C and electrical impedance spectroscopy. The XRD reveals that the compound was crystallized in the triclinic system, centrosymetric space group P 1 bar and the lattice parameters a=7.578(1)Å, b=8.559(1)Å, c=15.418(2)Å, α=84.443(1)°, β=89.506(1)°, γ=68.615(1)° and Z=2. The AC electrical conductivity and the dielectric relaxation properties were measured in the frequency range of 209 Hz-5 MHz at different temperature. The alternating current (AC) conductivity of the investigated compound obeys the Jonscher law: σ(ω)=σdc+Aωn. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the Jonscher's exponent shows that the conduction inside the studied material is insured by the model: overlapping-large polaron tunneling (OLPT) model.

  9. Portraits of colloidal hybrid nanostructures: controlled synthesis and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic hybrid nanostructures containing two or more nanocomponents have been emerging in many areas of materials science in recent years. The particle-particle interactions in a hybrid particle system could significantly improve existing local electronic structure and induce tunable physiochemical responses. The current work reviews the diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures formed by adhesion of the different single components via seed-mediated method. The hybrid nanomaterials have great potentials for real applications in many other fields. The nanohybrids have been used as efficient heterocatalysts for carbon monoxide conversion and photodegradation of organic contaminants. The enhanced catalytic activity of these hybrid nanocatalysts could be attributed the formation of oxygen vacancies and electron transfer across the structural junction in a hybrid system as a result of the interfacial particle-particle interactions. The synergistic combination of up-converting and semiconducting properties in an up-converting semiconducting hybrid particle results in appearance of sub-band-gap photoconductivity. This behavior has a great significance for the design of photovoltaic devices for effective solar energy conversion. The functionalization and subsequent bioconjugation of the hybrid nanostructures to afford the multifunctional nanomedical platforms for simultaneous diagnosis and therapy are reviewed. The conjugated multifunctional hybrid nanostructures exhibit high biocompatibility and highly selective binding with functional groups-fabricated alive organs through delivering them to the tumor sites. The clever combinations of multifunctional features and antibody conjugation within these vehicles make them to generally offer new opportunities for clinical diagnostics and therapeutics.

  10. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  12. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  13. Hybrid Bloch Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Losano, L

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios.

  14. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  16. Resolving incongruence: Species of hybrid origin in Columnea (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F; Clark, John L; Amaya-Márquez, Marisol; Marín-Gómez, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets. Discrepancies between data partitions may result from several factors including poor support, incomplete lineage sorting, or hybridization. A phylogenetic analysis of species in Columnea (Gesneriaceae) indicated significant incongruencies between the cpDNA and nrDNA datasets. Tests that examined whether one or both of the datasets had the phylogenetic signal to reject the topology of the alternate dataset (Shimodaira and Hasegawa [SH] and approximately unbiased [AU] tests) indicated significant differences between the topologies. Splitstree analyses also showed that there was support for the placement of the discrepant taxa in both datasets and that the combined data placed the putative hybrid species in an intermediate position between the two datasets. The genealogical sorting index (GSI) implied that coalescence in nrDNA had occurred in all species where more than a single individual had been sampled, but the GSI value was lower for the cpDNA of most of the putative hybrids, implying that these regions have not yet coalesced in these lineages despite being haploid. The JML test that evaluates simulated species pairwise distances against observed distances also implies that observed nrDNA data generate shorter distances than simulated data, implying hybridization. It is most likely that C. gigantifolia, C. rubriacuta, and C. sp. nov. represent a lineage from a hybrid ancestor

  17. Confinement Effects in Low-Dimensional Lead Iodide Perovskite Hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Machteld E.; Fang, Honghua; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano; Baas, Jacobus; Blake, Graeme R.; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a layered solution crystal growth technique to synthesize high-quality single crystals of phenylalkylammonium lead iodide organic/inorganic hybrid compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals low-dimensional structures consisting of inorganic sheets separated by bilayers of the organic

  18. Chaotic mixer improves microarray hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuain, Mark K; Seale, Kevin; Peek, Joel; Fisher, Timothy S; Levy, Shawn; Stremler, Mark A; Haselton, Frederick R

    2004-02-15

    Hybridization is an important aspect of microarray experimental design which influences array signal levels and the repeatability of data within an array and across different arrays. Current methods typically require 24h and use target inefficiently. In these studies, we compare hybridization signals obtained in conventional static hybridization, which depends on diffusional target delivery, with signals obtained in a dynamic hybridization chamber, which employs a fluid mixer based on chaotic advection theory to deliver targets across a conventional glass slide array. Microarrays were printed with a pattern of 102 identical probe spots containing a 65-mer oligonucleotide capture probe. Hybridization of a 725-bp fluorescently labeled target was used to measure average target hybridization levels, local signal-to-noise ratios, and array hybridization uniformity. Dynamic hybridization for 1h with 1 or 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities approximately threefold over a 24-h static hybridization. Similarly, a 10- or 60-min dynamic hybridization of 10ng of target DNA increased hybridization signal intensities fourfold over a 24h static hybridization. In time course studies, static hybridization reached a maximum within 8 to 12h using either 1 or 10ng of target. In time course studies using the dynamic hybridization chamber, hybridization using 1ng of target increased to a maximum at 4h and that using 10ng of target did not vary over the time points tested. In comparison to static hybridization, dynamic hybridization reduced the signal-to-noise ratios threefold and reduced spot-to-spot variation twofold. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic hybridization based on a chaotic mixer design improves both the speed of hybridization and the maximum level of hybridization while increasing signal-to-noise ratios and reducing spot-to-spot variation.

  19. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  20. Genetic incompatibility dampens hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability: yeast as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meibo Xu

    Full Text Available Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.

  1. Hybrid polymer microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques have been successfully tested for bonding polymeric spheres, typically 0.1 micron in diameter, to spheres with diameter up to 100 microns. Hybrids are being developed as improved packing material for ion-exchange columns, filters, and separators.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Functional hybrid materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahmi, Amir; Pietsch, Torsten; Mendoza, Cesar; Cheval, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    .... This paper describes our group's achievements towards the development of multifunctional nanostructures via self-assembly of hybrid systems based on the block copolymer PS-b-P4VP and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs...

  4. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  5. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  8. Hybrid Baryon Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    2000-01-01

    We discuss whether a low-lying hybrid baryon should be defined as a three quark - gluon bound state or as three quarks moving on an excited adiabatic potential. We show that the latter definition becomes exact, not only for very heavy quarks, but also for specific dynamics. We review the literature on the signatures of hybrid baryons, with specific reference to strong hadronic decays, electromagnetic couplings, diffractive production and production in psi decay.

  9. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  10. Requirements for Hybrid Cosimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-16

    hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard. A cosimulation standard de nes interfaces that enable diverse simulation...cosimulation standards, and specifically provides guidance for development of a hybrid cosimulation version of the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard...V. Peetz, and S. Wolf. The functional mockup interface for tool independent exchange of simulation models. In Proc. of the 8-th International

  11. Hybrid Compounds as Anti-infective Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbaraglini, María Laura; Talevi, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid drugs are multi-target chimeric chemicals combining two or more drugs or pharmacophores covalently linked in a single molecule. In the field of anti-infective agents, they have been proposed as a possible solution to drug resistance issues, presumably having a broader spectrum of activity and less probability of eliciting high level resistance linked to single gene product. Although less frequently explored, they could also be useful in the treatment of frequently occurring co-infections. Here, we overview recent advances in the field of hybrid antimicrobials. Furthermore, we discuss some cutting-edge approaches to face the development of designed multi-target agents in the era of omics and big data, namely analysis of gene signatures and multitask QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Synthesis of circular double-stranded DNA having single-stranded recognition sequence as molecular-physical probe for nucleic acid hybridization detection based on atomic force microscopy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Koji; Matsunaga, Hideshi; Murata, Masaharu; Soh, Nobuaki; Imato, Toshihiko

    2009-08-01

    A new class of DNA probes having a mechanically detectable tag is reported. The DNA probe, which consists of a single-stranded recognition sequence and a double-stranded circular DNA entity, was prepared by polymerase reaction. M13mp18 single strand and a 32mer oligodeoxynucleotide whose 5'-end is decorated with the recognition sequence were used in combination as template and primer, respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that the DNA probe is useful for bioanalytical purposes: by deliberately attaching target DNA molecules onto Au(111) substrates and by mechanically reading out the tag-entity using a high-resolution microscopy including atomic force microscopy, visualization/detection of the individual target/probe DNA conjugate was possible simply yet straightforwardly. The present DNA probe can be characterized as a 100%-nucleic acid product material. It is simply available by one-pod synthesis. A surface topology parameter, image roughness, has witnessed its importance as a quantitative analysis index with particular usability in the present visualization/detection method.

  13. Widespread hybridization among species of Indian major carps in hatcheries, but not in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, V.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons;

    2005-01-01

    samples. Individual admixture coefficients showed that 24% of all hatchery-reared fishes were hybrids, whereas a single hybrid was observed in the wild-caught samples. Only catla Catla catla x rohu Labeo rohita and mrigal Cirrhinus cirrhosus x rohu hybrids were observed, the vast majority of which were F......-hybrids in hatchery samples, reproductive barriers among species have so far precluded widespread introgression. Continued hybridization may eventually lead to a breakdown of species barriers, thereby compromising the genetic integrity of the species in the wild, and leading to production losses...

  14. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two ...

  15. The hybrid performance of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Miguel, A.; /New Mexico U.

    2005-08-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory detects ultra-high energy cosmic rays by implementing two complementary air-shower techniques. The combination of a large ground array and fluorescence detectors, known as the hybrid concept, means that a rich variety of measurements can be made on a single shower, providing much improved information over what is possible with either detector alone. In this paper the hybrid reconstruction approach and its performance are described.

  16. Graphene/Si CMOS Hybrid Hall Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Le; Xu, Huilong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Chengying; Jiang, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaomeng; Chen, Bingyan; Li, Zishen; Zhong, Hua; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene/silicon CMOS hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) should provide powerful functions which combines the ultra-high carrier mobility of graphene and the sophisticated functions of silicon CMOS ICs. But it is difficult to integrate these two kinds of heterogeneous devices on a single chip. In this work a low temperature process is developed for integrating graphene devices onto silicon CMOS ICs for the first time, and a high performance graphene/CMOS hybrid Hall IC is demonstrated. Signal a...

  17. Study on Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Hybrid GFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Bahiyah Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanical and physical behaviour of hybrid glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP. Hybrid GFRP was fabricated by three different types of glass fibre, namely, 3D, woven, and chopped, which were selected and combined with mixture of polyester resin and hardener. The hybrid GFRP was investigated by varying three parameters which were the composite volume fractions, hybrid GFRP arrangement, and single type fibre. The hybrid GFRP was fabricated by using open mould hand lay-up technique. Mechanical testing was conducted by tensile test for strength and stiffness whereas physical testing was performed using water absorption and hardness. These tests were carried out to determine the effect of mechanical and physical behaviour over the hybrid GFRP. The highest volume fraction of 0.5 gives the highest strength and stiffness of 73 MPa and 821 MPa, respectively. Varying hybrid fibre arrangement which is the arrangement of chopped-woven-3D-woven-chopped showed the best value in strength of 66.2 MPa. The stiffness is best at arrangement of woven-chopped-woven-chopped-woven at 690 MPa. This arrangement also showed the lowest water absorption of 4.5%. Comparing the single fibre type, woven had overtaken the others in terms of both mechanical and physical properties.

  18. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-01-22

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed 'toehold exchange' probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg(2+) to 47 mM Mg(2+), and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  19. Advanced Electroactive Single Crystal and Polymer Actuator Concepts for Passive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes large stroke and high precision piezoelectric single crystal and electroactive polymer actuator concepts?HYBrid Actuation System (HYBAS)...

  20. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jessica L.; Blum, Mike J.; Walters, David M.; Porter, Brady A.; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta x C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  1. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  2. Cluster hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, J. A.; Ferrenberg, Alan M.; Landau, D. P.

    2002-06-01

    We show that addition of Metropolis single spin flips to the Wolff cluster-flipping Monte Carlo procedure leads to a dramatic increase in performance for the spin-1/2 Ising model. We also show that adding Wolff cluster flipping to the Metropolis or heat bath algorithms in systems where just cluster flipping is not immediately obvious (such as the spin-3/2 Ising model) can substantially reduce the statistical errors of the simulations. A further advantage of these methods is that systematic errors introduced by the use of imperfect random-number generation may be largely healed by hybridizing single spin flips with cluster flipping.

  3. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  4. Robust spacecraft attitude tracking control using hybrid actuators with uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibin; Wu, Baolin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude tracking using hybrid actuators with uncertainties is addressed in this paper. A hybrid actuators configuration that combines reaction wheels for fine pointing and single gimbal control moment gyros for rapid maneuvering is employed for agile spacecraft. A robust control algorithm for the spacecraft attitude tracking problem when the torque axis direction and/or input scaling of the actuators are uncertain is developed. Furthermore, a torque allocation method is proposed for the hybrid actuator configuration to allow a smooth switch between single gimbal control moment gyros and reaction wheels. With this method, single gimbal control moment gyros are used for the phase of rapid maneuvering, while reaction wheels are used for the phase of fine pointing. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  6. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  8. Conditional Hybrid Nonclassicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, E.; Sperling, J.; Costanzo, L. S.; Bellini, M.; Zavatta, A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-09-01

    We derive and implement a general method to characterize the nonclassicality in compound discrete- and continuous-variable systems. For this purpose, we introduce the operational notion of conditional hybrid nonclassicality which relates to the ability to produce a nonclassical continuous-variable state by projecting onto a general superposition of discrete-variable subsystem. We discuss the importance of this form of quantumness in connection with interfaces for quantum communication. To verify the conditional hybrid nonclassicality, a matrix version of a nonclassicality quasiprobability is derived and its sampling approach is formulated. We experimentally generate an entangled, hybrid Schrödinger cat state, using a coherent photon-addition process acting on two temporal modes, and we directly sample its nonclassicality quasiprobability matrix. The introduced conditional quantum effects are certified with high statistical significance.

  9. Porosity in hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  10. Photoproduction of Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, T

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution I discuss prospects for photoproducing hybrid mesons at CEBAF, based on recent model results and experimental indications of possible hybrids. One excellent opportunity appears to be a search for the I=1, JPC=2+-, neutral "(b2)o" hybrid in (a2 pi)o through diffractive photoproduction. Other notable possibilities accessible through pi+ or pio exchange photoproduction are I=1, JPC=1-+, charged "pi1+" in f1 pi+, (b1 pi)+ and (rho pi)+; piJ(1770)+ in f2 pi+ and (b1 pi)+; pi(1800)+ in f0 pi+, f2 pi+, omega rho+ and (rho pi)+; a1 in f1 pi+ and f2 pi+; and omega in (rho pi)o, omega eta and (K1 K)o.

  11. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/multiwalled carbon hybrid coaxial nanotubes: nanoscale rectification and photovoltaic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Shin, Ji Won; Lee, Yong Baek; Cho, Mi Yeon; Lee, Suk Ho; Park, Dong Hyuk; Jang, Dong Kyu; Lee, Cheol Jin; Joo, Jinsoo

    2010-07-27

    We fabricate hybrid coaxial nanotubes (NTs) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with light-emitting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The p-type P3HT material with a thickness of approximately 20 nm is electrochemically deposited onto the surface of the MWCNT. The formation of hybrid coaxial NTs of the P3HT/MWCNT is confirmed by a transmission electron microscope, FT-IR, and Raman spectra. The optical and structural properties of the hybrid NTs are characterized using ultraviolet and visible absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra where, it is shown that the PL intensity of the P3HT materials decreases after the hybridization with the MWCNTs. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the outer P3HT single NT show the semiconducting behavior, while ohmic behavior is observed for the inner single MWCNT. The I-V characteristics of the hybrid junction between the outer P3HT NT and the inner MWCNT, for the hybrid single NT, exhibit the characteristics of a diode (i.e., rectification), whose efficiency is clearly enhanced with light irradiation. The rectification effect of the hybrid single NT has been analyzed in terms of charge tunneling models. The quasi-photovoltaic effect is also observed at low bias for the P3HT/MWCNT hybrid single NT.

  12. Common fixed points of single-valued and multivalued maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new property which contains the property (EA for a hybrid pair of single- and multivalued maps and give some new common fixed point theorems under hybrid contractive conditions. Our results extend previous ones. As an application, we give a partial answer to the problem raised by Singh and Mishra.

  13. Smart hybrid rotary damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. S. Walter; DesRoches, Reginald

    2014-03-01

    This paper develops a smart hybrid rotary damper using a re-centering smart shape memory alloy (SMA) material as well as conventional energy-dissipating metallic plates that are easy to be replaced. The ends of the SMA and steel plates are inserted in the hinge. When the damper rotates, all the plates bend, providing energy dissipating and recentering characteristics. Such smart hybrid rotary dampers can be installed in structures to mitigate structural responses and to re-center automatically. The damaged energy-dissipating plates can be easily replaced promptly after an external excitation, reducing repair time and costs. An OpenSEES model of a smart hybrid rotary was established and calibrated to reproduce the realistic behavior measured from a full-scale experimental test. Furthermore, the seismic performance of a 3-story moment resisting model building with smart hybrid rotary dampers designed for downtown Los Angeles was also evaluated in the OpenSEES structural analysis software. Such a smart moment resisting frame exhibits perfect residual roof displacement, 0.006", extremely smaller than 18.04" for the conventional moment resisting frame subjected to a 2500 year return period ground motion for the downtown LA area (an amplified factor of 1.15 on Kobe earthquake). The smart hybrid rotary dampers are also applied into an eccentric braced steel frame, which combines a moment frame system and a bracing system. The results illustrate that adding smart hybrid rotaries in this braced system not only completely restores the building after an external excitation, but also significantly reduces peak interstory drifts.

  14. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  15. Fluorescent hybridization probes for nucleic acid detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Ju, Jingyue; Turro, Nicholas J

    2012-04-01

    Due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, minimum interference with living biological systems, and ease of design and synthesis, fluorescent hybridization probes have been widely used to detect nucleic acids both in vivo and in vitro. Molecular beacons (MBs) and binary probes (BPs) are two very important hybridization probes that are designed based on well-established photophysical principles. These probes have shown particular applicability in a variety of studies, such as mRNA tracking, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) monitoring, and microorganism identification. Molecular beacons are hairpin oligonucleotide probes that present distinctive fluorescent signatures in the presence and absence of their target. Binary probes consist of two fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide strands that can hybridize to adjacent regions of their target and generate distinctive fluorescence signals. These probes have been extensively studied and modified for different applications by modulating their structures or using various combinations of fluorophores, excimer-forming molecules, and metal complexes. This review describes the applicability and advantages of various hybridization probes that utilize novel and creative design to enhance their target detection sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  17. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  18. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  19. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  20. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  1. The hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Pfurtscheller

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, everybody knows what a hybrid car is. A hybrid car normally has 2 engines, its main purpose being to enhance energy efficiency and reduce CO2 output. Similarly, a typical hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI is also composed of 2 BCIs or at least one BCI and another system. Such a hybrid BCI, like any BCI, must fulfil the following four criteria: (i the device must rely on signals recorded directly from the brain; (ii there must be at least one recordable brain signal that the user can intentionally modulate to effect goal-directed behaviour; (iii real time processing; and (iv the user must obtain feedback. This paper introduces some hybrid BCIs which have already been published or are currently in development or validation, and some concepts for future work. The BCIs described classify 2 EEG patterns: One is the event-related (desynchronisation (ERD, ERS of sensorimotor rhythms, and the other is the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP. The hybrid BCI can either have more than one input whereby the inputs are typically processed simultaneously or operate 2 systems sequentially, whereby the first system can act as a “brain switch”. In the case of self-paced operation of a SSVEP-based hand orthosis control with an motor imagery-based switch it was possible to reduce the rate of false positives during resting periods by about 50% compared to the SSVEP BCI alone. It is shown that such a brain switch can also rely on hemodynamic changes measured through near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Another interesting approach is a hybrid BCI with simultaneous operations of ERD- and SSVEP-based BCIs. Here it is important to prove the existing promising offline simulation results with online experiments. Hybrid BCIs can also use one brain signal and another input. Such an additional input can be a physiological signal like the heart rate but also a signal from an external device like, an eye gaze control system.

  2. A Mathematical Approach to Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.; Thompson, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an approach to hybridization which exploits the similarities between the algebra of wave functions and vectors. This method will account satisfactorily for the number of orbitals formed when applied to hybrids involving the s and p orbitals. (GS)

  3. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  5. (Hybrid) Baryons Symmetries and Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1999-01-01

    We construct (hybrid) baryons in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. In the limit of adiabatic quark motion, we build proper eigenstates of orbital angular momentum and construct the flavour, spin and J^P of hybrid baryons from the symmetries of the system. The lowest mass hybrid baryon is estimated at approximately 2 GeV.

  6. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  7. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een s

  8. Organics go hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; Petrozza, Annamaria; Caironi, Mario

    2017-01-01

    From displays to solar cells, the field of organic optoelectronics has come a long way over the past 50 years, but the realization of an electrically pumped organic laser remains elusive. The answer may lie with hybrid organic-inorganic materials called perovskites.

  9. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational powe...

  10. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  11. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  12. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  13. Note on the Lax Pair of a Coupled Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping; FU Pei-Kai

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid lattice,known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation.The coupled hybrid lattice,which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system,is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system.New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.%The hybrid lattice, known as a discrete Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, is found to be a discrete modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation. The coupled hybrid lattice, which is pointed out to be a discrete coupled KdV system, is also found to be a discrete form of a coupled mKdV system. New lax pairs for the single and coupled discrete hybrid systems are proposed as a different study from previous ones.

  14. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  15. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  16. Control of DNA hybridization by photoswitchable molecular glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohno, Chikara; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Hybridization of DNA is one of the most intriguing events in molecular recognition and is essential for living matter to inherit life beyond generations. In addition to the function of DNA as genetic material, DNA hybridization is a key to control the function of DNA-based materials in nanoscience. Since the hybridization of two single stranded DNAs is a thermodynamically favorable process, dissociation of the once formed DNA duplex is normally unattainable under isothermal conditions. As the progress of DNA-based nanoscience, methodology to control the DNA hybridization process has become increasingly important. Besides many reports using the chemically modified DNA for the regulation of hybridization, we focused our attention on the use of a small ligand as the molecular glue for the DNA. In 2001, we reported the first designed molecule that strongly and specifically bound to the mismatched base pairs in double stranded DNA. Further studies on the mismatch binding molecules provided us a key discovery of a novel mode of the binding of a mismatch binding ligand that induced the base flipping. With these findings we proposed the concept of molecular glue for DNA for the unidirectional control of DNA hybridization and, eventually photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, which enabled the bidirectional control of hybridization under photoirradiation. In this tutorial review, we describe in detail how we integrated the mismatch binding ligand into photoswitchable molecular glue for DNA, and the application and perspective in DNA-based nanoscience.

  17. Material defect quantitative identification with single-side infrared inspection based on Chaos-LM hybrid algorithm%采用混沌-LM混合解法的材料缺陷单面红外检测定量辨识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕事桂; 杨立; 范春利; 王为清

    2013-01-01

      针对缺陷定量辨识的非线性、不适定性提出了采用混沌-LM(Levenberg-Marquardt)混合解法结合单面红外检测技术对缺陷进行定量辨识的新算法,并提出了相对敏感系数分析缺陷可检测性的新概念。通过相对敏感系数分析发现,缺陷尺寸、位置的不同描述参数的可检测性并不相同,而且采用检测面达到最大温差时刻点的瞬态检测比稳态检测更具优越性。文中采用数值实验对瞬态和稳态检测均进行了检验,实验结果与相对敏感系数分析结论一致。此外,数值实验还证明了混沌-LM混合解法的有效性,表明了辨识结果的稳定性和全局最优性。%In order to overcome the difficulty of nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the defect quantitative identification with the single-side infrared inspection, a new algorithm(Chaos-LM hybrid algorithm),which combined the chaos algorithm with the Levenberg-Marquardt method,was introduced in this paper. And a new concept of relative sensitivity coefficient was also brought forward to analyze the defect inspectability. Through analyzing the relative sensitivity coefficient, it was found that the inspectability of different parameters describing the size and position of the defect was different, and the inspection carried out at the time with maximum surface temperature difference was more desirable than that in steady heat transfer state. Both of the transient and steady inspections were tested by a series of numerical experiments, and the experimental results are consistent with the analysis of relative sensitivity coefficient. Besides, the numerical experiments have certified the effectiveness of the Chaos-LM hybrid algorithm, and show that the identification results are stable and globally optimal.

  18. Hybrid chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Markovian pure jump processes model a wide range of phenomena, including chemical reactions at the molecular level, dynamics of wireless communication networks, and the spread of epidemic diseases in small populations. There exist algorithms such as Gillespie\\'s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and Anderson\\'s modified next reaction method (MNRM) that simulate a single path with the exact distribution of the process, but this can be time consuming when many reactions take place during a short time interval. Gillespie\\'s approximated tau-leap method, on the other hand, can be used to reduce computational time, but it may lead to nonphysical values due to a positive one-step exit probability, and it also introduces a time discretization error. Here, we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual paths which adaptively switches between the SSA and the tau-leap method. The switching strategy is based on a comparison of the expected interarrival time of the SSA and an adaptive time step derived from a Chernoff-type bound for the one-step exit probability. Because this bound is nonasymptotic, we do not need to make any distributional approximation for the tau-leap increments. This hybrid method allows us (i) to control the global exit probability of any simulated path and (ii) to obtain accurate and computable estimates of the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  19. Asymptotic Stabilizability of a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Seroka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the asymptotic stabilizability in probability of a class of stochastic nonlinear control hybrid systems (with a linear dependence of the control with state dependent, Markovian, and any switching rule is considered in the paper. To solve the issue, the Lyapunov technique, including a common, single, and multiple Lyapunov function, the hybrid control theory, and some results for stochastic nonhybrid systems are used. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability in probability for a considered class of hybrid systems are formulated. Also the stabilizing control in a feedback form is considered. Furthermore, in the case of hybrid systems with the state dependent switching rule, a method for a construction of stabilizing switching rules is proposed. Obtained results are illustrated by examples and numerical simulations.

  20. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities by comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2005-04-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a modified in-situ hybridization technique. In this type of analysis, two differentially labeled genomic DNAs (study and reference) are cohybridized to normal metaphase spreads or to microarray. Chromosomal locations of copy number changes in the DNA segments of the study genome are revealed by a variable fluorescence intensity ratio along each target chromosome. Thus, CGH allows detection and mapping of DNA sequence copy differences between two genomes in a single experiment. Since its development, comparative genomic hybridization has been applied mostly as a research tool in the field of cancer cytogenetics to identify genetic changes in many previously unknown regions. It is also a powerful tool for detection and identification of unbalanced chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal, postnatal and preimplantation diagnostics. The development of comparative genomic hybridization and increase in resolution analysis by using the microarray-based technique offer new information on chromosomal pathologies and thus better management of patients.

  1. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I

    2003-05-01

    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  2. Hybrid Method Simulation of Slender Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Niels Hørbye

    This present thesis consists of an extended summary and five appended papers concerning various aspects of the implementation of a hybrid method which combines classical simulation methods and artificial neural networks. The thesis covers three main topics. Common for all these topics...... is that they deal with time domain simulation of slender marine structures such as mooring lines and flexible risers used in deep sea offshore installations. The first part of the thesis describes how neural networks can be designed and trained to cover a large number of different sea states. Neural networks can...... that a single neural network can cover all relevant sea states. The applicability and performance of the present hybrid method is demonstrated on a numerical model of a mooring line attached to a floating offshore platform. The second part of the thesis demonstrates how sequential neural networks can be used...

  3. Hybrid energy sources for embedded sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ramon; Farinholt, Kevin; Park, Gyuhae

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we present a series of hybrid energy configurations that are designed to provide a robust power source for embedded sensing hardware. The proper management of energy resources is a critical component in the design of any deployed sensing network. For systems that are installed in remote or inaccessible locations, or those with an operational lifespan that exceeds traditional battery technologies, energy harvesting is an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, the dependence on a single energy source (i.e. solar) can cause potential problems when environmental conditions preclude the system from operating at peak performance. In this paper we consider the use of a hybrid energy source that extracts energy from multiple sources and uses this collective energy to power sensing hardware. The sources considered in this work include: solar, vibration, thermal gradients, and RF energy capture. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  4. Bundled Hybrid Offset Riser Global Strength Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William C.Webster; Zhuang Kang; Wenzhou Liang; Youwei Kang; Liping Sun

    2011-01-01

    Bundled hybrid offset riser(BHOR)global strength analysis,which is more complex than single line offset riser global strength analysis,was carried out in this paper.At first,the equivalent theory is used to deal with BHOR,and then its global strength in manifold cases was analyzed,along with the use of a three-dimensional nonlinear time domain finite element program.So the max bending stress,max circumferential stress,and max axial stress in the BHOR bundle main section(BMS)were obtained,and the values of these three stresses in each riser were obtained through the "stress distribution method".Finally,the Max Von Mises stress in each riser was given and a check was made whether or not they met the demand.This paper provides a reference for strength analysis of the bundled hybrid offset riser and some other bundled pipelines.

  5. Visualizing hybridized quantum plasmons in coupled nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jensen, Kristian Lund; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We present full quantum-mechanical calculations of the hybridized plasmon modes of two nanowires at small separation, providing real-space visualization of the modes in the transition from the classical to the quantum tunneling regime. The plasmon modes are obtained as certain eigenfunctions...... of the dynamical dielectric function, which is computed using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). For freestanding wires, the energy of both surface and bulk plasmon modes deviate from the classical result for low wire radii and high momentum transfer due to effects of electron spill-out, nonlocal...... response, and coupling to single-particle transitions. For the wire dimer, the shape of the hybridized plasmon modes are continuously altered with decreasing separation, and below 6 A˚, the energy dispersion of the modes deviate from classical results due to the onset of weak tunneling. Below 2-3 A...

  6. Broadband negative permeability using hybridized metamaterials: Characterization, multiple hybridization, and terahertz response

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Nguyen Thanh; Tung, Bui Son; Janssens, Ewald; Lievens, Peter; Lam, Vu Dinh

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest to create artificial magnetic metamaterials that show a negative permeability over a wide frequency range. In this paper, we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a broadband negative permeability using symmetric cut-wire-pair metamaterial structures. This finding is based on the second-order hybridization, which is activated by manipulating the correlation between the coupling within a single cut-wire pair and the coupling between neighboring cut-wire pair...

  7. Synthesis and properties of core–shell fluorescent hybrids with distinct morphologies based on carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Markova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent core-shell nanohybrids with the shells derived from carbon dots and cores differing in the chemical nature and morphology were synthesized. Hybrid nanoparticles combine fluorescence with other functionalities such as magnetic response on a single platform. These hybrids can be used in various bioapplications as demonstrated with labeling of stem cells. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  8. Characterization of Hybrid CNT Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Kinney, Megan C.; Pressley, James; Sauti, Godfrey; Czabaj, Michael W.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been studied extensively since their discovery and demonstrated at the nanoscale superior mechanical, electrical and thermal properties in comparison to micro and macro scale properties of conventional engineering materials. This combination of properties suggests their potential to enhance multi-functionality of composites in regions of primary structures on aerospace vehicles where lightweight materials with improved thermal and electrical conductivity are desirable. In this study, hybrid multifunctional polymer matrix composites were fabricated by interleaving layers of CNT sheets into Hexcel® IM7/8552 prepreg, a well-characterized toughened epoxy carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. The resin content of these interleaved CNT sheets, as well as ply stacking location were varied to determine the effects on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance of the composites. The direct-current electrical conductivity of the hybrid CNT composites was characterized by in-line and Montgomery four-probe methods. For [0](sub 20) laminates containing a single layer of CNT sheet between each ply of IM7/8552, in-plane electrical conductivity of the hybrid laminate increased significantly, while in-plane thermal conductivity increased only slightly in comparison to the control IM7/8552 laminates. Photo-microscopy and short beam shear (SBS) strength tests were used to characterize the consolidation quality of the fabricated laminates. Hybrid panels fabricated without any pretreatment of the CNT sheets resulted in a SBS strength reduction of 70 percent. Aligning the tubes and pre-infusing the CNT sheets with resin significantly improved the SBS strength of the hybrid composite To determine the cause of this performance reduction, Mode I and Mode II fracture toughness of the CNT sheet to CFRP interface was characterized by double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) testing, respectively. Results are compared to the

  9. Plasmonic Antennas Hybridized with Dielectric Waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Arango, Felipe Bernal; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of using plasmonics in an integrated scheme where single emitters can be probed efficiently, we experimentally and theoretically study the scattering properties of single nano-rod gold antennas as well as antenna arrays placed on one-dimensional dielectric silicon nitride waveguides. Using real space and Fourier microscopy correlated with waveguide transmission measurements, we quantify the spectral properties, absolute strength and directivity of scattering. The scattering processes can be well understood in the framework of the physics of dipolar objects placed on a planar layered environment with a waveguiding layer. We use the single plasmonic structures on top of the waveguide as dipolar building blocks for new types of antennas where the waveguide enhances the coupling between antenna elements. We report on waveguide hybridized Yagi-Uda antennas which show directionality in out-coupling of guided modes as well as directionality for in-coupling into the waveguide of localized excitations ...

  10. Hybrid damping strategy for single-phase grid-connected PV inverter under the control of PDFI%PDFI 控制下单相光伏并网逆变器的混合阻尼控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋霞; 李坤; 王虎; 赵翠妹

    2016-01-01

    传统的比例积分(PI)控制由于具有一定的稳态误差,无法实现对并网电流快速精确的控制,光伏系统并网以后所引入的电网电感对 LCL 滤波器的阻尼策略也有着不可忽略的影响。为了解决上述问题,提出了一种 PDFI控制下单相光伏并网逆变器的混合阻尼控制策略。该策略介绍了比例延时反馈积分(PDFI)控制,在原有的 PI 控制上加上简单反馈电路,实现了并网电流的无稳态误差控制。同时分析了以阻尼系数为研究对象的混合阻尼控制,改善了电网电感对 LCL 滤波器的阻尼影响。理论分析、实例仿真的结果表明,该控制策略下,系统能够稳定运行,并网电流实现了精确控制,并且对电网电感具有良好的适应性。%The conventional proportional-integral (PI) control can not achieve the rapid and precise control of the grid-connected current because of its steady-state error. The introduction of grid inductor also has a non-negligible impact to damping strategy of the LCL filter when the PV system connects into the grid. To overcome the problems mentioned above, this paper presents a hybrid damping control strategy for single-phase grid-connected PV inverter with the control of PDFI. This strategy introduces proportional delay feedback integral (PDFI) control which adds a simple feedback circuit to the original PI control and can achieve the control of the grid current without steady-state error. The hybrid damping control is also analyzed which takes damping coefficient as the research object, and the impact of the grid inductor to damping strategy of the LCL filter is improved with addition of the hybrid damping control. The results of the theoretical analysis and the simulation both show that the proposed strategy has a great contribution to the control of the grid current and the steady operation of the system, and also has a good adaptability to the grid inductor.

  11. Conjugated Polymers/DNA Hybrid Materials for Protein Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Likun; Zhang, Jiangyan; Xu, Huiming; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful tool for analyzing protein functions due to the high degree of spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, we demonstrate a CALI approach based on conjugated polymers (CPs)/DNA hybrid material for protein inactivation. The target protein is conjugated with single-stranded DNA in advance. Single-stranded DNA can form CPs/DNA hybrid material with cationic CPs via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Through the formation of CPs/DNA hybrid material, the target protein that is conjugated with DNA is brought into close proximity to CPs. Under irradiation, CPs harvest light and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in the inactivation of the adjacent target protein. This approach can efficiently inactivate any target protein which is conjugated with DNA and has good specificity and universality, providing a new strategy for studies of protein function and adjustment of protein activity.

  12. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  13. Improved Attachment Design for Ceramic Turbine Blades Via Hybrid Concepts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a hybrid metal-CMC turbine blade. A SiC/SiC CMC airfoil section will be bonded to a single crystal superalloy root section in order to...

  14. Seafloor classification using echo- waveforms: A method employing hybrid neural network architecture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mahale, V.; DeSouza, C.; Das, P.

    This letter presents seafloor classification study results of a hybrid artificial neural network architecture known as learning vector quantization. Single beam echo-sounding backscatter waveform data from three different seafloors of the western...

  15. Phoxonic Hybrid Superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Redondo, Elena; Huesmann, Hannah; El Boudouti, El-Houssaine; Tremel, Wolfgang; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Fytas, George

    2015-06-17

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the direction-dependent elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation in a supported film of hybrid PMMA (poly[methyl-methacrylate])-TiO2 superlattice (SL). In the direction normal to the layers, this one-dimensional periodic structure opens propagation band gaps for both hypersonic (GHz) phonons and near-UV photons. The high mismatch of elastic and optical impedance results in a large dual phoxonic band gap. The presence of defects inherent to the spin-coating fabrication technique is sensitively manifested in the band gap region. Utilizing Brillouin light scattering, phonon propagation along the layers was observed to be distinctly different from propagation normal to them and can, under certain conditions (SL thickness and substrate elasticity), reveal the nanomechanical properties of the constituent layers. Besides the first realization of unidirectional phoxonic behavior, hybrid (soft-hard) periodic materials are a promising simple platform for opto-acoustic interactions and applications such as filters and Bragg mirrors.

  16. A Pseudoscalar Hybrid Meson?

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    New experimental information on the non--exotic J^{PC} = 0^{-+} isovector seen at 1.8 GeV by VES yields convincing evidence of its excited gluonic (hybrid) nature when a critical study of alternative quarkonium assignments is made in the context of ^3 P_0 decay by flux--tube breaking. Production of this gluonic excitation via meson exchange is promising, although its two photon production vanishes.

  17. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  18. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  19. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  20. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  1. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  2. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  3. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  4. Drivability improvements for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle using robust controls%基于鲁棒控制的一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性改善方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu ZHANG; Cun-lei WANG; Yong ZHANG; Jun-yi LIANG; Cheng-liang YIN

    2014-01-01

    For a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, during mode transitions (especially the transition from electric drive mode to engine/parallel drive mode, which requires the clutch engagement), the drivability of the vehicle will be signifi-cantly affected by a clutch torque induced disturbance, driveline oscillations and jerks which can occur without adequate controls. To improve vehicle drivability during mode transitions for a single-motor parallel hybrid electric vehicle, two controllers are proposed. The first controller is the engine-side controller for engine cranking/starting and speed synchronization. The second controller is the motor-side controller for achieving a smooth mode transition with reduced driveline oscillations and jerks under the clutch torque induced disturbance and system uncertainties. The controllers are all composed of a feed-forward control and a robust feedback control. The robust controllers are designed by using the mu synthesis method. In the design process, control-oriented system models that take account of various parameter uncertainties and un-modeled dynamics are used. The results of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithms.%研究目的:改善一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性能。  创新要点:1.建立面向控制器设计的系统模型,并且考虑系统参数的不确定性和CAN通讯延迟;2.设计基于mu综合的鲁棒控制器,减小了模式切换时车辆的冲击度,改善车辆的驾驶性能。  研究方法:1.将发动机端和电机端的控制解耦,并对其进行单独的控制设计(图5、8);2.发动机端控制主要用于发动机调速,电机端控制主要用于补偿离合器转矩对传动系造成的干扰;3.控制器设计时采用前馈控制和鲁棒控制结合的方法。  重要结论:通过采用鲁棒控制,使得一种单电机并联式混合动力电动汽车的驾驶性得

  5. Predicting bending stiffness of randomly oriented hybrid panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Moya; William T.Y. Tze; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a simple model to predict the bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) of randomly oriented hybrid panels. The modeling process involved three modules: the behavior of a single layer was computed by applying micromechanics equations, layer properties were adjusted for densification effects, and the entire panel was modeled as a three-...

  6. Fluid Survival Tool: A Model Checker for Hybrid Petri Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Björn; Remke, Anne; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Ghasemieh, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Recently, algorithms for model checking Stochastic Time Logic (STL) on Hybrid Petri nets with a single general one-shot transition (HPNG) have been introduced. This paper presents a tool for model checking HPNG models against STL formulas. A graphical user interface (GUI) not only helps to demonstra

  7. Interfacing superconducting qubits and single optical photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Sumanta; Faez, Sanli; Sørensen, Anders S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient light-matter interface at optical frequencies between a superconducting qubit and a single photon. The desired interface is based on a hybrid architecture composed of an organic molecule embedded inside an optical waveguide and electrically coupled to a superconducting qubit

  8. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECASTING USING A SARIMAMULTIPLICATIVE SINGLE NEURON HYBRID MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DAVID VELÁSQUEZ HENAO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La combinación de modelos SARIMA y redes neuronales son una aproximación común para pronosticar series de tiempo no lineales. Mientras la metodología SARIMA es usada para capturar las componentes lineales en la serie de tiempo, las redes neuronales artifi ciales son aplicadas para pronosticar las no-linealidades remanentes en los residuos del modelo SARIMA. En este artículo, se propone un modelo simple no lineal para el pronóstico de series de tiempo obtenido por la combinación de un modelo SARIMA y una neurona simple multiplicativa que usa las mismas entradas del modelo SARIMA. Para evaluar la capacidad de la nueva aproximación, la demanda mensual de electricidad en el mercado de energía de Colombia es pronosticada y comparada con los modelos SARIMA y la neurona simple multiplicativa.

  10. 不同栽种、施肥对单季杂交粳稻8优161产量的影响%EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PLANTING PATTERNS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLICATION METHODS ON YIELD OF SINGLE-CROPPING HYBRID JAPONIC rice var. 8 you 161

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管耀祖; 张镇铭; 等

    2001-01-01

    The effects of various planting patterns and nitrogen fertilizer application methods on yield of single-cropping hybrid Japonic rice var. 8 you 161 were investigated through experiments carried out in Hangzhou. The results showed that under medium soil fertility the highest grain yields were obtained when 210 and 270 kg/ha of pure nitrogen were applied using the medium-stages heavier fertilization method, and the third highest yield was obtained when 270kg N/ha were applied using the early and late-stages heavier fertilization method. The best plant density was 250,000 plants/ha combining one seedling per hole and planting spacing of 24.0cm×16.7cm, followed by the plant density of 250,000 plants/ha combining one seedling per hole and planting spacing of 30.0cm×13.3cm.%通过对单季杂交粳稻8优161不同栽插本数与栽种方式、氮肥用量和施用方法的试验分析,初步明确了获得8优161高产相应的栽插本数和栽种方式、氮肥用量及施用方法。即在中等土壤肥力条件下,施纯氮210~270kg/hm2,以采用平促施肥法为最佳;其次是两头法;在栽插密度为25.0万穴/hm2时,每穴栽1本,以行株距24.0cm×16.7cm最好;30.0cm×13.3cm次之。

  11. Clinical comparative evaluation of hybrid dynamic stabilization with posterior spinal fusion versus single-level fusion in treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases%腰椎融合辅以邻近节段动态固定与腰椎融合治疗腰椎退行性疾病早期疗效的对比观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施荣茂; 王浩明; 陈道森; 李瀚卿; 邸宁; 代飞; 罗飞; 许建中; 周强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of hybrid dynamic stabilization with posterior spinal fusion (a topping-off surgery) in treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases by comparing with that of single-level fusion.Methods Twenty-seven patients with preoperative adjacent segment degeneration were given hybrid dynamic stabilization with posterior spinal fusion (topping-off surgery,TOS group),and 30 patients without preoperative adjacent segment degeneration were given single-level fusion (SLF group).The clinical efficacy was evaluated and compared by visual analogue scale (VAS),Oswestry disability index (ODI),range of motion (ROM) of global lumbar spine,ROM of adjacent segments,intervertebral space ratio (ISR),ROM of index level (the level dynamically stabilized by Isobar),and the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg).Results All the patients were followed up for 12-40 months.VAS and ODI score were significantly improved in both two groups,but the difference between the two groups was not significant.The ROM of global lumbar spine was not significantly different between the two groups at the last follow-up.The ISR of index level was not significantly different before operation and at the last follow-up.The ROM of first cranial adjacent segment increased significantly at the last follow-up in both two groups.No progression of degeneration was observed in the index levels during the follow-up.Adjacent segment instability was observed in 7 patients of the TOS group and 5 patients of the SLF group,the incidence of adjacent segment instability was no significant difference between the two groups.Looseness or breakage of fixation system was observed in two patients of the TOS group.Conclusion Hybrid dynamic stabilization with posterior spinal fusion achieves satisfying clinical efficacy during early follow-up,but the incidence of fixation system failure may be higher than the single-level fusion,suggesting selection of appropriate indications is important

  12. Hybrid ultrasound imaging techniques (fusion imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulescu, Daniela Larisa; Dumitrescu, Daniela; Rogoveanu, Ion; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-07

    Visualization of tumor angiogenesis can facilitate non-invasive evaluation of tumor vascular characteristics to supplement the conventional diagnostic imaging goals of depicting tumor location, size, and morphology. Hybrid imaging techniques combine anatomic [ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and molecular (single photon emission CT and positron emission tomography) imaging modalities. One example is real-time virtual sonography, which combines ultrasound (grayscale, colour Doppler, or dynamic contrast harmonic imaging) with contrast-enhanced CT/MRI. The benefits of fusion imaging include an increased diagnostic confidence, direct comparison of the lesions using different imaging modalities, more precise monitoring of interventional procedures, and reduced radiation exposure.

  13. Genetic architecture of male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila pseudoobscura Bogota-USA hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadnis, Nitin

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation between recently diverged species is a central problem in evolutionary genetics. Here, I present analyses of the genetic architecture underlying hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion between the Bogota and USA subspecies of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previously, a single gene, Overdrive (Ovd), was shown to be necessary but not sufficient for both male sterility and segregation distortion in F(1) hybrids between these subspecies, requiring several interacting partner loci for full manifestation of hybrid phenomena. I map these partner loci separately on the Bogota X chromosome and USA autosomes using a combination of different mapping strategies. I find that hybrid sterility involves a single hybrid incompatibility of at least seven interacting partner genes that includes three large-effect loci. Segregation distortion involves three loci on the Bogota X chromosome and one locus on the autosomes. The genetic bases of hybrid sterility and segregation distortion are at least partially--but not completely--overlapping. My results lay the foundation for fine-mapping experiments to identify the complete set of genes that interact with Overdrive. While individual genes that cause hybrid sterility or inviability have been identified in a few cases, my analysis provides a comprehensive look at the genetic architecture of all components of a hybrid incompatibility underlying F(1) hybrid sterility. Such an analysis would likely be unfeasible for most species pairs due to their divergence time and emphasizes the importance of young species pairs such as the D. pseudoobscura subspecies studied here.

  14. 采用多模式变速器单电机混合电动汽车的分析与仿真%Analysis and simulation of a hybrid electric vehicle using a multi-mode transmission and a single electric machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱福堂; 陈俐; 殷承良

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-mode transmission (MMT) for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using a single electric machine (EM) and validates its performance. The MMT uses two planetary gear sets and four clutches to combine an engine and an EM with the vehicle, with the EM operated as a motor or a generator. This HEV realizes five power flow modes, which are developed into sixteen operation modes, including various driving, braking, and charging while parking modes. Fuel economy simulations of the vehicle were performed in Chinese General Driving Cycle, Japan Urban and Highway Cycle, New Europe Driving Cycle, and Federal Test Procedure 72, respectively. Comparable simulations were obtained with a benchmark vehicle which has a planetary gear set, two EMs and no clutch. The results indicate the application potential of the proposed single EM HEV, as the proposed HEV does not use extra electric machines and extra power electronics.%设计了一种采用多模式变速器(MMT)的单电机混合动力汽车,并进行了性能验证。该汽车采用了双行星排、4个离合器耦合发动机和电机动力的变速器,该电机可作为电动机或发电机运行。实现5种不同的能量流模式,含16种工作模式,包括不同的驱动模式、制动模式及停车发电模式。在中国典型驾驶循环(CGDC)、日本市区及高速循环(JUHC)、新欧洲循环(NEDC)及美国联邦测试程序72(FTP72)等工况下,进行了该汽车油耗的仿真。与采用双行星排无离合器结构的典型双电机混合动力汽车进行了对比模拟。相比,结果显示:该汽车的油耗具有可比性。因不使用额外的电机及其电力电子元件,该汽车具有应用潜力。

  15. Development of a Hybrid Nanoprobe for Triple-Modality MR/SPECT/Optical Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Renata; Svenmarker, Pontus; Ingvar, Christian; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Engels, Stefan-Andersson; Knutsson, Linda; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid clinical imaging is an emerging technology, which improves disease diagnosis by combining already existing technologies. With the combination of high-resolution morphological imaging, i.e., MRI/CT, and high-sensitive molecular detection offered by SPECT/PET/Optical, physicians can detect disease progression at an early stage and design patient-specific treatments. To fully exploit the possibilities of hybrid imaging a hybrid probe compatible with each imaging technology is required. Here, we present a hybrid nanoprobe for triple modality MR/SPECT/Fluorescence imaging. Our imaging agent is comprised of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), labeled with 99mTc and an Alexa fluorophore (AF), together forming 99mTc-AF-SPIONs. The agent was stable in human serum, and, after subcutaneous injection in the hind paw of Wistar rats, showed to be highly specific by accumulating in the sentinel lymph node. All three modalities clearly visualized the imaging agent. Our results show that a single imaging agent can be used for hybrid imaging. The use of a single hybrid contrast agent permits simultaneous hybrid imaging and, more conventionally, allow for single modality imaging at different time points. For example, a hybrid contrast agent enables pre-operative planning, intra-operative guidance, and post-operative evaluation with the same contrast agent. PMID:26852675

  16. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  17. Hybrid Amyloid Membranes for Continuous Flow Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Arcari, Mario; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2015-12-29

    Amyloid fibrils are promising nanomaterials for technological applications such as biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and optoelectronics. Here we show that amyloid-metal nanoparticle hybrids can be used both as efficient active materials for wet catalysis and as membranes for continuous flow catalysis applications. Initially, amyloid fibrils generated in vitro from the nontoxic β-lactoglobulin protein act as templates for the synthesis of gold and palladium metal nanoparticles from salt precursors. The resulting hybrids possess catalytic features as demonstrated by evaluating their activity in a model catalytic reaction in water, e.g., the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, with the rate constant of the reduction increasing with the concentration of amyloid-nanoparticle hybrids. Importantly, the same nanoparticles adsorbed onto fibrils surface show improved catalytic efficiency compared to the same unattached particles, pointing at the important role played by the amyloid fibril templates. Then, filter membranes are prepared from the metal nanoparticle-decorated amyloid fibrils by vacuum filtration. The resulting membranes serve as efficient flow catalysis active materials, with a complete catalytic conversion achieved within a single flow passage of a feeding solution through the membrane.

  18. Triple Hybrid Energy Harvesting Interface Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluşan, H.; Chamanian, S.; Pathirana, W. M. P. R.; Zorlu, Ö.; Muhtaroğlu, A.; Külah, H.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel triple hybrid system that combines simultaneously generated power from thermoelectric (TE), vibration-based electromagnetic (EM) and piezoelectric (PZT) harvesters for a relatively high power supply capability. In the proposed solution each harvesting source utilizes a distinct power management circuit that generates a DC voltage suitable for combining the three parallel supplies. The circuits are designed and implemented in 180 nm standard CMOS technology, and are terminated with a schottky diode to avoid reverse current flow. The harvested AC signal from the EM harvester is rectified with a self-powered AC-DC doubler, which utilizes active diode structures to minimize the forward- bias voltage drop. The PZT interface electronics utilizes a negative voltage converter as the first stage, followed by synchronous power extraction and DC-to-DC conversion through internal switches, and an external inductor. The ultra-low voltage DC power harvested by the TE generator is stepped up through a charge-pump driven by an LC oscillator with fully- integrated center-tapped differential inductors. Test results indicate that hybrid energy harvesting circuit provides more than 1 V output for load resistances higher than 100 kΩ (10 μW) where the stand-alone harvesting circuits are not able to reach 1 V output. This is the first hybrid harvester circuit that simultaneously extracts energy from three independent sources, and delivers a single DC output.

  19. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  20. A Hybrid Flight Control for a Simulated Raptor-30 V2 Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid flight control system for a single rotor simulated Raptor-30 V2 helicopter. Hybrid intelligent control system, combination of the conventional and intelligent control methodologies, is applied to small model helicopter. The proposed hybrid control used PID as a traditional control and fuzzy as an intelligent control so as to take the maximum advantage of advanced control theory. The helicopter?s model used; comes from X-Plane flight simulator and their hybrid flight control system was simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK in a simulation platform. X-Plane is also used to visualize the performance of this proposed autopilot design. Through a series of numerous experiments, the operation of hybrid control system was investigated. Results verified that the proposed hybrid control has an excellent performance at hovering flight mode.

  1. DNA hybridization on silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shalini, E-mail: shalinsin@gmail.co [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202001 (India); Zack, Jyoti [Dr. B.R Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Kumar, Dinesh; Srivastava, S.K.; Govind [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Saluja, Daman [Dr. B.R Ambedkar Center for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Khan, M.A. [Faculty of Life Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202001 (India); Singh, P.K. [Electronic Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2010-11-30

    Nanowire-based detection strategies provide promising new routes to bioanalysis and indeed are attractive to conventional systems because of their small size, high surface-to-volume ratios, electronic, and optical properties. A sequence-specific detection of single-stranded oligonucleotides using silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is demonstrated. The surface of the SiNWs is functionalized with densely packed organic monolayer via hydrosilylation for covalent attachment. Subsequently, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is immobilized to recognize the complementary target DNA. The biomolecular recognition properties of the nanowires are tested via hybridization with {sup {gamma}P32} tagged complementary and non-complementary DNA oligonucleotides, showing good selectivity and reversibility. No significant non-specific binding to the incorrect sequences is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence imaging, and nanodrop techniques are used to characterize the modified SiNWs and covalent attachment with DNA. The results show that SiNWs are excellent substrates for the absorption, stabilization and detection of DNA sequences and could be used for DNA microarrays and micro fabricated SiNWs DNA sensors.

  2. Test of DEP hybrid photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Binkley, M.; Elias, J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The goal of the measurement was to study some parameters of DEP HYBRID PHOTODIODES (HPD), and the check its performance for CMS calorimetry at LHC. The principal of the HPD operation is described. The schematic view of the HPD. The HPD is vacuum photo device composed of photocathode (PC) and a silicon PIN diode (Si) as multiplication system in a very close proximity geometry. The distance between PC and Si is of the order of several mm and has an electric field < 10 kV. The photoelectron emited by the photocathode multiply by a factor of several thousand in the silicon and the charge is collected on the HPD`s anode. Several types of HPD`s were tested. There was a single channel HPD, called {open_quotes}E-type{close_quotes} with p-side of the silicon facing the HPD`s photocathode and two multipixel HPD (DEP) namely a 25 pixel HPD and a 7 pixel HPD. Both were of {open_quotes}T-type{close_quotes} structure with n-side of silicon facing the photocathode.

  3. Photoresponse of hybrids made of carbon nanotubes and CdTe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebli, Bernd; Vieyra, Hugo A.; Kotthaus, Joerg P. [Department fuer Physik and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Carmeli, Itai [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hartschuh, Achim [Department fuer Chemie, Physikalische Chemie, Butenandtstr. 5-13 E, 81377 Munich (Germany); Holleitner, Alexander W. [Walter-Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We observe that the photoresponse of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be adjusted by the absorption characteristics of colloidal CdTe nanocrystals, which are bound to the side-walls of the carbon nanotubes via molecular recognition. To this end, the hybrid systems are characterized using charge transport measurements under resonant optical excitation of the carbon nanotubes and nanocrystals, respectively. We investigate the photoresponse of both ensembles of hybrid systems and single carbon-nanotube-nanocrystal-hybrids. The data suggest a bolometrically induced increase of the current in the carbon nanotubes, which is due to photon absorption in the nanocrystals.

  4. DNA–melamine hybrid molecules: from self-assembly to nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA–melamine hybrid molecular building blocks were synthesized using a phosphoramidation cross-coupling reaction with a zero linker approach. The self-assembly of the DNA–organic hybrid molecules was achieved by DNA hybridization. Following self-assembly, two distinct types of nanostructures in the form of linear chains and network arrays were observed. The morphology of the self-assembled nanostructures was found to depend on the number of DNA strands that were attached to a single melamine molecule.

  5. Hybridization and the Origin of Contagious Asexuality in Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen; Spitze, Ken; Ackerman, Matthew S.; Ye, Zhiqiang; Bright, Lydia; Keith, Nathan; Jackson, Craig E.; Shaw, Joseph R.; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization plays a potentially important role in the origin of obligate parthenogenesis (OP) in many organisms. However, it remains controversial whether hybridization directly triggers the transition from sexual reproduction to obligate asexuality or a hybrid genetic background enables asexual species to persist. Furthermore, we know little about the specific genetic elements from the divergent, yet still hybridizing lineages responsible for this transition and how these elements are further spread to create other OP lineages. In this study, we address these questions in Daphnia pulex, where cyclically parthenogenetic (CP) and OP lineages coexist. Ancestry estimates and whole-genome association mapping using 32 OP isolates suggest that a complex hybridization history between the parental species D. pulex and D. pulicaria is responsible for the introgression of a set of 647 D. pulicaria single nucleotide polymorphism alleles that show perfect association with OP. Crossing experiments using males of OP lineages and females of CP lineages strongly support a polygenic basis for OP. Single-sperm analyses show that although normal meiotic recombination occurs in the production of haploid sperm by males of OP lineages, a significant proportion of such sperm are polyploid, suggesting that the spread of asexual elements through these males (i.e., contagious asexuality) is much less efficient than previously envisioned. Although the current Daphnia genome annotation does not provide mechanistic insight into the nature of the asexuality-associated alleles, these alleles should be considered as candidates for future investigations on the genetic underpinnings of OP. PMID:26351296

  6. Hybridization in geese: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Van Hooft, Pim; van Wieren, Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Herbert H. T. Prins

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large knowledge gap in geese. In this review, we assemble the available information on hybrid geese by focusing on three main themes: (1) incidence and frequency, (2) behavioural mechanisms leading to hybridizatio...

  7. PAN Nanofibers Reinforced with MMT/GO Hybrid Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single component nanofiller has shown some limitations in its performance, which can be overcome by hybrid nanofillers with two different components. In this work, montmorillonite (MMT/graphene oxide (GO hybrid nanofillers were formed by self-assembly and then incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers by electrospinning process. X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were utilized to analyze the structures of MMT/GO hybrid nanofillers. And the effects of MMT/GO hybrid nanofillers on the morphology, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of PAN/MMT/GO composite nanofibrous membrane were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and tensile test machine, respectively. The incorporation of MMT/GO hybrid nanofillers into PAN nanofibers showed a noticeable increase up to 30°C for the onset decomposition temperature and 1.32 times larger tensile strength than the pure PAN, indicating that the hybrid nanofiller is a promising candidate in improving thermal and mechanical properties of polymers.

  8. A Multimodality Hybrid Gamma-Optical Camera for Intraoperative Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Lees

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of low profile gamma-ray detectors has encouraged the production of small field of view (SFOV hand-held imaging devices for use at the patient bedside and in operating theatres. Early development of these SFOV cameras was focussed on a single modality—gamma ray imaging. Recently, a hybrid system—gamma plus optical imaging—has been developed. This combination of optical and gamma cameras enables high spatial resolution multi-modal imaging, giving a superimposed scintigraphic and optical image. Hybrid imaging offers new possibilities for assisting clinicians and surgeons in localising the site of uptake in procedures such as sentinel node detection. The hybrid camera concept can be extended to a multimodal detector design which can offer stereoscopic images, depth estimation of gamma-emitting sources, and simultaneous gamma and fluorescence imaging. Recent improvements to the hybrid camera have been used to produce dual-modality images in both laboratory simulations and in the clinic. Hybrid imaging of a patient who underwent thyroid scintigraphy is reported. In addition, we present data which shows that the hybrid camera concept can be extended to estimate the position and depth of radionuclide distribution within an object and also report the first combined gamma and Near-Infrared (NIR fluorescence images.

  9. Mechanisms Underlying Mammalian Hybrid Sterility in Two Feline Interspecies Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Seabury, Christopher M; Brashear, Wesley A; Li, Gang; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-01

    The phenomenon of male sterility in interspecies hybrids has been observed for over a century, however, few genes influencing this recurrent phenotype have been identified. Genetic investigations have been primarily limited to a small number of model organisms, thus limiting our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of this well-documented "rule of speciation." We utilized two interspecies hybrid cat breeds in a genome-wide association study employing the Illumina 63 K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Collectively, we identified eight autosomal genes/gene regions underlying associations with hybrid male sterility (HMS) involved in the function of the blood-testis barrier, gamete structural development, and transcriptional regulation. We also identified several candidate hybrid sterility regions on the X chromosome, with most residing in close proximity to complex duplicated regions. Differential gene expression analyses revealed significant chromosome-wide upregulation of X chromosome transcripts in testes of sterile hybrids, which were enriched for genes involved in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Our expression results parallel those reported in Mus hybrids, supporting the "Large X-Effect" in mammalian HMS and the potential epigenetic basis for this phenomenon. These results support the value of the interspecies feline model as a powerful tool for comparison to rodent models of HMS, demonstrating unique aspects and potential commonalities that underpin mammalian reproductive isolation.

  10. Hybrid micro-/nanogels for optical sensing and intracellular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqin Zhou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid micro-/nanogels are playing an increasing important part in a diverse range of applications, due to their tunable dimensions, large surface area, stable interior network structure, and a very short response time. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments of hybrid micro-/nanogels toward applications for optical sensing of pH, temperature, glucose, ions, and other species as well as for intracellular imaging. Due to their unique advantages, hybrid micro-/nanogels as optical probes are attracting substantial interests for continuous monitoring of chemical parameters in complex samples such as blood and bioreactor fluids, in chemical research and industry, and in food quality control. In particular, their intracellular probing ability enables the monitoring of the biochemistry and biophysics of live cells over time and space, thus contributing to the explanation of intricate biological processes and the development of novel diagnoses. Unlike most other probes, hybrid micro-/nanogels could also combine other multiple functions into a single probe. The rational design of hybrid micro-/nanogels will not only improve the probing applications as desirable, but also implement their applications in new arenas. With ongoing rapid advances in bionanotechnology, the well-designed hybrid micro-/nanogel probes will be able to provide simultaneous sensing, imaging diagnosis, and therapy toward clinical applications.

  11. Mechanistic basis of infertility of mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Gregorova, Sona; Mihola, Ondrej; Anger, Martin; Sebestova, Jaroslava; Denny, Paul; Simecek, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2013-02-01

    According to the Dobzhansky-Muller model, hybrid sterility is a consequence of the independent evolution of related taxa resulting in incompatible genomic interactions of their hybrids. The model implies that the incompatibilities evolve randomly, unless a particular gene or nongenic sequence diverges much faster than the rest of the genome. Here we propose that asynapsis of heterospecific chromosomes in meiotic prophase provides a recurrently evolving trigger for the meiotic arrest of interspecific F1 hybrids. We observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in >95% of pachynemas of Mus m. musculus × Mus m. domesticus sterile F1 males. Asynapsis was not preceded by a failure of double-strand break induction, and the rate of meiotic crossing over was not affected in synapsed chromosomes. DNA double-strand break repair was delayed or failed in unsynapsed autosomes, and misexpression of chromosome X and chromosome Y genes was detected in single pachynemas and by genome-wide expression profiling. Oocytes of F1 hybrid females showed the same kind of synaptic problems but with the incidence reduced to half. Most of the oocytes with pachytene asynapsis were eliminated before birth. We propose the heterospecific pairing of homologous chromosomes as a preexisting condition of asynapsis in interspecific hybrids. The asynapsis may represent a universal mechanistic basis of F1 hybrid sterility manifested by pachytene arrest. It is tempting to speculate that a fast-evolving subset of the noncoding genomic sequence important for chromosome pairing and synapsis may be the culprit.

  12. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  13. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  14. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  15. Biophysical and electrochemical properties of Self-assembled noncovalent SWNT/DNA hybrid and electroactive nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapoor, Aboulfazl; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2017-09-01

    DNA self-assembled hybrid nanostructures are widely used in recent research in nanobiotechnology. Combination of DNA with carbon based nanoparticles such as single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) and carbon quantum dot were applied in important biological applications. Many examples of biosensors, nanowires and nanoelectronic devices, nanomachine and drug delivery systems are fabricated by these hybrid nanostructures. In this study, a new hybrid nanostructure has been fabricated by noncovalent interactions between single or double stranded DNA and SWNT nanoparticles and biophysical properties of these structures were studied comparatively. Biophysical properties of hybrid nanostructures studied by circular dichroism, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. Also, electrochemical properties studied by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, choronoamperometry and impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results revealed that the biophysical and electrochemical properties of SWNT/DNA hybrid nanostructures were different compare to ss-DNA, ds-DNA and SWNT singly. Circular dichroism results showed that ss-DNA wrapped around the nanotubes through π-π stacking interactions. The results indicated that after adding SWNT to ss-DNA and ds-DNA intensity of CD and UV-vis spectrum peaks were decreased. Electrochemical experiments indicated that the modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes by ss-DNA improves the electron transfer rate of hybrid nanostructures. It was demonstrated SWNT/DNA hybrid nanostructures should be a good electroactive nanostructure that can be used for electrochemical detection or sensing.

  16. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  17. Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2007-10-02

    Hybridization between differentiated lineages can have many different consequences depending on fitness variation among hybrid offspring. When introduced organisms hybridize with natives, the ensuing evolutionary dynamics may substantially complicate conservation decisions. Understanding the fitness consequences of hybridization is an important first step in predicting its evolutionary outcome and conservation impact. Here, we measured natural selection caused by differential viability of hybrid larvae in wild populations where native California Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma californiense) and introduced Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) have been hybridizing for 50-60 years. We found strong evidence of hybrid vigor; mixed-ancestry genotypes had higher survival rates than genotypes containing mostly native or mostly introduced alleles. Hybrid vigor may be caused by heterozygote advantage (overdominance) or recombinant hybrid vigor (due to epistasis or complementation). These genetic mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and we find statistical support for both overdominant and recombinant contributions to hybrid vigor in larval tiger salamanders. Because recombinant homozygous genotypes can breed true, a single highly fit genotype with a mosaic of native and introduced alleles may eventually replace the historically pure California Tiger Salamander (listed as Threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act). The management implications of this outcome are complex: Genetically pure populations may not persist into the future, but average fitness and population viability of admixed California Tiger Salamanders may be enhanced. The ecological consequences for other native species are unknown.

  18. Confirmed field hybridization of native and introduced Phragmites australis (Poaceae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltonstall, Kristin; Castillo, Hilda E; Blossey, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific hybridization between native and introduced lineages of a species can increase invasiveness and may lead to the decline of native lineages. The introduction of Eurasian Phragmites australis has caused profound changes to wetland habitats across North America, yet evidence for hybridization between native and introduced Phragmites australis in North America is lacking and has puzzled researchers for over a decade. Here we present the first confirmed field hybridization event between the two lineages. Hybrid plants were initially recognized during field surveys by their intermediate morphology and distinct herbivore community. We verified hybrid status using chloroplast DNA haplotypes and microsatellite markers. Confirmed hybrid stems were restricted to one site and displayed morphological characteristics of both native and introduced P. australis. Based on their microsatellite profiles, all samples likely represent a single clone of a first generation hybrid. Sequencing of cpDNA indicates that the maternal parent is from the introduced lineage. Identification of hybrid P. australis in the field is complex and requires multiple characters. All suspected hybrids should be verified using genetic techniques. Preventing the spread of introduced genes and genotypes through North America will require recognition and rapid management response to hybrid plants.

  19. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  20. Hybrid Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Freno, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an exciting new synthesis of directed and undirected, discrete and continuous graphical models. Combining elements of Bayesian networks and Markov random fields, the newly introduced hybrid random fields are an interesting approach to get the best of both these worlds, with an added promise of modularity and scalability. The authors have written an enjoyable book---rigorous in the treatment of the mathematical background, but also enlivened by interesting and original historical and philosophical perspectives. -- Manfred Jaeger, Aalborg Universitet The book not only marks an